Docstoc

The Impact of the Indian Ocean Drive on the Shire of Gingin

Document Sample
The Impact of the Indian Ocean Drive on the Shire of Gingin Powered By Docstoc
					  The Impact of the Indian
  Ocean Drive on the Shire
         of Gingin




                               Prepared by
                      Audrey Hayfield 30189388
                         Tegan Johns 30265168
                         Anne Miller 30248671



TOU303 Tourism Management
Coordinator – Dr Jim Macbeth
Semester 2, 2006
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sincere thank you to the members of the various organizations and agencies who
provided essential information and guidance for this report.


   •   Brooke Povah           Deputy CEO, Shire of Gingin
   •   Lance Hardy            Tourism Western Australia
   •   Dr Jim Macbeth         Murdoch University


Special thank you to the individuals and organizations that have committed time and
research to the development of various strategic documents from which this report has
drawn information.


   •   Shire of Gingin Town Planning Scheme Number 8 and 9.
   •   Lancelin to Cervantes Coastal Road – Report and Recommendations of the
       Environmental Protection Authority.
   •   The Indian Ocean Drive Economic and Social Impact Study.
   •   Gingin Coast Structure Plan.
   •   Turquoise Coast Island Nature Reserves Management Plan Number 50.
   •   Great Ocean Road Region Integrated Access Study Stage 2 Report: Strategy
       Development.



Disclaimer
This strategic plan was undertaken as part of the unit of study TOU303 Tourism
Management at Murdoch University and coordinated by Dr Jim Macbeth. Whilst every
reasonable effort has been made to ensure that this document is correct at the time of
printing, Murdoch University and the students participating in this project disclaim that
there is no liability to any person in respect to anything or the consequences of anything
done or omitted to be done in reliance upon the whole or any part of this document.

For further information regarding this plan contact:
Jim Macbeth
Tourism Program
School of Social Sciences and Humanities
Murdoch University
South Street, MURDOCH, Western Australia, 6150
Tel: (08) 9360 2185
Email: j.macbeth@murdoch.edu.au
Web: www.tourism.murdoch.edu.au


                                            1
CONTENTS

1.0 Executive Summary ………………………………………………….………….…..4
2.0 Vision …………………………………………………………………………………5
3.0 Mission ……………………………………………………………………….….…...5
4.0 Goals and Objectives ………………………………………………………….….…5
5.0 Destination Overview ………………………………………………………….…….6
     5.1 Background
     5.2 Location
     5.3 Local Industry
     5.4 Current Land Use Zoning
     5.5 Infrastructure and Services
            5.5.1 Accommodation
            5.5.2 Amenities and Services
            5.5.3 Access
            5.5.4 Attractions
            5.5.5 Activities
     5.6 Local Government and Strategic Partners
     5.7 Visitor and Population Statistics
6.0 Current Market Analysis ………………………………………………………….19
     6.1 SWOT Analysis
     6.2 Target Market
     6.3 Competitor Analysis
     6.4 Current Destination Performance
7.0 Indian Ocean Drive Proposal ……………………………..……………………….23
     7.1 The Proposal
     7.2 Alternatives
     7.3 Case Study Comparison
8.0 Development Considerations and Implications …………………………….……25
     8.1 Proposed Land Use Zoning for Future Development


                                             2
     8.2 Infrastructure and Services
     8.3 Anticipated Residential and Visitor Growth/Trends
     8.4 Environmental Considerations
     8.5 Social Considerations
     8.6 Economic Considerations
9.0 Recommendations …………………………………….…………………………..32
     9.1 Promotion of the Tourism Product
     9.2 Increases in Infrastructure and Services
     9.3 Stakeholder Involvement and Roles
     9.4 Environmental Issues
10.0 Implementation, Monitoring and Controlling ………………………………….36
11.0 References ……………………………………….…….…………………...……..37
12.0 Appendices ………………………………………………………………………..43




                                          3
1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This destination strategic plan was undertaken as part of the unit of study TOU303
Tourism Management at Murdoch University and coordinated by Dr Jim Macbeth. This
report addresses issues relating to the Shire of Gingin that flow from the completion of
the Indian Ocean Drive and it subsequent impact on the shire. This report develops key
recommendations for the Shire of Gingin to successfully align with the surrounding
shires to strengthen brand awareness on a domestic and international level.


The town of Gingin lies approximately eighty – three kilometres north east of Perth just
off the Brand Highway. The proposed Indian Ocean Drive will link Lancelin to other
northern regions. This will not only drive the tourism market, but provide better access to
essential support services for residents living in the area. Tourism at this destination
could be increased by the development of a strong brand and image. There are primarily
traditional farms in the area; wheat, sheep and cattle. There is a strong emphasis on
natural environmental attractions, such as trail walks and recreational tourism, such as
swimming and fishing.


The proposed Lancelin to Cervantes Project involves the continued construction of the
Indian Ocean Drive. The road is expected to be a sixty – five kilometer extension of the
current Lancelin Road, joining at Pinnacles Drive. At this stage the proposed road will
cut through a small section of the Nilgen Nature Reserve but the main impact will be the
road going through the Wanagarren and Nambung Nature Reserves.


Both the Shire of Gingin and the Tourism WA representatives indicated that there is
existing friction between the coastal and inland communities. This appears to be a result
of the different interests and concerns of the residents. The perceived outcomes for inland
communities appear to be negligible; in comparison the coastal communities who had far
greater proactive approach to the potential for introduction of new industries,
employment opportunities and the development of better amenities for residents.


                                            4
2.0 Vision Statement
To establish a sustainable development and tourism strategy that embraces the diversity
of the region. A strong local community will maximize tourism potential and increase
opportunities for local businesses and residents.



3.0 Mission
Our mission is to develop a viable strategic plan to strengthen the identity of the Shire of
Gingin, as well as increase tourism for the shire to coincide with the completion of Indian
Ocean Drive.



4.0 Goals and Objectives
This report addresses issues relating to the Shire of Gingin that flow from the completion
of the Indian Ocean Drive (IOD) and it subsequent impact on the shire. It is vital to
remember that the purpose of tourism planning is to maintain the uniqueness of a
destination while successfully improving the regional and local economy. A strong
strategic plan will outline the shire’s future direction, performance targets and strategy in
becoming a thriving tourism destination. This is an ongoing process which encompasses
the Shire of Gingin’s vision, objectives, strategy, and approach.


   •   Create a strategy that encompasses all aspects of the Gingin tourism product by
       2008 focusing on the development of high yield and niche tourism markets, in
       particular 3 – 4 star accommodation. There also needs to be further development
       of events, with a focus on 4WD adventure tourism, surfing and wind surfing.
   •   Develop key recommendations for the Shire of Gingin to successfully align with
       the surrounding shires to strengthen brand awareness on a domestic and
       international level.
   •   Give key recommendations to the Shire of Gingin to develop accredited tourism
       education, training and resources for local businesses to improve product and
       service quality.


                                             5
•   Research of existing strategies and planning documents for the Shire of Gingin
    will enable key considerations of triple bottom line indicators to be identified.
    This will extend to include the sustainability of potable water, key infrastructure
    and services, and preservation of natural assets.
•   In the event of an economic downturn for small businesses inland due to the shift
    in traffic flow from the introduction of the Indian Ocean Drive key issues will be
    raised concerning strategic planning for small businesses and residents.




                                          6
5.0 DESTINATION OVERVIEW

5.1 Background
The town of Gingin lies approximately eighty – three kilometres north east of Perth just
off the Brand Highway (Sydney Morning Herald, 2006). The first settlers to the area were
Robert Dale and Edward Barrett–Lennard who gained a lease from the Swan River
colony and began farming in the area in 1832 (Gingin Travel, 2006). The town was
gazetted on December 12, 1871 (Heritage Council of Western Australia, 1998).


The proposed Indian Ocean Drive will link Lancelin to other northern regions. This will
not only drive the tourism market, but provide better access to essential support services
for residents living in the area. Due to Gingin’s close proximity to Perth, the local
recreational activities and optimal weather conditions, the Shire of Gingin is currently
experiencing significant growth in the residential population. Gingin has become one of
the fastest growing rural shires in Western Australia (WA) (Gingin Shire, 2006).



5.2 Location
The Shire of Gingin covers a land area of approximately 3325 square kilometres. The
shire is bordered by Dandaragan to the north, Chittering to the east and Wanneroo to the
south. The shire encompasses the Gingin town at its centre, four coastal areas
(Guilderton, Seabird, Ledge Point and Lancelin) and six rural residential areas
(Woodridge, Sovereign Hill, Moondah Ridge, Seaview Park, Redfield Park and Ocean
Farm) (See Appendix 1 and 2) (Gingin Shire, 2006). The Shire of Gingin’s tourism is
primarily nature – based and recreational (See Appendix 3). There is a strong emphasis
on natural environmental attractions, such as trail walks and recreational tourism, such as
swimming and fishing etc. Demand for tourism at this destination could be increased by
the development of a strong brand and image (See Appendix 4).




                                            7
5.3 Local Industry
There are primarily traditional farms in the area; wheat, sheep and cattle; however there
has been growth in the area towards goat, ostrich and marron farms, with olive groves
and vineyards becoming increasingly popular. The region is becoming well known world
wide for their unique produce (Australia Online Travel, 2006; Tannock, 2003).


Until recently towns such as Seabird were known as ‘closed towns’ with land only
available to those persons associated with the fishing industry (Gravity Discovery Centre,
2006). The fishing, agriculture and
mining industries are the major source
of employment in the region, however
strict regulations and changing weather
patterns   have   limited     the   primary
production of farming activity and the
movement     of   residents    to   coastal
communities has forced a recent trend
towards employment in the retail and service trade and white collar positions (Western
Australian Planning Commission, 2001).



5.4 Current Land Use Zoning
Due to Gingin’s proximity to Perth and the growth northwards of the metropolitan area,
the Gingin shire is experiencing overwhelming pressure to rezone rural land to
accommodate both urban and tourism development (Western Australian Planning
Commission, 2006). Limited social, commerce and physical infrastructure currently
restricts the ability to support a substantial increase in permanent residents and tourist
traffic. Table 1 illustrates the types of land use zoning currently applicable to the Gingin
shire.




