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Immunostimulatory G, U-containing Oligoribonucleotides - Patent 8153141
The present invention relates generally to the field of immunology and immune stimulation. More particularly, the present invention relates to immunostimulatory ribonucleic acids, homologs of said immunostimulatory ribonucleic acids, andmethods of use of said immunostimulatory ribonucleic acids and homologs. Compositions and methods of the invention are believed to be useful for inducing signaling through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8).BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The immune response is conceptually divided into innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is believed to involve recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) shared in common by certain classes of moleculesexpressed by infectious microorganisms or foreign macromolecules. PAMPs are believed to be recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on certain immune cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of highly conserved polypeptides that play a critical role in innate immunity in mammals. Currently ten family members, designated TLR1-TLR10, have been identified. The cytoplasmic domains of the variousTLRs are characterized by a Toll-interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor (TIR) domain. Medzhitov R et al. (1998) Mol Cell 2:253-8. Recognition of microbial invasion by TLRs triggers activation of a signaling cascade that is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophilaand mammals. The TIR domain-containing adapter protein MyD88 has been reported to associate with TLRs and to recruit IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to the TLRs. TheMyD88-dependent signaling pathway is believed to lead to activation of NF-kB transcription factors and c-Jun NH.sub.2 terminal kinase (Jnk) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), critical steps in immune activation and production of inflammatorycytokines. For a review, see Aderem A et al. (2000) Nature 406:782-87. While a number of specific TLR
Jucara And Acai Fruit-based Dietary Supplements - Patent 8153170
BACKGROUND 1. Field The present disclosure relates to methods of making stable, palatable, freeze-dried, fruit-based dietary supplements, and uses thereof. 2. General Background Over the past few decades, free radicals have come to be appreciated increasingly for their importance to human health and disease. Many common and life-threatening diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, and aging, have free radicalreactions as an underlying mechanism of injury. Over this period of time, our conceptual understanding of the interaction of free radicals with living organisms has evolved and provided unprecedented opportunities for improving the quality and evenlength of human life. One of the most common types of free radicals is the reactive oxygen species (ROS). These are the products of normal cell respiration and metabolism and are generally regulated by antioxidants produced in the body. Due to environmental agentssuch as pollution, and lifestyle factors such as smoking or exercising, the production of free radicals is increased. Such increase may bring the body out of balance, especially as the body ages and the mechanisms that produce antioxidants lose theirability to produce these compounds at their necessary rate, resulting in oxidative stress. The resulting damage can range from disruption of biological processes, killing of cells, and mutation of genetic material, which may lead to the occurrence ofcancer. The potential use of dietary supplements for protection against the effects of oxidative stress and the progression of degenerative diseases and aging has been the subject of an increasing number of studies during the past two decades. In themarket today there are many products that contain antioxidants at various levels. These come in the form of foods, liquids and nutritional supplements. The richest sources of these vital nutrients commonly are found in fruits and vegetables havingcompounds such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-carotene and others
Stabilized Anthocyanin Compositions - PDF
The invention relates generally to methods and compositions useful to stabilize anthocyanins and anthocyanidins.