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CHITINASE AS THE MOST IMPORTANT SECONDARY METABOLITES OF STREPTOMYCES BACTERIS_IJSIT_2.6.12.pdf
Fungal phytopathogens pose serious problems worldwide in the cultivation of economi cally important plants. Chemical fungicides are extensively used in current agriculture.However, excessive use of chemical fungicides in agriculture has led to deteriorating human health , environmental pollution, damaged to ecosystem and development of pathogen resistance to fungicide. Because of the worsening problems in fungal disease control , a serious search is needed to identify alternative methods for plant protection, which are less dependent on chemicals and are more environmentally friendly. Microbial antagonists are widely used for the biocontrol of fungal plant diseases. Many species of actinomycates, particulary those belonging to the genus sterptomyces, are well known as antifungal biocontrol agents that inhibit several plant pathogenic fungi. Another way biological control has been developed as an alternative of chemicals to tock with plant pathogenic fungi. Considering high presence of chitin in fungal cell wall, chitinase enzyme is camped as an effective biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi. Streptomyces bacteria are able to produce various chitinase enzymes, chitinases produced by streptomyces belong to the families 18 and 19 glycosyl hydrolases. The antifungal activity is mostly shown by fomily 19 Chitinases. In comparison with bacterial family 18 chitinases, the specific hydrolyzing activity of chitinase 19 against soluble and in soluble chitinous substrates has been markedly higher. Considering the importance of family to investigate antifungal potential of streptomyces bacteria isolated from east Azarbijan region soils based on molecular identification of family 19 chitinase. encoding gene in these bacteria. To aim the purpose 110 soil samples were collected from East Azarbaijan and 310 strepomyces isolates were selected using macroscopic and microscopic observations. DNA genomic of all of the isolates were extracted and PCR reacti
MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL GENE CODING CHITINASE ENZYMES_ FAMILY 19 STREPTOMYCES_IJSIT_2.6.11.pdf
Fungal phytopathogens pose serious problems worldwide in the cultivation of economically important plants. Chemical fungicides are extensively used in current agriculture.However, excessive use of chemical fungicides in agriculture has led to deteriorating human health , environmental pollution, damaged to ecosystem and development of pathogen resistance to fungicide. Because of the worsening problems in fungal disease control , a serious search is needed to identify alternative methods for plant protection, which are less dependent on chemicals and are more environmentally friendly. Microbial antagonists are widely used for the biocontrol of fungal plant diseases. Many species of actinomycates, particulary those belonging to the genus sterptomyces, are well known as antifungal biocontrol agents that inhibit several plant pathogenic fungi. Another way biological control has been developed as an alternative of chemicals to tock with plant pathogenic fungi. Considering high presence of chitin in fungal cell wall, chitinase enzyme is camped as an effective biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi. Streptomyces bacteria are able to produce various chitinase enzymes, chitinases produced by streptomyces belong to the families 18 and 19 glycosyl hydrolases. The antifungal activity is mostly shown by fomily 19 Chitinases. In comparison with bacterial family 18 chitinases, the specific hydrolyzing activity of chitinase 19 against soluble and in soluble chitinous substrates has been markedly higher. Considering the importance of family to investigate antifungal potential of streptomyces bacteria isolated from east Azarbijan region soils based on molecular identification of family 19 chitinase. encoding gene in these bacteria. To aim the purpose 110 soil samples were collected from East Azarbaijan and 310 strepomyces isolates were selected using macroscopic and microscopic observations. DNA genomic of all of the isolates were extracted and PCR reactio
THE EFFECTS OF HELPING BACTERIA _PSEUDOMONAS SPP._ IN NITROGEN GREEN BEANS FIXATION AND NODULATION WITH RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BY PHASEOLI_IJSIT_2.6.10.pdf
Some- bacteria settle in the rhizosphere of legume plants and enhance the performance of ribosome bacteria to nitrogen fixation and nodulation. In this paper, we used four isolated from two species of Pseudomonas containing P.putida, P.fluorescens Chao, P.Flouresence Tabriz, P.flouresence B119 and Rhizobium leguminosarumbv.phaseoli. In a factorial experiment with complete randomized blocks were used 5 levels of helping bacteria(Pseudomonas spp.) and two rhizobium levels, four replicates were employed. Jamaran418 green bean was utilized as host plant. At the end, nodulation, growth and plant’s nitrogen indexes were measured. The results showed that all above mentioned helping bacteria enhance the growth and nodulation performance of green bean. It should be said that P.putida had the highest effect on the green bean nodulation increase along with rhizobium (130%) followed by P.fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao and P.fluorescens B119, ( 83, 63 and 17%, respectively). Also, we observed 45, 33, 22 and 8% performance increase under the effect of P.putida, P. fluorescens Chao, P. fluorescens Tabriz and P. fluorescens B119, respectively.
ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTY OF AQUEOUS AND PETROLEUM ETHER LEAF EXTRACTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS_IJSIT_2.6.9.pdf
The experiment was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial property of aqueous and Petroleum ether leaf extracts of Jatrophacurcas against some gram positive micro-organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and some gram negative micro-organisms: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi using antibiotics; Gentamycin as control. The phytochemical screening of aqueous and petroleum ether extracts showed the presences of cardiac glycosides, steroids and terpenes, tannins, phlobatannins, anthraguinones and saponins. The disc diffusion techniques was used to test the sensitivity of the micro-organism to the extracts of Jatrophacurcas the results obtained show mean zones of inhibition between (19 + 0.6mm) to (30 + 0.3mm) for aqueous extract and (24 + 0.5mm) to (35 + 0.8mm) for petroleum ether extract. Micro-organisms showed sensitivity in the following order: E.coli;(17 + 0.3mm) and (25 + 0.8mm), S.aureus; (26 + 0.2mm) and (28 + 0.6mm), B.subtilis; (16 + 0.1mm) and (20 + 0.7mm), and S.typhi (25 + 0.2mm) and (27 + 0.6mm) for aqueous and petroleum ether extracts respectively. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) for both extracts show that the extracts inhibited the growth of the entire test organism at concentration 0.6mg/ml. This result thus suggests the potency of Jatrophacurcas as an antimicrobial agent especially at the concentration employed.
BIO CHEMICAL EFFECT OF 1_ 5-BIS _3_ 5-DIMETHYLPYRAZOL-1-YL_-3-OXAPENTANE-DIACETATOCOPPER IN ALBINO RATS_IJSIT_2.6.8.pdf
Amany Nofal1, 2, Andrei Pota ov1, Andrei Khlebnikov1
THE EFFECT OF ALSTONEA BOONEI STEM BARK PLUS CISPLATIN INDUCED RENAL INSUFFICIENCY IN RATS_IJSIT_2.6.7.pdf
The bark of Alstoniaboonei stem was analysed for the medicinal and the effect of extracts on induced renal insufficiency. The plant material was collected in August-September 2012 and Rats 100-150g body weights were subjected to the study. Normal saline as control, Cisplatin, and cisplatin plus Alstoneiboonei stem bark extract were administered and the result summary for serum creatinine in cisplatin treated Rats (2.69±0.32mg/dl) and in Rats administrates cisplastin plus Alstoniaboonei stem bark extract (2.5±0.01mg/dl) were elevated compared to saline control (1.89±0.89mg/dl). Serum urea in cisplatin treated Rats was (38.4 ±2.98mg/dl) compared to Rats administrates with cisplatin plus the extract (38.4±2.98mg/dl) and saline control (24.94±3.76mg/dl). The study indicates Alstoniaboonei stem bark extract reduced the renal insufficiency in rats.
EFFECTS OF MYRISTICA FRAGRANS_ MURRAYA KOENIGI AND AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA LEAVE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RATS_IJSIT_2.6.6.pdf
The study was carried out to investigate the effect of the aqueous extracts of Myristicafragrans(Nutmeg), Murrayakoenigi(curry leaf) and Aframomummelegueta(Guinea pepper) on Some Biochemical and haematologicalParameters. Sixteen (16) wister strain rats weighing between 130 – 180g were divided into four (4) groups of four (4) rats each and for 21 days fed the following diets: Group A – normal diet + myristicafragrans (Nutmeg) aqueous extract, Group B – normal diet + murrayakoenigi (curry leaf) aqueous extract, Group C – normal diet + aframomummelegueta (Guinea pepper) aqueous extract, Group D – normal diet (control). After a period of 21 days the rats were sacrificed and the serum was taken for the following estimations: total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and glucose. The whole blood was taken for packed cell volume and white blood cell count. The results indicated that oral administration of myristicafragrans, murrayakoenigi and aframomummelegueta to rat’s exhibit remarkable hypolipidaemic activity and lowering glucose concentration. The oral administration of these three spices exhibit protein increasing activities compared with the control rats. The packed cell volume and white cell values of all the rats decreased after feeding with experimental diet (aqueous extract) compare with the control rats. It is clear from this study thatMyristicafragrans(Nutmeg), Murrayakoenigi(curry leaf) andAframomummelegueta (Guinea pepper) contain significant amounts of phytochemicals and exhibit hypolipidaemic activity when consumed.
