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long tail of P2P
The following Insight paper is a bit longer than those previously released by PRS for Music. As such, we thought it best to give the reader, upfront, a sense of where we are headed. In the first section of this Insight paper, we will be releasing the results of a critical inquiry into the music usage patterns within file-sharing networks. Particularly, would a so-called long tail or a pinhead pattern describe the relative popularity of music files within these networks? In the second section of this paper, we will dig into the 'Wherefores' - particularly issues of supply and demand - underlying the usage pattern we found. In the final section, we will consider long-term trends in P2P activity alongside some new behaviours that seem to be emerging. We will then wrap this discussion up with a few final thoughts on the 'paradox of choice'.
P2P Super nodes
P2P activity has been a significant and constantly growing component of Internet traffic. P2P networks allow users around the world to share files, chat and, with the recent development of Skype, make free phone calls. This technology is also completely free, which makes it an especially attractive alternative to purchasing proprietary software or establishing dedicated links. Despite recent popular media claims that P2P traffic has declined due to efforts by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), more sophisticated P2P traffic identification methods have show that P2P traffic has be growing . In fact, recent studies indicate that over 50% of all consumer traffic is P2P with roughly 6 million simultaneous users . This growth has the potential to perpetuate itself as more users mean more instances of shared files which leads to faster download times and an even more diverse and extensive resource of content.
Unstructured Overlay Topologies
The Internet has witnessed a rapid growth in the popularity of various Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications during recent years. In particular, today’s P2P file-sharing applications (e.g., FastTrack, eDonkey, Gnutella) are extremely popular with millions of simultaneous clients and contribute a significant portion of the total Internet traffic
Reputation in Anonymity Systems
As with security, it is tempting but incorrect to think that reputation is a simple matter of bolting an extra service to the side of an existing system. In the rest of this paper, we illustrate this point with examples from reputation systems that have been designed for use in networks that provide pseudonymity and anonymity. First, however, we outline the incentive structures involved in deploying such networks.
A FACILE ROUTE TO CARBONYL COMPOUND
Although transformations of nitroparaffins or their salts to carbonyl compounds (the Nef reaction)14 have been investigated extensively," the readily accessible conjugated nitroalkenes have received little attention. 16-18 The present study may stimulate the use of low-valent transition metal species in the reduction of conjugated nitroalkenes analogous to their applications in the reduction of the corresponding nitroalkanes
P2P Content Delivery Networks
The main sources of illegal file sharing are peers who ignore copyright laws and collude with pirates. To solve this peer collusion problem, we propose a copyright-compliant system for legalized P2P content delivery. Our goal is to stop collusive piracy within the boundary of a P2P content delivery network. In particular, our scheme appeals to protecting large-scale perishable contents that diminish in value as time elapses.
P2P Accountable without Losing Privacy
We show how e-cash can be practically applied to a file sharing application. Our approach includes a set of novel cryptographic protocols that mitigate the computational and communication costs of anonymous e-cash transactions, and system design choices that further reduce overhead and distribute load. We conclude that provably secure, anonymous, and scalable peer-to-peer systems are within reach.
economic incentives in peer-to-peer networks
Users who join a peer-to-peer network have, in general, suboptimal incentives to contribute to the network, because of the externalities that exist between them. The result is an inefficient network where the overall levels of contribution are less than would be the case if each peer acted in the interests of the entire network of peers. Incentives provided in the form of prices or contribution rules that require no money transfers can play an important role in reducing these inefficiency effects. The problem in designing such incentive schemes is information: Designing an optimal incentive scheme requires complete knowledge of the types and preferences of the individual peers and their identities. In this paper we discuss the above issues in terms of a simple but representative example by introducing the basic economic concepts and models. We then investigate the practical issue of designing several simpler incentive schemes requiring less information and compare their efficiency loss to the optimal. We show using numerical analysis that these schemes converge to a fixed proportion of the full information optimal as the number of peers in the network becomes large. This result means that it is not necessary to collect large amounts of information, or to undertake complicated calculations, in order to implement the correct incentives in a large peer-to-peer network.
P2P File Sharing Services
Rising or evolving amount of user created mobile content
P2P Users Cooperate for Improved Performance
P2P systems have recently gained a lot of attention from the Internet users and the research community. Popular applications that use P2P systems include file sharing systems such as Bit-torrent, eDonkey, Kazaa, Gnutella as well as VoIP systems such as Skype and GoogleTalk . P2P systems are so popular that they contribute more than 50% to the overall network traffic
UBIQUITOUS SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEMS
Ubiquitous information technologies merge the virtual world with the real world in a seamless way, making embedded information and computing capabilities available anytime and anywhere (Weiser 1991). Gathering real world information with ubiquitous IT enables precise monitoring and controlling of physical objects, their current state, whereabouts, movements and their environmental conditions. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a basic and mature ubiquitous IT, which is applied to automatically identify individual objects and to link related individual information. It has already been thoroughly tested and is in actual use in several companies. Case studies (Fosso Wamba et al. 2008, Loebbecke 2007) as well as analytical studies (Bendavid et al. 2008, Lee & Özer 2007) document its potential both to improve efficiency of business processes, their management and controlling, and to facilitate new services and concepts within the scope of an integrated Supply Chain Management (SCM) (McFarlane & Sheffi 2003, Angeles 2005). Examples are track and tracing of products, automatic inventory and item-level product lifecycle management. Still, RFID systems for SCM, which reach beyond a single organization’s boundaries, are not yet widespread (Gaukler & Seifert & Hausman 2007).
P2P Wireless Protocol
The Microchip MiWi™ P2P Wireless Protocol is a variation of IEEE 802.15.4, using Microchip’s MRF24J40 2.4 GHz transceiver and any Microchip 8, 16 or 32-bit microcontroller with a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI).
Quick Overview of p2p networking
NETWORK EXTERNALITIES IN PEER-TO-PEER COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Multi-keyword Search over P2P Web
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