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments which are responsible for the attractive colors of many flowers, fruit and leaves. Generally, they can be extracted from plants by acidified alcoholic solvents and many are available commercially as foodcolorants. They are often supplied with malto dextrin as a diluent in a concentration suitable for inclusion in beverages or other foods such as cereals. Anthocyanidines, the aglyconic component of anthocyanins, have a basic structure as shown in Formula I. ##STR00001## Typical examples are: cyanidin (hydroxylated at positions 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'), delphinidin (hydroxylated at positions 3, 5, 7, 4', 5') and pelargonidin (hydroxylated at positions 3, 5, 7, 3'). The hydroxyl groups are usually glycosylated (e.g., ananthocyanin) and/or methoxylated (e.g. malvidin is substituted at the 3' and 5' hydroxyl groups and paeonidin and petunidin are substituted at the 3' hydroxyl group). Anthocyanins are water-soluble glycosides of polyhydroxyl and polymethoxyl derivatives of 2-phenylbenzopyrylium or flavylium salts. Individual anthocyanins differ in the number of hydroxyl groups present in the molecule, the degree ofmethylation of these hydroxyl groups, the nature, number and location of sugars attached to the molecule and the number and the nature of aliphatic or aromatic acids attached to the sugars in the molecule. Hundreds of anthocyanins have been isolated andchemically characterized by spectrometric tools. Cyanidins and their derivatives are the most common anthocyanins present in vegetables, fruits and flowers. Anthocyanins share a basic carbon skeleton in which hydrogen, hydroxyl or methoxyl groups can be found in six different positions as noted above. In fruits and vegetables, six basic anthocyanin compounds predominate, differing both in thenumber of hydroxyl groups present on the carb
High Affinity Antibodies Against HMGB1 And Methods Of Use Thereof - Patent 8153131
2. REFERENCE TO A SEQUENCE LISTING This application incorporates by reference a Sequence Listing submitted with this application as text file entitled "HB601Seq_ST25.txt" created on Oct. 20, 2005 and having a size of 64 kilobytes.3. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Inflammation is often induced by proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1.alpha., IL-1.beta., IL-6, platelet-activating factor (PAF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and other compounds. These proinflammatory cytokines are produced by several different cell types, most importantly immune cells (for example, monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils), but also non-immune cells such as fibroblasts, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelialcells, and neurons. These proinflammatory cytokines contribute to various disorders during the early stages of an inflammatory cytokine cascade. Inflammatory cytokine cascades contribute to deleterious characteristics, including inflammation and apoptosis, of numerous disorders. Included are chronic and acute disorders characterized by both localized and systemic reactions, including,without limitation, diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract and associated tissues (such as appendicitis, peptic, gastric and duodenal ulcers, peritonitis, pancreatitis, ulcerative, pseudomembranous, acute and ischemic colitis, diverticulitis,epiglottitis, achalasia, cholangitis, cholecystitis, coeliac disease, hepatitis, Crohn's disease, enteritis, and Whipple's disease); systemic or local inflammatory diseases and conditions (such as asthma, allergy, anaphylactic shock, immune complexdisease, organ ischemia, reperfusion injury, organ necrosis, hay fever, sepsis, septicemia, endotoxic shock, cachexia, hyperpyrexia, eosinophilic granuloma, granulomatosis, and sarcoidosis); diseases involving the urogenital system and associated tissues(such as septic abortion, epididymitis, vaginitis, prostatitis, and urethritis); diseases involving
Porous Cellulose Aggregate And Molding Composition Thereof - Patent 8153157
This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. Section 371, of PCT International Application Number PCT/JP2006/308414, filed Apr. 21, 2006 and Japanese Application No. 2005-124477, filed Apr. 22, 2005 in Japan, the contents of which areincorporated herein by reference.TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a porous cellulose aggregate that is useful mainly as an excipient in the field of chemical engineering, in particular, of pharmaceuticals and of foods, and a compacting (molding) composition thereof.BACKGROUND ART In the fields of pharmaceuticals, foods and other chemical engineering and the like, it has been a general practice conventionally to prepare a molded body containing an active ingredient using cellulose particles such as crystalline cellulose,cellulose powder and the like as an excipient, and for these cellulose particles, good compactibility, fluidity and disintegration property are required. Patent Document 1 describes a porous cellulose aggregate (corresponding to Comparative Example 15-17) having a secondary aggregate structure formed by aggregation of primary cellulose particles, the aggregate having a pore volume within aparticle of 0.265 cm.sup.3/g to 2.625 cm.sup.3/g, containing type I crystals, and having an average particle size of more than 30 .mu.m and 250 .mu.m or less, a specific surface area of 1.3-20 m.sup.2/g, a repose angle of 25.degree. or more and lessthan 44.degree. and properties to disintegrate in water, and a method for producing the aforementioned porous cellulose aggregate comprising a step of drying a dispersion containing two or more groups of primary cellulose particles having a differentaverage particle size and a liquid medium wherein the cellulose dispersion particles have an average particle size of 1 to 110 .mu.m. Since the aforementioned porous cellulose aggregate of the Patent Document requires two or more groups of primarycellulose particles having a different average particle size, different p
