Operation and Maintenance Manual Main Body

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					  Diesel Generator
   Operation and
 Maintenance Manual
   For the general installation, operation and maintenance of
                 Diesel Engine Driven Generating Set


                   Serial Number: ________________




It is essential that operation, installation and servicing of this set are only undertaken by
suitably qualified persons and should be in accordance with the recommendations of this
                                            manual.




                                           Page 1
Table of Contents
Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................2
Safety and Health precautions ...................................................................................................................................................3
General ......................................................................................................................................................................................3
Fuel & Oil ..................................................................................................................................................................................3
Starting Batteries .......................................................................................................................................................................3
Electric Power............................................................................................................................................................................3
Diesel Fumes .............................................................................................................................................................................4
Radiator Coolant ........................................................................................................................................................................4
Engine Lubrication ....................................................................................................................................................................5
Fuel ............................................................................................................................................................................................5
Preparing a Base ........................................................................................................................................................................5
Initial Starting Of Set .................................................................................................................................................................6
Initial Test Check.......................................................................................................................................................................6
Shutting Down Set .....................................................................................................................................................................7
Automatic Protection Equipment...............................................................................................................................................7
General Operation Checks .........................................................................................................................................................8
Servicing & Maintenance of Set ................................................................................................................................................8
Fault Analysis Guide .................................................................................................................................................................9
Fault Icons ...............................................................................................................................................................................11
Dry charged battery filling procedure ......................................................................................................................................12
Wiring Diagrams .....................................................................................................................................................................14


        Introduction

                                               This Instruction Manual is produced by the Service Department and is intended as a
                                               general guide for purchasers of diesel generating sets.
                                               The information given is regarded as general practice for the Company‟s products,
                                               but it should be read in conjunction with the individual engine and alternator
                                               manuals supplied by the manufacturers for any particular set supplied.



NB
All possible care has been taken in compiling the information contained herein, but the Company can accept
no responsibility for any errors that may have occurred. The Company will welcome notification if any errors
have occurred and will appreciate any suggestions for improvements. Permission should be obtained before
reproducing any material appearing in the manual as it is subject to copyright.
All information is believed to be correct at time of issue, but due to the rapid developments taking place in
technology, changes in recommendations or practices may occur at any time.




                                                                                          Page 2
     Health and Safety precautions
                     All users of mechanical and electrical equipment will realise the importance of the health
                     and safety of operators and others involved with such equipment. It is essential that
                     sensible precautions are taken in this regard whenever generating sets are supplied and
                     installed.
                     In addition, there is considerable legislation in existence regarding this. It is impossible to
                     specify it in detail for each country due to the complex nature and continual changes
                     occurring, but users are advised to check special requirements in to their own country.

In any event, only persons qualified to do so should install, maintain and service our equipment. The
equipment has been designed to minimize risks to the person, but there is considerable risk to personal safety if
this equipment is installed, maintained or serviced by someone not fully qualified to do so.

As a minimum you should ensure:
       Ensure that all checks are done EVERY time prior to starting, as per this manual, the engine
        handbook, the alternator handbook and any other documentation that comes with the set.
       Check all mechanical connections are satisfactory every time before starting.
       Check all electrical connections are correct, safely insulated and suitably earthed.
       Check service and maintenance persons are competent and adequately trained.
       Keep generating set clean and generator house tidy.
       Always disconnect starter battery before commencing maintenance operations.
Fuel & Oil
        Rectify any fuel or lubricating oil leaks immediately observed.
        Clean up any fuel or lubrication oil spillages immediately.
        Avoid contact with fuel or lubricating oils. Wash fully if contact made. All Persons should wear
protective gloves.
Starting Batteries
        Handle batteries with care and in accordance with the recommendations given. When preparing for
use wear protective clothing, in particular guard the eyes.
        Lead acid batteries contain dilute sulphuric acid. Wash well with water if spilt and if contact made
with eyes wash well and obtain medical advice immediately.
        Keep battery areas well ventilated as they produce explosive gases. Avoid sparks, flames and smoking
near batteries. Break circuits before connecting or disconnecting and ensure connections are sound.
        Only persons qualified to mix acid for batteries should do so, if you have not been trained in this
practice, you should seek assistance from such a person.
        Please read the section in the manual entitled dry charged battery filling procedure for more
information regarding filling of batteries etc.