                                              8
                     Table 1: Existing Land Use Zoning for the Shire of Gingin
          Land Use Zoning                                              Characteristics
Residential                                 •    Marginal agricultural value.
                                            •    Primarily low density residential area.
Tourist                                     •    To contain land for tourist accommodation and associated
                                                 services.
Commercial                                  •    Major services, retail, office and entertainment.
                                            •    Focus on town sites.
Industrial                                  •    Industrial activities in town sites.
Fishing Industry                            •    Industrial or residential use associated with fishing industry.
                                            •    Western Rock Lobster economic and social significance to
                                                 region.
Rural                                       •    Normal rural activity in shire.
Rural Industry                              •    Industry handling, treating, processing or packing primary
                                                 products grown, reared or produced locally.
                                            •    Workshop servicing plant or equipment for rural purposes.
Rural Residential                           •    Close proximity to metropolitan area, under pressure to
                                                 subdivide for hobby farms and further residential development.
                                            •    Provides land for range of broad based industries including
                                                 home businesses and occupations and wineries.
Rural Conservation                          •    Land protected from rural activity.
Urban Development                           •    Area to benefit from design and layout of works and services.
Rural Living                                •    Land for small rural holdings not used for irrigation
                                                 horticulture.
Horticulture                                •    Preserved land that is suitable for horticultural usage and
                                                 intensive agriculture.
                                            •    Conserve water quality and fertile soil in the shire.
Special Use                                 •    Crown Land, nature conservation, recreation, water catchment,
                                                 state forests, timber reserves & the Defence Force Australia.
Source:    Western Australia. Gingin Shire. 1991. Shire of Gingin Town Planning Scheme No. 8 –Scheme Text. Perth: Gingin
           Shire.



The south bank of the Moore River is currently zoned as an urban area, but the state
Government is proposing that this be re – zoned to rural (Heritage Western Australia,
2005). Residents within this area agree that it should be a rural zone to maintain the
native flora and fauna and allow public ownership of certain areas, such as national parks
(Heritage Western Australia, 2005).


The predominant developer, The Moore River Company has agreed to a compromise
with residents by suggesting that part of the land be reserved and void of development
(Tannock, 2003). The developers see the benefit of additional visitors to the region who
will be drawn to the strong identity and heritage of the region.


                                                           9
        5.5 Infrastructure and Services
        5.5.1 Accommodation
        The recent increase in demand for tourist accommodation has meant there is a current
        shortage of three – and – a – half and four star accommodations in the region, particularly
        during the peak season of summer (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2006).
        There is expected to be a further increase in demand for accommodation with the
        completion of Indian Ocean Drive. Table 2 indicates the visitor accommodation currently
        available within the shire. A majority of the accommodation operates in the two main
        towns of Gingin and Lancelin.


                                            Table 2: Visitor Accommodation Types
                                        Hotels/ Motels                    Holiday       Unit/     Chalet/     Caravan Parks
                                                                          B&B’s
Shire              Community/           Hotels/          Bedrooms         Chalet/     B&     Units            Caravan          Sites
                   Town                 motels                            B’s                                 Parks
Gingin             Guilderton                                             2                  5                1                130
                   Seabird                                                                                    1                80
                   Gingin               2                31               2                  14               2                67
                   Lancelin             1                25               5                  67               2                178
                   Ledge Point                                            1                  2
        Source:   Western Australian Planning Commission. 2001. The Indian Ocean Drive Economic and Social Impact Study.
        Western Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission.




        5.5.2 Amenities and Services
        Although Gingin has the essential services that larger towns have, there are restrictions
        on their availability, for example, the medical centre is only open Monday – Friday and
                                                               the district school which teaches children from
                                                               kindergarten to year 10, but not years 11 and 12
                                                               (See Appendix 5). During peak season, the
                                                               increased visitation puts addition pressure on the
                                                               limited resources of health care, police services,
                                                               child care, family support centres and aged care
                                                               facilities       (Western           Australian              Planning
        Commission, 2001). Other non essential services include; the post office and the library

                                                                     10
which located in the shire office, the civic centre, an aquatic centre and public
announcement system that is available for public hire (Gingin Shire, 2006). There is also
a tele – centre that produces the local newspaper “The Gingin Community News” (Gingin
Telecentre, 2003).


Due to the historically small population, there is a only a limited presence of permanent
facilities for community development, family and children services, senior interests,
youth affairs and child protection agencies. As the population increases, further state and
local funds will need to be allocated to provide more of these services. In addition to this,
the increase in population will mean more businesses such as shops and food and
beverage outlets can be supported and this will increase the range of products and
services available for both permanent and visitor residents.



5.5.3 Access
There are two major roads in and out of Gingin one of which is the Brand Highway.
There is no true port and no train line. In addition there are airfields located in areas just
outside of the shire including Eneabba, Leeman, Jurien Bay and Cervantes. The Royal
Australian Air Force (RAAF) base in Gingin is used for training purposes, with restricted
access to emergency services if required.



5.5.4 Attractions
Gingin Shire’s main attractions are nature based and include the coast, nature parks and
reserves and are the setting for the majority of recreational activities. The area’s several
nature reserves include the Nilgen, Yeal and Moore River Nature Reserves and on the
coast the Lancelin and Edwards Islands Nature Reserves
(Conservation Commission of Western Australia, 2004). The
national forests parks include the Gnangara State Forest and
Moore River National Park (Western Australian Planning
Commission, 2006). Other places of interest in the region
include; the limestone formations, the lighthouse, the Gravity


                                             11
Discovery Centre, the Gingin Walkabout Trail, Colamber Bird Park, Dewar’s House and
Granville Arts and Craft Centre (See Appendix 6). The town of Gingin also regularly
hosts events throughout the year for the residents and to attract visitors, including;


   •   Gingin Horticulture Expo which is held yearly in April.
   •   Seniors week is held yearly in October.
   •   British Car Club Day is held yearly on the third Sunday in May.
   •   Lily Festival held yearly on the second Saturday in September.


The most well renowned event within the shire each year is the Lancelin Windsurfing
Classic, attracting over eight thousand tourists, observers and competitors each year
(Tourism Western Australia, 2004). These events promote the region and the unique local
produce that it has to offer and help strengthen brand awareness for the shire.




5.5.5 Activities
The most popular recreational activities occur on the coast, where there are provisions for
boats including ramps, jetties and small marinas. The main coastal activities include sand
boarding, four wheel driving, canoeing, scuba diving, snorkeling, kite surfing, surfing and
angler fishing. Angler fishing is very popular due to the proximity of both the ocean and
river and the availability of fresh and salt water bodies.


Fourteen shipwrecks from European Dutch East India Company are located along the
Gingin coastline, which have become popular dive spots in the warmer months. Other


                                              12
areas of historical significance are the Old North Road Stock Route Trail, which was used
as a major movement corridor for the army during World War II.



5.6 Local Government and Strategic Partners
The decision making process involves; Indian Ocean Drive, tourism events and planning.
There are numerous people involved in the decision making process. These include;

   •   Shire of Dandaragan
   •   The Federal Government
   •   Shire of Coorow
   •   Main Roads of Western Australia
   •   Gingin Tourism Association
   •   Aboriginal Land Council
                                   •   Tourism Western Australia
                                   •   Department of Environment and Conservation
                                   •   Department of Environment and Heritage
                                   •   LandCorp
                                   •   Wheatbelt Development Commission
   •   Shire of Gingin
   •   Department of Health

   •   Department of Planning and Infrastructure
   •   Government of Western Australia
   •   Mid West Development Commission



Funding for planning and tourism is dependent on the type of development required.
Table 3 demonstrates the significance of destination marketing which is of particular
importance to the future development of Gingin as a tourist destination.




           Table 3: Breakdown of State Tourism Funding in Western Australia

                                            13
                                    2004 – 05     2005 – 06        2005 – 06    2006 – 07      2007 – 08       2008 – 09      2009 – 10
                                      Actual       Budget          Estimated     Budget        Forward         Forward        Forward
                                       $ ‘000       $’000           Actual      Estimate       Estimate        Estimate       Estimate
                                                                    $ ‘000       $ ‘000         $ ‘000          $ ‘000         $ ‘000
SERVICES
Service 1:
Destination                                      29,830        31,672          28,204
Marketing…………………………..……31,027
Service 2:
Event
Tourism……………………...……...……16,666                  19,233        22,696          21,158
Service 3:
Convention and Incentive
Travel………………………………….…..2,010                     1,010         1,010           1,010
Service 4:
Industry
Development………………………...……4,605                   5,438         5,431           6,118
Service 5:
Visitor
Servicing…………………………...….…..3,876                 5,002         5,014           4,723

Total Cost of Services …………….…….58,184           60,513        65,823          61,213         53,522         49.001         49,659

Less Income ……………………..……....12,909               11,329        11,121          10,879         5,974          4,969          4,969
Net Cost of Services ……………....……45,275           49,184        54,702          50,334         47,548         44,032         44,670

Adjustments (a) ……………………….(2,284)                (1,162)       (2,817)         (104)          816            (2,094)        (334)
Appropriation provided to
deliver services ………………………..42,991               48,022        51,885          50,230         48,364         41,938         44,336

CAPITAL CONTRIBUTION TO MEET
EQUITY NEEDS

Appropriation for Capital Contribution to
meet equity needs (b) ………………….……-                240           590             2,073          1,222          787            272

TOTAL CONSOLIDATED FUND
APPROPRIATIONS …………….…….42,991                   48,262        52,475          52,303         49,586         42,725         44,608
       (a) Adjustments are related to movements in cash balances and other accrual items such as
           resources received free of charge, receivables, payables and superannuation.
       (b) Supporting details are disclosed in the Capital Contribution Statement.


       Source:   Western Australian Government. 2006. Agency Budget Details: Minister for Indigenous Affairs, Tourism, Culture and
                 the Arts. Perth: Western Australian Government.




                                                                   Table 4 demonstrates the government’s key
                                                                   interest in marketing destinations which will
                                                                   lead to greater employment opportunities for
                                                                   residents in the region.




                                                 Table 4: State Tourism Goals
                                                                       14
                     Government Goal                               Desired Outcomes                                 Services
             To develop a strong economy that              Western Australia is promoted as            1. Destination Marketing
             delivers more jobs, more                      an attractive destination.                  2. Event Tourism
             opportunities and greater wealth                                                          3. Convention and Incentive
             to Western Australians by                                                                    Travel
             creating the conditions required
             for investment and growth.
                                                           An enhanced tourist industry,               4. Industry Development
                                                           infrastructure and product base.            5. Visitor Servicing
             Source:    Western Australian Government. 2006. Agency Budget Details: Minister for Indigenous Affairs, Tourism, Culture and
                        the Arts. Perth: Western Australian Government.



             Table 5 relates to the importance placed on outcomes relating to tourism destination
             marketing. However, a breakdown of destinations to be marketed was not available. The
             overall increase of tourism in WA in the next five years will lead to greater opportunities
             for tourism within the Gingin shire.