Herbal Medicine For Osteoporosis And Related Conditions - Patent 8153167
The present invention relates to a herbal medicine useful for the treatment of osteoporosis and other conditions. It may be of use in the prevention or treatment of obesity and diabetes. The medicine is derived from a number of plant materialsused in traditional Chinese medicine. More specifically, we have found that a mixture of six herbal materials has desirable activities. Furthermore, the activities of the mixture may be enhanced by fractionation/purification. Desirably the individualherbal materials are fractionated/purified in individually appropriate ways prior to mixing with the other materials. Osteoporosis is a disease of the skeleton in which the bone loses density. Bones become brittle and prone to fracture. Osteoporosis is diagnosed when bone density has decreased to the point where fractures will happen with mild stress. Bonesmost likely to break from osteoporosis are in the hip, wrist, and spine. Women past menopause are the group most likely to develop osteoporosis, but it is not uncommon in men over 65. Bone remodelling is the process in which bones are broken down through resorption and then built back up again through bone formation. This is a natural process that takes place all the time on different parts of skeletal bone. Usually thesetwo processes balance each other out and a stable level of bone mass is maintained. Until a healthy person is around 40, the process of breaking down and building up bone by cells called osteoclasts and osteoblasts is a nearly perfectly coupled system,with one phase stimulating the other. As a person ages, however, or in the presence of certain conditions, this system breaks down and the two processes become unbalanced. Osteoclasts are specialized bone cells that break down bone mass through a process often called resorption of bone. The action of osteoclasts is balanced by the activity of osteoblasts that build up bone mass. In the bones of healthy adults,bone mass remains relatively stable becaus
Purified Amniotic Membrane Compositions And Methods Of Use - Patent 8153162
The invention relates generally to the fields of biology and pharmaceuticals. More particularly, the invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating cellular physiology and pathological processing using a combination of compoundsthat can be found in amniotic membrane preparations.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The placenta is a temporary organ that surrounds the fetus during gestation. The placenta allows for transport of gases and nutrients, and also provides other metabolic and endocrine functions. The placenta is composed of several tissue types. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to the fetus, and transports oxygen to the fetus. The umbilical cord has two arteries and a vein. Wharton's jelly, a specialized gelatinous connective tissue material, surrounds the umbilical cord to protect itfrom damage during fetal movement and development. The outer "shell" of the placenta is known as the "chorion." Much of the placental disc is composed of chorionic villi, which are extensions of the chorionic villous tree. Through these structures,fetal nutrition exchange occurs. The amniotic membrane (AM) is an avascular membranous sac that is filled with amniotic fluid. This membrane is the innermost membrane surrounding a fetus in the amniotic cavity. This tissue consists of an epitheliallayer and a subadjacent avascular stromal layer.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Described herein are purified compositions and amniotic membrane preparations (that is, compositions that are prepared from amniotic membrane materials, including the amniotic membrane, amniotic stroma and amniotic jelly). In some embodiments,at least one component of the purified compositions are obtained from amniotic membrane preparations. Also described herein are purified compositions in which at least one component of the purified composition is obtained from human placenta andchorion. Also described herein are methods for preparing any of the aforementioned purified compositions and pre
Arginine-conjugated Bioreducible Poly(disulfide Amine) Polymers For Gene Delivery System - Patent 8153155
