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Liposomal Formulations Of Anthracycline Agents And Cytidine Analogs - Patent 8022279
The invention relates to compositions and methods for improved delivery of combinations of therapeutic agents. More particularly, the invention concerns delivery systems which provide combinations of anthracycline agents and cytidine analogsand derivatives thereof.BACKGROUND ART The progression of many life-threatening diseases such as cancer, AIDS, infectious diseases, immune disorders and cardiovascular disorders are influenced by multiple molecular mechanisms. Due to this complexity, achieving cures with a singleagent has been met with limited success. Thus, combinations of agents have often been used to combat disease, particularly in the treatment of cancers. It appears that there is a strong correlation between the number of agents administered and curerates for cancers such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and metastatic colorectal cancer (Frei, et al., Clin. Cancer Res. (1998) 4:2027-2037; Fisher, M. D.; Clin Colorectal Cancer (2001) August; 1(2):85-6). Anthracycline antibiotics such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin and their derivatives comprise known antineoplastic agents. Daunorubicin-based drugs, such as daunorubicin hydrochloride, are primarily employed because they intercalatewith DNA, affecting various functions of the DNA, including DNA and RNA synthesis. They exhibit activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia, the acute phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia, andacute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Doxorubicin has been shown effective in the treatment of acute leukemias, malignant lymphomas and selected solid tumors such as breast cancer tumors. Idarubicin exhibits similar activity to these antimetabolites and hasbeen used together with cytarabine for adverse karyotype, acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Giles, F. J., et al., J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) 21(9):1722-7. Cytidine analogs, such as three examples of such analogs including cytarabine, 5-Azacytidine, and gemcitabine, are known antineop
Liposomal formulations of anthracycline agents and cytidine analogs
Application number 11 587-112
Orienting, Positioning, And Forming Nanoscale Structures - Patent 7999160
FIELD OF THEINVENTION The invention relates to methods for aligning microdomains of block copolymers on substrates and structures formed therefrom.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Miniaturization is a driving force to improve device performance and reduce cost for chip manufacturing. Current lithographic techniques are based on a "top-down" approach, wherein patterns are imaged onto a resist via optical projectionthrough a predefined mask. However it is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extend this approach to create patterns with dimensions on the nanometer scale. Accordingly, there exists a need for a practical and economical approach to createpatterns with dimensions on the nanometer scale.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a method, comprising: providing a first block copolymer; providing a substrate having an energetically neutral surface layer, said surface layer having at least one trough integrally disposed thereon, said atleast one trough comprising a substantially planar first sidewall and a substantially planar second sidewall opposite said first sidewall, wherein said first sidewall and said second sidewall are substantially normal to said surface layer, said first andsaid second sidewalls being separated by a distance corresponding to a width of a bottom surface of said at least one trough; forming a first film inside said at least one trough, said first film comprising said first block copolymer; assemblingline-forming microdomains of said first block copolymer within said first film, said microdomains of said first block copolymer forming first self-assembled structures within said first film, said first self-assembled structures oriented substantiallynormal to said first sidewall and said second sidewall and substantially parallel to said surface layer; removing at least one microdomain from said first film such that oriented structures remain in said trough, wherein said oriented structures areoriented substantial
and forming nanoscale structures
Robert D. Miller
Application number 11 690-295
Nanotubes As Mitochondrial Uncouplers - Patent 7919699
The present invention relates to nanotubes as mitochondrial uncouplers. The present invention provides methods of mitochondrial uncoupling as well as methods of treating disease conditions and increasing weight loss by administering thenanotubes.BACKGROUND It is known that mitochondria control metabolism in individual cells by burning sugars and fats. Mitochondria produce a membrane potential of about 200 mV across their inner membrane by the active translocation of protons from the matrix of themitochondria (the inside) into the inner membrane space (mitochondria have an inner an outer membrane as illustrated in FIG. 2). The translocation of protons from the matrix is due to the activity of the electron transport system, which takes electronsfrom a high energy state to a lower energy resulting in the reduction of oxygen to water, hence the term mitochondrial respiration since oxygen is consumed by this process. The energy released as electrons are taken from a high energy state to a lowerenergy state is used by this electron transport system to translocate (i.e., pump) the protons from the matrix to the inner membrane space resulting in a separation of charge (i.e., membrane potential) as well as a pH gradient across the inner membranedue to the movement of these protons. The mitochondrial membrane potential is then "coupled" to the controlled flow of protons back into the matrix through the ATP synthase which uses this flow to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate ("ADP") to ATP. Chemical uncouplers of mitochondria have been used to increase the bodies basal metabolism to encourage weight loss. However, chemical uncouplers are readily toxic, as they are difficult to control. Uncontrolled uncoupling of mitochondria(i.e., dropping the mitochondrial membrane potential below about 100 mV) causes an inability to produce cellular ATP, which eventually leads to death. Therefore, there is a need for safe, controllable, mitochondrial uncouplers that can separeate the
Nanotubes as mitochondrial uncouplers
Patrick G. Sullivan
Application number 11 418-208
present invention relates
present invention provides
liquid crystal display
Optical Lithography Correction Process - Patent 7882456
Background of Prior ArtAs optical lithography attempts to print smaller and smaller features relative to the wavelength of light used for imaging, the extent to which optical proximity correction techniques modify the original layout has dramatically increased. Concomitantly, the impact of erroneous corrections has also increased leading to circuit failures and, therefore, delays in the delivery of the final microcircuit. Therefore, there is a strong desire to check the validity of the optical proximitycorrections before committing a corrected layout to the mask manufacturing process. This need has resulted in the creation of optical rule checking (ORC) techniques. These techniques validate the final result of the optical proximity correction bycomparing the predicted images to the original layout. This process has greatly helped minimize delays in the nano-circuit fabrication as potentially fatal errors are detected much earlier then was previously the case. Unfortunately, these techniquesdo not provide any help in actually resolving the issues raised and, thus, still cause delays and increase manufacturing costs. This led to the realization that a new and improved ORC technique would be highly desirable.BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIONAn apparatus and method for correcting a process critical layout includes characterizing the influence of individual ones of a set of worst case process variations on a simulated nano-circuit layout design and then correcting layout geometries inthe simulated nano-circuit layout based on such characterizations. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGSThe above mentioned features and steps of the invention and the manner of attaining them will become apparent, and the invention itself will be best understood by reference to the following description of the preferred embodiment(s) of theinvention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a computer-aided design system, which is construc
Optical lithography correction process
Franz Xaver Zach
Application number 11 101-872
optical proximity correction
Technology Insight Report: Carbon Nanotubes in Energy Storage Devices
This article covers patent analysis on “Use of Carbon Nanotubes in energy storage devices”, its research momentum and key intellectual property indicators. Nanotubes’ unique properties and unparalleled nano structure makes it a crucial element for energy storage devices of the future. This report focuses on how Patent data can help uncover the trends, gaps and opportunities that exist around use of nanotubes in energy device industry. The analysis covers IP activity, its evolution, use across different types of energy storage devices, the companies most active in this research area, the filings spread, key comparisons on types of nanotubes and their properties. This report was prepared by mining patent data using Patent iNSIGHT Pro, a comprehensive patent analysis platform that helps one accelerate time-to-decision from patent analysis activities.
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