WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
INFORMAL PLANNING MEETING ON THE
VOLUNTARY CO-OPERATION PROGRAMME (VCP) AND
RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES
WASHINGTON, D.C., 17 - 19 JANUARY 2000
GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE MEETING
1. OPENING OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 1)
1.1 The Informal Planning Meeting (IPM) on the Voluntary Co-operation Programme (VCP)
and related Technical Co-operation Programmes was held in Washington, D.C. from 17–19 January
2000, at the kind invitation of the USA. The meeting was attended by 23 participants representing
13 WMO Members and collaborating technical co-operation organizations. The list of participants is
given in Annex I to this report.
1.2 The meeting was opened at 10.00 a.m. on 17 January 2000. Prior to the statement of the
Secretary-General, General Kelly, the Permanent Representative of USA with WMO, welcomed the
participants to Washington, D.C., noting that this was the first time the IPM/VCP was being held
outside of Geneva. General Kelly said this arrangement would give participants the opportunity to
interact with representatives from lending institutions based in the Washington area, through a round-
table discussion scheduled for Tuesday afternoon. General Kelly said he had just returned from the
American Meteorological Society (AMS) annual meeting in Long Beach, California. He commented
on the workshop on International Meteorological Co-operation held in Long Beach just prior to the
AMS meeting. He said that preparing for and responding to natural disasters was a timely subject
given the many weather-related disasters around the world during the past year. General Kelly also
stated that the USA continues to be a strong supporter of the WMO VCP while at the same time it is
co-operating with lending institutions in the USA to obtain direct funding for Meteorological and
Hydrological Services. He noted that most external funding for development of early warning
capabilities now comes from the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the U.S.
Agency for International Development. General Kelly emphasized the importance of the WMO
Regional and Subregional Offices and encouraged a strong regionally-co-ordinated effort on topics
related to flooding, disaster response, and climate. He concluded by reiterating the willingness of
NOAA/NWS to work closely with WMO in providing support to Members.
1.3 Professor Obasi welcomed the participants to the 2000 IPM and thanked General Kelly for
hosting the meeting and for the excellent arrangements and hospitality extended to the participants.
He also thanked the representatives of Members and partner institutions for their attendance. He
stated that the contribution provided within the framework of the VCP had assumed increased
importance as in recent years, approximately 50% of the technical assistance delivered by WMO has
been within the framework of the VCP. He noted that, unfortunately a large number of VCP projects
for both equipment and fellowship requests remain unsatisfied each year. Professor Obasi appealed
to Members to maintain and further enhance the contribution to the VCP. He informed that the WMO
Secretariat had deployed considerable efforts towards seeking further resources from funding
agencies and the private sector, such as the World Bank, regional development banks including the
Inter-American Development Bank and the European Commission. He noted that the opportunity
would be taken during the meeting to further strengthen working relationships with other agencies.
Professor Obasi highlighted some of the VCP-related activities accomplished during 1999, among
which the co-ordinated efforts to ensure that essential regional and international meteorological
facilities were Y2K compliant, the development and implementation of a multi-donor project for
improving the capacity for the management of climate data in several member countries, the
significant progress made in the EUMETSAT/WMO initiative to ensure timely replacement of current
satellite receiving systems in Africa by those that are compatible with the new generation of
METEOSAT satellites, and the support provided to the NMHSs of countries in Central America and
the Caribbean affected by Hurricanes Georges and Mitch. Professor Obasi drew the meeting’s
attention to critical, high-priority requirements, such as upgrading of the Global Observing System,
provision of consumables for upper-air stations and enhancement of telecommunications and data
processing facilities and requested the meeting to consider ways of assisting the NMHSs concerned
in acquiring such capabilities. Professor Obasi also requested the meeting to review carefully all
relevant VCP-related matters and propose appropriate recommendations for the next meeting of the
EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation in May 2000. He concluded by thanking
all donors to the VCP, and he urged all Members to continue to strengthen their collaborative efforts.
He conveyed his best wishes to the participants for a happy New Year and a successful meeting.
2. ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 2)
2.1 Election of the chairman (Agenda item 2.1)
2.1.1 Mr D. Lambergeon (France) was unanimously elected chairman of the meeting.
2.2 Adoption of the agenda (Agenda item 2.2)
2.2.1 The agenda adopted is given in Annex II to this report.
2.3 Working arrangements (Agenda item 2.3)
2.3.1 The meeting agreed on its working hours and to its work programme during the session.
3. REVIEW OF THE PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN
SUPPORT OF WMO PROGRAMMES (Agenda item 3)
3.1.1 The meeting was informed of the priorities for assistance required to implement the WMO
Programmes in the fields of co-operation covered by the VCP as given in the VCP rules: the World
Weather Watch Programme, the World Climate Programme, the Hydrology and Water Resources
Programme, the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, the Education and Training
Programme and Applications of Meteorology Programme. A summary of the information is enclosed
in Annex III. Information was also provided on the activities undertaken within the framework of the
VCP co-ordinated programmes. A summary of the relevant information is given in Annex IV.
3.2 World Weather Watch Programme
3.2.1 The meeting reviewed the priorities in the implementation of the World Weather Watch
Programme, in particular for:
(a) Observing systems (see paragraph 1.1 of Annex III);
(b) Satellite receiving stations (see paragraph 1.2 of Annex III);
(c) Data processing systems (see paragraph 1.3 of Annex III);
(d) Telecommunication systems (see paragraph 1.4 of Annex III).
3.2.2 Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) are still considered as one of the telecommunication
means which should be used to overcome deficiencies in national data collection. DCPs
telecommunication services have been useful in areas without telecommunication infrastructure. The
meeting noted the introduction of the telecommunication services provided through low-orbit satellites
and their potential as another alternative to data collection in certain areas. The use of such
telecommunication services, while providing efficient communication, require additional costs to the
users in contrast to the use of the DCPs.
3.3 Applications of Meteorology Programme
3.3.1 The priorities in the assistance required for the implementation of the Aeronautical
Meteorology Programme, the Marine Meteorology and Associated Oceanographic Activities
Programme and the Public Weather Services Programme are given in paragraphs 1.5 to 1.7 of Annex
3.4 World Climate Programme
3.4.1 The meeting reviewed priorities in the implementation of the World Climate Programme,
the Agricultural Meteorology Programme, and the Global Climate Observing System, in particular, for:
(a) CLICOM project (see paragraphs 2.1.1-2.1.5 of Annex III);
(b) DARE project (see paragraphs 2.1.6-2.1.7 of Annex III);
(c) Climate Change Detection project (see paragraph 2.2.1 of Annex III);
(d) CLIPS Showcase Projects: Heat/Health Warning Systems (see paragraphs 2.3.1-2.3.5 of
(e) CLIPS Pilot/Demonstration projects (see also paragraph 2.3.6 of Annex III): the meeting
was informed about the review and modification that is being undertaken on existing project designs,
and modifications to the Brazil CLIPS project that have been requested by Brazil were described;
(f) CLIPS Logbook proposal (see paragraph 2.3.7 of Annex III);
(g) Development of a CLIPS Curriculum (see paragraph 2.3.8 of Annex III);
(h) CLIPS Focal Points (see paragraph 2.3.9 of Annex III);
(i) Regional Climate Outlook Fora (see paragraph 2.3.10 of Annex III); and
(j) Agricultural Meteorology (see paragraphs 2.4.1-2.4.6 of Annex III).
3.4.2 With regard to the Global Climate Observing System, the meeting was informed that, as
follow up to its Decision 14/CP.4 on Research and Systematic Observation, the Conference of the
Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at its fifth
session (COP-5) in Bonn, Germany from 25 October to 5 November 1999 adopted Decision 5/CP.5
in which the Conference urged the Parties to address deficiencies in the climate observing networks
and invited them, in consultation with the GCOS Secretariat, to bring forward specific proposals for
that purpose and to identify the capacity-building needs and funding required in developing countries
to enable them to collect, exchange and utilize data on a continuing basis in pursuance of the
Convention. By the same decision, the Conference of the Parties invited the GCOS Secretariat, in
consultation with relevant regional and international bodies, including the Global Environment Facility
(GEF), to organize regional workshops on this issue.
3.4.3 The meeting noted that the Secretary-General had informed WMO Members by a circular
letter of 3 January 2000, of these two decisions of COP-5. Members were urged to continue to
ensure the involvement of the national Meteorological and Hydrological Services in the various
processes related to the implementation of the above decisions and to climate issues at the national,
regional and international levels. In particular, the importance was stressed that information on
national programmes and activities be included in the national communications to the UNFCCC to
be submitted by 30 November 2001, and that the NMHSs participate actively in regional workshops
aimed at capacity building in developing countries.
3.4.4 The meeting was also informed that the GCOS Secretariat is to convene several regional
workshops later this year with one in Tonga in mid-August being the most advanced, and that VCP
funding support is requested to help defray costs of holding these workshops.
3.5 Hydrology and Water Resources Programme
3.5.1 The meeting noted that in 1999 Canada offered to support eight countries in Central
America and the Caribbean by providing Stevens stream gauges for restoration of hydrological
network destroyed by Hurricanes Georges and Mitch. In addition, a number of countries in Africa
have expressed interest in a hydrological data rescue project to convert the storage medium from
paper to electronic form. A pilot study involving about five countries is currently being implemented.
The VCP(F) support was provided for this purpose and work in two countries was started during 1999.
The estimated cost is about US $8.000 per country which involves providing a PC and some software
and an expert mission to train local staff. Requests from Jamaica for expert services for the
formulation of technical assistance projects were received and approved for circulation for possible
3.5.2 The meeting agreed that efforts should be continued to address the VCP requests for
hydrological activities, especially through national and regional water resources institutions and
3.6 Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme
3.6.1 The meeting noted that Thirteenth Congress had requested WMO Members to give all
possible support to the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, with a high priority to
the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the World Weather Research Programme. Congress
agreed that measurements of the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the
atmosphere should be given similar attention to that received by classical meteorological parameters.
3.6.2 While GAW requests for VCP support are considerable, donors agreed to consider offering
support through “twinning” arrangements. It is in this context that the recently established GAW
stations of global importance located at Assekrem/Tamanrasset (Algeria), Ushuasia (Argentina),
Arembepe (Brazil), Mount Waliguan (China), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia) and Mount Kenya
(Kenya) have been successfully twinned with countries or groups of countries such as Australia,
Canada, France, Germany and USA. Specialists from the Republic of South Africa and Switzerland
have also provided technical and scientific expertise to Kenya. The Kenya/Switzerland twinning
arrangement of a specific activity is exemplary. Facilitated through WMO GAW, Switzerland has
provided ozonesonde tracking equipment for the Nairobi GAW station. Switzerland is providing
funding, has trained personnel and the project is participating fully in the Southern Hemisphere
ADditional OZonesonndes (SHADOZ) data project, an endeavour to improve ground based balloon
sonde data in the tropics and subtropics for satellite data validation. Donor countries were
encouraged to enter into twinning arrangements as a contribution within the framework of the VCP.
3.7 Education and Training Programme
3.7.1 The meeting noted with appreciation that major VCP donor Members continued to provide
VCP fellowships and that many other Members continued to provide VCP contributions by waiving
tuition fees and providing subsidized accommodation to WMO fellows.
3.7.2 The meeting was informed that the gap between the needs in fellowships and the reduced
funding opportunities continues to increase. It noted that the Secretariat continued to seek additional
extra-budgetary resources and new potential sources of funding aiming at increasing and
complementing the traditional fellowships financial resources. Cost-sharing tripartite fellowship
arrangements were also continued, in particular in the RMTCs, to optimize the use of limited VCP and
regular budget fellowship funds.
3.7.3 The meeting considered the main priority activities requiring VCP support as being:
(a) Short-term fellowships;
(b) Long-term fellowships;
(c) Workshops and seminars on specialized topics; and
(d) Introduction of modern teaching techniques and technologies at WMO RMTCs, particularly
in the area of:
- computer-aided learning (CAL); and
- distance learning, including the use of the Internet.
The meeting encouraged donors to continue their support to education and training activities.
3.8 Regional Programme
3.8.1 The meeting was informed that the twelfth session of RA I and the thirteenth Congress
emphasized the need to address the problem of poor data availability, especially from some parts of
Africa. Congress in particular requested the Secretary-General to assist some of the countries which
were experiencing serious deficiencies in data collection and transmission. It noted that some of the
National Meteorological Services of RA I countries do not have appropriate telecommunications
connections to the GTS for the exchange of data and products and lack capacities to process real-
time data and provide application products to users.
3.8.2 As a start towards addressing the problems faced by these countries, WMO is organizing
two training seminars in the first half of 2000. The purpose of these seminars is to provide training
to exploit available techniques for the collection, processing and exchange of meteorological data and
products and to help repair useful products to the user community. Such facilities consist of SDUS,
PDUS, MDD, SDIS and the Internet. Funds are required to cover the cost of attendance of
participants and lecturers, and to purchase computer hardware and associated software. The
meeting recognized the importance of such seminars and requested donors to look into the
possibilities of contributing towards these events.
3.8.3 The meeting noted some of the priority areas for countries in the Pacific for VCP donors’
consideration include natural disaster reduction through the provision of more reliable and effective
warning of tropical cyclones, seasonal and inter-annual climate prediction activities, communication
systems such as DCPs and EMWIN, surface and upper-air observation networks, public awareness
and education, hydrological activities, capacity building and management of NMHSs. The meeting
noted that similar priorities exist in other regions and would take them into consideration when
reviewing VCP project proposals.
4. REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF VCP AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION
PROGRAMMES AND OUTLOOK FOR 2000 (Agenda item 4)
4.1 Review of the expected contribution to the VCP in 2000 (Agenda items 4.1 and 4.4)
4.1.1 The meeting reviewed the various projects approved for circulation during the last five
years for which no full offer of support has so far been received. The meeting was informed of the
plans of donor Members to support some of these VCP projects in the near future and expressed the
views that these plans could not be considered as firm commitments on the part of the donor
Members as conditions could change and result in re-adjustment of their plans.
4.1.2 The statements related to the co-operation activities of Argentina, Australia, Brazil,
Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Japan, Portugal, Russian Federation, Spain,
United Kingdom and USA, including their contributions to the VCP(ES) and VCP(F) and information
on bilateral activities, are given in the following paragraphs. Representatives of other donor Members
informed that their governments are examining ways and means of providing contributions to the VCP
4.1.3 During 1999, Argentina has continued acting as donor in technical co-operation activities
in Regions III and IV, under one of the following categories:
4.1.4 Thirteen Spanish-speaking fellows from four countries of Regions III and IV, received post-
graduate training in one of the courses currently offered by RMTC Buenos Aires. The selected
courses and number of participants were as follows: Meteorological inspector (1), Instruments
technician (4), Cloud analyst (4) and Seminar in Operational Aeronautical Meteorology (4). (Cost
estimated at $14,200.)
Equipment and Services
4.1.5 National standard barometers of two RA III countries were repaired and calibrated.
Eight short-term expert missions (each lasting about one week) for the installation of weather and
telecommunication systems were carried out in the five NMCs connected to RTH Buenos Aires.
Additionally, a higher level expert was commissioned for a 45-day mission. Four copies of the latest
version of the SAVIMA software application were distributed among four NMCs connected to RTH
Buenos Aires. (Cost estimated at $31,200.)
4.1.6 In 2000, the same four courses as in 1999 will again be offered, provided that sufficient
interest is expressed by the beneficiaries in receiving such training. Short-term expert missions for
the installation of weather and telecommunication systems in NMCs connected to RTH Buenos Aires
are also expected to continue at the same rate. Moreover, a Member of RA III has already requested
a long-term mission, by a high-level expert, for upgrading certain critical facilities at its NMC. Current
financial restrictions seem to indicate that next year contributions to VCP(F) are not likely to occur.
Accordingly, it is assumed that contributions for 2000 will be in kind and comparable to those for 1999,
i.e., less than $50,000.
4.1.7 Australia contributed US $25,000 to VCP(F) in 1999. In addition, it provided US $45,000
to complete upgrading a DigiCORA upper-air system to GPS capability in Papua New Guinea. A VCP
fellowship (US $16,500) was given to Zimbabwe to enable one of its officers to participate in the
Bureau of Meteorology’s Diploma in Meteorology Course.
4.1.8 During 1999, Australia also participated in the following technical co-operation activities
on a bilateral or multilateral basis:
(a) Contribution to the technical co-operation programme for meteorology of the South Pacific
Regional Environment Programme (SPREP): US $20,000
(b) Provision of observing equipment to Pacific Island Countries: US $2,400
(c) Provision of Australian Tropical Cyclone Workstation (ATCW) software on CD-ROMs to
about 20 tropical cyclone prone countries
(d) Various other training activities at a cost of US $88,800
(e) Consultancy mission to Vanuatu to assist the preparation of a development plan
(f) Contribution by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) to a
Meteorological Support Project for Viet Nam: US $128,000.
4.1.9 In 2000, Australia will continue to contribute to VCP(F) at the current level and to a new
DigiCORA upgrade project through WMO. Other technical co-operation activities will include training
(including fellowships), provision of observing equipment, contribution to SPREP’s technical co-
operation programme, and a possible AusAID Phase 2 project for Viet Nam.
4.1.10 In 1999, the VCP activities of Brazil was seriously affected by the economic situation of the
government and for this reason the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia – INMET did not contribute to
the Voluntary Co-operation Programme very strongly. Brazil contributed to training of the operators
of the NMC Paraguay in the use of the DATAMET communication software and to support for hosting
the flood meeting in Brasilia. Brazilian contribution to the VCP(ES) in 1999 was US $22,500.