This invention relates to non-viral gene delivery carriers. More particularly, this invention relates to arginine-conjugated bioreducible poly(disulfide amine) polymers as gene delivery carriers. Development of non-toxic and efficient gene delivery carriers is one of the most important requirements for gene therapy. So far, numbers of non-viral gene delivery carriers based on lipids and polymers have been developed as alternatives ofviral gene delivery carriers. They have advantages such as non-immunogenicity, convenience of handling, and unlimited delivery capacity of genetic materials over viral vectors. J. S. Remy et al., Gene transfer with lipospermines and polyethyleneimines,30 Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 85-95 (1998); F. Liu & L. Huang, Development of non-viral vectors for systemic gene delivery, 78 J. Control. Release 259-266 (2002); D. Luo & W. M. Saltzman, DNA delivery systems, 18 Nat. Biotechnol. 33-37 (2000). Amongthem, polymeric gene delivery carriers have multi-functional groups modifiable with biofunctional moieties in their backbones. T. G. Park, J. H. Jeong & S. W. Kim, Current status of polymeric gene delivery systems, 58 Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 467-486(2006). Despite the advantages, their applications to human gene therapy have been limited because of their cytotoxicity and unsatisfactory transfection efficiency. S. Y. Wong et al., Polymer systems for gene delivery-past, present, and future, 32Prog. Polym. Sci. 799-837 (2007). Thus, while prior non-viral gene delivery systems are known and are generally suitable for their limited purposes, they possess certain inherent deficiencies that detract from their overall utility. In view of the foregoing, it will be appreciated that providing arginine-conjugated bioreducible poly(disulfide amine) polymers as gene delivery carriers would be a significant advancement in the art.BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An illustrative gene delivery carrier according to the present invention comprises an ar
Composition To Enhance The Bioavailability Of Curcumin - Download as PDF
FIELD This invention relates to a formulation of curcuminoid with the essential oil of turmeric to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin and to augment the biological activity of curcumin, wherein curcumin is the main constituent of curcuminoid andwherein Ar-turmerone is the main constituent of the essential oil of turmeric. Such enhanced bioavailability of curcumin has been demonstrated in human volunteers.BACKGROUND Curcumin [1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] ##STR00001## is the major yellow pigment of turmeric, a commonly used spice, derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa Linn. In the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, turmeric has traditionally been used as a treatment forinflammation, skin wounds, and tumors. Clinical activity of curcumin is yet to be confirmed; however, in preclinical animal models, curcumin has shown cancer chemo preventive, antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory properties (for a review, see, Kelloff,G. I., et al, J. Cell Biochem., 1996, 265:54-71). Especially interesting is its ability to prevent the formation of carcinogen-induced intestinal premalignant lesions and malignancies in rats (Rao, C. V. et al, Cancer Res., 1995, 55:259-66; Kawamori, T.et al, Cancer Res., 1999, 59:597-601), and in the multiple neoplasia (Min/+) mouse (Mahmood, N. N. et al, Carcinogenesis, 2000, 31:921-27), a genetic model of the human disease familial adenomatous polyposis. Curcumin acts as a scavenger of oxygenspecies such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen (Subramanian, M. et al, Mutat. Res., 1994, 311:249-55; Tonnesen, H. H. et al, Int. J. Pharm., 1992, 87:79-87; Reddy, A. C. P. et al, Mol. Cell. Biochem., 1994, 137:1-8) andinterferes with lipid peroxidation (Donatus, I. A., Biochem. Pharmacol., 1990, 39:1869-75; Sharma, S. C. et al, Biochem. Pharmacol., 1972, 21:1210-14). Curcumin suppresses a number of key elements in cellular signal induction pathways pertinent togrowth, different
Chimeric MSP-based Malaria Vaccine - Patent 8153140
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the two predominant human malaria parasites. Although malaria was eliminated as a major public health problem in the United States in thelate 1940's, it remains a major health problem in developing countries. Each year, 350-500 million cases of malaria occur worldwide and over one million people die, most of them young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria also takes a high toll onpregnant women. In nature, malaria parasites spread by infecting successively two types of hosts: a vertebrate host (humans) and an invertebrate host (female Anopheles mosquitoes). Malarial parasites enter a human when an infected female mosquito feeds. Theparasites, which are called sporozoites at this stage, migrate to the liver where they grow and multiply in hepatocytes, and are released as merozoites. Merozoites infect erythrocytes, where they develop and multiply. In the erythrocytic cycle, theparasite progresses through a series of blood stages (ring stage, trophozoite, and schizont). In the schizont stage, the infected erythrocyte lyses, releasing the multiplied