THE INFLUENCE OF SILICONE ANTIFOAM FROM LEATHER AND DYING WASTE WATER EFFLUENT ON TURBIDITY AND CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND IN BOMPAI INDUSTRIAL ESTATE KANO REGION NIGERIA_IJSIT_2.6.5.pdf
This study investigates the influence of silicone antifoam agent on waste water from Gashash leather and Nigerian Spinning and Dying industries (NSD). Waste water from the outlet of the industries were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters. Silicone antifoam was added to the wastewater to determine the impact of the silicone antifoam on turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. The result shows that both turbidity and COD values significantly increased even when small concentration of the silicone antifoam was added. Further, independent t-test was used to identify the variance between the mean value of the wastewater from leather, spinning and dying industries, the results indicated that there are no significant differences (observed t 0.544, critical t 2.015, and p value 0.589) between the waste water in leather and dying industries.
WATER INTAKE CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES IN SOUTHERN BORNO NIGERIA_IJSIT_2.6.4.pdf
The water intake characteristics of soils under arable crop practice were studied with a view to obtaining useful information for the design of irrigation and drainage system and for effective soil management techniques. Parameters determined; infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, permeability, bulk density, particle density, porosity and moisture content. The textural class of the soils from the three sites was found to be clay. The result obtained indicates that infiltration was high initially but decreases later. This may be due to the soil reaching a saturation point. On the average the infiltration rate was observed to decrease with time. The coefficient of permeability was found to be 9.26 x 10 , 7.66 x 10 and 2.15 x 10 cm/s for site A, B and C respectively. Information on infiltration and permeability are useful tools in irrigation and other engineering design.
DETERMINATION OF ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF POMEGRANATE FRUIT TO CALCULATION THE HEIGHT OF BOX FOR HANDLING_IJSIT_2.6.3.pdf
In avoiding damage to fruit species the permissible falling height and permissible static pressure are of great importance. The former is important in planning harvesting and handling operations, the latter in selecting the height of transport containers. Fruits are generally transported in containers. The static and dynamic forces which then act on the fruit will cause damage if they exceed given value. The static force may be calculated from the weight of the fruit column being transported while the dynamic load is a consequence of vibration caused by transport. The permitted static load for a given fruit may be determined experimentally. In this study, physical properties of interest were determined for fresh pomegranate fruit then calculations for the design of a suitable height were conducted based on the measured properties using Ross and Isaacs’s theory. Maximum height for packing and storing of fresh pomegranate fruit in the box was determined to be less than 123 cm based on a rupture force of 40.7 N.
COMPARSION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF DIMOCARPUS LONGAN LOUR. EXTRACTS AND THE MAIN PHYTOCONSTITUENTS_IJSIT_2.6.2.pdf
The present study was carried out to evaluate antioxidant activity of Dimocarpus longan stems extracts and also to investigate the main phytoconstituents in the bio-active extract. N-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% extract were tested for free radical scavenging activity on model reaction with stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The results showed that ethyl acetate was the most active one as antioxidant agent and phytochemical analysis of that extract revealed the presence of triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrates. The results may help to discover new chemical classes of natural antioxidant substances that could serve as selective agents for infectious diseases.
DIRECT EXPANSION GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS FOR HEATING AND COOLING_IJSIT_2.6.1.pdf
This article is an introduction to the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through improving building performance and the use of ground energy sources. The relevance and importance of the study is discussed in the paper, which, also, highlights the objectives of the study, and the scope of the theme. This study discusses some of the current activity in the GSHPs field. The basic system and several variations for buildings are presented along with examples of systems in operation. Finally, the GCHP is presented as an alternative that is able to counter much of the criticism leveled by the natural gas industry toward conventional heat pumps. Several advantages and disadvantages are listed. Operating and installation costs are briefly discussed.