4.1.11 In 2000, The INMET planned to support actions:
(a) to develop and implement the new Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network
for RA III;
(b) for exchange experiences in the new telecommunications techniques with the other NMCs
in RA III, and
(c) for training in meteorology and in telecommunication techniques.
A total contribution of US $115,000 is expected for equipment and software, and training fellowships.
4.1.12 The first evaluation of the budget for the development of the new Regional Meteorological
Telecommunication Network for RA III indicates that it will cost approximately US $400,000 for
software and US $50,000 for hardware.
4.1.13 In 1999, disbursements toward meteorological and hydrological related activities amounted
to approximately US $270,000. These initiatives were undertaken by the Meteorological Service of
Canada within the framework of the Voluntary Co-operation Programme, other departments of the
WMO and through other mechanisms. There are several projects in progress (e.g. DARE IV and
CLIPS) which Canada has supported. Additionally, we are about to enter into the final phase of the
shipment of Stevens Stream Gauges to eight countries; these are reported against our projected year
2000 contribution. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the International
Development Research Council (IDRC) funded a number of projects related to environmental
monitoring in Central America, South America, Africa and Asia. Objectives were aimed at the use of
remotely sensed data such as RADARSAT for coastal zone and hydrological basin mapping. These
data will also support efforts to monitor flood potential for the mitigation of natural disasters and
toward efforts to predict and ameliorate drought to name a few.
4.1.14 In 2000, beyond the contributions to Central America and Dominican Republic (~US
$800,000), Canada is engaged with the Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change
(CPACC) on outreach programmes. CPACC is a project designed to, inter alia, gain a better
understanding of climate change impacts (e.g. coastal zones, freshwater, sea level rise) and
vulnerabilities to climate change (e.g. tourism, agriculture). The project came into effect in April 1997
and is supported by the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) with the OAS as the
executing agency. There are a number of activities planned for 2000 including a Risk Management
Workshop with the insurance industry. We shall be continuing our efforts to ensure a robust early
warning system to mitigate the effects of natural disasters in the southern part of RA IV. In February,
Canada is hosting a meeting to assist sponsoring agencies to develop an Intergovernmental
Mechanism or Process for implementing and supporting the GCOS.
4.1.15 Canada's bilateral activities will concentrate on capacity building, the Global Atmosphere
Watch and climate change related initiatives with an emphasis on systematic observations of climate
and climate change impacts and adaptation strategies. For example, Canada has identified several
countries to assist with their first national communications to the Framework Convention on Climate
Change. CIDA and IDRC are expected to continue programming in drought monitoring, disaster
mitigation and the use of remote sensing for environmental monitoring.
4.1.16 In 1999, China contributed approximately US $405,500 to the VCP Equipment and
Services Programme through the provision of meteorological instruments, satellite and
telecommunication equipment, upper-air consumables, AFDOS software, as well as a study tour on
China’s meteorological services for the directors of NMHSs of African countries and
4.1.17 The proposed contribution of China to the WMO VCP Programme in 2000 will be as
(a) Donation of instruments and equipment
Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea TE/4/1/3 Provision of a VSAT receiving system
Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea Provision of 1000 balloons for upper-air sounding
Egypt Provision of a set of surface observing instruments for Cairo RMTC
Kenya DP/4/2/2 Provision of five PCs for training and research
Madagascar OB/2/2/3 Provision of consumables for surface observing stations
Mozambique OB/2/1/4 Conventional synoptic observing equipment
Mongolia Provision of a VSAT receiving system
Democratic Republic of the
Congo O/2/2/2 Surface observing instruments and consumables for ten stations
Lesotho OB/2/2/1 Surface observing instruments
Congo OB/2/2/2 Five synoptic stations
Gabon OB/2/2/2 Instruments for 12 synoptic stations
Seychelles OB/2/2/2 Meteorological instruments
United Republic of Tanzania
TE/5/3/1 Provision of Internet connection
Nigeria DP/4/2/3 Provision of PCs for RMTC Lagos
Pakistan DP/4/2/1 Replacement of MSS and computer
Myanmar OB/3/5/1 A high-resolution satellite receiving station
(b) Study Tours
- A study tour on China’s meteorological service will be organized for the directors of
NMHSs in RA III and RA IV.
- An international training course on Monsoon Meteorology will be held at RMTC Nanjing.
- Provision of scholarship for two graduate students from Viet Nam.
- International travel cost for two experts to visit Cairo RMTC.
4.1.18 In 1999, Finland supported the technical co-operation in the field of meteorology with
approximately US $1,110.000. The co-operation programme with Nicaragua 1998-2001 which assists
the national organization, communication and implementation related to UN-FCCC commitments was
supported in 1999 with approximately US $816,000. IADB/FMI Assessment of Ozone and UV
Radiation Monitoring in Latin America was completed.
4.1.19 In 1999 Finland supported mainly the extension of the maintenance and warranty services
of the STAR4/VSAT systems of the NMSs in the Central American Isthmus up to 30 November 2001
and the regional training programme of CRRH. New developments of the upper-air sounding systems
in St. Petersburg and Murmansk were supported within a bilateral programme.
4.1.20 Finland carried out an evaluation of international development co-operation in the field of
meteorology in the context of a thematic evaluation on Environment and Development in the Finnish
Development Cooperation. The results were published in 1999.
4.1.21 Finland initiated a new support to initiatives on sustainable development in the field of
meteorology. A fact-finding mission for the preparedness to climate variability and global change in
the Small Island Development States in the Caribbean Region was carried out with WMO in
September-October. The scope of the work was to identify the requirements of the NMSs in order to
fulfil their obligations within the international conventions such as UNFCCC, CCD and Montreal
Protocol and WMO programmes in the region. The project should cover a period of three years.
4.1.22 In 2000, the co-operation project with Nicaragua 1998-2001 will be supported in 2000 with
approximately US $734,000. The co-operation programme in Central America will concentrate on
refreshment maintenance training and spares related to observation systems. The bilateral
programme on new developments of the upper-air sounding systems in St. Petersburg and Murmansk
will be completed. The appraisal mission of the SIDS Caribbean project will be carried out in January
2000 and the project is planned to start during the second quarter of 2000.
4.1.23 During 1999, France provided support to the VCP for an amount of US $607,000. In
particular, the following projects received financing:
- CLICOM Drought Preparedness project in co-operation with UK and WMO;
- Provision of an electrolytic hydrogen generator for Armenia;
- Additional equipment for calibration of barometers for Cuba;
- Upgrading of Synergie station in Honduras;
- Provision of a second automatic weather station for Ukraine; and
- Short-term fellowships.
4.1.24 In collaboration with WMO, France also provided experts needed to support Members
within the framework of the VCP, in particular to develop the GTS in RA-I. This commitment, which
was acknowledged by the last meeting of RA-I, will continue as necessary according to the needs
expressed by Members, and in co-operation with other donors involved, particularly UK.
4.1.25 On a bilateral basis, France continued to provide support to various projects, among which
ACMAD activities (telecommunications, data processing, CLICOM, numerical weather prediction),
AOC-HYCOS, ALADIN project in numerical weather prediction.
4.1.26 For 2000, France intends to pursue its efforts of technical co-operation in meteorology
through the VCP, despite the fact that no fiscal figure can be given at this stage for its contribution.
Nevertheless, France intends in particular to provide support to the basic ground observation network
in some countries in RA-I, in co-ordination with other ongoing projects.
4.1.27 Germany will continue to provide assistance in education and training and fellowships,
mostly on a bilateral basis, and especially short-term fellowships on a cost-sharing basis in the field
of research and development. Relevant plans and recommendations from WMO bodies will be taken
into account as far as possible.
4.1.28 Regarding training in operational hydrology, Germany concentrated on supporting WMO-
sponsored training courses. In 1999 the International Postgraduate Course on Applied Hydrology and
Information Systems for Water Management at the IMTR in Nairobi, Kenya, was supported with a
financial contribution of DM 12,000. This amount was paid into the Hydrology and Water Resources
Trust Fund of WMO. Furthermore, a German expert joined this course for a week as lecturer on
coastal zone management and interactions of tide and inland water flow. His contribution was fully
financed by the German IHP/OHP National Committee. A similar financial and in kind contribution for
the course in Nairobi will be provided in 2000.
4.1.29 In the VCP co-ordinated project ASMET (African Satellite Meteorological Education and
Training), the installation of infrastructure at the RMTCs in Nairobi and Niamey had been completed
in 1999. Some project funding was reserved by the project manager to address minor problems
found during the first months of use and in mid-1999, he issued a report with recommendations as
to how this money should be spent. At a workshop, held in December 1999 at EUMETSAT, a basic
plan was drawn up which shows completion of this work by the end of March 2000. At the workshop,
considerable progress was also made in preparation for the production of ASMET-3, a module to be
produced by the two African RMTCs.
4.1.30 In the German-Argentine project on urban climate and air pollution control MENDOCLIMA,
a final report was produced. Further publications and presentations are planned, also in South
America, for the practical realization of the results. In a project that is planned to last for a period of
two years, experts from the DWD have begun with coarse dust measurements at the site of the future
GAW station in Monte Tololo, Chile, in order to determine the proportion of the natural coarse dust
emission in the total dust input at the GAW station. In addition, two emission measuring instruments
were provided to support the setting up of a centre for atmospheric research.
4.1.31 In support of the efforts to overcome expected effects of the Year 2000 problem in the
Russian Federation, a DWD expert took part in the ad-hoc co-ordination meeting in Moscow, April
1999. In line with his recommendations, Germany has contributed the sum of DM 50,000 to the
Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring.
4.1.32 The meeting was informed that Germany will continue to provide technical assistance,
mostly on a bilateral basis, and taking into consideration the relevant recommendations of WMO
bodies. Continued emphasis is placed on support to WWW System Support Activities through
seconded experts, training, etc.
4.1.33 Israel contributed to the VCP for 1999 through the provision of 120 fellowships for four
training courses in Israel at the RMTC, and 90 fellowships for on-the-spot courses in Costa Rica,
Kenya, Turkey and Uzbekistan. In 2000, Israel will continue to provide fellowships for participation
at the RMTC, on-the-spot courses abroad, within the framework of the VCP.
4.1.34 The contribution of Israel to the VCP for the Year 2000 will almost certainly be reduced by
10%, and should be approximately US $370,000.
4.1.35 An exchange visit between Directors of the RMTCs of China and Israel took place in 1999.
Bilateral technical co-operation activities are under discussion between CMA (China) and IMS (Israel).
The recommendations are expected by March 2000. Exchange of lecturers and joint educational
material are expected.
4.1.36 In 1999, Japan contributed US $320,000 to the VCP(F) and US $80,000 to support the
Russian Federation for the replacement of telecommunication facilities to be Year 2000 compliant.
US $250,000 was contributed to the training/fellowships.
4.1.37 The training courses which Japan hosted and financially supported in 1999 were as
(1) A four-month group training course in meteorology aimed at enhancement of capability of
basic and operational meteorology was offered to nine participants from nine Member countries from
23 August to 17 December 1999.
(2) A training course on advanced weather observation was offered to 11 participants from
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 22 February to 21 March 1999.
(3) The Second International Training Seminar on Typhoon Monitoring and Forecasting in the
western North Pacific was offered to five participants from five Typhoon Committee Members from
18 January to 5 February 1999.
4.1.38 Japan will continue to host a four-month group training course in meteorology which will
consist of about ten participants from various regions.
4.1.39 The bilateral/multilateral technical co-operation activities carried out by Japan in 1999 and
their prospects for 2000 are as follows:
(a) The second phase of the project for improvement of the meteorological radar network in
Pakistan was finished at the end of September 1999. The project was aimed at enhancement of the
observation and forecasting capabilities and improvement of meteorological services for mitigation
of natural disasters through the installation of two radars at D.I. Khan and Rahimyar Khan and the
establishment of a radar imagery composite system at the Headquarters of the National
Meteorological Service and radar data transmission facilities from four radar stations (two existing
radars at Karachi and Islamabad, and two new radars).
(b) The project for the strengthening of weather warning services related to natural disasters
in Bangladesh is being implemented through the installation of a radar system at Rangpur, the
replacement of the existing meteorological radar system at Dhaka, the establishment of a radar
imagery composite system at Headquarters of the National Meteorological Service and radar data
transmission facilities from four radar stations at Cox's Bazar, Khepupara, Dhaka and Rangpur. A
satellite data receiving system of GMS and NOAA is also being provided. The project will be
completed towards the end of March 2000.
(c) A project for natural disaster reduction in Mongolia commenced in May 1998. The project
comprises the replacement of the meteorological radar at Ulaanbaatar, installation of an AWS
establishment of the water level telemeter system and of the weather information broadcasting
equipment by radio and TV, provision of meteorological training equipment, etc. The project will be
completed towards the middle of March 2000.
4.1.40 In 1999 a Tropical Desk was installed at the Institute for Meteorology with the purpose of
providing support to the Portuguese-speaking African Countries in the areas of Numerical Weather
Forecast and Climate Modelling. The desk operates under the auspices of IM and CRIA (Agency of
the Portuguese-speaking Countries and the Special Administrative Region of Macao in the area of
Climate and Related Environmental Issues). It is intended that fellows from the Portuguese-speaking
African Countries will develop their studies at this desk under the supervision of specialists in
numerical weather prediction, within the scope of the VCP Programme.
4.1.41 In 2000, Portugal will continue to support:
(a) five fellowships for meteorologists from the Portuguese-speaking African Countries for a
course on Numerical Weather Forecast and Climate Modelling, with the support of the
Portuguese Institute for Co-operation and WMO;
(b) on-the-job training courses on Radiation, Instruments and Agricultural Meteorology for
three meteorologists from Mozambique, to be held at the Institute for Meteorology; and
(c) a Technical Conference in Sao Tome and Principe and equipment and services for
Guinea-Bissau and Sao Tome and Principe.
Some of these activities are expected to be carried out jointly with the Portuguese Institute for Co-
operation and CRIA (estimated cost is approximately US $154,000).
4.1.42 The Government of Russia in 1999 took a special decision to continue Russian
participation in the VCP Programme. At present, emphasis is given to education and training fields.
During 1999-2000, 39 foreign students and specialists from 14 countries are being educated and
trained. Within that process, in 1999 ROSHYDROMET supported six new candidates, recommended
by WMO, to receive long-term education in the State Hydrometeorological University in St.
Petersburg. The total contribution of the Russian Federation to the VCP in 1999 is estimated in US
$197,000, including US $185,000 for long-term education (up to six years) of foreign students and
post graduates, as well as US $12,000 for organizing short-term training courses (7-15 days) within
4.1.43 In 2000 the level of the Russian contribution to the VCP will be at the same level as in
1999. The Russian Federation will concentrate on education and training aspects. Attention will also
be given to technical assistance on a multilateral and bilateral bases to neighbouring countries,
especially in the field of natural disasters.
4.1.44 The meeting was informed of the Spanish activities of multilateral co-operation in 1999-
2000 as follows:
Ibero-american Climate Project “Feasibility Study Phase”
4.1.45 Spain contributed to this study in 1999 by providing consultant expenses. The final report
of this phase was delivered by the Secretary-General to the President of the Inter American
Development Bank on 20 September 1999 in Washington, USA. The Ambassador of Spain in
Washington highlighted the Spanish contribution in this report and the importance of the project for
the study of the Ibero-american climate project.
Estimated Spanish activities of multilateral co-operation for the Year 2000
4.1.46 The possibility to extend the Feasibility Study to four countries of the Central American
Isthmus (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama) is under consideration. The study can also
be extended to Belize. The INM has contacted the Spanish Agency for Co-operation with Ibero-
america and it has agreed that if the extension of the study is approved, Spain could contribute to the
expenses for Spanish consultants with per diem and air ticket costs.
African Centre for Meteorological Applications for Development (ACMAD)
4.1.47 Recognizing this important project to reinforce the NMHSs in the region, Spain contributed
to ACMAD in 1999 US $94,340. Taking into consideration the Spanish interest in this regional
project, the voluntary contribution to ACMAD for the Year 2000 will be US $95,000.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
4.1.48 Considering the importance of the participation of experts from developing countries in
the activities of IPCC, Spain’s contribution to IPCC in 1999 was US $15,825, and the Spanish
voluntary contribution to IPCC will be increased (estimated US $31,650) for 2000.
4.1.49 In 1999 the UK contributed US $57K (£35K) to the WMO VCP Fund. The level of
contribution will remain the same in 2000.
4.1.50 During 1999 the UK expenditure on VCP equipment and services was US $803K (£503K).
In 2000 the UK plans to spend US $811K (£509K). (Figures refer to the UK Financial Year April-
March.) Outlined below are the main areas in which we currently envisage investing. However, the
prioritization of expenditure will reflect discussions at the IPM.
4.1.51 During 1999 the UK provided and installed a further two SADIS reception and display
system in Ghana and Mozambique. A SADIS receiver and a MESSIR-VISION display system are
being provided for Rwanda, and in Zambia the existing SADIS receiver is being integrated into the
AMEDIS system. A SADIS for Bosnia-Herzegovina is likely. Related aims will be for AMEDIS
systems and Internet connectivity.
4.1.52 The UK is providing upgrade kits to 16 countries that have BURS MDD-B and PDUS
systems. Delivery is scheduled for December 1999 (apart from Jordan, these are bilateral projects).