population of merozoites, which then infect new erythrocytes. Some parasitesin erythrocytes mature into reproductive gameotcytes that are ingested by a feeding mosquito. In the insect gut, the gametocytes develop into oocysts that grow, rupture and release sporozoites that migrate to the mosquito's salivary glands, thuscompleting the cycle. Clinical disease occurs when parasites invade and replicate within host erythrocytes, a process which may lead to life-threatening complications, including severe anemia, splenic rupture, cerebral malaria, respiratory distress, and/or renalfailure. Morbidity and mortality result during the asexual development and replication of P. falciparum or P. vivax parasites within erythrocytes (Miller et al., 2002, Nature 415: 673-679). While malaria is generally curable if diagn
Solution For Dissolving Pre-melanoma Lesions And Melanoma Lesions Including Psoriasis, Herpes Simplex Lesions And Eczema Lesions - Patent 8153171
Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a solution for dissolving pre-melanoma lesions and melanoma lesions including psoriasis, herpes simplex lesions and eczema lesions and more particularly pertains to dissolving pre-cancerous tumors and lesions ofthe skin.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In view of the disadvantages inherent in the known types of medicinal solutions of known designs and configurations now present in the prior art, the present invention provides an improved solution for dissolving pre-melanoma lesions andmelanoma lesions including psoriasis, herpes simplex lesions and eczema lesions. As such, the general purpose of the present invention, which will be described subsequently in greater detail, is to provide a new and improved solution for dissolvingpre-melanoma lesion and a melanoma lesion which has all the advantages of the prior art and none of the disadvantages. To attain this, the present invention essentially comprises a solution for dissolving pre-melanoma lesions and melanoma lesions. First provided is a solution. The solution is a topical medication. The solution is comprised of anti-bacterial,anti-fungal and anti-viral elements. In this manner pre-cancerous tumors and lesions of the skin are dissolved. The specific solution, in the preferred embodiment, contains 60 percent by volume ethyl alcohol, 11 percent by volume purified water, 10percent by volume melaleuca alternifolia, 5 percent by volume hydrocortisone, 5 percent by volume iodoquinol, 2 percent by volume tocopheryl acetate, 2 percent by volume aloe barbadensis, 2 percent by volume larrea tridentat, a mixture of 2 percent byvolume oat flour, isopropyl and palmitate, and 1 percent by volume benzoic acid. The enumerated percentages herein are all by volume. There has thus been outlined, rather broadly, the more important features of the invention in order that the detailed description thereof that follows may be better understood and in order that the present contribu
Oral Drug Delivery System - Patent 8153152
FIELD OFTHE INVENTION The invention relates to dosage forms comprising formulations of drugs. More specifically, this invention relates to formulations that include High Viscosity Liquid Carrier Materials (HVLCMs) and their use to deliver drugs.BACKGROUND Techniques and compositions for drug delivery of pharmaceuticals, including oral delivery, are well known. For example antihistamines, decongestants and antacids are all commonly delivered in solid tablet form. Analgesics have been deliveredorally in tablet form for many years, for example salicylic acid, morphine, Demerol.TM. (meperidine), codeine and Percocet.TM. (oxycodone). Controlled release and sustained release pharmaceutical compositions have also been available for many years;for example the Contac 400 Time Capsule.TM. (Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride and Chlorpheniramine Maleate), anti-psychotics, melatonin formulations provide release of an active agent over several hours. Analgesics are of particular interest forcontrolled release formulations, and common controlled release formulations for analgesics include the OxyContin.RTM. (oxycodone), MS Contin.TM. (morphine), CS Contin.TM. (codeine). Formulation of drugs for delivery, particularly oral delivery, poses certain challenges. One challenge is to produce an oral controlled-release dosage form that provides for a relatively steady dose of drug over the approximately eight hoursduring which the dosage form passes through the gastrointestinal tract. Sustained release is often achieved by providing the tablet with a coating that delays release, or by formulating the tablet in such a way that it disintegrates relatively slowly,releasing drug as it does so. A tablet, however, once ingested, is subject to considerable mechanical and chemical stresses as it passes through the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, large intestine and colon, thus providing a significantchallenge in maintaining controlled release of the drug formulation.