                                         Table 5: Outcomes and Key Effectiveness Indicators
                                                                  2004 – 05    2005 – 06   2005 – 06     Reason for significant variation between
                                                                    Actual      Budget     Estimate        2005 – 06 estimated and 2006 – 07
                                                                                               d                          target
          Outcome: Western Australia is promoted as an attractive
          destination

          Awareness amongst potential visitors that Western Australia
          offers ionic tourism experiences that are actively promoted in our
          major markets.

          - Interstate ……………………………………….………….41%                                50%         45%           Five year target
          - Short Haul ……………………………………………..….55%                                20%         20%           Five year target
          - Long Haul ……………………………………………...….55%                                15%         15%           Different market measured each year due
          (Germany)                                                            (Japan)     (UK)          to high costs of research

          Western Australia’s increase in visitor         Growth 0.3%          Growth >    Growth >      Five year target
          expenditure as compared to the national              below           national    national
          average increase in visitor expenditure.           national          average     average
                                                                  average

          Outcome: An enhanced tourist industry, infrastructure and
          product base.

          Visitor satisfaction with the Western Australia
          experience………………………………………………….53.1%                                  50%         50%           Five year target

          Percentage of targeted investors who consider
          that tourism investment attraction services
          improved their view of Western Australia as an
          investment location…………………………………….....16.7%                          30%         30%           Five year target

          Percentage of investors satisfied with the
          facilitation services provided ……………………..…….33.3%                    50%         50%           Five year target

Source:      Western Australian Government. 2006. Agency Budget Details: Minister for Indigenous Affairs, Tourism, Culture and the Arts.
             Perth: Western Australian Government.




                                                                               15
                                       There have been several campaigns linked to
                                       destination marketing that have targeted regional
                                       destinations as a whole. These include “The Real
                                       Thing” and “Country Pubs Campaign.” These
                                       campaigns were funded by the State government
                                       and have encouraged Western Australians to
                                       travel within their own state. These campaigns
have benefited regional destinations, including the Gingin shire and surrounding regions
(Western Australian Government, 2006).



5.7 Visitor and Population Statistics
The number of visitors and residents to the Shire of Gingin is significant when planning
infrastructure development to ensure that sustainable levels are achieved. In 2001 the
Shire of Gingin had a population of approximately 4200 people and the town of Gingin
had a population of approximately 1800 people (See Table 6). Currently the Shire of
Gingin is experiencing above average population growth when compared to the State
average growth (Shire of Gingin, 2002). There has been a demographic shift in the
population with an increase in the proportion of families with children and single parent
families and a small increase in retirees settling in the coastal towns (Western Australian
Planning Commission, 2001).




                                            16
                                 Table 6: Town of Gingin Population Details
                                                                               Males              Females   Persons

Total persons(a)                                                               938                848       1,786

Aged 15 years and over(a)                                                      706                633       1,339
Aged 65 years and over(a)                                                      87                 98        185

Aboriginal                                                                     7                  5         12
Torres Strait Islander                                                         3                  0         3
Both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander(b)                                  3                  0         3
Total Indigenous persons                                                       13                 5         18

Born in Australia                                                              725                623       1,348
Born overseas(c)                                                               102                116       218

Speaks English only                                                            813                735       1,548
Speaks other language(d)                                                       19                 13        32

Indigenous persons aged 18 years and over                                      7                  5         12

Australian citizen                                                             800                714       1,514
Australian citizen aged 18 years and over                                      571                494       1,065

Enumerated in private dwelling(a)                                              936                844       1,780
Enumerated elsewhere(a)(e)                                                     3                  4         7

Overseas visitors                                                  4             9                          13
(a) Includes Overseas visitors.
(b) Applicable to persons who are of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.
(c) Includes 'Inadequately described', 'At sea', and 'Not elsewhere classified'.
(d) Includes 'Non-verbal so described' and 'Inadequately described'.
(e) Includes 'Non-Private dwellings', 'Migratory and Off-shore'.


Source: Gingin Shire. 2006. Gingin Shire. http://www.gingin.wa.gov.au (accessed July 28, 2006).




In 2006 Gingin was projected to be home to approximately 4200 people, however a
significant number of the 1845 residences remain unoccupied during the off peak season
(See Table 7) (Gingin Shire, 2006; Western Australian Planning Commission, 2006).
Table 7 illustrates that the majority of people reside in the coastal community of Lancelin
(twenty – nine per cent) followed by Guilderton (nineteen per cent) (Western Australian
Planning Commission, 2001).




                                                               17
At present Guilderton has a population of one – hundred and forty – three permanent
residents (Gingin Shire, 2006). With the release of urban lots by The Moore River
Company it is expected that the population will reach thirteen thousand people (Heritage
Western Australia, 2005). The development is expected to cover 557 hectares, following
along the shoreline of the river for 1.8 kilometres and the beach front for 3.3 kilometres.
The Moore River Company also owns an additional 2100 hectares which encompasses
another three kilometers of beach front up to a section of Wanneroo Road.



                                Table 7: Dwellings for the Shire of Gingin

Shire                     Town/ Community                Dwellings                        % Total Shire Dwellings
                          Guilderton                     421                              15
                          Seabird                        79                               3
                          Gingin                         258                              9
Gingin                    Lancelin                       790                              29
                          Ledge Point                    297                              11
                          Rural Residential              466                              17
                          Rural Other                    414                              15
Source:   Western Australian Planning Commission. 2001. The Indian Ocean Drive Economic and Social Impact Study. Western
Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission.




                                                           18
       6.0 CURRENT MARKET ANALYSIS

       6.1 SWOT Analysis


Strengths                                                   Weaknesses

   •   Proximity to major capital city of Perth                  •    Low level of international or domestic recognition
   •   Population growth exceeds the national and state               of the shire
       average, one of the fastest growing shires in             •    Environmental sensitivity of coastline and marine
       WA.                                                            environment
   •   Natural environment a asset and community                 •    Infrastructure issues in particular limitations on
       resource including beaches, nature reserves and                sewage capacity and availability of groundwater
       national parks underpin the tourist environment           •    Lack of appropriate education, training and
   •   Central location within the tourism region of the              development of tourism businesses
       Coral Coast                                               •    Lack of aged care and family services
   •   Gravity Discovery Centre internationally                  •    Employment is seasonal.
       recognised                                                •    Low levels of resident occupancy in off season
   •   Lancelin well renowned for windsurfing and by             •    Lack of tourism infrastructure; in particular 3 star
       off road vehicle enthusiasts                                   accommodation
   •   Diverse economic base – fishing and agricultural          •    Inadequate proactive management of tourism
       industry.                                                 •    The tourism/resident conflict
   •   Popular domestic tourist destination                      •    Lack of planning and direction with respect to
   •   Excellent rail and road transport network                      tourism
       available in nearby metropolitan area                     •    Poorly executed branding strategy
                                                                 •    Inadequately resourced and networked Visitor
                                                                      Information Centre

Opportunities                                               Threats

   •   Development will provide a short term                     •    Increasing and unsustainable visitor numbers
       employment boom for construction and service              •    Lack of resources and infrastructure to support
       industry                                                       projected population and visitation increase
   •   Strategic land use planning focusing on tourism;          •    Increased accessibility to Dandaragan market as a
       in particular coastal regions of Lancelin and                  result of the IOD
       Guilderton                                                •    Increased environmental sensitivity and damage to
   •   Encouraging appropriate tourism opportunities                  natural areas
       within the shire                                          •    Community concerns and social impacts –
   •   IOD will inject additional visitation to the shire             eventual erosion of lifestyle
   •   Focusing on high yield and niche tourism                  •    Inland businesses to encounter economic downturn
       markets, in particular accommodation                           due to shift in visitor traffic
   •   Further development of events, in particular              •    Strata titling impact on operation of tourism
       focus on 4WD adventure tourism, surfing and                    developments
       wind surfing.
   •   Heritage tourism




       6.2 Target Market

                                                            19
There needs to be an increased awareness of WA as a potential tourist destination (See
Appendix 7). In domestic markets and selected international markets, this was achieved
via public relations and online marketing, as well as through traditional media
expenditure.


There has been an eight per cent increase in international and domestic visitors to WA
since 2004 – 2005. This is partially due to the introduction of non – stop air services from
Western Japan, China and Korea (Western Australian Tourism Commission, 2000). In
2005 there were 635, 200 international visitors to WA, an increase of 8.2 per cent
(compared to the previous year) (the national increase was 5.2 per cent). The international
visitors spent 15.7 nights in WA, an increase of 8.1 per cent (compared to the previous
year) (the national increase was 3.1 per cent). In total, international visitors spent $1.2
billion, an increase of 9.5 per cent (the national increase was 0.8 per cent) (Western
Australian Tourism Commission, 2000).



6.3 Competitor Analysis
The Shires of Dandaragan and Gingin have been identified as areas of significant
economic and population growth in recent years (Western Australian Planning
Commission, 2001). It is expected upon completion of the Indian Ocean Drive, the shires
will experience significant pressure on their respective resources and infrastructure. In
2001, Gingin had a slightly larger population of 3787 persons and Dandaragan 3047
persons with growth increasing by up to 3.5 per cent in 2006. This occurred mainly in
the major coastal towns of Lancelin and Jurien Bay (Western Australian Planning
Commission, 2001). This is well above the annual growth rate across WA of 1.4 per cent
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002).


The Shire of Dandaragan has an internationally recognised attraction, the Pinnacles
which is located in the Nambung National Park and attracts up to 206,000 day visitors in
2003 (Tourism WA, 2006). It is estimated that the duration of trips by road can be
reduced by up to two hours by traveling the new Indian Ocean Drive to Dandaragan
shire. This may potentially have a severe economic effect on the town of Gingin after the
                                            20
road’s completion because the town will be bypassed by the road. In turn the town of
Gingin will be then be bypassed by the tourists who will take the new route directly to the
northern coastal regions.


In 2003 Dandaragan reported a total of 312,000 visitor nights. There were 17,500
international visitors and 95,000 domestic visitors with the average stay of one night and
three nights respectively (Tourism WA, 2006). It is estimated that there was an increase
of 30 per cent in visitation between 2002 and 2003. This is due to the implementation of
new tourism initiatives and a huge marketing push to brand the Shire of Dandaragan
under the Turquoise Coast brand.



6.4 Current Destination Performance
The tourism industry continues to grow and contributes approximately $6.5 million per
annum to the Shire of Gingin. In addition to the tourism spending on accommodation and
recreational activities, tourism contributes approximately twenty per cent of employment
for the region (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2001).