The upgrade kit changes the visualization software to MESSIR-VISION, which will make integration
with AMEDIS easier.
4.1.53 The DigiCORA system in Guinea was upgraded early in 1999. Consumables for Costa
Rica and Armenia, Sudan and Uganda are being provided, with delivery during the first and second
quarters of 2000. A DigiCORA GPS upgrade with consumables is being provided for Mozambique.
Future projects will concentrate on the GUAN stations, with others as resources allow.
4.1.54 In regard to the programme of provision of TV/media presentation systems, which
enhance the capabilities of the local NMS to deliver services to government and other users, the
Malawi system (initiated in 1998) was installed in February 1999 and the Zambia system was installed
in September 1999 (after shipping delays). Projects initiated in 1999 will provide systems for Namibia,
Senegal and Armenia. The Namibia system will be installed in December 1999. It is anticipated that
further media presentation systems will be donated in 2000. Investigations are being undertaken with
UK DFID over the possibility of one or more systems in the Caribbean.
4.1.55 Support to CLICOM has continued during 1999 with the upgrade projects started in 1998.
Support was provided for a CLICOM/CLIPS workshop in ACMAD in May – July 1999, including
provision of 2nd user PCs for the participants, and also funding for development of the INSTAT
package under Windows. The intention is that software support should be taken on by expert users
in the developing countries. The next requirement is for clear identification of the future CDMS design
4.1.56 Efforts continued over the Year 2000 problem. Particular concern relates to the
maintenance of flow of essential observations. Assistance was given to the Russian Federation,
Armenia and Kazakstan for the upgrade of communications facilities. Remedial actions may be
4.1.57 The sum of £45K was placed in a fund for Rehabilitation of NMHSs in Central America and
the Caribbean – this has not yet been allocated.
4.1.58 One hundred 2nd user PCs were provided to Kenya for IMTR, and a further 100 to ACMAD.
Other surplus equipment included visiometers and anemometers.
4.1.59 In 1999/2000 the UK supported fellowships to the value of US $255K (£155K). The primary
expenditure was on supporting:
• ten students at a Statistics in Agricultural Climatology Course
• two Meteorology MSc students
• a participant on the Class II course at IMTR, Nairobi
• a regional commercial skills course at IMTR Nairobi
• a regional accountancy training workshop in Morogoro, Tanzania; and
• partial funding of one Meteorology PhD student at a UK University.
4.1.60 Partnership funding was successfully used with the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture to fund
one of the SIAC participants. Furthermore, greater use of RMTCs and other local training facilities
has been made, in line with the policy announced at last year’s IPM which is aimed at strengthening
the RMTCs, thus achieving more cost-effective training and delivery of more locally focused training.
4.1.61 In the financial year 2000/2001, the UK will maintain its support to the fellowships
programme continuing the policy of focusing on more specialized short-term courses. We hope to
be successful in bidding for a 40% increase in funds, i.e. £218,000 (US $350,000). The additional
funds would be used to support VCP Fellowships at the Meteorological Office College. In
collaboration with the University of Reading, IMTR Nairobi and WMO a “SIAC 2000 Nairobi” is being
planned for May – July 2000.
United States of America
4.1.62 The USA reported that its annual contribution to the VCP was US $2.0M in 1999 and would
likely be the same in 2000. However, the actual funds from the USA which contributed to developing
country NMHSs in 1999, exceeded US $12M, mostly through government-to-government assistance
and funding provided by international lending institutions to develop early warning capabilities in
response to recent weather-related disasters. For example, the USAID Hurricane Mitch
reconstruction project in Central America is providing more than $15M over a two-year period to
NOAA to work with countries in the areas of meteorological and hydrological observations, river basin
modelling, receipt and use of satellite data, climate studies, and coastal zone management.
Additional funding for NMHSs in Central America is expected over the next several months.
4.1.63 In addition, the USA reported it had successfully completed the STAR4 upgrades
necessary to bring these systems into Y2K compliance. An upper-air system and consumables were
provided to Panama. Training fellowships were offered at the International desks at the National
Centers for Environmental Prediction. A total of 22 fellowships was provided at the African Climate
Desk, Tropical Desk, and the South American Desk, and four long term fellows were supported.
4.1.64 The USA continued to sponsor, co-sponsor or support attendance to the following
workshops: Tropical Meteorology (now offered annually); Flood Forecasting (new and continuing);
Climate Applications (new and continuing); WAFS/STAR4 (Malaysia); West African Monsoon
(Senegal); Public Weather Services (Florida); Tropical Cyclone (China); Climate forecasting
4.1.65 During 2000, the USA is preparing to combine the Tropical and South American Desks in
order to establish a new Pacific Desk at the NWS Weather Forecast Office in Honolulu, Hawaii. This
is expected to begin in July.
4.1.66 In 2000, the USA will investigate the possibility of providing extended 2-way capability with
4.1.67 The USA will continue its efforts in resource mobilization to help funds go directly to
NMHSs. Efforts now involve active co-operation with the World Bank, the Inter-American
Development Bank and USAID.
4.1.68 The USA has begun some regional projects:
(1) a regional maintenance project, concentrating first on the regional upper-air stations;
(2) a study of the components of an optimal regional observing network;
(3) a project to equip Amateur Radio Operators in the Caribbean with low-cost automatic
(4) a project to place regional radar Images on the Internet;
(5) a project to provide Web pages for regional Meteorological Services; and
(6) a regional bulletin board on the Internet.
The USA is also active in data rescue activities in Central America and Africa.
4.1.69 A major effort is being made by the USA to assist countries with early warning capabilities,
especially through an end-to-end early warning system (from observations to modelling to warning
dissemination). Several projects are now underway and in 2000, new projects are likely in Viet Nam
4.2 Review of the VCP Programme and related technical co-operation activities (Agenda
items 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7)
4.2.1 The meeting reviewed various issues related to the WMO Voluntary Co-operation
Programme, including support to the VCP(ES) projects, support to education and training fellowships,
the effectiveness of the VCP Programme, the co-ordinated programmes, VCP procedures, publicity,
resource mobilization activities, utilization of the VCP(F) and the WWW Implementation Support
Revolving Fund, and co-operation with other funding/technical co-operation organizations.
Support to VCP projects
4.2.2 The meeting reviewed the Members’ contributions to the VCP in 1999 given in Annex V
and the evolution of the support to the VCP over the past 20 years given in Annex VI. It noted that
the contribution to the VCP(ES) in 1999 was at almost the same level of the largest contributions in
1989-1990 and in 1997. The contribution to the VCP(F) has increased since 1997.
4.2.3 The meeting noted that in 1999, 171 VCP projects for equipment and services were
circulated amongst donor Members, and 99 VCP projects obtained partial or full support. The support
received for these projects grouped by fields of co-operation during the period 1988-1998, and in
1999 is given in Annex VII.
4.2.4 During 1988-1999, a total of 1,154 VCP projects was circulated amongst donors. About
46% of the VCP projects received support: VCP projects related to surface observing stations, upper-
air observing stations, satellite receiving stations, telecommunication systems, data processing
systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and meteorological applications activities (including
Public Weather Services and Aeronautical Meteorology Programmes) have received a high level (40-
61%) of support, while those for weather radar stations, research and training centre activities and
GAW activities received a lower level (6-19%) of support. Compared with the level of support in the
past eleven years, 1988-1998, VCP projects for upper-air observing stations, telecommunication
systems, CLICOM and climatological activities and for hydrological activities and meteorological
applications activities received more support in 1999, due to the need for the upgrading of WWW
facilities in connection with the Year 2000 problem and for the upgrading of CLICOM equipment.
Fourteen VCP projects related to hydrological activities and two for marine meteorological activities
were supported by Members and with the VCP(F) in 1999.
Support to education and training fellowships
4.2.5 The meeting was informed that during 1999, a total of 128 requests for fellowships
expected to be supported within the framework of the VCP was received from Member countries, and
115 short-term and 23 long-term fellowships were awarded under the VCP.
4.2.6 Since January 1995 until December 1999 WMO has awarded 687 fellowships funded
under the VCP programme. The great majority (82%) of the fellowships awarded under VCP during
this period were for short-term studies.
4.2.7 In spite of the substantial offers of support obtained every year, between 150 and 180
requests for fellowships remain unsatisfied each year, meaning that over a half of the fellowship
applications received in any one year could not be satisfied (mainly for long-term fellowships).
Effectiveness of the Voluntary Co-operation Programme
4.2.8 In view of the fact that a number of original requests from Members still contain
descriptions which are not fully clarified, thus making it difficult to formulate into a project for
circulation and to attract donors’ attention, the meeting was pleased to note that the Secretariat is
preparing new guidance material for the preparation of requests for assistance under the VCP in
order to ensure a better adaptation of the requests to the likely offers of support and to the priority
areas of the WMO Programmes. The Final Report of the IPM/VCP/TCO continues to be distributed
on a yearly basis to keep the Members informed of the priority areas of WMO Programmes to be
supported under the VCP. The meeting also noted that the Secretariat is providing regular progress
reports on the status of VCP projects to Members concerned.
4.2.9 The meeting further noted that since 1997 various measures have been taken to
streamline the process and operation of the VCP(ES) Programme to ensure the cost-effective and
efficient management of the VCP Programme. These measures served for the regular and speedy
circulation of the VCP requests and quicker implementation of the projects.
4.2.10 The meeting was pleased to note that, through the Internet VCP Home Page
(http://www.wmo.ch/web/tco/vcp/VCPHome.html) developed in December 1997, the latest information
has been distributed through the Internet, such as the monthly VCP News and the lists of approved
VCP projects for circulation. The VCP and TCO Home Pages are being updated with a new look for
the Year 2000 – WMO’s 50th anniversary. An increased use could be made of the Internet for speedy
distribution of additional information, such as distribution of VCP-related documents and project
implementation status in Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format). In this connection, the meeting
agreed that efforts should be made to establish links between the WMO VCP/TCO Home Page and
the technical co-operation-related pages of NMHSs Web Sites. The meeting also considered that
improvement could be made to enhance the presentation of the VCP/TCO Web Sites and increase
the availability of on-line information on the VCP (including fellowships) for donors’ requirement.
4.2.11 The meeting was informed that the fourth evaluation of implemented projects will be
carried out in 2000. The results will be reported to the IPM/VCP/TCO(2001) meeting and EC-LIII in
4.2.12 Further to the discussions in the last IPM meeting concerning the need for a wider based
action on a regional basis for VCP project requests, the meeting noted with satisfaction that in 1999
a number of projects were formulated and are being implemented with the leadership of the
Secretariat (e.g., seven projects for the implementation of the connection to the RMDCN), the
Regional and Subregional Offices (e.g., eight projects for the provision of Stevens stream gauges)
and major donors (e.g., 34 projects for the upgrading of the WAFS STAR4 workstations by USA).
VCP co-ordinated programmes
4.2.13 As an example of successful achievement of co-ordinated projects, the meeting was
pleased to note the progress of the project for the replacement of OMEGA-based upper-air observing
systems to alternative systems implemented since 1997. Substantial contributions were provided
by donor Members; viz, Australia, Finland, Japan, UK and USA; and ASECNA, Vaisala Oy, Finland
and TOTEX Corporation, Japan. The results of WWW special monitoring (July 1999) show that of
the 253 OMEGA-based upper-air stations, 217 had been replaced by alternative systems. Of the 36
remaining stations, 12 stations have on-going replacement projects, some of which were completed
by the end of 1999.
4.2.14 Noting that the ACMAD Demonstration Project was successfully completed in 1998, the
meeting felt that it would be appropriate that a co-ordinated programme “Support for the ACMAD
Demonstration Project” be renamed “Support for ACMAD activities” with a view to further
enhancement of overall ACMAD activities. In addition, the co-ordinated programme on satellite
receivers could be replaced by a new programme entitled “Support to transition to LRPT/LRIT
Utilization of the Voluntary Co-operation Fund (VCP(F))
4.2.15 The meeting reviewed the draft report on the use of the VCP(F) in 1999. The expenditure
and obligations for approved projects amounted to about US $768,000. The funds were used mainly
for spare parts, shipping of equipment, expert services, fellowships, and high priority programmes,
in particular for support to Y2K problems, Internet capability, upper-air stations, TCDC activities,
ACMAD training activities and the GTS for Africa, in accordance with the guidelines and the
allocations approved by EC-XLVIII.
4.2.16 The meeting reviewed the proposals for the allocations of VCP(F) for 2000 amounting to
approximately US $320,000, and considered that these proposals are in line with the priority areas
of WMO Programmes.
WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund
4.2.17 The meeting reviewed the draft status report on the use of the WWW Implementation
Support Revolving Fund presented by the Secretariat. It noted that, at the request of Cg-XIII, the
Secretariat utilized the diplomatic channels to facilitate the reimbursement by Members which had
not yet reimbursed their loans at the end of the 24-month repayment period. With this measure and
with the assistance of Regional and Subregional Offices and in response to the reminders sent to the
respective countries (January 1998 and January 1999), two Members reimbursed their loans in 1998-
Publicity of the VCP
4.2.18 The meeting was informed that a VCP Brochure on the Programme is planned to be issued
in 2000 in conjunction with WMO’s 50th Anniversary. Donor Members are invited to contribute
articles on their relevant activities. The meeting suggested that the contents and presentation of the
Brochure be geared towards informing and attracting external donors to the Programme.
Co-operation with other technical co-operation partners
4.2.19 As agreed at the last IPM, representatives of several funding institutions and technical co-
operation organizations were invited to the meeting in order to foster close co-operation with these
agencies and exchange information on relevant activities. In this context, a special session was
dedicated to presentations by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the World
Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), the UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS)
and the Organization of American States (OAS).
4.2.20 The presentations were considered very informative and useful for the WMO community
and highlighted the prospects of grants and loans from funding institutions within the framework of
development assistance programmes of individual and groups of countries. The meeting noted in
particular the active involvement of the World Bank and regional development banks in natural
disaster prevention and mitigation activities and the importance given to meteorological and
hydrological infrastructure and services in this area.
4.2.21 The meeting considered that the opportunities exist for further enhancing the collaboration
with funding institutions through regular contacts and co-ordination, in particular for natural disaster
reduction activities. In this regard, the meeting welcomed efforts made by several donor Members
to obtain shares of resources from these institutions. In addition, the meeting welcomed the
agreements signed recently between WMO and the World Bank and the Inter-American Development
Bank to develop and implement joint projects and programmes in common areas of interest, such as
climate change, water resources management, capacity building and natural disaster reduction.
4.2.22 The meeting expressed appreciation to the representatives of the funding agencies and
technical co-operation organizations for their valuable contributions and recommended that further
dialogue be maintained with these institutions, including during future meetings.
4.2.23 In the light of the experience gained, the meeting agreed that similar arrangements for
donor participation be made in the future, and that opportunities be taken to emphasize further the
capability of potential contributions of WMO in the development and implementation of relevant
economic programmes in support of sustainable development.
4.2.24 The meeting was also informed that to further co-operation between WMO and the
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in terms of the VCP, Mr V. Scarabino, Training,
Education and Mutual Assistance (TEMA) and Capacity Building Programme Co-ordinator, IOC, will
visit the WMO Secretariat in February 2000 to further consider the ways of establishing an appropriate
mechanism and develop a plan of action of co-operation with the WMO VCP for its implementation.
5. CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL ITEMS REQUIRING ACTION UNDER VCP AND/OR
RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES (Agenda item 5)
5.1 Transition to LRIT/HRIT for the reception of satellite data
5.1.1 The meeting was informed that in anticipating the transition and its corresponding impact
on its Members, WMO initiated an LRIT/LRPT project within the Secretariat that addressed three
specific aspects of the conversion. The first aspect to be covered was the transition period, its
duration and regional application. The second aspect was the modification or replacement of the
existing ground receiving stations. This aspect is being accomplished in concert with CGMS satellite
operators and equipment manufacturers. Finally, improved capabilities through increased awareness
of the potentialities for the new data will be presented to potential users in the form of a new WMO
Satellite Activities Technical Document. The technical document will provide guidance to WMO
Members on how to exploit the new LRIT/LRPT services. The technical document should be available
by the end of 2000.
5.1.2 The latest status for LRIT/LRPT conversion for satellites in polar and geostationary orbit
is given in the WMO Satellite Activities home pages at
http://www.wmo.ch/hinsman/APT_WEFAXstatus.html. In WMO Regions I (Africa) and VI (Europe)
there will be a three-year overlap, where both analogue and digital services will be available, starting
in December 2000 and based on the scheduled launch of MSG1. WMO Regions II (Asia) and V
(Southwest Pacific) will have a two-year overlap starting in 2003 and based on the scheduled launch
of MTSAT1R. WMO Regions III and IV (South, Central and North America including the Caribbean)
will have the possibility to receive LRIT when GOES-N becomes operational after 2002. However,
GOES-N will be able to transmit either WEFAX or LRIT but not both. Thus, there will be no transition
period for WMO Regions III and IV. The Indian Ocean area (RA II) appears to have no overlap
starting in 2002.
5.1.3 As regards LRPT, the morning (AM) satellite will start LRPT in 2002 with the scheduled
launch of METOP1 while the afternoon (PM) satellite has yet to confirm that an LRPT service will be
provided until the launch of NPOESS at the earliest 2009. Since there will be no transition period for
the AM orbit, but rather a seven-year period when both APT (PM) and LRPT (AM) will be available,
it will be necessary to maintain a dual capability (APT and LRPT) during the period 2002-2009 if it is
deemed necessary to have information from AM and PM satellites. It can also be seen that the
inclusive transition period for all Regions will cover the period from 2000 until 2009.