                     Electric Power
                     Only qualified electricians should be allowed to work on electrical equipment. All
                     connections should be insulated and wiring boxes and panels should be fully protected.
                     The Electrical Safety Regulation 2002 act (UK) should be consulted and worked in
                     accordance with, where appropriate.




                                                      Page 3
Electric Shock and First Aid Treatment
It is recommended by the company that operators should be trained for treatment of minor
injuries in accordance with local laws on first aid, with special attention to electric shock
treatment.


Diesel Fumes
Breathing in diesel fumes can cause long term health problems or death it is therefore
essential that all exhaust systems are checked for leaks regularly and exhausts are ducted
out of the building or that the set is only operated in either open or very well ventilated
areas.


Health and Safety at Work Act (1974)
The above act applies in the United Kingdom and states that:
It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, the
health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees.
It requires plant and machinery used in the United Kingdom to be properly maintained
and operated so that it is safe and without risks to health of the persons concerned.


Diesel, Lubricating Oil, Coolant, Antifreeze, Battery Acid
In the United Kingdom, COSHH (Control Of Substances Hazardous to Heath)
regulations cover chemicals, products containing chemicals, fumes, dusts, vapours, mists
and gases, and biological agents (germs). Operators should be trained in COSHH or the
local equivalent prior to operating such equipment.

Radiator Coolant
The cooling system must be fully filled slowly (to avoid airlocks) through the radiator
cap with clean, preferably soft, water, along with any additives according to the engine
manual. In colder climates anti-freeze should be used, as recommended by the engine
manual. Usually the entire system will fill by gravity but reference should be made to the
engine manual supplied by the manufacturer to ensure any special taps or plugs are
opened if necessary.


Warning!
Never remove the filler cap while the engine is hot and the system is under pressure
because hot coolant could be discharged causing severe burns.




                                Page 4
                     Engine Lubrication
                     The engine crankcase must be filled until the level “maximum” is reached on the oil
                     dipstick and this level may require topping up after the initial run and should be checked
                     daily before the set is started.
                     Lubricating oil must be new, clean and of a grade suitable for the engine, which will
                     depend on the ambient temperatures applicable and reference should be made to the
                     engine handbook.


                     Fuel
                     Diesel fuel oil should be to specification as stated in the engine users‟ handbook. It
                     should have low sulphuric content and it is important it is clean and free from
                     contamination. The sulphur content of the fuel will affect the oil change interval for your
                     engine

                     Remote Start /Stop Additional Warning

                    The module may instruct an engine start event due to external influences therefore
                    prior to performing any maintenance on the system it is recommended that steps
                    are taken to remove the battery and isolate supplies.

                 Equipment supplied by the Company for use in the United Kingdom has been
 designed and built to be safe and without risk to health when properly operated and when the
                                correct precautions are observed.


                     Preparing a Base
                     A fixed concrete block is the preferred base for your set allowing the bedplate of the set to
                     be tightly bolted down. You should allow a minimum of around 400mm surround on all
                     sides of the set when sizing your base. The depth of the block is calculated as follows:

                             W
                     D = ------------
                         dxBxL

D = Depth of concrete block in feet (metre)
W = Total weight of generating set in lbs (kg)
d = Density of concrete in lb/ft³ (kg/m³) Use 150 lb/ft³or 2403.8kg/m³ if accurate figures are not known
B = Breadth of concrete block in feet (metre)
L = Length of concrete block in feet (metre)

After determining the depth of concrete required for the weight and stability of the running set the subsoil has
to be checked to see if it will carry the total weight (set plus concrete block) and withstand the forces involved.
If it is not possible to reach solid subsoil, hard clay, compacted sand and gravel or rock then the load must be
spread using a concrete raft, the design of which should be entrusted to a qualified civil engineer.