Method Of Preparing Herbal Medicine For Treating Female Infertility - Patent 8153169
BACKGROUND 1. Technical Field The embodiments herein generally relate to a method of treatment of infertility in women. The embodiments herein particularly relate to a herbal medicine and more particularly relate to a method of preparation of herbal medicine for infertilityin women and a method of the treatment of infertility in women using the herbal medicine. 2. Description of the Related Art Agrostemma is a genus of annual plants in the Caryophyllaceae family, containing the species known as corncockles. Its best-known member is Agrostemma githago, known as the Common Corncockle. The Common corncockle is an annual forb probablywith a centre of origin in the eastern Mediterranean. The plant is a weed of cereals and crops. The Common Corncockle plant is a stiffly erect plant. The plant is up to 1 meter tall and is covered with fine hairs. The branches of corncockle plant aretipped with a single deep pink to purple flower. The flowers are scentless and are 25 mm to 50 mm across. The flowers are produced in the months of May to September in the northern hemisphere and in the months of November to March in southernhemisphere. Each petal bears 2 or 3 discontinuous black lines. The five narrow pointed sepals exceed the petals and are joined at the base to form a rigid tube with 10 ribs. Leaves are in pale green, opposite, narrowly lanceolate, held nearly erectagainst stem and are 45 mm to 145 mm long. Agrostemma githago is either self-fertilized or pollinated by insects. Seeds are produced in a many-seeded capsule. Agrostemma githago may produce over 3,000 seeds per plant and up to 60 seeds per capsule. Propagation is from seeds. Other anthers then elongate, allowing self-fertilization. Seeds are shed about a year after germination. If not harvested, the seeds fall and germinate within 1 m of the parent plants. Agrostemma githago produces up to4,000 seeds/m.sup.2 and approximately 3,685 seeds per plant. The whole plant contains a saponin called git
Medicament-containing Particle And A Solid Preparation Containing The Particle - Patent 8153161
The present invention relates to a medicament-containing particle and a solid preparation containing the particle. More particularly, it relates to a medicament-containing particle wherein an unpleasant taste of the medicament having theunpleasant taste is alleviated in buccal cavity, and "a solid preparation containing the particle" which does not substantially induce an unpleasant taste of the medicament and has a good dissolvability in gastrointestinal tract.BACKGROUND ART A lot of medicaments contained in pharmaceutical products induce an unpleasant taste such as bitter taste, astringent taste and pungent taste when the pharmaceutical product is orally administered. In case that a medicament has such anunpleasant taste, it is very difficult for a patient to take a pharmaceutical product containing the medicament. A big problem to be solved for the preparation thereof is how to mask such an unpleasant taste of the medicament in the preparation. Inorder to solve this problem, i.e. in order to mask the unpleasant taste of the medicament when the medicament is orally administered, a sweetener or a flavor has hitherto usually been used as an additive, but sometimes an increased amount of thesweetener is required to fully mask a bitter taste. Alternatively, a coating of a medicament or a medicament-containing granule, and so on has been applied with a water-insoluble polymer base such as ethyl cellulose. With respect to this method,however, in order to more effectively depress an unpleasant taste of the medicament, it is necessary to coat it in more coating amount. As a result, the coating may affect a releasing amount of the medicament transferred into gastrointestinal tract andthe desired release of the medicament can not be obtained, which is another problem. For example, in case of an intrabuccally rapidly disintegrating tablet, it has been desired to produce a tablet having good disintegrability in buccal cavity and good dissolubility in gastrointestinal
Tissue Substitutes Comprising Stem Cells And Reduced Ceria - Patent 8153158
FIELD OF THEINVENTION The invention relates to the field of tissue engineering, production of connective tissue, such as tissue linked to natural bones or synthetic bone substitutes.DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART Researchers in the surgical arts have been working for many years to develop new techniques and materials for use as grafts to replace or repair damaged or torn tissue structures, particularly bones and connective tissues, such as ligaments andtendons, and to hasten soft tissue repair. It is very common today for an orthopedic surgeon to harvest a central portion of patellar tendon of autogenous or allogenous origin for use as a replacement for a torn cruciate ligament. The surgical methodsfor such approaches are well known. Further it has become common for surgeons to use implantable prostheses formed from plastic, metal and/or ceramic material for reconstruction or replacement of physiological structures. Yet despite their wide use,surgically implanted prostheses present many attendant risks to the patient. Surgeons are in need of a non-immunogenic, high tensile strength graft material which can be used for surgical repair of bones, tendons, ligaments and other functional tissuestructures. Composites including partially stabilized zirconia, bioactive glass or glass-ceramics polyethylene-hydroxyapatite have been disclosed for the repair, reconstruction and replacement of diseased or damaged parts of the body, including bone. However, a stable interface with connective tissue has prevented clinical use of such biomaterials.SUMMARY A biocomposite comprises biocompatible material having plurality of living human progenitor or living stem cells attached to a surface thereof. The human progenitor or living stem cells provides a stable interface with endogenous tissue (e.g.bone) that has before the invention prevented clinical use of such biomaterials. In a preferred embodiment, the biocompatible material is a porous material. Preferably, the porous or non-po
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