5.1.4 The meeting underlined that the costs of the low-resolution satellite receivers and the high-
resolution satellite receivers have already been decreasing. The manufacturers are developing the
new generations of LRIT and HRIT receivers. Taking into account all costs needed for delivery,
deployment and operational start, the difference in costs between LRIT and HRIT may be small in
certain areas such as RA I. In this respect, it was noted that the European Union was considering
assistance in providing receivers to most African countries. These countries, which could not receive
the appropriate support from the European Union, could submit VCP requests for assistance. The
requests should be considered by donors as high priority projects.
5.2 Satellite-based data distribution systems for the WWW
5.2.1 Satellite-based data distribution systems are integrated in the GTS as an essential element
of the global, regional and national levels of the GTS. The new RMTN in Region IV, based on two-
way multi-point telecommunication service via satellite supported by the International Satellite
Communication System (ISCS) operated by USA, was implemented in 1995/1996 and is operational.
5.2.2 The Meteorological Data Distribution service (MDD) via METEOSAT is part of the RMTN
of Region I. RETIM and FAX-E operated by France and Germany respectively via the EUTELSAT
satellite were integrated in the RMTN of Region VI. The provision of RETIM receiving stations to
several Members in the Eastern part of Region VI have considerably enhanced their reception of
meteorological data and products. China was implementing a VSAT telecommunication system via
the Asiasat satellite which is now part of the RMTN of Region II. Japan plans to operate a multi-point
data distribution service via the multi-functional transport satellite (MTSAT) that will replace GMS-5.
5.2.3 Within the framework of ICAO, the USA has implemented the WAFS satellite-based
broadcast via the International Satellite Communication System (ISCS) for the Americas and for the
Pacific, and the United Kingdom has implemented the WAFS satellite-based broadcast (SADIS) via
the UK Satellite Facility (UKSF), to serve Europe (except Iceland), Africa, the Middle East and the
Western part of Asia. Both the ISCS and the UKSF are being used to support WWW data exchange
under adequate arrangements between the operating NMSs and WMO, and with ICAO as
appropriate. XII-RAV (1998) agreed that the GTS component of the ISCS over the Pacific be
integrated into the RMTN of Region V as a regional complementary component of the GTS for
facilitating the distribution of meteorological data and products. XII-RA V also recommended the
implementation of EMWIN receivers from GOES satellites in South Pacific islands, as appropriate.
The UK has offered to use the spare capacity of its segment of the UKSF (i.e., the satellite-based
system which also supports SADIS) to broadcast data and products for WWW purposes, as part of
the UK's contribution to the WWW Programme, with a guarantee of minimum capacity for WWW
traffic, and during the lifetime of the system of a minimum of ten years from 1995. There is a pilot
project for the implementation of this capacity of the UKSF in Region II. CBS noted with satisfaction
that several Regional Associations and Members are taking advantage of satellite-based multi-point
telecommunication systems, and it encouraged all Members to further pursue the integration of these
systems into the GTS for improving the distribution of data and products.
5.2.4 Several NMSs, in particular from developing countries, continue to require co-operation
assistance for implementing the facilities (e.g., VSAT station with a computer-based terminal)
required for improving the availability of meteorological data and products.
5.3 Implementation of world area forecast system (WAFS) satellite broadcasts
5.3.1 The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a system in which world and regional forecast
centres provide high quality aeronautical meteorological forecasts in uniform standardized formats.
These forecasts comprise upper winds and temperatures and significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts
in digital, pictorial and/or alphanumeric formats that could be used directly by the aviation community
for flight planning and flight documentation purposes. There are two World Area Forecast Centres
(WAFCs), and as initially envisaged, out of the original fifteen Regional Area Forecast Centres
(RAFCs), a large number RAFCs have already been progressively phased out and their
responsibilities taken over either by the London or Washington WAFC. Transition plans are currently
being implemented for the transfer of responsibility of the remaining RAFCs to the relevant WAFC.
The full implementation of the WAFS will enable all countries of the world, regardless of their level
of development and their geographical locations, to have access to the same very accurate forecasts
5.3.2 The current Satellite Distribution of Information Relating to Air Navigation (SADIS) has a
point to multi-point capacity to up-link global gridded wind and temperature forecasts in GRIB format,
selected upper wind and temperature charts and significant weather (SIGWX) charts in T.4 facsimile
format. The system also disseminates alphanumeric data including amended forecasts and OPMET
information, namely TAFs, METARs/SPECIs, SIGMETs and AIRMETs. Area covered by SADIS
includes Europe, Africa, the Middle East and the western part of Asia to 120 longitude. Few Selected
sites with communication difficulties will be equipped with a two-way VSAT to help disseminate
OPMET information through SADIS.
5.3.3 The US International Satellite Communication System (ISCS) is used to broadcast WAFS
data and products from the Washington WAFC. The ISCS Atlantic Ocean Region (AOR) broadcast
covers the Americas and the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean Region (POR) broadcast is beamed
to the Pacific and East Asia. In addition to the WAFS products the AOR broadcasts also provide
meteorological observations, analysis and forecasts from WMO Members in the Caribbean and
Central America. This serves as the new Region IV Meteorological Telecommunication Network
(RMTN) and satisfies both the WMO GTS requirements and the needs of ICAO AFS. Data up-linked
from the US ISCS is to a large extent similar to data disseminated by SADIS. The US provided VSAT
equipment for 42 sites in the Americas, Pacific and Eastern Asia though the WMO’s VCP as well as
STAR4 computer terminals operating in most countries. The US replaced STAR4/VSAT systems,
which were not Y2K compliant.
5.4 Internet capabilities in NMHSs
5.4.1 The meeting felt that the effective use of the Internet has significant benefits for NMHSs,
such as the potential to assist in increasing the visibility of a NMS in its country and the quality of end-
user oriented services it can provide through directs and cost-effective information exchange with end
users, and the potential to raise the level of scientific knowledge and public awareness of
meteorological matters. A full access to the Internet can also provide for significant data exchange
and availability, which can complement the GTS and enhance the meteorological services and is
considered a new dissemination component for those services. Internet access also enables
Members to actively participate in WMO programmes activities, such as CBS and RA groups.
5.4.2 The meeting noted that some countries still experience difficulties in obtaining access to
the Internet, due to the non-availability of Internet connections or to the national telecommunication
regulations of the countries as regards the access to the Internet. In some instances, the costs of the
access to the Internet (equipment and/or recurring costs) are too high for the countries. Despite these
handicaps, efforts should be continued to assist them in this area.
5.4.3 Like for other projects supported by donors, it is important to consider the sustainability of
the Internet projects. The use of the equipment requires a trained staff and there is a need to follow
the rapid evolution of the information technology.
5.4.4 The USA and UK agreed to support a study on the connection of all Members to the
Internet, including the compilation of the difficulties met by the countries and the possible solutions
to overcome these issues.
5.5 Year 2000 problem
5.5.1 The meeting was pleased to note that there was no obvious interruption in the provision
or quality of data and products produced by WMO Members due to Y2K problems. This successful
outcome is due to the following actions:
(a) Members made a concerted effort to ensure their systems were Y2K compliant. This
involved considerable commitment of manpower and resources and Members are congratulated on
the success of these efforts.
(b) Donors provided essential financial and technical assistance to Members that required
help. The support for repairs to the GTS in the Russian Federation was particularly noteworthy.
(c) Education and co-ordination by the Secretariat. The numerous letters, information posted
on the WMO Web server, discussions in WMO meetings and workshops (with support from the UK
and USA) informed Members of the problem with sufficient time for them to evaluate their systems
and undertake necessary repairs or make alternative arrangements.
(d) Preparation of comprehensive contingency arrangements and activities undertaken by the
WMO Y2K Situation Centres. It should be noted that much preparatory work went into the setting up
and operating the Y2K Situation reporting procedures over the transition. The four Situation Centres
discussed arrangements through a number of conference calls, which, although requiring some staff
to participate at very inconvenient local times, proved very helpful and informative.
5.5.2 Despite the overall success of the Y2K transition there have been a few difficulties in
receipt of products and data experienced by some Members, particularly via MDD and polar-orbiting
satellites because of equipment that was known to be non-compliant but was not replaced in time.
All current requests have been agreed.
5.6 CLIPS Pilot/Demonstration projects and future evolution of the CLICOM
5.6.1 The meeting was informed of progress in the Showcase Projects on Climate and Health:
the Heat/Health Warning Systems in Rome and Shanghai. The meeting noted with appreciation the
common aspects of the projects: that they involve multi-disciplinary teams, they use proven climate
applications that correlate historical climate and health information, they result in an integrated
warning system that saves lives, and that the ongoing responsibility of the resulting system lies wholly
within the local organizations. The meeting was particularly impressed with the multi-agency co-
ordination and expressed appreciation for the participation of the WHO and UNEP in addition to the
country meteorological services. It was noted that the umbrella Showcase Project is a project that
can grow as techniques in other areas of health and in seasonal to interannual prediction capabilities
develop. The meeting also gave strong support to the practical results that accrue from the Project's
self-sustaining nature and to its ability to translate climate knowledge into users' actions. It was noted
that many of the major international funding organizations could include components of meteorology
and climatology in projects they support, but that the components are not usually line items. Instead,
they are viable components when they show the kind of direct linkage demonstrated through the
Showcase Projects, especially the demonstration of the benefit that services of climatology and
meteorology have in the direct role of warning services. The applications and methodology used in
the Showcase Projects also provide a means to bridge between the WMO's strengths in the basic
technologies in meteorology and hydrology and the decisions and actions that the user sectors must
5.6.2 The meeting noted the potential of the Logbook proposal to be a key component in
promoting the use of data from the CLICOM project for a wide variety of CLIPS applications that need
to link climatic data from other sectors (e.g., health, agriculture, etc.).
5.6.3 The meeting noted with appreciation the development plans for the CLIPS Curriculum.
Various training activities addressing climate applications and climate prediction were discussed, and
support was expressed for the collaboration between the WCP and the VCP Donors in activities
including the development of the curriculum and the identification of available modules. The meeting
also expressed support for the exploration of the Climate Affairs training thrust concept, particularly
as it addressed the WMO objective of improving the capacity of NMHSs across the broad range of
climate activities--from traditional roles of ensuring data and monitoring, through climate variability
and prediction, to linking to and strengthening participation in the formation of national policy,
incorporating the understanding of natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change.
5.6.4 The meeting expressed support for the CLIPS Focal Point concept, and requested the
Secretariat to prepare a listing of the CLIPS Focal Points so that they can be given priority in training
events supported by donors.
5.6.5 The meeting noted the value of the Climate Outlook Fora in providing regional
enhancement of the global forecast information, and in enhancing contact and dialogue among the
climate scientists and decision-makers and stakeholders in user sectors. The meeting supported the
aspects of the CLIPS plans that would see the evolution of the WMO-supported activities of the COFs
into electronic means to ensure cost effectiveness.
5.6.6 The meeting confirmed the CLICOM Project objectives of the next generation climate data
management systems to encompass cross-platform portability and client/server architecture, and
several donors indicated their plans to support activities in this component of the CLICOM Project.
5.7 Emergency assistance for disasters
5.7.1 The meeting noted that following substantial discussions with potential donor Members on
the occasions of San Jose meeting in January 1999, the IPM (1999) in February 1999, the RA-IV
Hurricane Committee in March 1999, co-ordinated efforts were made to address urgent requirements
and for medium- and long-term requirements for Members in Central America and the Caribbean.
WMO has processed some of the urgently requested items to the affected NMHSs with the funds
allocated under the VCP(F) and the funds contributed by the Netherlands of NFL 5,000 each to the
Emergency Assistance Fund for Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Canada, France, Germany,
UK and USA are providing support to the affected countries under the VCP. For the medium- and
long-term requirements, the WMO Secretariat has prepared in collaboration with the countries
concerned, project proposals for El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua aiming at the
modernization of the NMHSs to better support their national capacities for the prevention of natural
disasters and water resources management. The proposals have been submitted to potential donors
5.7.2 Based on recent experiences with responding to natural disasters from tropical cyclones
and flooding, the meeting discussed ways to improve co-ordinating post-disaster national and regional
needs with assistance offered by VCP and other external donors. The meeting recalled the
discussion from last IPM/VCP meeting whereby VCP donors felt that following a natural disaster,
there was a hierarchy of assistance which should be identified: immediate aid to help NMHSs carry
out basic functions to protect life and property, medium-term aid to restore basic services and meet
international obligations, and longer-term aid to modernize and improve overall services.
5.7.3 The meeting felt that the WMO regional and subregional offices should, among others, be
able to carry out specific actions to assist Members in preparing for and responding to natural
disasters, particularly by participating actively in the co-ordination of the assessment of the NMHSs’
needs and assistance offered by donors. In addition, the meeting felt that, on an ad-hoc basis and
with funding from VCP donors, as required, the regional and subregional offices could be assigned
responsibility to form a disaster response team to assist NMHSs with identifying their needs and to
take the lead in co-ordinating recovery efforts which often require extensive travel and meetings in
the region with external donors.
5.7.4 In order to ensure a quick response to natural disasters, a priority plan for the assistance
should be prepared at the level of each country and co-ordinated through Regional Associations. The
plan should indicate various actions (restoration of the telecommunication systems, observing stations
and data-processing systems) to be undertaken with indications of priorities for the phased re-
establishment of the NMHSs as indicated in paragraph 5.7.2.
5.7.5 The meeting also felt that ad-hoc meetings for co-ordinating donor response to natural
disasters could be called by the IPM/VCP Chairman between regularly scheduled sessions. It was
noted that the formation of a VCP donor group, through electronic mail, would be useful for co-
ordination of all VCP donor activities.
5.7.6 The meeting established a small sub-group (from Canada, UK and USA), under the
direction of the Chairman, to prepare relevant proposals on this important issue by April 2000 for
consideration by the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation which is scheduled
to meet before EC-LII.
5.8 Co-ordinating support to Upper-air network
5.8.1 The monitoring results of the operation of the upper-air observing network show that big
gaps in data coverage still persist in South America, Africa, and Asia, mainly due to obsolete
equipment and lack of consumables. There is in particular a continued deterioration in the operation
of the upper-air network in the Russian Federation, which has already led to loss of essential upper-air
observations over Siberia and Far East, thus affecting the development of the global forecast models.
5.8.2 The meeting noted that the Russian Federation required assistance to restore the
operation of upper-air stations, at least to perform one observation per day. It was estimated by the
Russian Federation that the cost to restore and operate an optimal network of 54 stations would be
approximately US $4 million, and about US $2.2 million to restore a minimal network of 32 stations.
The meeting noted that these annual costs represent a significant part of the total VCP budget (about
US $8 million) available for all the VCP fields of assistance.
5.8.3 In view of the deterioration in upper-air observing, particularly in the Russian Federation
and following the change from the OMEGA-navigational system, the United Kingdom in co-operation
with the Russian Federation will produce a headline report giving a cost benefit analysis of upper-air
observations with specific consideration of the adverse impact of recent degradations imposed on the
upper-air network in the Russian Federation, underlining its importance for various end-users. The
headline report will be sent to other Members who participated in the IPM and the WMO Secretariat
for revisions and additions, and then presented to the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical
Cooperation before the next EC. Such a report could be used by Roshydromet, and possibly others,
in discussion with the World Bank and other funding agencies. It was also recognized that some
short-term assistance to acquire consumables would be needed in the year 2000. It was also
suggested that in order to address similar problems in RA I and RA III, similar proposals should be
6. FUNDING OF PROJECTS (Agenda item 6)
6.1 The meeting noted that since 1997, several firms and non-governmental organizations
were contacted by the VCP Office and some of them offered support through the VCP: Vaisala, Oy,
Finland, and EUMETSAT in 1997-1998, and TOTEX Corporation, Japan, in 1998-1999. In 2000,
some firms are expected to offer support. It further noted with satisfaction that in 2000, Hong Kong,
China, is expected to contribute towards the VCP(ES) Programme in the form of providing fellowships
to WMO Members.
6.2 Considering the importance of tapping new and additional resources to meet the ever-
increasing requirements of NMHSs, the meeting exchanged views on experiences gained at national
level in mobilizing resources from relevant funding institutions. In this respect, the meeting agreed
that several opportunities existed and that special efforts are required to establish linkages with
national and intergovernmental bodies interested in meteorological and hydrological related activities.
In particular, it noted that various agencies were more and more sensitized on impacts of weather
and climate related phenomena on national welfare and economies.
6.3 In addition, the meeting agreed that joint efforts between Members and the WMO
Secretariat would contribute towards enhancing the flow of resources, especially from the World
Bank, regional development banks, multilateral funding agencies such as UNDP, GEF, and European
Union, as well as the private sector. In this regard, the meeting encouraged timely exchange of
information among Members on national initiatives and potential funding opportunities of interest.
7. PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT MEETING (Agenda item 7)
7.1 Date and place of the next meeting (Agenda item 7.1)
7.1.1 The meeting expressed its appreciation to the USA for having hosted this meeting and
noted that holding the meeting in Washington, D.C., offered a very good opportunity for
representatives from major funding agencies to participate.
7.1.2 The meeting agreed that the Chairman-designate act between meetings to assist in
preparation for the next meeting. It was agreed that Mr D. Lambergeon would act as Chairman-
designate for the period up to the next meeting.