                                                      Page 5
                    Fuel Line & Exhaust Extensions
                    If an external fuel tank or transfer system is to be used with the set then great care should
                    be taken in selecting the correct diameter of fuel line to be used, as the longer the fuel line
                    the larger diameter pipe that is required to avoid causing excessive pressure on the fuel
                    pump. The same principle applies to the exhaust system whereas the longer the pipe the
                    larger diameter required to ensure back pressure does not build up reducing engine
                    performance. Your engine manufacturer‟s handbook should be consulted or expert advice
                    sought in order to advise you of the correct diameters to be used.

                    Starting Of Set
                    Before attempting to start the set, all checks should be carried out as per the engine
                    manufactures handbook by a suitably trained person. Failure to check these points can
                    result in damage to the product.



                    Before you start have you checked?
                    Checked all the guards are in position?
                    The fuel, lubricating oil and water coolant levels?
                    The frame anti-vibration mounts should be inspected for signs of corrosion?
                    Checked that the circuit breaker is in the “OFF” position?
                    That the fuel system is primed and bled? (See engine handbook).




               DSE 3110 series module                                        DSE 5110/7310/7510
 Press the red stop/reset button followed by the green Select manual mode (white button with hand symbol),
 button twice. A second press is required as a health        then press the green button to start the set.
                 and safety precaution.


                    The engine should then commence to crank and increase speed to operating level within a
                    few seconds. If the engine does not start the module will automatically make 2 more
                    attempts if the engine fails to start after all 3 attempts look for an obvious fault. If the fault
                    is not obvious refer to the fault finding section.


The engine should now be running at a steady governed speed without a load. The voltmeter should show a
reading which may be slightly higher than the rated voltage for the set. As a routine for three phase sets the
voltage selector switch (where fitted) should be rotated through its positions, to check that the readings are
similar for each phase. Check the reading of the frequency meter (this also may be slightly high, without any
load on the set).




                                                       Page 6
Connection can now be made to the output load by switching the circuit breaker to the “ON” position. The
engine speed may be expected to drop slightly when the load is applied but the governor should ensure the
speed recovers within a few seconds.

A reading of the current being supplied will now show on each of the three ammeters. This should not exceed
the rated current for the set.

Using the arrow(s) on the module will allow you to view information such as: engine speed, generator volts,
generator frequency, generator run time & battery volts each press will change between different pages.


        Shutting Down Set
       The set should be isolated from the load by switching the circuit breaker to the “OFF” position.
       For best engine maintenance the set should be allowed to run off load for 5 minutes.
       Press the red button on the module and allow the engine to stop.
       Note that if the set has been started via the remote start input, the removal of this input while the set is
on load will not shut down the unit.

        Initial Test Check
When the set is first started up it should be checked over for condition and basic performance and every time
after this it should be checked to ensure that there are no leaks from the oil, fuel or water systems.
         Check there are no water leaks from the cooling system.
         Check there are no oil leaks from the lubrication system. Recheck the oil level in the engine sump.
         Check there are no fuel leaks on the supply pipes or at the fuel lift pump, injection pump or injectors.
         Check there are no fumes emitting from the exhaust system into the engine house.
         Check the engine fan is operating satisfactorily and the fan driving belt is tensioned correctly.
         Check any oil pressure gauge is reading in the order of 2.75 bar (40psi) or more.
         Check any battery charging ammeter fitted is showing a charging reading.