The major contributor to the local economy is the fisheries and agriculture sector (See
Diagram 1). The Western Rock Lobster fishery is the largest in WA and harvests up to
13,000 tonnes per year, valued at approximately $400 million. The agricultural industry
was worth $53.4 million to the shire in 1997 and is dominated by vegetable production
                                         (Western Australian Planning Commission,
                                         2000). Whilst less economically valuable, the
                                         smaller horticultural and intensive animal
                                         productions have the highest returns per hectare.




                      Diagram 1: Gingin Shire Gross Local Product



                                            21
Source: Western Australian Planning Commission. 2001. The Indian Ocean Drive Economic and Social Impact Study. Western
Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission.



It is estimated that the Gingin shire hosted upwards of twenty – eight thousand domestic
and international day visitors in 2001, which equates to a total of 157,000 nights for
domestic tourists and 38,640 nights for international visitors spent in the area (See
Appendix 8) (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2001). Exact statistics are not
available on the number of individual visitors to the area however; the visitor centre in
the coastal town of Lancelin indicates that they alone have over ten thousand visitors
each year (Western Australian Tourism Commission, 2000). The Shire of Gingin and
Dandaragan hold eighty percent of the visitor market out of those communities that the
Indian Ocean Drive is proposing to go through. It is estimated that the average tourism
expenditure on the Shire of Gingin for 2006 will be over eighteen million dollars
(Western Australian Planning Commission, 2001).




                                                          22
7.0 INDIAN OCEAN DRIVE PROPOSAL

7.1 The Proposal
The proposed Lancelin to Cervantes Project involves the continued construction of the
Indian Ocean Drive. The road is expected to be a sixty – five kilometre extension off the
current Lancelin Road, joining at Pinnacles Drive (See Appendix 9) (Wheatbelt
Development Commission, 2006). Despite that the construction of the road will occur
outside of the Shire of Gingin, there is expected to be significant impacts on coastal
towns, in particular Lancelin.

Forty per cent of people living in rural areas, list roads and transport as one of their top
priorities for the area in which they chose to reside (Parliamentary Liberal Party, 2005).
One of the key considerations is the increased need for road safety for people traveling
between Perth and Geraldton (Omodei, 2006). Currently
heavy load trucks, double road trains, buses and cars all
share the same road, with minimal overtaking lanes and
high speed limits (Omodei, 2006). Transportation issues
in the mid – west include the transportation of ten
thousand barrels of oil from the Arrowsmith refinery,
south of Dongara to Kwinana and the 540, 000 tonnes of agricultural lime (used to aid in
correcting the salinity problem) a year is being transported out of Lancelin and North
Goomalling (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2006).


The new road will decrease the traffic flow on the Brand Highway by an estimated thirty
– eight per cent and it is expected that travelers will favor the Indian Ocean Drive
(Parliamentary Liberal Party, 2005). The proposed road will also decrease the traveling
time for essential services, in particular ambulances transporting critically ill patients to
Joondalup Health Campus (Wheatbelt Development Commission, 2006).


At this stage the proposed road will cut through a small section of the Nilgen Nature
Reserve but the main impact will be the road going through the Wanagarren and
                                             23
Nambung Nature Reserves (Wheatbelt Development Commission, 2006). Another
concern is that the road is to be constructed on the border of the defence force training
zone. The construction of the Indian Ocean Drive will have a significant impact on native
flora and fauna in the area and raises environmental issues such as sand dune erosion and
urban development (See Appendix 10). The completion of the new road will increase
employment and open up investment opportunities in the region (Parliamentary Liberal
Party, 2005).



7.2 Alternatives
There is no true alternative to completing the Indian Ocean Drive. This is the only
solution to joining the northern and southern regions, although there is an alternative
route to the proposed road which includes passing Seaview Park (See Appendix 11)
                                  (Main Roads Western Australia, 2002). However to
                                  address the issues of road safety on the Brand Highway
                                  it would need to be widened to accommodate an
                                  additional lane. This will alleviate the impact of any
                                  increase in traffic and provide for continuous ability to
                                  overtake heavy loaded vehicles.



7.3 Case Study Comparison
The Bryon Bay Shire case study outlines key considerations and underlying issues that
the Shire of Gingin can use to develop an effective town planning strategy (See Appendix
12). The case study highlights the unfortunate consequences of inadequate planning and
the severe negative impacts tourism can have on community and the natural environment,
which is the key asset in both the Shire of Gingin and Bryon Bay. Recommendations are
also made as to the successful implementation of high yield, low volume tourism to
reduce visitor impacts on the region.




                                            24
8.0 DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS
          AND IMPLICATIONS

8.1 Proposed Land Use Zoning for Future Development
The Town Planning Scheme 9 Draft, an amendment of the Town Planning Scheme 8,
indicates several key objectives for future development and has simplified zoning in the
Shire of Gingin (See Figure 1). It is important to note that there is no provision for a
tourism zone in the future development plan. The following section outlines key land use
considerations for the Gingin shire whereby careful long term strategic planning will
enable the shire to facilitate population growth and tourist fluctuations whilst ensuring
additional resources are made available to meet the expectations of the community.


Key Considerations
     •    Proposed development of Brenton Bay and Wilbinga deep water ports.
     •    Proposed large scale development at Jurien Bay, Guilderton, Lancelin, Ardross,
          Estates, Plunkett and Lancelin Coastal Village.
     •    Woodridge, Sovereign Hill, Redfield Park, Seaview Park Estate and Ocean Farm
          zoned as rural residential.


Figure 1: Future Rezoning for the Gingin Shire

Town Centre Zone               Commercial, cultural and residential facilities. Shopping, professional, admin
                               and entertainment
Mixed Business Zone            Manufacturing and servicing activities
Residential Zone               Single Dwelling, high density
Rural Living Zone              Rural environment and low density single dwellings
General Rural Zone             Agriculture and horticulture.
Source:   Western Australia. Gingin Shire. 2003. Shire of Gingin Town Planning Scheme No. 9 – District Zoning Scheme,
          Scheme Text. Perth: Gingin Shire.




                                                         25
8.2 Infrastructure and Services
As the population of the Gingin shire increases, there will be pressure for additional
resources to meet the new demand. This includes education, medical, police and other
key services. There will also be a need to increase the supply of resources such as
potable water which raises concern on the current availability of quality groundwater and
if this will be able to sustain a greater population (Shire of Gingin, 2002).


In addition to key services and resource that must be made available, there will also be a
need for more accommodation to house the increase in the number of visitors seeking
short term and holiday lodgings. However as demand for accommodation increases,
existing business will expand and/or new businesses will start to supply this new demand
which in turn will add to the overall economy of the Gingin shire.



8.3 Anticipated Residential and Visitor Growth / Trends
It is estimated that the additional 200,000 visitors that the Indian Ocean Drive will bring
in each year will equate to an average of $49 (per person per day trip) (WA Tourism
Commission, 2000).


Tourism in WA is already seeing the benefits of the biggest ever injection of marketing
funds from the WA Government. In 2005 – 06 funding of $6.9 Million was used to boost
the State’s profile in key tourism markets around the world and build on “The Real
Thing” brand campaign resulting in the most comprehensive marketing campaigns ever
being delivered to key markets of the United Kingdom, Japan, New Zealand and
interstate.


During the 2005 “The Real Thing” campaign, it is estimated an additional 33, 000
interstate visitors stayed 771, 000 nights in WA and spent $81 million over and above
what would have been generated if the campaign had not occurred. Additional long term
benefits are also expected (but not yet able to be measured). In two separate studies, it
was also found that almost eight in ten people reported that brand television commercial


                                             26
made them ‘more interested in taking a holiday in WA’ (WA Tourism Commission,
2000).



8.4 Environmental Considerations
Increasing levels of proposed tourism growth has led to criticism amongst scholars and
local residents concerning the environmental impacts of development (Main Roads
Western Australia, 2002). There are several potential environmental impacts that have
been identified by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) and Main Roads
Western Australia (MRWA) in a comprehensive report to the Minister for Environment
and Heritage which was collated mid 2002. The key factors that are relevant to strategic
planning for the Shire of Gingin include, but are not limited to the following:


         •   The impact of construction, maintenance and potential future expansion of the
             Indian Ocean Drive into a dual carriageway on regionally significant flora, in
             particular the land within the conservation estate.
         •   The loss of area and fragmentation of the conservation estate.
         •   Introduction of dieback and weeds.
         •   Limited supply and quality of ground water.
         •   Noise pollution for residents.
         •   Eliminate illegal access to sand dune to reduce damage.


The sixty – six kilometers of proposed road traverses through two – hundred and twenty –
four hectares of freehold land, gazetted road reserves and critically more than half of this
clearance will occur within nature reserves from the conservation estate (Environmental
Protection Authority, 2002; Department of Environment and Heritage, 2006). Initially
MRWA proposed to have a one – hundred meter corridor reserved for the eventual
construction of dual carriageways. The EPA’s findings concluded that the proposal would
not have a significant impact on the biodiversity of flora in the nature reserves as no
Declared Rare Flora (DRF) were detected by studies conducted by the Department of
Environment and Conservation (DEC) (formally the Department of Conservation and
Land Management (CALM)).
                                              27
Although it was determined that clearing of the proposed area was indeed small to
compensate for the loss of area to the conservation estate the MRWA has committed to
the purchase of additional land to compensate for the loss. They will also assist in the
rejuvenation of impacted areas and after further consultation a decision was made to
reduce the reserved corridor for potential expansion in nature reserves to fifty metres only
(Environmental Protection Authority, 2002).


MRWA have committed to the management of the potential introduction of dieback and
weeds as a result of the construction of the proposed route. Importation of fill will not be
required because of the design of the road, and this was likely to be the greatest cause of
introducing dieback. Contractors would need to follow strict hygiene controls and
guidelines in regards to the use of building materials.


Undoubtedly the main concern for planners is the availability of quality and abundant
water resources (Shire of Gingin, 2006). As a result of findings against specific
environmental, engineering and social criteria and based on the expressed concern from
the shire community, the proposed route for the Indian Ocean Drive has been revised by
the EPA and MRWA (Environmental Protection Authority, 2002). The road will no
longer be aligned with vital water reserves in the shire but instead will be in closer
proximity to the Lancelin town site (See Appendix 11). The realignment will ensure the
environmental values and the health and welfare of the community is not comprised as a
result of construction and upkeep of the Indian Ocean Drive.


Upon its completion, the Indian Ocean Drive will make areas accessible that currently
have limited access or have had minimal human impact. As a direct result of a significant
increase in tourist traffic and growth in numbers of permanent residents, planners will
need to determine the degree of environmental impacts.