7.1.3 The meeting noted with appreciation the offer of Australia to host the IPM 2001 meeting
in Melbourne, Australia for the period of four days in February-March 2001. The meeting agreed to
hold the IPM 2001 in Australia after appropriate consultations by the Secretariat with all Members
concerned. The meeting recommended that the Chairman of the EC Advisory Group of Experts on
Technical Co-operation be invited to the IPMs. International Organizations to be invited to the next
IPM could include the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), AusAID, New
Zealand ODA, Asian Development Bank, ASEAN (ASMC), ESCAP and IOC regional offices in
Bangkok, Thailand and in Perth, Australia. The IPM 2002 meeting will be held in Geneva in
conjunction with the second meeting of the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation.
7.2 Topics to be taken up during the next meeting (Agenda item 7.2)
7.2.1 In order to improve the efficiency of the future work of the meeting, it was agreed that prior
to the meeting donors should submit in writing the information on their potential contributions to be
included in the documents. In addition, the Secretariat was requested to provide to the meeting the
lists of outstanding and on-going projects by country and by region.
7.2.2 The meeting agreed that the main items to be discussed during the next session will be
(1) Review of areas/subjects which should be given special consideration in line with priorities
in the implementation of the WMO Programmes;
(2) Review of on-going projects within the framework of WMO Technical Co-operation
(3) Review of the requests and of the proposed support from donors and co-ordination among
8. ADOPTION OF REPORT AND CLOSURE OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 8)
8.1 The meeting reviewed the draft Report and requested the Chairman-designate to approve
the Final Report on its behalf.
8.2 The Chairman expressed on behalf of the meeting appreciation to the work done by the
Secretariat staff including interpreters in support of the meeting.
8.3 The meeting was closed at 18.30 on 19 January 2000.
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN IPM/VCP/TCO(2000)
Name Country Official position Address/Tel/Fax/E-mail
REQUENA, Mr Argentina Chief, International Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
Fernando Affairs 25 de Mayo 658
Department 1002 Buenos Aires
Tel: (5411) 4514 4229
Fax: (5411) 4514 4229
TSUI, Dr Venantius K. Australia Superintendent, Bureau of Meteorology
International and GPO Box 1289K
Public Affairs Melbourne, Victoria 3001
Tel: 613 9669 4219
Fax: 613 9669 4473
DALL’ANTONIA Jr., Mr Brazil General Coordinator of Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia
Alaor Moacyr Agrometeorology (INMET)
Eixo Monumental - Via S1
Brasília - DF
Tel: +55 61 344 3333
Fax: +55 61 344 0700
ANGLE, Mr Bruce. Canada Senior Advisor, Meteorological Service of Canada
International Affairs Atmospheric Environment Service
North Tower, Fourth Floor
Les Terrasses de la Chaudiere
10 Wellington Street
K1A 0H3, Canada
WANG, Mr Caifang China Director-General, China Meteorological Administration
International 46 Baishiqiao Road
Cooperation Western Suburb
Department BEIJING 100081
Tel: 86 10 62173417
Fax: 86 10 62173417
SAGBOM, Mrs Finland Chief, International Finnish Meteorological Institute
Marianne and Development P.O. Box 503
Cooperation FIN-00101 Helsinki
LAMBERGEON, Mr France Chef du Department D21/INT - Meteo-France
Denis des affairs 1 quai Branly
internationales de 75340 Paris Cedex 07
Tel: (+331) 45 56 70 50
Fax: (+331) 45 56 70 05
BAUER, Mr Hans Germany International Affairs Deutscher Wetterdienst
Officer Frankfurterstr. 135
Tel: +49 69-8062-4306
Fax: +49 69-8062-4128
SASAKI, Mr Hideyuki Japan Head, Office of Planning Division
International Affairs Administration Department
Japan Meteorological Agency
Tokyo 100, Japan
Tel: +81 3 3211 4966
Fax: +81 3 3211 2032
RASQUINHO, Mr Olavo. Portugal External Relations Instituto de Meteorologia
Rue C-Aeroporto de Lisboa
Tel.: (+351) 21 848 39 61
Fax: (+351) 21 840 23 70
MAXIMOV, Mr Alexei Russian Head, Department of Russian Federal Service for
Federation Science and Hydrometeorology and Environmental
Cooperation 12 Novovagankovsky Street
123 242 Moscow
Tel: (7-095) 253 14 67
Fax: (7-095) 253 94 84/252 55 04
PALMER, Mr Stephen UK VCP Co-ordinator, The Met. Office
International Relations London Road
Berks. RG12 2SZ
Tel: +44 1344 856915
Fax: +44 1344 854543
HEWER, Ms Fiona UK Deputy International The Met. Office
Manager, International London Road
Berks. RG12 2SZ
Tel: +44 1344 856914
Fax: +44 1344 854543
YERG, Dr Martin USA Chief, International NOAA/NWS
Activities Office W/IA Room 13426
1325 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 2910, USA
Tel: +1 301 713 0645
Fax: +1 301 587 4524
SPRINKLE, Mr Charles USA International Affairs NOAA/NWS
Officer, International W/IA Room 13426
Activities Office 1325 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Tel: +1 301 713 1784
Fax: +1 301 587 4524
PAREIN, Mr Jon USA International Activities NOAA/NWS
Office W/IA Room 13426
1325 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Tel: +1 301 713 1784
Fax: +1 301 587 4524
KEITHLIN, Mr David CIDA Counselor, Canadian International
Alternate Representative Development Agency
Permanent Mission of 501 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Canada to the OAS Washington, DC 20001
Tel: (202) 682 1768 Ext. 7406
Fax: (202) 682 7624
WILSON, Ms Tina DOS International Relations U.S. Department of State
Officer International Organizations (IO/T)
Washington, DC 20520
Tel.: (202) 647-1526
Fax.: (202) 647-8902
DILLEY, Mr Maxx DMF/WB Disaster Management World Bank
Facility 1818 H Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20433, USA
Tel: (202) 473-2533
Fax: (202) 522-2125
PANFIL, Mr Robert WB Manager World Bank
South Asia Sector Unit
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20433
RODRIGUEZ, Mr Diego IADB Principal Water Inter-American Development Bank
Resources Specialist, 1300 New York Avenue, NW
Environment Division Washington, D.C. 20577
Tel: (202) 623 1771
Fax: (202) 623 1786
ONG, Ms Serene UNOPS Portfolio Manager Division for Environmental
United Nations Office for Project
The Chrysler Building
405 Lexington Avenue, 4 th Floor
New York, NY 10174, USA
Tel: (212) 457-1864
Fax: (212) 457-4044
VERMEIREN, Mr Jan OAS Chief, Caribbean Region Organization of American States
Casimir Unit of Sustainable 1889 F Street NW
Development and Washington, D.C. 20006
Tel: (202) 458-3006
Fax: (202) 458-3560
OBASI, Prof. Godwin O.P. Secretary-General
DIALLO, Mr Harouna M. Acting Director, Technical Co-operation Department
TOYA, Dr Tokiyoshi SPM/VCP, Technical Co-operation Department
LANDIS, Mr Robert Director, World Weather Watch Department
KERHERVE, Mr Pierre World Weather Watch Department
LLANSO, Mr Paul World Climate Programme Department
DON NANJIRA, Dr D.D.C. WMO Representative to the UN
GROSS, Mr Edward WMO Consultant
LOCAL SECRETARIAT, NWS/NOAA
MCMAHON, Ms Carolyn
RAMOS, Ms Maria G.
1. OPENING OF THE MEETING
2. ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING
2.1 Election of the chairman
2.2 Adoption of the agenda
2.3 Working arrangements
3. REVIEW OF THE PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN
SUPPORT OF WMO PROGRAMMES
4. REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF VCP AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION
PROGRAMMES AND OUTLOOK FOR 2000
4.1 VCP(ES) for 1999 and prospects for 2000
4.2 VCP(F) for 1999 and prospects for 2000
4.3 WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund of the VCP
4.4 General perspectives of VCP donors actions
4.5 VCP-related bilateral projects for 1999 and prospects for 2000
4.6 Information on other VCP-related technical co-operation activities
4.7 Training and fellowships related to the VCP
5. CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL ITEMS REQUIRING ACTION UNDER VCP
AND/OR RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES
5.1 Transition to LRIT/HRIT for the reception of satellite data
5.2 Satellite-based distribution system for WWW and WAFS
5.3 Internet capabilities in NMHSs
5.4 Year 2000 Problem
5.5 CLIPS pilot/demonstration projects and Future Evolution of the CLICOM
5.6 Emergency assistance for disasters
5.7 Coordinating support to Upper-air Network
6. FUNDING OF PROJECTS
7. PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT MEETING
7.1 Date and place of the next meeting
7.2 Topics to be taken up during the next meeting
8. ADOPTION OF REPORT AND CLOSURE OF THE MEETING
PRIORITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WMO PROGRAMMES
1. World Weather Watch Programme
1.1 Observing systems
Surface Observing Stations
1.1.1 The results of the July 1999 Special Main Telecommunication Network (MTN) monitoring show
that the number of reports actually received at centres on the GTS ranges from 47% (52% in 1998) of
those required by the RBSN in Region V to 92% (94% in 1998) in Region VI with a global average,
constituting 72% as in 1998. While the global figure remains unchanged, the monitoring shows that in
some regions the loss of observations even increased and more than 25% of reports are still missing
due to absence of observations or telecommunication problems.
Upper-air Observing Stations
1.1.2 According to the results of the Special MTN monitoring (July 1999), the number of upper-air
reports actually received at MTN Centres varies from 29% (27% in 1998) of those required in Region I
to 82% (84% in 1998) in Region IV with a global average of 58% as compared with 59% in 1998. Due
to continued efforts of Members on the replacement of OMEGA-based observing technology, a
sustainable renewal of observations were registered in the regions concerned. However, monitoring
results confirm that big gaps in data coverage still persist in South America, Africa, and Asia, mainly due
to obsolete equipment and lack of consumables. Specifically, the continued deterioration in
performance of the upper-air network of the Russian Federation should be noted, which has already
led to loss of essential upper-air observations over Siberia and the Far East. In this connection, the
Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWW in Region II (Doha, Qatar, October 1999)
felt that a detailed identification of the most critical areas and stations in Russia is urgently needed in
order to develop proposals for VCP assistance.
1.1.3 Due to financial constraints no training activities for meteorological instrument specialists were
carried out in 1999. It should be noted however, that a workshop for operators of radiosonde systems
at upper-air stations is planned to be held in RA I in 2000.
1.1.4 The Thirteenth Congress decided that the VCP Programme should be continued along similar
lines as in previous years. In the light of this decision, the improvement of the global upper-air network
should have the highest priority within the VCP projects related to observing systems.
1.1.5 Support should be provided to some countries in Africa, particularly to Angola, Mozambique,
Nigeria, Tanzania, in Asia, particularly to Yemen, and in South America, especially to Bolivia and
Venezuela to assist them in replacing upper-air systems dependent on OMEGA by alternative systems.
1.1.6 Support is still necessary for Newly Independent States in provision of consumables, spare
parts and replacement of obsolete equipment.
ANNEX III, P. 2
1.1.7 To remedy deficiencies in the Regional Basic Synoptic Network (RBSN) of the Russian
Federation, a priority action item should be elaborated on the basis of its detailed proposal, coordinated
approach, new joint funding mechanisms and contributions of potential donors.
1.1.8 Support should be provided to Yugoslavia to assist in replacement of destroyed meteorological
equipment and in provision of consumables and spare parts.
1.2 Satellite receiving stations
1.2.1 The space-based sub system of the Global Observing System is composed of two segments,
the space segment and the ground segment. A portion of the ground segment, ground stations
receiving the direct broadcast service, has been continuously evaluated. Four categories of satellite
receiving equipment in WMO Regions have been surveyed: low-resolution polar-orbiting data (APT);
high-resolution polar-orbiting data (HRPT); low-resolution geostationary data (WEFAX); and high-
resolution geostationary data (HR). Since the 1995 survey, there has been an increase of 277 receiving
stations in the total number of satellite receiving equipment reported to be operating within NMHSs.
1.2.2 The WMO goals for Members equipped with satellite receiving equipment are 100% for polar-
orbiting satellite data receivers (either APT or HRPT) and 100% for geostationary satellite data receivers
(either WEFAX or HR). This means that each WMO Member should be equipped with at least one
polar-orbiting satellite data receiver and one geostationary satellite data receiver. In 1999, the level of
implementation of both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite receivers was 82%. With regard to
each category, the WMO Members have achieved an overall implementation of 84% for polar-orbiting
and 87% for geostationary satellite receivers.
1.2.3 The expected change from analogue to digital low-resolution imagery coupled with improved
capability to utilize satellite data within all WMO Members indicates that a strategy towards implementation
of low and high-resolution digital receivers should be pursued by WMO Members as well as through
1.2.4 As regards VCP priorities, the following guidelines should be used, in priority order:
1st Satellite receivers should be provided for those Members without any receivers;
2nd Satellite receivers for those Members without a polar-orbiting receiver or a geostationary
3rd Satellite high-resolution receivers for those Members with only low-resolution polar-
orbiting receivers or only low-resolution geostationary receivers;
4th Satellite receivers for those Members already exceeding the WWW goal.
Based on the latest information available contained in the WMO Secretariat database, WMO Member
lists have been prepared for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th priority and are available on request.
ANNEX III, P. 3
1.3 Data processing systems - strategy to assist developing centres
1.3.1 The WMCs or other appropriate centres should consider taking and sharing responsibility
among themselves for developing, maintenance and free distribution of encoding/decoding standard
software. This is for use for instance through web sites, for GRIB, BUFR and CREX code format on
popular platforms to facilitate migration by the meteorological community to the more efficient table
driven data representation forms at NMCs. The Open Programme Area Group (OPAG) on Information
Systems and Services has determined that this will require human resources of two man-years. Co-
ordinated VCP(F) support should be considered for this purpose.
1.3.2 There is a need for writing of PC-based software for use in automated quality checking of data
and encouraging their use at observing sites, data collection centres, NMCs and RTHs. The requirement
was endorsed by the OPAG on Data Processing and Forecasting Systems. Co-ordinated VCP(F)
support should be considered for developing, distribution of the software for this purpose.
1.3.3 Communication problems at centres especially in Africa that have no links or still have very
slow telex lines should be remedied urgently within 2-4 years. The OPAG on Information Systems and
Services has determined the GTS centres with such deficiency as: RA I – Monrovia, Freetown, Conakry,
Bissau, Sao Tome, Luanda, Kinshasa, Bujumbura, Kigali, Mogadicio, Djibouti, Seychelles, Moroni,
Canary, and (Western Sahara); RA II – Baghdad, Sanaa, Phnom Penh, Vientiane. The OPAG on the
Data Processing and Forecasting System has recommended that countries should be encouraged to
use products (predictions) that are available on Internet web sites. Solutions to address the identified
GTS deficiencies should be based on simple PC-based approaches and have full Internet connectivity
facilities. Co-ordinated GTS/Internet connectivity VCP(F) support should be considered for this
1.3.4 NMCs should establish their own capabilities to handle data (observed and numerical) and
must be able to archive it. The first step in developing GDPS facilities should be the investigation of
what can be achieved through post-processing of NWP model data provided by RSMCs and/or WMCs,
before investing in models to be run locally. For developing RSMCs and NMCs with NWP capability,
their models should be continuously upgraded and the centres should request these upgrades from
the donating centre. Exchange of ideas on specific model types through participation in workshops
and user fora should be encouraged. The OPAG on DPFS has endorsed these activities as of the
highest priority. Co-ordinated VCP(F) support should be considered for provision of PC-based data
handling, NWP post-processing and presentation systems at NMCs of developing countries, mainly in
Africa and South America, and support participation of developing RSMCs/NMCs in NWP workshops
and user fora.
1.4 Telecommunication systems
1.4.1 For Region I, the VCP priorities may be summarized as follows:
(a) Highest priority
- Implementation of DCPs to overcome deficiencies in national data collection and
transmission between some NMCs and their associated RTHs;
ANNEX III, P. 4
- Establishment of missing GTS circuits between NMCs and associated RTHs;
- Upgrade of the RMTN through the use of SATCOM facilities in Western and Central
- Upgrade of the access to WWW data and products for NMHSs in Western and Central
- Implementation of PC-based automation of GTS and data-handling facilities at NMCs;
- Provision of training (workshops) in PC computer technology, data communication
and applications for GTS/WWW operation to NMHS technical staff; and
- Replacement of the current MDD and DRS equipment by digital LRIT or HRIT receivers
by the year 2003.
(b) High priority
- Further implementation of satellite-based data distribution receivers such as LRIT (as
from 2001), SADIS (see also the Aeronautical Meteorology Programme) and ensuring
their full integration into NMC WWW equipment;
- Further upgrade of the circuit Dakar/Algiers of the RA I loop.
1.4.2 XII-RA I (1998), by Resolution 5, noted that there was a perennial problem of a deficiency in
the collection and transmission of meteorological reports, which was more critical in the following
countries: Angola , Chad , Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea (Conakry), Lesotho,
Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. Noting the development
of functional and operational specifications for DCPs for the WWW and guidelines for their procurement,
XII-RA I agreed that the necessary framework has been developed to provide the best conditions for
the successful implementation and operation of Meteosat DCPs for the WWW in Africa, and that DCPs
have the potential to dramatically improve national data collection.