        Automatic Protection Equipment
The generating set will be fitted with protection devices designed to stop the engine in the event of certain
faults developing.
The two most common devices are for protection against low oil pressure and high water temperature.
Should either of these devices be activated the engine will stop and the appropriate warning lamp will light up
on the panel. If required the set can be fitted with audible alarms or remote indicators.
The fault should be identified and rectified before attempting to restart the set. To reset the system the circuit
breaker should be switched to the “OFF” position.
Other protection devices may also be fitted to the generating set depending on the configuration ordered.
Protections can include overspeed, underspeed , under and over frequency, under and over voltage and low fuel
level.




                                                       Page 7
                  Under / Over Voltage & Under / Over Speed Protection
Deep sea controllers have built in protection for some or all of the above functions, depending on the module
supplied. When one of these protections activates, the module will display the appropriate symbol and
shutdown the engine. In cases where heavy shock loading of the generator occurs, it may be necessary to adjust
the control modules settings for these values to more appropriate levels for your engine.
Should these shutdowns be occurring 10 seconds after the starting of the set, then please check the fuses on the
breaker (or in smaller sets these are in the control panel) and the control wiring as this is due to the controller
not receiving a feed across Line 1 (or Line 3 in some smaller panels) and Neutral.




                    General Operation Checks
                    Once the set has been put into operation it should have regular checks made on it. For
                    general maintenance of the engine the operator should refer to the Users Handbooks
                    supplied by the engine and alternator manufacturers.

                    Servicing & Maintenance of Set

                   Regular servicing and good maintenance of the generating set is of the utmost importance.
                   Preventive maintenance should ensure long and trouble free operation of the set all of which
                   should be done by a suitable qualified person.




                                                      Page 8
Fault Analysis Guide
This section should be used in conjunction with the engine and alternator manufacturers hand books and has
been provided to assist the user in finding and locating general common faults. It is by no means an exhaustive
list and all of the procedures should be carried out by properly trained individuals.

Warranty on the set will differ from region to region depending on the method of supply and warranty
purchased at time of sale. In some areas only standard basic warranty may be available. Engine and Alternator
faults in the warranty period are always covered under the standard warranty.

You should not attempt to rectify a fault unless you are a suitably qualified person for safety reasons. As
there is risk of an electric shock, disablement or death if correct procedures are not followed. Never
remove any guards if the engine batteries have not been disconnected and do not connect them again
unless all guards have been refitted.


                        No power to panel “fail to start”     Check battery, panel fuse and panel wiring.
                        showing as soon as button is          Check oil switch and sender readings.
                        pressed on DSE modules
                                                              Check liquid levels – top up if necessary.
                        Battery flat or failed                Recharge battery and check cells.
  ENGINE DOES
                                                              Replace battery if failed.
   NOT CRANK
                                                              Check, clean and refit battery terminals
                        Starter circuit faulty
                                                              Check circuit relay and starter solenoid.
                                                              Replace motor, check starter engaging.
                        Starter faulty
                                                              Attempt to turn engine by hand.
                        Engine or alternator jammed           Inspect and remove any obstruction.

                                                              Check fuel available in tank and that fuel
                        No fuel at atomizers
                                                              valves / taps are open.
                        Air in fuel system                    Bleed fuel system & check for air leaks.
                                                              Drain & clean fuel system & replace fuel
 ENGINE TURNS           Dirt or water in fuel
                                                              filters.
 BUT DOES NOT
                        Faulty lift or Injection pump         Check and service lift or Injection pump.
     FIRE
                        Injection timing incorrect            Reset timing (engine fires but fails to start)
                        Fuel filter blocked                   Clean or replace filter.
                        Air filter blocked                    Clean or replace filter.
                        Worn or dirty injectors               Service or replace injectors.

                        Limited fuel supply                   Check fuel available, bleed fuel system.
                        Faulty lift or Injection pump         Check and service lift or Injection pump.
                        Fuel filter blocked                   Clean or replace filter.
   STARTS BUT
                        Worn or dirty injectors               Service or replace injectors.
    MISFIRES
                        Loose or broken pipe                  Tighten or replace pipe.
                        Incorrect valve clearances            Check and reset clearances.
                        Air in fuel system                    Bleed fuel system & check for leaks.