The Shire of Gingin Town Planning Scheme recommended consideration of the
following:

                                             28
   •   Density of developments allowed in residential and rural living zoning.
   •   Rezoning is in compliance with the Local Planning Strategy.
   •   The environmental qualities of the natural landscape, vegetation and water bodies
       are maintained.
   •   Non residential activity is closely regulated.
   •   Risk of spills and decline in water quality from recreational activity and increased
       industry.
   •   Impact on coastal landforms from development and tourist activity.



8.5 Social Considerations
Both the Shire of Gingin and the Tourism WA representatives indicated that there is
existing friction between the coastal and inland communities. This appears to be a result
of the different interests and concerns of the residents, for example, there is a high focus
on tourism and water – related activities in Lancelin but Gingin is primarily agricultural –
based. This correlates with Howie’s theory where a perceived character shift of local
towns creating discontent and friction between community, government and developers
(Howie, 2003).



8.6 Economic Considerations
There are many economic implications relating directly to the completion of the Indian
Ocean Drive. The majority of employment is seasonal; therefore, there is a requirement
for temporary accommodation which is expected to rise in conjunction with the projected
population increase (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2006).


Due to the time required to complete the road, there will be a significant boost to local
economy for the duration of construction. However, despite the positive impacts, there is
also a need to consider the potential for negative implications. For example the
introduction of a construction crew will put significant pressure on the existing resources,
especially food and accommodation service providers.

                                            29
The Indian Ocean Drive will make access to
Lancelin from the north easier, increasing
the number of visitors will initially put
additional pressure on resources and require
new      food       and      accommodation
developments. Naturally, this will also boost
the economy of the Gingin shire by
employing more local staff and encouraging
people to move to the area to capitalize on the tourism boom (See Appendix 13).


Despite the concern by the inland representatives that there may be a decline in business
revenue from the physical location of the road, it does not appear that there would be a
significant impact on the inland towns (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2001).
Northam town site was bypassed in 2002 and initially there was a decline in business
revenue, however, since that initial decline Northam has continued to increase its
business revenue (Local Government Advisory Board, 2006). This indicates that
potentially, despite an initial decrease, Gingin and the other inland communities will
continue growing. It may also be hypothesized that, as a result of increased visitors to the
area, particularly coastal towns, these visitors may also venture to the inland communities
for day trips. Alternatively the inland communities may act like an overflow area for
visitors, for example, the Hinterlands of the Languedoc – Roussillon region of France
(Howie, 2003).


In March 2002 eight community workshops were scheduled to discuss the likely impacts
and opportunities the Indian Ocean Drive would bring to the region. The town of Gingin
was the only scheduled workshop that did not proceed due to lack of interest. The
remainder workshops were attended by significantly fewer inland community members
than the coastal centres, and consequently made it difficult to generate a broad range of
concerns (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2001). The lack of interest was



                                            30
evident when, during the compiling of this report numerous community groups and
associations were contacted for information and comments but there was no response.


Conclusive outcomes from the workshop included genuine concern for the potential
detriment of quality of life and values within the community. This aside, the main
concerns expressed from inland communities was the potential for a decline in business
revenue and opportunity as a result of the diversion of traffic from the Brand Highway
(Western Australian Planning Commission, 2001). The perceived outcomes for inland
communities appear to be negligible; in comparison the coastal communities who had far
greater proactive approach to the potential for introduction of new industries,
employment opportunities and the development of better amenities for residents.




                                          31
9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1 Promotion of the Tourism Product
Currently the Shire of Gingin does not have a strong brand image. There is a need to form
a tourism focused association with the Shire of Gingin that co – ordinates marketing
campaigns and activities in conjunction with surrounding shires. They should also liaise
with the tourism industry and government bodies to ensure the successful development of
Gingin as a tourism destination. To implement tourism development and destination
management strategies extensive research needs to be conducted. The key research areas
include;


   •   Visitor characteristics including; demographic profiles, average daily expenditure
       and key areas of interest.
   •   Potential targeted tourism products and services to meet the needs of the tourists
       and service different market segments (See Appendix 14).
   •   Education, training and development of tourism businesses to counteract the
       current lack of customer orientation.
   •   Develop a proactive targeted marketing strategy to combat the seasonal
       fluctuations in visitor demand (e.g. activities and accommodation packages in off
       peak seasons to encourage tourists such as tour, school and community groups).
   •   Launch and distribute to relevant government agencies, key media and trade
       partners, promotional DVD’s highlighting the Gingin shire’s iconic tourism
       experiences.


There is potential for an economic boom through the creation of a brand image in the
Shire of Gingin. This could include marketing of the Moore River labeling for specialty
food e.g. marron, high grade beef, wine and olives. There is a trend to move away from
traditional agriculture towards a more diverse range including ostrich, marron and
Paulowania tree farming. These ‘new’ types of agriculture have potential to attract
tourists, however without having additional tourism facilities the growth cycle will be
prematurely cut short (See Appendix 15).
                                           32
Therefore there is a need to attract developers who are willing to promote the harmony
between the coastal and inland communities.


There is a concern regarding the conflict between tourism and traditional agriculture, in
particular coastal tourism.



9.2 Increase in Infrastructure and Services
The increased visitor numbers will also increase the need for public facilities including
toilets and restaurants. It will also increase demand for farm stays, guided tours of
farming operations, bike trails, indigenous tourism and increase advertising of shows and
fairs.


Currently the Shire of Gingin does not have adequate signage or lighting. With the
expected increase in tourists new signage and lighting is highly recommended, including
signage for accommodation and attractions within the shire. There is also potential to link
local attractions with activities such as wine tours, nature tours and wildflower walks.


There will be a requirement for further infrastructure and service development including
medical facilities and a hospital, schools and shopping centres as a result of families
moving to the area. This will additionally provide employment and raise additional
revenue for the area. This increase in population will also bring an increase in demand for
services which are provided in the metropolitan areas, such as utilities and waste
management. For example this can be seen in Bunbury and other small towns which have
seen substantial growth.




The increased traffic through the area due to the Indian Ocean Drive will require
increased levels of police patrolling of the area needs to combat any unruly conduct.
Police resources are already stretched with the Gingin police force covering an area that
                                            33
spans just north of Bullsbrook in the south; to Regans Ford in the north; Neergabby in the
west; to the Shire of Toodyay boundary in the east. It encompasses two thirds of the
Gingin Shire and all of the Chittering Shire, including the towns of Bindoon, Muchea and
numerous semi – rural estates (Gingin Police, 2006).



9.3 Stakeholder Involvement and Roles
As well as the need to co – ordinate activities within the shire, there is also a need to
cooperate with the surrounding shires affected by the Indian Ocean Drive, in particular
the Shire of Coorow and the Shire of Dandaragan. Utilizing joint resources will increase
the efficiency and effectiveness of research and impact studies. It is also important to
ensure that further decision – making processes include key groups such as;


   •   Residents,
   •   Local and State Government bodies,
   •   Tourism Operators and;
   •   Local Businesses.


It is necessary to have a coordinated planning approach encompassing community
opinions from all regions. Potentially, a shift in visitor traffic from the Brand Highway to
the Indian Ocean Drive will cause economic downturn for local businesses. Planning
strategies and budgets will need to incorporate financial assistance and support for local
businesses and residents. Due to the time that has passed since the original planning it
would be advisable for the Shire of Gingin to re – conduct open forums and surveys to
obtain the opinion of the current residents and local businesses.




9.4 Environmental Issues
The key considerations that are relevant to strategic planning for the Shire of Gingin
include, but are not limited to the following:


                                             34
The Gingin shire will be required to monitor the impact of construction, maintenance and
any potential future expansion of the Indian Ocean Drive into a dual carriageway.
Monitoring of regionally significant flora and fauna, in particular the land within the
conservation estate is critical to the sustainability of the natural landscape and ultimately
to the future of the tourism industry.


Upon its completion, the Indian Ocean Drive will make areas accessible that currently
have limited access or have had minimal human impact. Planners will need to determine
the degree of environmental impact the increase in human traffic will have on the fragile
ecosystems that exist within the shire.


Planning for residential and tourism zoning will need to include maximum densities of
development that can be sustained in the long term. Special consideration will be required
in the monitoring of salinity levels, dieback introduction and potable water availability.




                                             35
10.0 IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING
        AND CONTROL


The Shire of Gingin will need to work closely with the various strategic partners to
ensure that the implementation of strategies occur in a timely manner.


The co – operation of Government agencies and the availability of resources are critical
in the progression of tourism and development within the Shire of Gingin and
surrounding regions. Constant correspondence with relevant government agencies must
be maintained to keep communication channels open and to allow for consistent input
from those relevant agencies.


The key to a successful plan is not only implementation but also monitoring of progress
and making changes as necessary (See Appendix 16). Frequent reviews allow for
addressing current and future problems.




                                           36
11.0 REFERENCES

About Australia. 2006. Neergabby Organic Farm Bed and Breakfast. http://www.about-
australia.com/travel-guides/western-australia/perth/accommodation/ (accessed October
28, 2006).


Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Census of Population and Housing – Gingin WA.
http://www.abs.gov.au (accessed September 4, 2006).


Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2004. Census of Population and Housing – Bryon NSW.
http://www.abs.gov.au (accessed October 2, 2006).


Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. Carpenter Defends Oil Transport Decision.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 19 May: 5.
http://0global.factiva.com.prospero.murdoch.edu.au/aa/default.aspx?napc=S&fcpil=en&_
X.html (accessed September 4, 2006).


Australia Online Travel. 2006. Gingin: Western Australia.
http://www.travelmate.com.au/Places/Places.asp?TownName=Gingin_%5C_WA
(accessed September 7, 2006).


Byron Shire Council. 2002. Bryon Shire Tourism Management – An Options Paper for
Consideration. http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au (accessed September 21, 2006).


Byron Shire Council. 2006. Bryon Local Environmental Plan 1988.
http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au (accessed September 21, 2006).


Department of Education and Training. 2006. Semester 2, 2006: Latest Data
http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/schoolinfo/estat/latest/schdistg56.html (accessed
September 19, 2006).


                                           37
Department of the Environment and Heritage. 2006. Shrublands and Woodlands on Perth
to Gingin Ironstone. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/communities/gingin-
ironstone.html (accessed October 20, 2006).


Gingin Telecentre. 2003. Gingin.net: About Gingin.
http://www.gingin.net/default.asp?id=10&mnu=10 (accessed September 5, 2006).


Gingin Police. 2006. Gingin.
http://www.police.wa.gov.au/LocalPolice/WheatbeltDistrict.asp?Gingin (accessed
September 5, 2006).