1.4.3 XII-RA I invited Members concerned to solicit the support of donor Members or Organizations
with a view to assisting in the timely implementation of DCPs in the critical areas.
1.4.4 The third session of the Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWW in
Region II (Doha, Qatar, October 1999) reviewed the priorities in the technical co-operation activities
related to the GTS in Region II, and agreed on the following priorities:
(a) The highest priority should be given to the activities related to:
- Establishment of GTS connection of NMCs not yet implemented; and
- Upgrading national data collection where monitoring results had revealed deficiencies.
(b) The automation of GTS facilities at NMCs should be considered with a high priority together
with the upgrading to medium speed of the connections of the NMCs to their associated
ANNEX III, P. 5
1.4.5 For Region III, the VCP priorities may be summarized as follows:
(a) Highest priority:
Future technical co-operation support should be focused on the support to the development
and implementation of a new Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network (RMDCN),
as directed by XII-RA III. Several meetings and a Seminar on Managed Data-Communication
Network Services were held in South America, culminating with the production of the
Requirement of Specifications document that will be used for the International Invitation to
Tender (ITT) planned to be issued in 2000. The terms of a Draft Framework contract, also part
of the ITT process, is being discussed by a Steering Group created by XI-RA III. The successful
implementation of the new regional network is directly associated with the automation of the
respective NMCs. So all efforts shall be made to complete the automation of the GTS functions
of all RA III NMCs. Specialized training activities will be required during the implementation and
operation of the new RMTN, as well as during the automation of each NMCs.
1.4.6 The new satellite-based RMTN is operational in Region IV. The highest priority should be
given to the achievement of the implementation of the new RMTN, in particular:
- Upgrade of telecommunication arrangements for improving data exchange between
centres equipped with VSAT/STAR4 and small islands in the Caribbean;
- Completing access to public telecommunication services (e.g., Internet) to access
complementary data and products.
1.4.7 The Implementation Co-ordination Meeting on the GTS in Region V (7 - 10 December 1999,
Noumea, New Caledonia) agreed upon the following priorities for co-operation activities, including in
particular VCP projects:
- Further implementation of EMWIN (Emergency Management Weather Information Network
through the GOES satellites) receiving systems (including 10 EMWIN systems each for
Indonesia and Philippines, and EMWIN systems for South Pacific islands - see Appendix);
- Further implementation of DCPs for upgrading observational data collection (including 5 DCPs
via GMS for Philippines and DCPs for South Pacific islands -see Appendix);
- Implementation of computer-based systems (e.g., PC-based) at small NMCs for GTS function
as well as handling and display of data and products.
ANNEX III, P. 6
1.4.8 Regional Association VI agreed to proceed with the establishment of the new Regional
Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN). The RMDCN project had entered its
implementation phase. The twelfth session of Regional Association VI (Tel Aviv, May 1998) agreed to
allocate the highest priority within the framework of the technical co-operation activities related to the
WWW in Region VI to the co-ordinated project to assist the countries in implementing their connection
to the RMDCN.
1.5 Aeronautical Meteorology Programme
1.5.1 The views of Thirteenth Congress regarding the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) satellite
broadcasts were summarised in paragraph 220.127.116.11 of the Report of the work of the Congress session:
"Congress expressed satisfaction with progress achieved on the implementation of the WAFS,
particularly with the achievement of global satellite coverage of WAFS satellite broadcasts in
1996 and the installation of 165 WAFS satellite reception systems in 120 countries with further
installation planned. Congress expressed its appreciation to Members, in particular the United
Kingdom and United States for having provided other Members with very small aperture terminal
(VSAT) equipment and STAR 4 workstations to access and use the WAFS satellite broadcast
data and products."
1.5.2 Although most countries have now installed the necessary satellite broadcast and display
terminals to access the WAFS data and products, additional VCP requests are expected in the future
either for continued installation of terminals or the upgrading of existing terminal equipment. Few
requests are currently pending consideration by WMO. Relevant VCP projects concerning WAFS
Satellite Broadcasts are given in IPM/VCP/TCO(2000)/Doc. 5, Appendix L (VCP projects related to
the meteorological applications activities).
1.6 Marine Meteorology and Associated Oceanographical Activities Programme
Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and coastal surface observations
1.6.1 Large parts of the world's oceans and coastal waters are seriously data deficient, for both
surface meteorological and oceanographic observations. Many of these data deficient sea areas (e.g.,
Indian Ocean, RA I waters, South Pacific Ocean) are adjacent to developing countries, which could
thus contribute substantially to overcoming the deficiencies, but lack the technical means to do so.
Specifically, their contributions would be directed towards satisfying requirements for marine surface
data given in the WWW plan, for surface oceanographic data for global climate studies specified in the
GOOS/GCOS Implementation Action Plan, and for local/regional marine services.
1.6.2 Detailed specifications for shipboard equipment (for the VOS and ships of opportunity) are
given in the Guide to Marine Meteorological Services and the CIMO Guide. Specifications for coastal
observing stations are also given in both guides, and have been further elaborated by CMM (now
JCOMM). The assistance required involves not just the equipment but also training of local technical
personnel, especially PMOs, in installation and maintenance.
ANNEX III, P. 7
Marine modelling and forecast packages for PCs
1.6.3 Both Cg-XII and CMM-XII placed the highest priority within the marine programme on the provision
of quality marine meteorological services to users. These services always include modelling and
forecasting of elements such as waves and swell, water levels (storm surges), coastal winds, nearshore
currents, etc. Local area numerical models adapted for use with PCs and workstations exist for most of
these elements in many national Meteorological Services in developed countries, but are generally
not available in developing countries where they are most required.
1.6.4 CMM-XII recognized this problem, and specifically requested that Members provide assistance
to developing countries through the provision of appropriate marine modelling and forecast packages
adapted for use with PCs and workstations. The assistance required involves not just the provision of
the package but also expert assistance with installation and tuning to specific local conditions, as well
as training of local staff in the use and maintenance of the software.
1.7 Public Weather Services Programme
1.7.1 Weather and climate play such a significant role in the lifestyles of people around the world
that providing timely and accurate weather warnings and forecasts is one of the most important functions
of every NMS. Public weather services, provided on a daily basis, meet a broad spectrum of local and
national needs, including:
(a) Early warnings for natural disaster mitigation;
(b) Information on changes in the weather to help the general public with daily decision-making
(c) Advice for sustaining and improving environmental quality; and
(d) Day-to-day up to seasonal forecasts, and other products in support of weather-sensitive
All users rely heavily on this broad range of services to make sound decisions concerning public safety
and cost efficiency. The delivery and effectiveness of these services will be improved as a result of
advances in computing and communications technology and in particular the Internet, increased public
awareness of weather-related disasters and threats to the environment, the increasing influence of
global media networks and their role in broadcasting public weather information, importance of effective
relations with local and national media, the best use of available presentation and dissemination
technology, and improved public education activities.
1.7.2 Since the dissemination of weather warnings, forecasts and other meteorological information
to the public is a crucial element of all Public Weather Services, NMSs especially those in developing
countries should be assisted in becoming equipped with facilities to enable them to disseminate directly
through mass media their public warnings and forecasts. This will go a long way in avoiding public
confusion which would arise if warnings of severe weather are not issued from a single official source,
namely the NMS. As a guide, VCP priorities would continue to include but not be limited to:
(a) Workstations with improved access to satellite imagery and gridded data to enhance the range
of information and products available for use in national public weather services;
ANNEX III, P. 8
(b) Computing and communications hardware and software packages for use in the media
presentation, possibly PC or Macintosh-based equipment for newspaper presentations, and
video equipment for television. These need to include relevant training in the use of hardware
and presentation, especially writing skills;
(c) Support for training related to development of national public weather services plans and
improved public weather services provision, including skills in media presentation, and
enhancing public awareness as regards both weather and climate phenomena;
(d) Necessary equipment to provide "Crawlers" on TV broadcasts with the latest warnings;
(e) Modern telephone services using the "Interactive Voice Response Platforms" technology to
replace the old tape systems for automatic recorded telephone forecasts;
(f) Facilitation of access by NMHSs to the Internet and guidance on the use of information available
on the World Wide Web;
(g) VHF radios to provide simple radio broadcast and alert systems; and
(h) Access to EMWIN for reception of severe weather warnings in those areas where other forms
of telecommunication are either unreliable or prohibitively expensive.
1.7.3 Three foci for this programme are provision of:
(a) access to severe weather guidance through reliable and robust telecommunication hardware;
(b) necessary equipment (hardware and software) to improve communication and presentation
(c) necessary training to support provision of effective and high quality services to the public.
2. World Climate Programme
2.1 Climate Computing (CLICOM) and Data Rescue (DARE) projects
2.1.1 The evolution towards the next generation of WMO climate database management system
(CDMS) software now has the highest priority within the CLICOM project. Objectives are cross-platform
portability and client/server multi-tier architecture. The WMO Secretariat is currently investigating which
Members have developed such CDMSs and are prepared to make them available for use by other
WMO Members. The selected prototype systems will need rigorous hands-on testing at a site equipped
with a network (server and workstations). Each candidate system (accompanied by developers) should
be given a week for installation, for demonstration and for testing. Financial support is required to
convene an evaluation workshop of three to five weeks, involving 12 to 15 developers and testers.
Support to equip the venue with a network of server and workstations is also needed.
ANNEX III, P. 9
2.1.2 There remain seven countries that do not yet have any CLICOM equipment at present: Albania;
Azerbaijan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Madagascar; Sao Tome and Principe; and Tonga.
Providing support and installing CLICOM in these countries should be considered with a very high
2.1.3 There is a need for a project, similar to the CLICOM Drought Preparedness Project (see
IPM/VCP/TCO(2000)/Doc. 4, paragraph 8.5), for nine African countries, that are requesting provision
or upgrading of the CLICOM system within the framework of the VCP. Support is sought for: Algeria;
Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; Gabon;
Gambia; and Togo. This should be considered with a high priority.
2.1.4 A similar project should also be considered for the WMO Region II countries, such as Lao
PDR, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, etc. As a start, a roving seminar should be
organized to check the current status of climate data and the implementation of CLICOM systems in
the countries and to inquire about their needs, including possibly those for data rescue. This should
be considered with a high priority.
2.1.5 The attention of potential donors should again be drawn to the establishment, with a high
priority, of the CLICOM Area Support Centre in Bahrain for Arabic-speaking countries.
2.1.6 In parallel to the CLICOM work, data rescue (DARE) work should be encouraged in Africa,
especially in the 11 countries receiving support through the Drought Preparedness Project. In view of
the effort that has already been expended on data rescue in Africa, the highest priority in the DARE
project is to convene a two-week workshop for up to 20 participants from countries that have already
participated in the CLICOM and DARE projects but that have very little national data in digital form.
Participants would be expected to bring available microform data from their country and would be
given practical instruction on digitizing the data and establishing functional ongoing DARE and CLICOM
procedures in their NMHS. In addition to the training benefit, the results of the workshop would
include some digitized data from each of the participating countries ready for possible inclusion in the
Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) at the World Data Center A for Meteorology in Asheville,
North Carolina, USA.
2.1.7 For individual countries that have participated in the CLICOM project but not in the DARE
project, a contribution of US $25,000 could be used to purchase the appropriate data rescue equipment
(microfilming, digital photography, scanning) and a new desktop computer and printer to upgrade the
resident CLICOM system. The funds would also cover the cost of a two-week installation and training
mission of a CLICOM/DARE expert. In addition to installing equipment and training staff, the results of
this mission would include a plan for what data need to be rescued and digitized. Data already rescued
and digitized could be made available for possible inclusion in the GHCN.
2.2 Climate Change Detection Project
Capacity Building Workshops
2.2.1 At the 10-12 November meeting of the CCl/CLIVAR Joint Working Group on Climate Change
Detection, it was recognized that it would be difficult to obtain sufficient time series data from national
sources to build a global picture of climate trends. It therefore decided to coordinate a series of
ANNEX III, P. 10
regional capacity building workshops designed to facilitate the development and exchange of climate
indices, primarily for the purpose of studying climate variability and assisting in the detection of climate
change. In addition to a limited set of prescribed indices for global analyses, the workshops will have
the opportunity to select and develop a subset of specific indices tailored to regional characteristics of
the climate. It was further recommended that the evolving structure of the workshops be based on the
Asia Pacific Network (APN) workshop of 1998 and that the planned follow-up APN workshop in December
1999 meeting be used as an occasion to further develop this concept. Included in this process
should be a refinement of the draft action plan, which was adopted by the meeting. Candidate regions
for initial workshops are Africa, the Caribbean and South America.
2.3 Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS)
CLIPS Showcase Projects: Heat/Health Warning Systems
2.3.1 WMO, together with a number of major partner organizations in the Climate Agenda and national
and municipal agencies, is collaborating in a series of Showcase Projects begun in 1999 to demonstrate
the application of climate information and weather forecasts to the reduction of human deaths related
to extreme heat waves. Although the Rome and Shanghai projects are drawing heavily from the
successful experiences of similar climate applications that were instituted in the United States, they
are also incorporating knowledge gained throughout the network of climate and health applications
that are overseen by the WMO’s Commission for Climatology (CCl).
2.3.2 Identifying features of the projects are that they involve a multidisciplinary team from the outset,
they depend on proven climate applications that correlate historical climate and health information with
dangerous air masses, they result in an integrated warning system that gives city dwellers concrete
information to mitigate the life-threatening effects of extreme heat waves, and the ongoing responsibility
for the resulting system lies wholly within the local organizations.
2.3.3 The WMO’s participation in the Showcase Projects is a product of the CCl’s priority on
"Development of climate services in support of human health". The projects follow guidelines that
were proposed by a group of experts convened by the WMO, which met in Freiburg, Germany in
1997. The group included health and meteorology specialists from WMO, UNEP and WHO. The
WMO activities are cross-coordinated through its CCl, Commission for Basic Systems (CBS), and
Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS).
2.3.4 The first phase of the projects involves focused study and development of a warning algorithm
specifically for individual cities - ideally, one in each region. VCP support during 2000 could provide
for the travel of climatological experts and the travel of NMHS partners to assist in the development of
the correlations and the warning algorithm, and to cover the costs of retrieving the archived
2.3.5 The second phase will comprise the preparation of generalized guidance for NMHSs to use in
developing similar systems. Other climate/health relationships will be considered and appropriate
applications developed during this phase. The second phase will commence in 2001. VCP support
will be sought for the development of generalized guidance and the conducting of a workshop on
climate and health that would use the Showcase Project as its main example. Timing for the workshop
is under consideration and might be scheduled to immediately precede the thirteenth session of CCl
ANNEX III, P. 11
CLIPS Pilot/Demonstration Projects
2.3.6 Project plans that were drafted in 1997 are under review.
Logbook Proposal for CLIPS/CLICOM
2.3.7 The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) has developed Logbook, a
comprehensive data management system for applications data. Logbook could be a key component
in promoting the use of data from the CLICOM project for a wide variety of applications that need to link
climatic data to data from other sectors, e.g., agriculture, health, etc.). Logbook can obtain the data
from a variety of sources (CLICOM and other) into a well-managed form. This allows the user to easily
prepare input data for whatever analysis applications programs (statistical or other) that he wants to run.
Logbook, therefore, acts as an interface between source data in a wide variety of forms and the analysis
programs. Support is being sought for a pilot project (proposed for March to August 2000) to produce
three case studies in a sample applications database. The case studies, designed to illustrate the
wide range of possible applications data, would cover a detailed set of data for a single site, a study at
70 sites and a study using satellite data. It is proposed that some of the participants of the 1999
ACMAD training workshop evaluate the studies, ideally during a future workshop. Logbook is being
provided by ICRAF to the CLIPS/CLICOM project at no cost. The costs are for entering the three case
studies (ICRAF) and for preparing improved documentation for Logbook and for helping the subsequent
evaluation of the system (University of Reading, Statistical Services Centre).
Development of a CLIPS Curriculum
2.3.8 The CLIPS Project Office is planning to develop a full training curriculum, using experts around
the globe to provide the inputs. The curriculum will be made available using IT methods and will be
accessible for self-study, use at RMTC’s, and at Training and Roving Seminars. Translation of the
curriculum into the working languages of the WMO is desirable and could be supported by the VCP.
Upgrading of computer systems with the necessary on-board software (such as Microsoft Powerpoint)
will also be necessary at some sites
CLIPS Focal Points
2.3.9 The concept of the CLIPS Focal Point is being developed with the objective of encouraging
the nomination of at least one Focal Point in all developing and all interested developed countries.
Focal Points will be provided with training in depth and will become national experts in all relevant
aspects of climate information and prediction together with applications. Funding will be necessary to
support travel to training venues, the provision of appropriate computer facilities (following paragraph
2.3.8) and the possible short-term placement of Focal Points with major international centres.
Regional Climate Outlook Fora
2.3.10 The VCP support is encouraged for a Forum in the Pacific Region planned for the middle of
2000 and for a further Forum in the eastern Mediterranean/Arabian Gulf region expected to be held
during the year. Both of these Fora will be first time events for the region and currently no standard
funding is available.
ANNEX III, P. 12
2.4 Agricultural meteorology
2.4.1 As outlined in the Fourth WMO Long-term Plan, the economic importance to agricultural
production of the provision and application of meteorological, climatological and hydrological data and
information dictates that training activities of WMO in the field of agricultural meteorology should have
very high priority, especially in the developing countries.