BIOMINERALISED SILICA-NANOPARTICLES DETECTION FROM MARINE DIATOM CULTURE MEDIA_IJSIT_2.5.11.pdf
Diatoms are unicellular algae the most spectacular among the microorganisms assemble into a micro-shell with a distinct 3-D shape and pattern of fine nanoscale features. In this investigation, we present results; Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy images show the presence of ordered arrays of silica nanoparticles. A number of diatoms with partially opened valves were observed on the surface of the diatom, which indicates that cell contents inside of diatoms could release the nanoparticles into the culture solution. We believe that the film forming silica nanoparticles are either released by the diatoms during reproduction or after cell death due to bacterial action. Further research will investigate whether the silica nanoparticles are produced intracellular and then released or whether synthesis occurs in cell culture medium. This approach provides an environmentally friendly means for fabricating silica nanoparticles for drug delivery, disease diagnostics, artificial opal films, decorative coatings and novel optical materials.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF NORMAL AND TUMOR TISSUE, SARDINELLA LONGICEPS (VALENCIENNES, 1847) FROM NAGAPATTINUM SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA
Fish are at present in high demand in food markets, they are widely consumed in many parts of the world because they posses high protein content, saturated fat and also contain omega fatty acids known to support good health. The present study deals with biochemical composition of common fish,Sardinella longiceps. The proximate composition of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acids and fatty acids were studied. The results of proximate composition in S. longiceps showed the percentage of protein was high in the normal and tumor infected fish tissue (29.15 &18.93%), followed by the carbohydrate (5.81 & 2.42 %) and lipid (15.61 & 9.28 %). The percentage compositions of essential and non-essential amino acids are presented in normal tissue and tumor infected tissue were found to be as 46.09 % & 41.47 % and 37.23% & 40.63%. In the analysis, the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography revealed the presence of higher amount of PUFA (Linolenic acid 32.74 %) in normal tissue. The details of the vitamins detected in S. longicepstissue. Among them, vitamin A was found in higher levels (91.16 mg/gm) at normal tissue. In the present study, totally 5 macro minerals and 2 trace minerals were reported. The S. longiceps normal and infected tissue contributed maximum sodium (289.6 mg/gm) and Potassium (166.5 mg/gm) of minerals. The result shows that marine fish (S. longiceps) tissue is a valuable food recipe for human consumption, due to its high quality protein and well-balanced amino acids fatty acids and vitamins and minerals.
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACS AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI; Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum musea andFusarium oxysporum
The aim of this work was to ﬁnd an alternative to chemical fungicides currently used in the control plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctoniasolani ,ColletotrichummusaeandFusariumoxysporum,. The antifungal activity of the methanol extracts of six medicinal plants used in native medicine in Sri Lanka is reported.All plant extracts were screened for their fungistatic, fungicidal activities and minimum inhibitory dilution (MID) against above fungi. The media amended with methanol and recommended fungicide for respective fungal strain were consider as negative and positive control respectively.Results showed that radial growth in all the three tested organisms was significantly impaired (p<0.05) by the addition of the extracts in the culture medium used. The test fungi differed in their reaction to the different extracts but on the whole, growth inhibition increased with the concentration of each extract. The most active extracts, shows a marked effect of the 20% methanol extracts from sweet flag with inhibition values of 91%, 86% and 84 % for F. oxysporum,R. solani and C.muceawhereas those from wild basil inhibited the growth of the same pathogens by 89%, 84% and 74%.The results showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 5 % (v/v) for sweet flag and wild basil and 20% (v/v) for all other plant crude extracts. Out of six plants extract screened, wild basil and sweet flag showed more than 80% fungal inhibition after 6 hour immersion and other extracts could not exceed 60% inhibition after any exposure time. The study revealed that methanol crude extract of sweet flag and wild basil exhibit strong fungistatic and fungicidal activities against tested fungi. These results support the potential use of these plant extracts in the management of diseases caused by tested plant pathogenic fungi.
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