Gingin Shire. 2006. Gingin Shire. http://www.gingin.wa.gov.au (accessed July 28, 2006).


Goeldner, C., and Ritchie, J. 2003. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Ed.
United States of America: John Wiley and Sons Inc.


Government of Western Australia., and Western Australian Planning Commission. 2005.
Proposal to Modify a Component of the Gingin Coast Structure Plan. Western Australia:
Western Australian Planning Commission.


Gravity Discovery Centre. 2006. Local Attraction. http://www.gdc.asn.au/attractions.php
(accessed September 2, 2006).


Heritage Council of Western Australia. 1998. Register of Heritage Places: Assessment
Documentation. Western Australia: Heritage Council of Western Australia.


Heritage Western Australia. 2005. Endangered Places.
http://www.heritagewas.org.au/places/moore/ (accessed September 4, 2006).


Howie F. 2003 Managing the Tourist Destination. Thomson Learning: London.



                                            38
Jafari, J. 1989. Research and Scholarship: The Basis of Tourism Education. Journal of
Tourism Studies. 1:1: p 33-41


Local Government Advisory Board. 2006. Local Government Reform in Western
Australia.
http://www.dlgrd.wa.gov.au/localGovt/advisoryBoard/_docBin/12_Appendix10Northam
(accessed September 10, 2006).


Main Roads Western Australia. 2002. Lancelin to Cervantes Coastal Road – Report and
Recommendations of the Environmental Protection Authority. Main Roads Western
Australia: Western Australia.


Main Roads Western Australia. 2006. Rural Projects.
http://www.mainroads.wa.gov.au/NR/mrwa/run/start.asp (Accessed August 29, 2006).


Nature Conservation Council of NSW. 2005. Re: General Purpose Standing Committee
No. 4 Inquiry into Pacific Highway Upgrade. http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au
(accessed September 21, 2006).


Omodei, P. 2006. Call to Fast Track Indian Ocean Drive, May 29, 2006: Labor’s Broken
Promises on Final Stage Ignore Tourism and Safety Benefits. Australia: Parliament of
Western Australia.


Parliamentary Liberal Party. 2005. Position Statement: Regional Roads – Indian Ocean
Drive. Western Australia: Parliamentary Liberal Party.


Pearce P, Morrison A., and Rutledge. 1998. Tourism: Bridges Across Continents.
Sydney: McGraw Hill.


Severn, R., and Prince, J. 2002. Focus on the Future: Opportunities for Sustainability in
Western Australia. Guilderton: Guilderton Community Association Incorporated.

                                            39
Shire of Gingin. 2002. Shire of Gingin Development Strategy: Objectives and Strategies
for Encouraging Sustainable Development in the Shire of Gingin. Perth: Shire of Gingin.


Sydney Morning Herald. 2006. Gingin Travel. http://www.smh.com.au/news/Western-
Australia/Gingin/2005/02/17/1108500208446.html (accessed September 7, 2006).


Tannock, K. 2003. Moore River Region Targeted for Urban Sprawl. Videorecording.
Produced by Stateline Western Australia. Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.


The Age. 2004. Gingin: Western Australia. http://www.theage.com.au/news/Western-
Australia/Gingin/2005/02/17/1108500208446.html (accessed September 10, 2006).


Thompson A, Strickland III A., and Gamble J. 2005 Crafting and Executing Strategy:
The Quest for Competitive Advantage 14th Ed. Sydney: McGraw – Hill Irwin.


TotalTravel.com. 2006. Ledge Point.
http://www.totaltravel.com.au/travel/wa/pertharea/sunsetcoast/guide/ledge-point
(accessed September 2, 2006).


TotalTravel.com. 2006. Seabird.
http://www.totaltravel.com.au/travel/wa/pertharea/sunsetcoast/guide/seabird (accessed
September 2, 2006).


Tourism Western Australia. 2006. Turquoise Coast Development.
www.westernaustralia.com.au (accessed October 12, 2006).


Tourism New South Wales. 2001. The Sydney Day Tours Market - A Sector Overview.
http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au (accessed October 2, 2006).


Tourism New South Wales. 2005. Travel to New South Wales; Domestic Overnight
Travel. http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au (accessed October 2, 2006).

                                           40
Tourism New South Wales. 2006. Regional Tourism Profiles.
http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au (accessed October 2, 2006).


Tourism Western Australia. 2004. Tours and Attractions. http://www.tourismwa.com.au
(accessed October 30, 2006).


Tourism Western Australia. 2006. Lancelin.
http://www.westernaustralia.com/en/search/product.htm?ID=9004575 (accessed
September 2, 2006).


West Coast Honey. 2006. West Coast Honey. http://www.check-
in.com.au/Perth/West_Coast_Honey.htm (accessed October 28, 2006).


Western Australia. Conservation Commission of Western Australia. 2004. Turquoise
Coast Island Nature Reserves Management Plan No 50. Perth: CCWA.


Western Australia. Gingin Shire. 1991. Shire of Gingin Town Planning Scheme No. 8 –
Scheme Text. Perth: Gingin Shire.


Western Australia. Gingin Shire. 2003. Shire of Gingin Town Planning Scheme No. 9 –
District Zoning Scheme, Scheme Text. Perth: Gingin Shire.


Western Australian Government. 2006. Agency Budget Details: Minister for Indigenous
Affairs, Tourism, Culture and the Arts. Perth: Western Australian Government.


Western Australian Planning Commission. 2001. The Indian Ocean Drive Economic and
Social Impact Study. Western Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission.


Western Australian Planning Commission. 2006. Gingin Coast Structure Plan. Western
Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission.



                                          41
Western Australian Tourism Commission. 2000. Heartlands Tourism Research Review.
Western Australia: Western Australian Tourism Commission.


Wheatbelt Development Commission. 2006. Our Priorities.
http://www.wheatbelt.wa.gov.au/whatwedo_ourpriorities_pages.php?id=6 (accessed
August 29, 2006).




                                        42
12.0 APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: Shire of Gingin – Coastal Towns

Guilderton
Guilderton is a seaside town located at the mouth of the Moore River. It is forty-eight
kilometres west of Gingin and ninety four kilometres north of Perth.


Seabird
Seabird is a commercial and recreational fishing town which is located approximately
one hundred and twenty kilometres north of Perth. It was originally established for the
growing fishing industry.


Ledge Point
An hour and a half's drive north along Wanneroo Road from Perth is the sleepy little
fishing town of Ledge Point. The town is a small commercial rock lobster centre which
boasts good fishing and beautiful beaches, just right for a relaxing holiday.


Ledge Point is a small community; half of its population is holiday-makers, while the
permanent residents enjoy a relaxing, quiet lifestyle. The small general store provides the
basics for any holiday-makers (and residents), while the proximity to Joondalup makes it
possible to have a larger shop.


Lancelin
Lancelin is a small fishing town nestled between the ocean and sand dunes, an hour drive
or 124 kilometres north of Perth.


The town stretches along the edge of a natural bay which is protected from the Indian
Ocean by outer reefs and islands. The protected waters of the bay are ideal for swimming,
fishing, boating and using small watercraft and water activities dominate the town’s
leisure activities. It is also the safe anchorage for a picturesque fleet of rock lobster boats,
which creates a hive of activity during the day around the two jetties.
                                              43
The reefs provide the perfect environment for snorkelling, scuba diving, surfing and wave
sailing. Equipment for all activities can be hired in town. There are also many shipwrecks
for the experienced scuba diver to explore. Lancelin is the gateway to a world renowned
dive trail. There are 14 wrecks along the coastline allowing for spectacular diving.




Severn, R., and Prince, J. 2002. Focus on the Future: Opportunities for Sustainability in Western Australia.
Guilderton: Guilderton Community Association Incorporated


TotalTravel.com. 2006. Seabird.
http://www.totaltravel.com.au/travel/wa/pertharea/sunsetcoast/guide/seabird (accessed September 2, 2006).


TotalTravel.com. 2006. Ledge Point.
http://www.totaltravel.com.au/travel/wa/pertharea/sunsetcoast/guide/ledge-point (accessed September 2,
2006).


Tourism Western Australia. 2006. Lancelin.
http://www.westernaustralia.com/en/search/product.htm?ID=9004575 (accessed September 2, 2006).

                                                    44
APPENDIX 2: Shire of Gingin Boundary Map




Gingin Shire. 2006. Gingin Shire Geographical Information.
http://www.gingin.wa.gov.au/geographical.html (accessed July 28, 2006).


                                                  45
APPENDIX 3: Types of Destinations


There are six different types of destinations which determine the type of travel
experience.


   1.     Ethnic tourism is travel for the purpose of observing the cultural expressions
          and lifestyles of truly exotic peoples. Such tourism is exemplified by travel to
          Panama to study the San Blas Indians or to India to observe the isolated hill
          tribes of Assam. Typical destination activities would include visiting native
          homes, attending dances and ceremonies, and possibly participating in
          religious rituals.


   2.     Cultural tourism is travel to experience and, in some cases, participate in a
          vanishing lifestyle that lies within human memory. Destination activities,
          typically, include meals in rustic inns, costume festivals, folk dance
          performances, and arts and crafts demonstrations in “old – style” fashion.
          Visits to Williamsburg, Virginia, and Greenfield Village in Dearborn are
          examples of cultural tourism.


   3.     Historical tourism is the museum – cathedral tour that stresses the glories of
          the past – Rome, Egypt and Greece. Guided tours of monuments, visits to
          churches and cathedrals, and sound and light performances that encapsulate
          the lifestyle of important events of a bygone era are favored destination
          activities. Such tourism is facilitated because the attractions are either in or are
          readily accessible from large cities. Typically, such attractions seem
          particularly adaptable to organized mass tourism.


   4.     Environmental tourism is similar to ethnic tourism, drawing tourists to
          remote areas. But the emphasis here is on natural and environmental
          attractions, rather than ethnic ones. Travel for the purposes of “getting back to
          nature” and to appreciate (or become sensitive to) people – land relationships

                                            46
             falls into this category. Environmental tourism is primarily geographical and
             includes such destinations as Niagara Falls, the Grand Canyon, and other
             natural wonders. Typical destination activities include photography, hiking,
             mountain climbing, canoeing and camping.


    5.       Recreational tourism centers on participation in sports, curative spas,
             sunbathing, and social contacts in a relaxed environment. Such areas often
             promotes sand, sea, and sex through beautiful color photographs that make
             you want to be there on the ski slopes, on palm – fringed beaches, on
             championship golf courses, or on tennis courts. Such promotion is designed to
             attract tourists whose essential purpose is to relax. Las Vegas epitomizes
             another type of recreational travel – gambling, spectacular floor shows, and
             away – from – home freedom.