2.4.2 In line with this high priority accorded to training in Agricultural Meteorology, the eleventh
session of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM) recommended that roving seminars
be organized on a number of topics of interest to Members, particularly on the use of Automatic
Weather Stations in Agricultural Meteorology, Data Management and Crop-Yield Weather Modelling.
2.4.3 In accordance with this recommendation, the Agricultural Meteorology Programme, in
collaboration with the Institute of Agrometeorology and Environmental Analysis for Agriculture (Italy),
the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
developed detailed training manuals for the organization of the Roving Seminars on the use of Automatic
Weather Stations in Agricultural Meteorology, Data Management and Crop-Yield Weather Modelling.
In 1998 and 1999, four Roving Seminars on Crop-Yield Weather Modelling were conducted, in
cooperation with FAO and USDA, in Tanzania (RA I), the Republic of Korea (RA II), India (RA II) and
Slovenia (RA VI). A Roving Seminar on Data Management for Applications to Agriculture was held in
Slovenia (RA VI) for participants from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Two
Roving Seminars on Instrumentation and Operation of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) for
Applications in Agrometeorology were held in 1998 and 1999, in cooperation with the Institute of
Agrometeorology and Environmental Analysis for Agriculture (Italy), at the Arabian Gulf University in
Bahrain (RA II) for participants from Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and in
Casablanca, Morocco (RA I) for the francophone countries in West and North Africa.
2.4.4 Following the success of these Roving Seminars, the twelfth Session of the CAgM, held in
Accra, Ghana in February 1999, strongly recommended the continued organization of these Roving
Seminars in the next financial period. There is considerable demand from Members from all regions for
organizing similar training events in their countries. However, the fifty-first session of EC approved
funding in 1999 for the organization of only one seminar in 2000.
2.4.5 In order to meet the demand from the Members, support from the VCP is sought for the
organization of at least one additional seminar in 2000 on each of the three mentioned topics, i.e., Use
of Automatic Weather Stations in Agricultural Meteorology, Data Management for Applications to
Agriculture, and Crop-Yield Weather Modelling. Estimated funding needed is US $10,000 for each
topic and potential donors are invited to indicate their preference for the topic as well as the Region.
2.4.6 Since the training manual for the organization of the Roving Seminars on the use of Automatic
Weather Stations in Agricultural Meteorology had already been translated into Spanish, it is now possible
to extend this series of training activities to the Latin American countries. It is therefore proposed to
hold the first one in the first half of 2000, for the Central Andes area countries (Ecuador, Peru and
Bolivia). Support from the VCP is sought for the organization of this seminar.
3. Hydrology and Water Resources Programme
3.1 In the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme, the main priority activities, which should
ANNEX III, P. 13
be considered for VCP support, are:
- hydrological observing systems (in particular, automatic stations, satellite transmission
equipment for automatic stations, gauging equipment);
- data acquisition and processing systems (software and hardware for data base
management, with particular emphasis on those countries which still maintain, partly or
totally, their data bank on paper support; Geographic Information System (GIS) and RS
application to hydrology);
- training in operational hydrology with emphasis at the technician level: and
- expert services for the formulation of technical assistance projects and feasibility
3.2 In 1999, Canada offered to support eight countries in Central America and the Caribbean by
providing Stevens stream gauges for restoration of hydrological network destroyed by Hurricanes
Georges and Mitch.
3.3 A number of countries in Africa have expressed interest in a hydrological data rescue project
to convert the storage medium from paper to electronic form. A pilot study involving about five countries
is currently being implemented. The VCP(F) support was provided for this purpose and work in two
countries was started during 1999. The estimated cost is about US $8,000 per country which involve
providing a PC and some software and an expert to train local staff. Requests from Jamaica for expert
services for the formulation of technical assistance projects were received and approved for circulation
for possible funding.
3.4 It is possible that some projects have not been supported because of the high cost involved.
In such cases it might be recommended that Members scale down their request to a maximum value of
4. Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme
4.1 Thirteenth Congress in its resolution 3.3/1 requested WMO Members to give all possible
support to the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, with a high priority to the Global
Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the World Weather Research Programme. Congress agreed that
measurements of the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere
should be given similar attention to that received by classical meteorological parameters and that it was
the responsibility of WMO and its Members to provide, under GAW, the information increasingly
requested by various users to address relevant environmental issues of global and regional scale
importance. Congress also indicated that GAW becomes a major contributor to the Global Climate
Observing System (GCOS).
4.2 Contrary to the expectations of Congress, VCP contributions have been provided only in a
small number of cases to establish WMO GAW stations or to upgrade GAW equipment. In one known
instance, however, expendable equipment (balloons and ozone-sondes) were provided to Chile by
Finland for ozone measurements (1994). In 1998 -1999, the Netherlands offered support to Suriname
by providing a Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer and an ozone- and radio-sonde ground equipment
and consumables. Donor countries should be aware that GAW does have priority and that they should
ANNEX III, P. 14
consider this in their contributions to the VCP.
4.3 While GAW requests for VCP support are considerable, although largely to no avail, donors
might consider offering "twinning" in addition to material support. The recently established GAW
stations of global importance located at Assekrem/Tamanrasset (Algeria), Ushuaia (Argentina),
Arembepe (Brazil), Mount Waliguan (China), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia), and Mount Kenya (Kenya)
have been successfully twinned with countries or groups of countries such as Australia, Canada,
France, Germany and USA. Specialists from the Republic of South Africa and Switzerland have also
provided technical and scientific expertise to Kenya. The Kenya/Switzerland twinning arrangement of
a specific activity is exemplary. Facilitated through WMO GAW, Switzerland has provided ozonesonde
tracking equipment for the Nairobi GAW station. Switzerland is providing funding, has trained personnel
and the project is participating fully in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ)
data project, an endeavour to improve ground based balloon sonde data in the tropics and subtropics
for satellite data validation. The concept of twinning encouraged by both Congress and the Executive
Council has already borne fruit and could become even more successful if additional support through
the VCP would be provided by donor Members.
4.4 GAW regional stations with more simplistic monitoring programmes located in the less developed
countries would be much more easily instrumented and operated than global stations and thus this
might offer greater "twinning" appeal to countries with more developed science and technology. Also,
a factor which seems to have discouraged donors in the past has been overcome by national
Meteorological Services themselves through enlisting the support of in-country institutions such as
chemical laboratories to assist them, which makes twinning now more attractive. Donor countries
should be encouraged to enter into twinning agreements as a contribution to the Voluntary Co-operation
5. Education and Training Programme
Education and training fellowships
5.1 Major VCP donor Members continue to provide VCP fellowships and many other Members
continue to provide VCP contributions by waiving fees and providing subsidised accommodation to
5.2 The gap between the ever-increasing Members’ fellowships needs and the reduced funding
opportunities for WMO fellowships continue to increase. In view of the rising costs of fellowships, the
diminishing financial resources (particularly under UNDP) and the increasing needs for fellowships, the
IPM may wish to consider maintaining, and even increasing, the present annual allocation for short-term
fellowships. The IPM may also wish to encourage donors to continue and hopefully expand their
contribution to this highly appreciated programme.
5.3 The Secretariat continued its exploration of additional extra-budgetary resources and new
potential sources of funding aiming at increasing and complementing the traditional fellowships financial
resources. It also continued the cost-sharing tripartite fellowship arrangements; in particular in the
RMTCs, aiming at optimising the use of limited VCP and regular budget fellowship funds.
5.4 The main priority activities requiring VCP support are:
ANNEX III, P. 15
- Long-term fellowships;
- Introduction of modern teaching techniques and technologies at WMO RMTCs, particularly in
the area of:
- Computer-aided learning (CAL); and
- Distance learning, including the use of the Internet.
Implementation plans for satellite-based systems in the South Pacific area
American Samoa Install additional EMWIN2 and Mini EMWIN terminals3
Commonwealth of the Install EMWIN and Mini EMWIN terminals3
Northern Mariana Islands
Cook Islands Switch local products onto the GTS for EMWIN broadcast
Install DCP for manual data entry at Rarotonga3
Install additional EMWIN and Mini EMWIN terminals3
Install Inmarsat M communications system3
Add DCP communications to AWSs3
Install ISCS system3
Install PDUS reception system for GOES imagery3
Federated States of Implement 3 GRIB display systems2
Micronesia Install additional EMWIN and Mini EMWIN terminals3
Install 3 DCP for manual data entry3
Install 3 PDUS reception systems for GMS imagery3
Fiji Switch products onto the GTS for EMWIN broadcast
Install Inmarsat M communications system2
Install Mini EMWIN terminals for remote locations3
French Polynesia Switch products onto the GTS for EMWIN broadcast
Install HRPT receiving system2
Install Inmarsat M communications system3
Install Mini EMWIN systems for remote locations3
Kiribati Formalise use or ERL profiler DCP as a backup transmission system
Install DCP systems for manual data entry at Betio2
Install 2 AWS with DCP communications3
Install Mini EMWIN terminals for remote locations3
Marshall Islands Implement GRIB display system2
Install DCP for manual data entry3
Install additional EMWIN and Mini EMWIN terminals3
Install PDUS reception system for GMS/GOES imagery3
Nauru Implement DCP transmission of AWS, TEMP and PILOT data1
New Caledonia Switch products onto the GTS for EMWIN and ISCS broadcast
Implement cyclone warning graphics transmission to Vanuatu
Niue Install Inmarsat M communications system3
Install DCP with manual data entry3
Palau Implement GRIB display system2
Install DCP for manual data entry3
Install EMWIN and Mini EMWIN terminals3
Install PDUS reception system for GMS imagery3
Papua New Guinea Major project (Balus Project) currently in progress1
Samoa Switch products onto the GTS for EMWIN broadcast
Complete AFTN/GTS link between Apia and Pago Pago1
Acquire and implement software systems for display of GRIB data2
Install 2 DCP systems with manual data entry3
Install Inmarsat M communications system2
Install PDUS reception system for GOES imagery3
Solomon Islands Switch products onto the GTS for EMWIN broadcast
Install EMWIN terminal at Henderson Airport3
Install DCP with manual data entry at National Met Centre3
Install PDUS reception system for GMS imagery3
Install Mini EMWIN terminals for remote locations3
Tokelau Install 2 Mini EMWIN terminals3
Tonga Implement dial-up internet e-mail access for Fua'amotu Airport3
Install EMWIN systems at Vavau and Fua'amotu airports3
Install DCP with manual data entry at Vava'a and Fua'amotu airports3
Install Inmarsat M communications system2
Install 1 AWS with DCP communications3
Install Mini EMWIN terminals for remote locations3
Install PDUS reception system for GOES imagery3
Tuvalu Install Inmarsat M communications system2
Install DCP with manual data entry at Funafuti3
Install Mini EMWIN terminals for remote locations3
Install 2 AWS with DCP communications3
Vanuatu Install Inmarsat M communications system2
Install Mini EMWIN terminals for remote locations3
Switch products onto the GTS for EMWIN broadcast
Install PDUS reception system for GMS imagery3
Install DCP systems for manual data entry (up to 6 locations) 3
Wallis and Futuna Acquire and implement software systems for display of ISCS data2
Install Inmarsat M communications system 2
1. Project already commenced
2. Project already funded
3. Project requires funding
Mini EMWIN terminals should be developed
ACTIVITIES OF VCP CO-ORDINATED PROGRAMMES IN 1999
1. Improvement of the global network of upper-air stations
1.1 Since the previous IPM on the VCP and related Technical Co-operation Programmes (Geneva,
February 1999) Members concerned together with the Secretariat continued to undertake joint efforts to
replace the OMEGA-based upper-air observing systems by the alternative observing systems within the
framework of WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme. Following the results of WWW special monitoring
(July 1999), 217 OMEGA-based observing stations out of 253 had been replaced by alternative systems.
It should be mentioned that of the 36 remaining stations, 12 stations have on-going replacement projects,
some of them to be completed by the end of 1999. Appendix A presents an up-dated list of upper-air
stations showing the provision of donor’s assistance through the VCP since 1997. In implementing the
replacement projects substantial contributions were provided by Australia, Finland, Japan, UK, USA and
1.2 Notwithstanding the numerous efforts lead by donor Members and upper-air system manufacturers
there are still some 20 stations in Africa, Asia and South America where assistance is required with the
highest priority to replace OMEGA-based equipment by alternative systems. Countries for which assistance
is still required for this purpose are listed in paragraph 1.1.5 of IPM/VCP/TCO(2000)/Doc. 3.
1.3 In 1999, France, UK and the VCP(F) provided four Members in the Newly Independent States and
countries with economies in transition in central and eastern Europe with urgently needed radiosondes
and balloons to maintain their upper-air observing stations.
2. Improvement of the GTS
2.1 Various expert missions were carried out with WWW support that resulted in particular in:
(a) Installation of a PC-based GTS system in Dar-es-Salaam, and operation of the medium-speed
circuit with RTH Nairobi with TCP/IP;
(b) Further upgrade of the Message Switching and Telecommunications system and GTS facilities at
RTH Niamey and ACMAD, and at RTH Nairobi;
(c) Installation of a PC-based GTS system in Entebbe and operation of data exchange with RTH
Nairobi with TCP/IP;
2.2 The further development and upgrade of the RMTN, as endorsed by XII-RA I, includes in particular:
(a) The ASECNA VSAT network, called SATCOM and covering the western and Central African area,
which includes the capacity to support upgraded GTS links; an expert meeting on GTS in Western
and Central Africa (Dakar, October 1999) was held to develop detailed technical planning for
countries concerned; Members concerned need support for installing the necessary local
connection and terminal equipment to join and benefit from the SATCOM network;
(b) Strengthening GTS implementation, in particular at national level.
ANNEX IV, p. 2
2.3 XI-RA II agreed that as regards the technical co-operation activities related to the GTS in Region II,
the highest priority should be given to the connection to the GTS of the NMCs not yet connected (Phnom
Penh, Sanaa and Vientiane). WMO missions were carried out in Cambodia and Lao PDR and technical
proposals were prepared. VCP projects for Cambodia and Lao PDR were circulated amongst donors, and
Japan offered support to the project for Lao PDR in 1998.
2.4 The replacement of HF broadcasts systems by satellite distribution systems is being considered in
Region II. UK offered to use the spare capacity of the UK Satellite Facility (UKSF) to broadcast data and
products for WWW purposes, and proposed to carry out a pilot project with the participation of RA II Members,
preferably equipped with a SADIS receiving system. The pilot project is being developed.
New RA III Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network (RMTN)
2.5 Directors of NMHSs of South America, agreed upon a plan for the design and implementation of
the new RA III RMTN using the concept of Managed Data Communication Network Services. The technical
and contractual documentation required for the international Invitation to Tender (ITT) is being prepared
and is expected to be ready before the end of 1999. The ITT is planned for launch during 2000. Co-operation
support is likely to be required for some RA III countries for implementing the necessary computer-based
equipment to benefit from the new RMTN.
New satellite-based RMTN
2.6 VSAT & STAR4 equipment installation and upgrade were completed (except Haiti). An upgrade
of the NMC terminal equipment and telecommunication arrangements is needed for WWW centres of small
islands in the Caribbean with a view to improving meteorological data exchange.
2.7 The plan for further development of the RMTN, as adopted by XII-RA V, includes:
(a) Upgrades to RMTN point-to-point links and introduction of TCP/IP procedures;
(b) Integration of the GTS component of the International Satellite Communication System (ISCS)
over the Pacific, operated by USA, into the RMTN as a regional complementary component of the
GTS. The inclusion for Region V purposes, of WWW data and products on the GTS component of
the ISCS, would be duly co-ordinated with WMC/RTH Washington;
(c) An implementation plan fulfilling the special requirements for communications in the South Pacific,
including the implementation in various South Pacific islands of:
- DCPs, with either a data-entry or an Automatic Weather Station, as required, for observational
- Inmarsat M terminal earth stations as back-up communication systems at relevant centres;
ANNEX IV, p. 3
- EMWIN (Emergency Management Weather Information Network through the GOES
satellites) systems for facilitating the distribution of meteorological products to centres, as
This plan is also co-ordinated with the South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Upgrade Project (1997-2000), funded
by the European Union (EU).
2.8 The project of the Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN) has entered
its implementation phase. A workshop on the RMDCN was organized in January 1999 in order to assist
the RA VI Members with the planning of their connection to the RMDCN. Expert missions to assist Lithuania,
Malta and The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in the preparation of their connection to the RMDCN
were funded under the VCP(F). Germany, Netherlands and UK provided contributions to the RMDCN
Trust Funds to support the co-ordinated project to assist the countries in implementing their connection to
the RMDCN. The RMDCN Trust Funds were used to support the installation charges to be paid to the
service provider (EQUANT) for the connection of Bulgaria, Estonia, Lebanon, Syrian Arab Republic and
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Trust Fund and the VCP(F) were also used to support
partially the replacement of the MSSs in Estonia and Lithuania, and to support expert missions for the
tests of the connection of Jordan, Lebanon and Syrian Arab Republic.
3. Automation of NMCs
3.1 Automation of small NMCs using available, affordable and maintainable technologies based on
PCs and TCP/IP protocols, using off-the-shelf hardware and software components, is now available from
several manufacturers. Its implementation in several NMCs and some RTHs demonstrated its feasibility
and performance with a view to a considerable upgrade of GTS operation.