                                                     Page 9
               Air filter blocked                    Clean or replace filter.
               Faulty cylinder head or inlet
 STARTS BUT                                          Replace gaskets.
               manifold joints
LOSES POWER
               Damaged or dirty turbocharger         Clean or replace impeller.
               Blocked fuel tank vent                Check and clean vent.

               Faulty injection pump                 Service or replace Injection pump.
               Worn or dirty Injectors               Service or replace Injectors.
 EXCESSIVE     Incorrect valve clearances            Check and reset clearances.
   FUEL        Air filter blocked                    Clean or replace filter.
CONSUMPTION    Fuel pump timing incorrect            Reset timing.
               Incorrect fuel                        Check required fuel specification.
               Excessive engine wear                 Overhaul engine.

               Faulty Injection pump                 Service or replace Injection pump.
               Worn or dirty Injectors               Service or replace Injectors.
               Air filter blocked                    Clean or replace filter.
 BLACK/OILY
               Fuel pump timing incorrect            Check and reset timing.
  EXHAUST
               Incorrect fuel                        Check required fuel specification.
   SMOKE
               Damaged or dirty turbocharger         Clean or replace turbocharger.
               Excessive engine load                 Reduce load as necessary.
               Long running time on light load       Run on full load for one hour period.

 BLUE/WHITE    Wrong grade of lubricating oil        Check required grade and replace.
  EXHAUST      Excessive engine wear                 Overhaul engine.
   SMOKE       Head gasket failure                   Replace head gasket.

               Low oil level in sump                 Add oil to the correct level.
               Oil pressure gauge faulty             Test or replace gauge.
  LOW OIL
               Oil filter blocked                    Replace oil filter.
 PRESSURE
               Faulty relief valve                   Clean or replace valve.
               Oil pump worn                         Replace oil pump.

               Low level of coolant                  Refill radiator and check for leaks.
               Faulty thermostat                     Check thermostat and replace if necessary.
               Fan belt slipping                     Adjust tension of belt or replace if damaged.
               Radiator matrix blocked               Clean matrix thoroughly.
 HIGH ENGINE
               Blockage in cooling system            Drain system flush out and refill.
TEMPERATURE
               Low level of lubricating oil          Check and top up to correct level.
               Injection pump timing incorrect       Check and reset timing.
               Cylinder head gasket failed           Remove head and replace gasket.
               Cooling fan damaged                   Replace fan.




                                           Page 10
Page 11
                              Dry charged battery filling procedure