    6.       Business tourism as characterized by conventions, meetings, and seminars is
             another form of travel (The United Nations includes the business traveler in its
             definition of a tourist). Business travel is frequently combined with one or
             more of the types of tourism already identified.




Goeldner, C., and Ritchie, J. 2003. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Ed. United States of
America: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

                                                     47
APPENDIX 4: Demand for a Destination


The demand for travel to a particular destination will be a function of the person’s
propensity to travel and the reciprocal of the resistance of the link between origin and
destination areas. Resistance relates to the relative attractiveness of various destinations.
This factor is, in turn, a function of several other variables, such as economic distance,
cultural distance, the cost of tourist services at destination, the quality of service at
destination, effectiveness of advertising and promotion, and seasonality. Resistance is
inversely related to demand.


   1. Economic distance relates to the time and cost involved in traveling from the
       origin to the destination area and back. The higher the economic distance, the
       higher the resistance for that destination and, consequently, the lower the demand.
       It follows, conversely, that between any origin and destination point, if travel time
       or travel cost can be reduced, demand will increase.


   2. Cultural distance refers the extent to which the culture of the area from which
       the tourist originates differs from the culture of the host region. In general, the
       greater the cultural distance, the greater the resistance. In some cases, however,
       the relationship might be the opposite. For example, the higher the cultural
       distance between particular origin and destination areas, the more an allocentric
       person may wish to travel to that destination, to experience the extreme
       difference.


   3. The higher the cost of services at a destination, the higher the resistance to travel
       to that destination will be and, therefore, the lower the demand. This variable
       captures the familiar inverse relationship between the price of a good or service
       and the demand for it.


   4. The higher the quality of service at a destination, the lower the resistance will be
       for travel to that destination. Although the relationship between quality of service

                                             48
         and demand is straightforward enough, a difficulty arises in the interpretation and
         evaluation of quality. Evaluation of quality is a highly personal matter, and what
         is quality to one tourist is not necessarily quality to another. Second, if a tourist
         does not have pervious travel experience at a destination, can the tourist
         accurately judge the quality of services there? In such a case, the tourist must
         select a destination based on what the quality of service is perceived to be. Often,
         due to misleading advertisements or inaccurate input from others, the tourist’s
         perception of the quality of service may not be realized at the destination. Such a
         situation has serious implications for establishing a repeat clientele, which is an
         important ingredient for success in the tourist business. Consequently, a
         destination area must be meticulous in projecting an accurate image.


    5. The effect of seasonality on demand is quite apparent. The relative attractiveness
         of a given destination will depend on the time of the year which a vacation is
         planned. For a ski resort, for example, the demand will be at the highest level
         during the winter months. Resistance is at a minimum in this season.




Goeldner, C., and Ritchie, J. 2003. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Ed. United States of
America: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

                                                     49
 APPENDIX 5: Essential Services in the Shire of Gingin


Hospitals
The nearest hospital to the Gingin Shire is Joondalup Health Campus or Swan Districts
Hospital.


Medial Centres
There are medical centres and Silver Chain posts located at Lancelin and Gingin. The
Two Rocks Medical Centre services Guilderton residents.


Emergency Services
Within the Gingin shire there are two police stations, one in Lancelin and the other in
Gingin. Ambulances are available and are based out of Gingin and Lancelin. Fire service
crews are staffed primarily by volunteers, in addition to the Fire Control Officers.


Education Facilities
Schools are also located in the main towns of Gingin and Lancelin. Lancelin has a
primary school servicing 136 students and Gingins’ combined primary and secondary
school has 516 attendees (Department of Education and Training, 2006).




Department of Education and Training. 2006. Semester 2, 2006: Latest Data
http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/schoolinfo/estat/latest/schdistg56.html (accessed September 19, 2006).


                                                   50
APPENDIX 6: Attractions in the Shire of Gingin


Limestone Formations
There is an interesting array of natural limestone formations which are close to
Guilderton’s city centre and visible from Guilderton Road.


Lighthouse
The Lighthouse was erected by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and
Construction in 1984. The main beacon is visible from twenty-five nautical miles out to
sea. The height of the beacon is seventy three meters above sea level.


Gravity Discovery Centre
The Gravity Discovery Centre has a range of facilities and plans to attract tourists and
schools alike. These include the Southern Cross Cosmos Centre, a tower stretching up
forty meters called the ‘leaning tower of Gingin’. A cosmology gallery is also in the
planning process.


Colamber Bird Park
Colamber Bird Park offers a place to visit to see Australian parrots and wildlife. There
are also facilities available for picnics and barbecues onsite.


Gingin Walkabout Trail
The Gingin Walkabout Trail takes approximately forty-five minutes to complete and
includes both historical and natural attractions. Some of the historical buildings include;
Jones’ Shop (1854), St. Luke’s (1861), Uniting Church (1870), Gingin Post Office (1886)
and Philbey’s Cottage (1903). The natural attractions include; Gingin Brook and the Jim
Gordon VC Trail. The walking trail is suitable for people of all ages and a map is
available from the council offices.




                                              51
Dewar's House
Dewar’s House is located on Weld Street and is the pride of the town. It was listed by the
National Trust as an example of a traditional early rural dwelling. Also situated on the
same site is the original Gingin Store.


Granville Arts and Crafts Centre
Granville was originally a home which was built in the 1860’s. In 1871 it was converted
into a hotel and is currently an Arts and Craft Centre (Gingin Telecentre, 2003).


West Coast Honey
A rare opportunity to observe the process of honey extraction from behind viewing
windows. It has the only showroom in WA that has these facilities open to the public.
West Coast Honey can accommodate bus tour groups, school groups, and the individual
traveller.


Neergabby Organic Farm Bed and Breakfast
This delightful bed and breakfast is not just a place of accomodation but rather an
experience. It is located on the Gingin Brooks and features walking trails through Tuart
trees and down to the Gingin Brook and a delightful selection of Organic foods.
Neergabby is minutes away from the Gravitational Wave Discovery Centre and the
Southern Cross Cosmo Centre.



About Australia. 2006. Neergabby Organic Farm Bed and Breakfast. http://www.about-
australia.com/travel-guides/western-australia/perth/accommodation/ (accessed October 28, 2006).




Australia Online Travel. 2006. Gingin: Western Australia.
http://www.travelmate.com.au/Places/Places.asp?TownName=Gingin_%5C_WA (accessed September 7,
2006)


Gingin Telecentre. 2003. Gingin.net: About Gingin. http://www.gingin.net/default.asp?id=10&mnu=10
(accessed September 5, 2006)

                                                   52
Gravity Discovery Centre. 2006. Local Attraction. http://www.gdc.asn.au/attractions.php (accessed
September 2, 2006).


The Age. 2004. Gingin: Western Australia. http://www.theage.com.au/news/Western-
Australia/Gingin/2005/02/17/1108500208446.html (accessed September 10, 2006).


West Coast Honey. 2006. West Coast Honey. http://www.check-in.com.au/Perth/West_Coast_Honey.htm
(accessed October 28, 2006).




                                                   53
APPENDIX 7: Motivational Influences in Tourism Demand


The following trends represent important issues of content in describing tourist motives.


   1.      Motive to experience the environment – this can be subdivided into blue
           (nautical) and green (landscape).


   2.      Motive to meet local people – a desire to mix with and meet local people is
           strong in specific market segments, particularly younger travellers.


   3.      Motive to understand local country and the host country – observing how
           other culture works is seen as particularly interesting for Asian visitors,
           notably Chinese and Koreans who have had less exposure to international
           culture.


   4.      Motive to enhance family life – some holiday – taking and travel behaviour
           is seen as a time to integrate and solidify the functioning of the family. This
           trend is noted in theme park settings, urban tourism locations, and certain
           classes of resorts catering to whole family units.


   5.      Motive to rest and relax in pleasant settings – the popularity of other travel
           forms (E.g. ecotourism, cultural tourism) should not be seen as displacing core
           holiday motives of rest and recuperation. Studies of visitors to reef and
           rainforest environments in northern Australia strongly confirm the importance
           of ‘doing little’ and relaxing for many travelers of all ages.


   6.      Motive to pursue special interests and skills – travelers interested in specific
           hobbies and skills (scuba – diving, fishing, golf) are increasingly venturing
           further afield to develop mastery, competence and focus to their holiday
           experiences.



                                             54
    7.      Motive to be healthy and fit – this motive, identified particularly by
            European analysis, is also highly relevant to many Asian travelers.
            Opportunities to improve one’s level of fitness, to enjoy special foods, to visit
            spas and health centres, all in non – polluted settings, are important trends in
            international tourist motivation.


    8.      Motive for self – protection and safety – while safety is properly conceived
            as a destination feature, the traveller’s motive to feel safe and secure is
            important; health threats, criminal and terrorist activities force this core self –
            protection motive to become an important travel determinant.


    9.      Motive to be respected and earn social status – social status concerns are a
            core element of human motivation, and many commentators note the social
            value and identify concerns of contemporary travel. Post – modern theorists,
            in particular, stress that a great variety of tourism experiences, even bad ones,
            can be used for personal and public imaging.


    10.     Motive to reward oneself – high levels of indulgence in physical pleasures,
            such as eating, drinking, sexual behaviours and shopping, characterize much
            international tourism. These activities reflect travellers’ decisions to reward
            themselves to celebrate their work success, or possibly to compensate for
            some of the restrictions the work world places on them.




Pearce P, Morrison A., and Rutledge. 1998. Tourism: Bridges Across Continents. Sydney: McGraw
Hill.

                                                55
APPENDIX 8: Jafari’s Platforms


The four platforms that Jafari created are useful in evaluating the way tourism is viewed
and acceptance amongst residents at a destination.


These platforms are;
    1. Advocacy                           3. Adaptancy
    2. Cautionary                         4. Knowledge-based


Advocacy relates to those who are attracted to tourism simply by the economic prospects.
These groups generally include tourism businesses, trade associations, and private
entities. The theory of this platform is that tourism can benefit the entire economy
especially employment rates.


The cautionary platform is when individuals focus on the negative impacts of tourism or
deny that there can be economic benefits to the community. Those on this platform
include some academics who are involved in social sciences, and some media agencies.
Attitudes also include aberration about the seasonal nature of employment in tourism and
that it benefits only big business.


Adaptancy is the stage where parties are favouring tourism that integrates with the host
community, e.g cultural experiences. This is the stage where there are arguments both for
and against tourism development.


Finally the knowledge-based platform aims to relate to tourism in a calculated way, rather
like a scientist, relying on actual facts and figures rather than opinions.




Jafari, J. 1989. Research and Scholarship: The Basis of Tourism Education. Journal of Tourism Studies.
1:1: p 33-41

                                                 56
APPENDIX 9: Proposed Indian Ocean Drive Route




Main Roads Western Australia. 2006. Rural Projects.
http://www.mainroads.wa.gov.au/NR/mrwa/run/start.asp (Accessed August 29, 2006).


                                                 57
APPENDIX 10: Environmental Damage


Sand Dune Erosion
Currently the sand dunes are already showing signs of the increasing number of visitors
to the area. Vegetation is struggling in some areas due to visitor traffic and activities such
as ‘sand boarding’. Another significant impact to the sand dunes and surrounding beach
areas is the increase use of four wheel drives and quad bikes. Other impacts that are
becoming increasingly important to monitor include weed transfer, dieback and increased
litter.


Urban Redevelopment
The Moore River Company currently owns approximately two thousand hectares of land
south of the river at Guilderton. The company plans to release five hundred and fifty lots
to the public subject to the completion of Indian Ocean Drive. It is believed that this will
require the clearing of land which includes native vegetation. This urban redevelopment
will directly conflict with the plans for environmental sustainability.




Heritage Western Australia. 2005. Endangered Places. http://www.heritagewas.org.au/places/moore/
(accessed September 4, 2006)


Government of Western Australia., and Western Australian Planning Commission. 2005. Proposal to
Modify a Component of the Gingin Coast Structure Plan. Western Australia: Western Australian Planning
Commission.

                                                 58
APPENDIX 11: Alternative Indian Ocean Drive Alignment




Main Roads Western Australia. 2002. Lancelin to Cervantes Coastal Road – Report and Recommendations
of the Environmental Protection Authority. Main Roads Western Australia: Western Australia.

                                                  59
           APPENDIX 12: Strategic Planning for Bryon Bay: Impact Study of the
           Pacific Highway Development

                                                             Overview
                                                             Opened in 2002, the new northern New South Wales
                                                             stretch of the Pacific Highway runs from Chinderah to
                                                             Yelgun. The upgrade reduces travel time from
                                                             Brisbane to Byron Bay by 30 minutes and reduces the
                                                             overall trip duration by approximately 90 minutes. The
                                                             new route bypasses Burringbar Range, a stretch of road
                                                             notorious for tight corners, slow speed limits, constant
                                                             monitoring by speed cameras and renowned for fatal
                                                             car accidents.


                                                             Outside the normal seasonal fluctuation, this new
                                                             development is the major long term consideration that
                                                             will lead to a sustained increase in short break and day
                                                             visitors to the Byron Bay study area. The short break
                                                             market has become the fastest growing market in
                                                             northern       New   South   Wales   and   South   East
                                                             Queensland, with an estimated 580, 000 day visitors
                                                             per annum prior to the upgrade of this leg of the
                                                             Pacific Highway (Tourism New South Wales, 2001).
                                                             Market research suggests that this trend, coupled with
                                                             new product initiatives that meet the needs of niche
                                                             and special interest visitor markets should lengthen the
                                                             stay of visitors to the area (Tourism New South Wales,
                                                             2005).

Source: Tourism New South Wales. 2005. Travel to New South Wales;
Domestic Overnight Travel. http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au (accessed
October 2, 2006).




                                                                           60
Situation Analysis
Bryon Bay is located on the North coast of New South Wales, approximately 800
kilometres north of Sydney and 175 kilometres south of Brisbane. The average
temperature range in summers between 21 – 28 degrees and makes the destination perfect
for enjoying the festivals and outdoor activities that Bryon Bay has become renowned
for. Byron Bay has also become an internationally recognised tourism destination, iconic
for its beautiful scenery and alternative lifestyle.



Visitation
A conservative estimate of visitation by Tourism New South Wales (2001) indicated over
1.2 million visitors to the Bryon shire; however consultants estimate figures upwards of
1.7 million per year (See Table 8). Tourism New South Wales estimated the average
number of nights spent by both international and domestic tourists in the region was 2.2
nights, below the New South Wales average of 3.45 nights (Tourism New South Wales,
2005).
              Table 8: Visitation Statistics: Byron Bay, New South Wales Australia
Estimated Visitation – Byron Shire - 2002
MARKET                         NUMBER OF VISITORS                                            % (Rounded)
SEGMENT
Visitors     staying      in   1,014,240                                                     58%
commercial Accom
VFRs                           158,370                                                       9%
Day trippers                   580,000                                                       33%
Total                          1,752,610                                                     100%
Tourism New South Wales’ Estimated Visitation – Byron Shire - 2002

ORIGIN                         NUMBERS OF VISITORS                                           NIGHTS
                               Overnight                          Day trips
Domestic                       473,000                            581,000                    2,044,000
International                  100,000                            50,000                     600,000
Subtotal                       573,000                            631,000                    2,644,000


Total                          1,204,000
Source:    Byron Shire Council. 2002. Bryon Shire Tourism Management – An Options Paper for Consideration.
           http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au (accessed September 21, 2006).

                                                             61
Population Characteristics
Between the 1996 and 2001 population growth in Bryon Bay grew 9.7 per cent and again
a significant increase between 2001 and 2004 with the population increasing 7.8 per cent
to 30, 724.



Key Issues
   •   Community concerned with loss of cultural identity, sense of community and
       general quality of life for residents.
   •   Environmental impacts have become a secondary concern to the economic driver
       in this project
   •   Current division of the Council, community and tourism sector standpoints due to
       lack of structure and community initiative implementation
   •   Tourism development is not currently supported by adequate commercial
       infrastructure due to council negligence.
   •   Pressure overflowing to other rural areas in the region



Recommendations
   •   Retain iconic nature of Bryon Bay whilst maintaining the product quality by
       preserving the natural assets and cultural identity of the study area.
   •   Consider alternative freight route solutions such as rail to alleviate environmental
       and social pressures.
   •   Need for high yield, low volume tourism.
   •   Need for shift in tourism product, particularly accommodation to deter
       backpackers encourage longer stay – ties in with point above.


International recognition has pressured the Byron Shire Council and the community to
work together to maintain conservation commitments as well as enhance the quality of
life from its residents in the wake of increased investment, property prices and visitation
numbers in the area.




                                                62
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Census of Population and Housing – Gingin WA.
http://www.abs.gov.au (accessed September 4, 2006).


Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2004. Census of Population and Housing – Bryon NSW.
http://www.abs.gov.au (accessed October 2, 2006).


Byron Shire Council. 2006. Bryon Local Environmental Plan 1988. http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au
(accessed September 21, 2006).


Nature Conservation Council of NSW. 2005. Re: General Purpose Standing Committee No. 4 Inquiry into
Pacific Highway Upgrade. http://corporate.tourism.nsw.gov.au (accessed September 21, 2006).




                                                    63
APPENDIX 13: Advantages and Disadvantages of Tourism


Advantages
   •   Provides employment opportunities, both skilled and unskilled, because it is a
       labor – intensive industry.
   •   Generates a supply of needed foreign exchange.
   •   Increases income.
   •   Creates increased gross national product.
   •   Requires the development of an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local
       commerce and industry.
   •   Justifies environmental protection and improvement.
   •   Increase governmental revenues.
   •   Creates a favorable worldwide image for the destination.
   •   Facilitates the process of modernization by education of youth and society and
       changing values.
   •   Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population
       who could not otherwise afford to develop facilities.
   •   Gives foreigners an opportunity to be favorably impressed by a little – known
       country or region.
Disadvantages
   •   Develops excess demand.
   •   Diverts funds from more promising forms of economic development.
   •   Creates social problems from income differences, social differences, introduction
       to prostitution, gambling, crime and so on.
   •   Degrades the natural physical environment.
   •   Poses the difficulties of seasonality.
   •   Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes.
   •   Adds to inflation of land values and the price of local goods and services.
   Goeldner, C., and Ritchie, J. 2003. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Ed. United States
   of America: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

APPENDIX 14: Tourist Classifications

                                                   64
Tourists can be classified into many different types dependent on the types of tourism
activity they engage in, demographic profiles and psychographic profiles.


The following tourist types are a demographic/lifestyle classification.
    •   YUPpies: Young, Upwardly mobile Professionals.
    •   DINKYs: Double Income No Kids Yet
    •   WOOPies: Well-OFF Older People


Tourists are also classified based on the types of tourism activities they engage in, for
example;
    •   Grey nomads: Older people who have sold up house to travel around in caravans
        etc.
    •   Adventure tourists: Engage in 4-wheel-driving, skydiving, abseiling, rock-
        climbing and other activities of a similar adrenaline – rush nature.

Eco-tourists: Are involved in nature-based activities and use less natural resources than
average tourists.




Howie F. 2003 Managing the Tourist Destination. Thomson Learning: London.




                                                65
APPENDIX 15: Butler’s Destination Lifecycle




Gingin Shire is still at the development stage of Butlers Destination Lifecycle Model.
However, without proper guidance and the development of a strategic management plan,
the Shire may quickly fall into the decline mode. However, if the management plan is
effective there can be rejuvenation as a result of reading the tourism market correctly.




Pearce P, Morrison A., and Rutledge. 1998. Tourism: Bridges Across Continents. Sydney: McGraw Hill.

                                                66
APPENDIX 16: What Makes a Strategy a Winner

Three questions can be used to test the merits of one strategy versus another and
distinguish a winning strategy from a losing or mediocre strategy.


    1. How well does the strategy fit the company’s situation? To qualify as a winner, a
        strategy has to be well matched to industry and competitive conditions, a
        company’s best market opportunities, and other aspects of the enterprise’s
        external environment. At the same time, it has to be tailored to the company’s
        resource strengths and weaknesses, competencies, and competitive capabilities.


    2. Is the strategy helping the company achieve a sustainable competitive advantage?
        Winning strategies enable a company to achieve a competitive advantage that is
        durable. The bigger and more durable the competitive edge that a strategy helps
        build the more powerful and appealing it is.


    3. Is the strategy resulting in better company performance? A good strategy boosts
        company performance. Two kinds of performance improvements tell the most
        about the caliber of a company’s strategy: (1) gains in profitability and financial
        strength and (2) gains in the company’s competitive strength and market standing.




Thompson A., Strickland III A., and Gamble J., (2005) Crafting and Executing Strategy: The Quest for
Competitive Advantage 14th Ed. Sydney: McGraw – Hill Irwin.


                                                67

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:19
posted:10/19/2011
language:English
pages:68