   Keep all batteries in a dry charged condition until they are required for service.
   Shelf life of dry charged batteries is only around 2 years (prior to activation) unless they are vacuum
    sealed.
   Always handle batteries with care, ensuring that the correct personal safety protection is used at all times
    e.g. face mask, goggles, rubber / PVC gloves and apron…etc. If there is any contact of acid with the eyes
    or skin, then the affected area should be thoroughly washed with clean water and medical attention
    obtained immediately.
   Batteries can be very heavy, always take great care when lifting.
   When activation is required, remove and discard any form of sealing plugs or foil. Do not dispose of the
    filler caps as they will have to be replaced over the tops of the filler holes before the product goes into
    service.
   Inspect the battery casing to ensure that there is no damage. If damage is found DO NOT fill the battery.
   Fill all of the cells with battery grade dilute sulphuric acid of a specific gravity 1.270 to 1.280, to a level
    of 6mm above the tops of the separators. This gravity may vary from Country to Country with regards to
    climate / temperature.
   Do not use acid from old batteries.
   If there is any spillage of acid, then this should be neutralised immediately with alkali (soda ash, sodium
    carbonate), washed down with water and scrubbed with a hard brush. All spillages must be contained, do
    not allow to enter main drainage.
   The temperature of the acid and the battery should be between 10°C and 20°C.
   After a period of 30 minutes check the level of the acid to ensure that tops of the separators are still
    covered by 6mm. Top up with the same strength acid if required.
   Charge the battery with a good quality battery charger, ensuring that the correct voltage / current is used
    as defined by the battery manufacturer (with regards to the product specifications). It is advisable to
    leave the filler caps off the battery during the initial charge. The required current for charging is 10% of
    the ampere hour rating. For a BBMS 624 battery rated at 200Ah, the charge rate should be 20amps.
   After completion of charge the battery should be allowed to stand for 12 hours. After this period check
    the levels of acid within the cells, if they have fallen below 6mm above the tops of the separators then
    top up to the correct level with distilled or deionised water.
   Check that the battery voltage is above 12.7v for 12 volt batteries, 6.35v for 6 volt batteries.
   If below this reading then the battery will need further charging
   If after further charging the voltage is still low, then further investigation is required to establish if there
    is a fault with the battery.
   If a fault is discovered then the battery must not be put into service
   Thoroughly clean the battery to remove any acid from the casing and replace the filler caps.
   For storage purposes of wet charged batteries, it is important that all products are always stored upright,
    on a clean dry smooth base in a well ventilated and cool area.
   Never smoke or allow naked flames within the vicinity of a battery as any gasses given off could easily
    ignite causing an explosion.
   Never allow tools to be placed or fall across the tops of the battery as this could result in a short circuit
    between the terminals resulting in an explosion
   Never try to remove acid from a battery
   Never try to repair a damaged battery
   All scrap batteries should be disposed of in accordance with the current Environmental Legislation.




                                                    Page 12
                      Care and Maintenance of wet batteries in storage

       Once a battery has been filled and charged it begins to die. Always rotate batteries in stock using the
        „first in – first out‟ principle.
       Always store batteries in an upright position, on a clean dry smooth base in a well ventilated and cool
        area.
       The shelf life is dependant on the temperature. A battery stored at 25°C may only last 2 months before
        the voltage drops below the required state of charge, however when stored at 5°C this could increase to
        above 9 months.
       Do not stack batteries on top of each other.
       Before fitting, check the open circuit voltage, if below 12.7, recharge the battery
       Always smear the terminals with a thin layer of petroleum jelly when fitting to any application. This
        will help prevent corrosion.
       Remove any metallic objects from the hands and wrist (watches, rings..etc) when fitting a battery, as
        these could quite easily cause a short circuit with the battery terminals and / or the vehicle‟s earth
        resulting in an explosion.
       When removing a battery from service, always disconnect the „earth‟ terminal first.
       When fitting a replacement battery, always connect the „earth‟ terminal last.
       Ensure that the battery tray / housing is free from any small particles that could puncture the case when
        the battery is secured in place.
       Do not over tighten any battery hold downs or clamping frames as this could result in damage to the
        battery casing.



                      Care and Maintenance of wet batteries in service

Where batteries are fitted in hot climates, or in a very demanding applications it is important to check the
batteries every month to ensure that there is sufficient electrolyte (dilute sulphuric acid as used in lead-acid
batteries) within the cells. Also a brief examination of the casing / terminals is advisable.
        Remove the battery filler caps and ensure that the electrolyte is 6mm over the tops of the separators.
           If not, top up with deionised or distilled water. Never use acid as this will increase the strength of the
           electrolyte which would cause damage to the internal components. When a battery gasses and the
           volume of electrolyte reduces, all that is lost is the water content. As the electrolyte reduces in
           volume it becomes stronger. So water is required to revert back to the correct volume and density.
        Check the terminals and battery clamps for any corrosion, if any is visible, remove using boiling
           water and wire brush. Use petroleum jelly to cover the cleaned terminals.
        Check that there is no damage to the casing. If damage is found then remove the battery
           immediately. Investigate the cause of the damage and take the appropriate corrective action.




                                                      Page 13
Wiring Diagrams




     Page 14

				
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