3.2 Standard data-communication techniques, protocols and applications that are adopted for the
GTS provide better opportunities for improving the cost effectiveness of GTS facilities and systems and
taking benefit from new telecommunication means, services and equipment which are widely supported
by telecommunication providers and manufacturers. These benefits equated to direct savings in financial
and human resource to Members by reduced costs for communications equipment purchase and
maintenance, as well as reduced software development work through use of industry standard software
4. Implementation of low-cost, low-resolution satellite receivers
4.1 Under the Trust Fund project supported by the Swiss Development Co-operation Department,
low-cost, low-resolution satellite data receivers were provided to 30 WMO Member countries: Burkina
Faso, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Guinea, Lesotho, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, and
Swaziland; Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Kazakstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; Bolivia, Guyana, Paraguay and Uruguay; Cuba; Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia,
Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine. The project was completed in all recipient countries
in 1996-1998, except for Tajikistan (the system provided to Burkina Faso was finally moved to Benin in
1998). The installation and training for Tajikistan system will be carried out very shortly.
4.2 The CBS Open Programme Area Group (OPAG) Integrated Observing System (IOS) Expert Team
Meeting on Satellite Systems Utilization and Products, in June 1999, recalled that there would be a transition
ANNEX IV, p. 4
of the present low-resolution satellite services called APT and WEFAX to LRPT and LRIT, respectively. It
recommended that a technical document on the migration of satellite receiving stations to the new digital
services be prepared for WMO Members prior to the commencement of the services. The document is
scheduled to be released in 2000. The CBS OPAG IOS Expert Team Meeting on Satellite Systems
Utilisation and Products held in Melbourne, Australia in October 1999 reviewed the draft Technical
Document. It will be distributed to WMO Members in both hard copy and on the WMO web server. The
document will contain the latest transition schedule as provided by the CGMS satellite operators. The
latest transition schedule will also be maintained on the WMO web server.
5. Support to the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP)
5.1 At the kind invitation of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), study tours for two groups
of tropical cyclone operational forecasters, representing nine Typhoon Committee Members and seven
Members of the Panel on Tropical Cyclones, were carried out in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing from 9
to 18 December 1996 and from 23 March to 1 April 1998, respectively. China covered the expenses of
accommodation and inland transportation for the participants during their stay in China, as a contribution of
China to the VCP. Financial assistance (international travel and partial per diem) to the above participants
in the 1998 China study tour was provided from the VCP(F) and the TCP regular budget, by transferring
from budget allocated for other programme activities of TCP. It is proposed that, if the Government of
China agrees to host similar Study Tours for tropical cyclone forecasters of other Regional Tropical Cyclone
Bodies (RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee, RA IV Hurricane Committee and RA V Tropical Cyclone
Committee), a VCP co-ordinated project (approximately, US $15,000 for one tour in year 2000) be
established for this purpose.
5.2 The RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee for the South-West Indian Ocean at its thirteenth session
(Mbabane, Swaziland, 30 September to 6 October 1997) recommended that a two-week training course
on tropical cyclones be held every other year starting from 1999 at the RSMC La Réunion - Tropical
Cyclone Centre. An RA I Training Course on Tropical Cyclones was organized by Météo-France in co-
operation with WMO at the RSMC La Réunion from 8 to 19 November 1999. Since only limited funds are
available from the WMO regular budget during the next financial period (2000-2003) for such courses, the
meeting is invited to consider the establishment of a VCP co-ordinated project (approximately, US $20,000
for the 2001 course).
6. Support to Internet capabilities at NMHSs
6.1 The support for implementation of Internet capabilities at NMHSs is, in most cases, associated with
the initial automation of NMCs. A rapidly increasing number of NMCs have access to the Internet through
relatively low cost equipment, at least for E-mail services.
6.2 Several NMSs, in particular from developing countries, would require co-operation assistance for
implementing a full Internet connectivity. Special equipment (e.g., wireless communications) are required
for some NMCs, in particular in developing countries, for alleviating the unreliable and low quality local
connections with Internet providers.
6.3 In 1999, three projects for the provision of the Internet connection for Cameroon, Democratic
Republic of the Congo and United Republic of Tanzania were supported with the VCP(F).
ANNEX IV, p. 5
7. Support to public weather services activities
7.1. A number of NMSs received assistance under the VCP for realizing their full potential in provision
of effective public weather services. The report of activities in this regard in 1998-1999 is presented
7.2. Two VCP projects for Kenya for the provision of a media system for training TV weather presenters
and for Zambia for a Weather Forecast Presentation System for Television and Newspapers in NMC Lusaka,
supported by UK in 1998 are under implementation.
7.3 In 1999 UK supported three project requests by Senegal for the provision of a television weather
presentation system, by Armenia for a Weather Forecast Presentation System for television and newspapers,
and by Namibia for the upgrading of the television weather broadcasting equipment.
8. Support to climate data management and CLIPS
Climate Computing (CLICOM) project
8.1 The purpose of this project, initiated in 1985, is to co-ordinate the implementation, maintenance
and upgrading of automated climate data management procedures and systems in WMO Member countries.
This is one of the most successful projects in the WCP/TCO VCP with project software installed in more
than 130 Member countries at the end of 1999. Since 1995, regional CLICOM Area Support Centres
have been established at: Santiago, Chile; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Niamey, Niger; at the Caribbean
Meteorological Institute in Bridgetown, Barbados; and in Obninsk, Russian Federation. A co-operative
effort from experts at all of these Centres led to the development of an enhanced version (CLICOM 3.1) of
the project software.
8.2 The CLICOM 3.1 software (English version) was released via the WMO ftp server on 29 October
1999. System developers from the Meteorological Services of Algeria, Chile, France, Malaysia and Russian
Federation contributed to this joint effort. A CLICOM expert from Météo-France prepared the Guide to
Migration from CLICOM 3.0 to 3.1 (English version), a comprehensive manual of 100 pages. Météo-France
and ACMAD are preparing the French version of CLICOM 3.1. This involves the translation of messages,
menus, help etc., in the software as well as the translation of the Reference Manual and of the Migration
Guide. The CLICOM 3.1 software is currently being installed and tested during roving seminars being
conducted by CLICOM experts in three or four countries in each of WMO Regions III, IV and V.
8.3 In 1999, a total of 17 countries have improved their CLICOM systems with financial support from
the UK. They received new Pentium II computers and Hewlett Packard combined colour
printer/scanner/copier units to replace their obsolete equipment.
8.4 There are still 24 countries requesting VCP assistance for implementation of the CLICOM project.
Ten countries (Albania, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, Cameroon,
Gabon, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, and Tonga) have never received VCP assistance for provision
of a CLICOM system. The other 14 countries, having CLICOM, presented VCP requests for upgrading
their obsolete hardware and software.
8.5 Eleven African countries are receiving CLICOM equipment, software and training under a new
project for "Improving the Capacity for National Climate Data Management and Developing Drought
Preparedness and Management Strategies in African Countries Affected by Desertification". France, UK
and the WMO financially supported the project. In consultation with the Permanent Representatives of
ANNEX IV, p. 6
the countries concerned, the technical specifications for each country were defined and the procurement
of the equipment is under way for the expected delivery to the respective countries in early 2000. In
parallel, the translation into French of the software, guides and manuals is being made at ACMAD.
8.6 Three roving seminars were conducted in RA III, RA IV and RA V for eleven countries. The visiting
experts from the Area Support Centres in Santiago, Bridgetown and Kuala Lumpur assisted the countries
with the migration of their data from the old CLICOM 3.0 system to the new CLICOM 3.1. They also
checked the Year 2000 compliance of the computers in the Climatological Services of the visited countries.
Data Rescue (DARE)
8.7 Most of the activity in the DARE project during 1999 took place in Region IV which could have
implications on DARE projects in other regions. Work is under way in Costa Rica, in using strip chart
scanning software, developed in Hungary, to digitize strip chart data. The Caribbean Institute of Meteorology
and Hydrology (CIMH) continues to manually digitize climate data stored on nearly two million punch cards.
The feasibility of transferring microfilm images to a CD-ROM is being tested at the CIMH. Finally, a
questionnaire designed to encourage the participation of WMO Members in Region IV in the DARE IV
project was distributed in early 1999 and is being analyzed by the DARE IV Rapporteur at the CIMH.
8.8 There has been little or no DARE I activity in 1999. An attempt will be made to integrate some
DARE activity into the implementation of the drought preparedness project in the designated 11 African
Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS)
8.9 In July 1999, a VCP request was received from China for the CLIPS Showcase Heat Watch/Warning
System in Shanghai. The VCP project was formulated and circulated in September 1999 for Climate data,
decision-tree model, and expert services for a detailed project plan and system and software development,
which is expected to be supported by the USA. A project team visited China (Shanghai, 8-10 October
1999) to develop with the CMA a detailed plan for the CLIPS Showcase Project: Heat/Health Warning
System for Shanghai.
8.10 The WMO co-sponsored, through the CLIPS Project, the International Research Institute for Climate
Prediction's (IRI's) seminar, Applications of Climate Forecasting to Agriculture (Toowoomba, Australia, 1-19
February 1999). The WMO/CLIPS funding supported participation by NMHS representatives of the following
countries that have (or have expressed interest in) outstanding requests for support of CLIPS
Pilot/Demonstration Projects: Philippines, Fiji, and Brazil. Those participants were encouraged to consider
the lessons learned in the training and to refine their countries' CLIPS VCP projects' designs.
8.11 CLIPS Project Office arranged, in co-operation with the Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, a
Training Workshop in Tahiti during the Annual Meeting of PRs of the South Pacific Region, organized by
SPREP. Regional PRs expressed considerable interest in extending the CLIPS Project throughout the
region, one initial activity of which will be the organization of a Regional Climate Outlook Forum during
2000. Follow-up action was taken at the Regional Workshop for Water Managers, Disaster Managers and
Meteorological Services on ENSO Response and Mitigation Planning, arranged in Fiji by SOPAC. A
similar Training Workshop has been run in the Middle East (in Bahrain), with similar outcomes in terms of
ANNEX IV, p. 7
9. Production and training in the use of CAL modules for meteorology including
marine meteorology, especially basin-scale wave modelling for small islands and
archipelagic communities, and operational hydrology
9.1 Under the ASMET (African Satellite Meteorology Education and Training) project, funded by the
Government of Germany and implemented by EUMETSAT, two Computer-aided learning modules on
satellite meteorology adapted to African regions in CD-ROMs have been produced. The first volume has
been used in a recent WMO regional training seminar for national institutions held in Nairobi and copies
provided by EUMETSAT were distributed to all WMO RMTCs. Copies of the second volume were also
distributed by WMO among training institutions. EUMETSAT plans to assist in the developmeant of a third
volume in the near future.
10. Support for the ACMAD Demonstration Project
10.1 WMO contributed to the evaluation of the ACMAD demonstration project. The evaluation team
report was reviewed at the Secretariat and transmitted to ACMAD and presented to RA I. The RA I noted
that good progress had been made in implementation of the ACMAD Programme, in particular the
demonstration project which comprises three priority activities; numerical weather prediction, climate
prediction services and the ACMAD Meteorological and Environment Diagnostic Integrated System
(AMEDIS). Several Members confirmed the usefulness and value of forecast guidance and CLIPS products
ACMAD has generated and disseminate regularly as they had assisted them in their daily operations. It
also noted and requested the Centre to continue its activities as an important tool used by Members for
capacity building of their human resources. It urged Members concerned to ratify the legal instruments of
the Centre and pay their contributions. ACMAD sponsors are therefore invited to enhance their support
to the Centre.
10.2 Taking into account that the ACMAD Demonstration Project was completed successfully in 1998,
the co-ordinated programme “Support for the ACMAD Demonstration Project” is proposed to be renamed
“Support for ACMAD activities” with a view to further enhancement of overall ACMAD activities.
10.3 In 1999, ACMAD contributed to the organization in Africa of training sessions for capacity building
in the field of climate prediction for climatologists, hydrologists and users from food security and water
resources management sectors, to enable them to develop, exploit and use the seasonal forecast for the
benefit of the socio-economic development and welfare of the population.
List of upper-air stations for which support was required with highest priority
according to the recommendations by CBS Task Team
as of 31/12/99
Station Country Previous System Upgraded to Supported by Status
GUAN and isolated stations related to recommendation 1
61052 Niamey -Aero (Niger) MW11 DigiCORA STAR system ASECNA In operation
61641 Dakar-Yoff (Senegal) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DigiCORA ASECNA In operation
- STAR system (New) USA (VCP) Upgraded in Oct. 1999
63450 Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Upgraded in Sept. 1998
63741 Nairobi/Dagoretti (Kenya) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Upgraded in Sept. 1998
64910 Douala (Cameroon) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DigiCORA ASECNA GPS in operation
78397 Kingston (Jamaica) NAVAID system Loran-C system USA (VCP) Upgraded in Nov. 1997
78762 Juan Santamaria (Costa Rica) DigiCORA Modified DogiCORA Finland (VCP) Upgraded in Apr. 1998
87155 Resistencia Aero (Argentina) Upgraded in Sept. 1998
89055 Marambia (Argentina) DigiCORA Modified DogiCORA Finland (VCP) Upgraded in 1997
87860 Comodoro Rivadavia Aero (Argentina) Upgraded in Sept. 1998
91517 Honiara (Solomon Islands) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA Australia (VCP) Upgraded in May 1998
92035 Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA Australia (VCP) To be upgraded in early 2000
“Silent” GUAN stations related to recommendation 2
67197 Port Dauphin (Madagascar) In operation
67083 Ivato/Antananarivo (Madagascar) STAR system ASECNA In operation
84008 San Cristobal (Ecuador) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA Japan, TOTEX,
Upgraded in June 1998
Non-GUAN OMEGA stations related to recommendation 3
48900 Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam) Upgraded in 1998
61024 Agadez (Niger) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DigiCORA ASECNA GPS in operation
64650 Bangui (Central African Republic) STAR system ASECNA Under installation
78970 Piarco International Airport (Trinidad and Tobago) NAVAID System ATIR system USA (VCP) Upgraded in June 1998
78988 Hato A/P, Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles & Aruba) NAVAID System ATIR system USA (VCP) Upgraded in Nov. 1997
78886 St. Maarten (Netherlands Antilles & Aruba) NAVAID System ATIR system USA (VCP) Upgraded in Dec. 1997
87576 Ezeiza Aero (Argentina) Upgraded in 1998
Non GUAN stations in the Tropics and the Southern Hemisphere related to recommendation 5
41494 Socotra (Yemen) No replacement
48042 Mandalay (Myanmar) No replacement
61202 Tessalit (Mali) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DigiCORA ASECNA GPS in operation
61291 Bamako (Mali) STAR system ASECNA Under installation
61223 Tombouctou (Mali) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DigiCORA ASECNA GPS in operation
61415 Nouadhibou (Mauritania) STAR system ASECNA Under installation
61831 Conakry (Guinea) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Supported on 06/10/98, on-
62721 Khartoum (Sudan) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Upgraded in Dec. 1998
63801 Kigoma (Tanzania) No replacement
64700 Ndjamena (Chad) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DigiCORA ASECNA GPS in operation
65123 Minna (Nigeria) No replacement
66160 Luanda (Angola) No replacement
67237 Nampula (Mozambique) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) UK supported in Sept. '99
67665 Lusaka (Zambia) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Upgraded in March 1999
68032 Maun (Botswana) Upgraded in 1998
85201 La Paz/Alto (Bolivia) No replacement
87344 Cordoba Aero (Argentina) Upgraded in 1998
87715 Neuguen Aero (Argentina) Upgraded in 1998
92044 Momote (Papua New Guinea) In operation
98646 Mactan (Philippines) No replacement
63705 Entebbe (Uganda) MW11 DigiCORA GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Upgraded in Nov. 1998
08594 Sal (Cape Verde) MW11 DigiCORA ATIR system UK & USA (VCP) Upgraded in Nov. 1998
63985 Mahe (Seychelles) STAR system GPS DogiCORA UK (VCP) Upgraded in Dec. 1998
65503 Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) STAR system ASECNA Under installation
64500 Libreville (Gabon) STAR system ASECNA Under installation
61687 Tambacounda (Senegal) STAR system ASECNA Under installation
26038 Tallinn (Estonia) DigiCORA Modified DogiCORA Finland (VCP) Upgraded in Feb. 1997
26422 Riga (Latvia) DigiCORA Modified DogiCORA Finland (VCP) Upgraded in Aug. 1997
26629 Kaunas (Lithuania) DigiCORA Modified DogiCORA Finland (VCP) Upgraded in Aug. 1997
78730 Puerto Cabezas (Nicaragua) DigiCORA Modified DogiCORA Finland (VCP) Upgraded in May 1998
78073 Nassau (Bahamas) NAVAID System Loran-C system USA (VCP) Upgraded in Oct. 1997
78486 Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) NAVAID System ATIR system USA (VCP) Upgraded in June 1998
80001 San Andres (Colombia) NAVAID System ATIR system USA (VCP) Upgraded in Feb. 1998
78806 Howard (Panama) NAVAID System ATIR system USA (VCP) Upgraded in Sept. 1999
Members' contributions to
the WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme
Donor VCP(F) VCP(ES)* Total
Member Equipment Equipment Training/ VCP(ES) Contribution
and Services and Services Fellowships including
through by bilateral fellowships
(US$) WMO arrangements Sub-total (US$)
Argentina 31,200 14,200 45,400 45,400
Australia 25,000 45,000 150,400 105,300 300,700 325,700
Brazil 22,500 22,500 22,500
Canada 200,000 70,000 270,000 270,000
China 165,500 240,000 405,500 405,500
Finland 20,000 1,090,000 1,110,000 1,110,000
France 638,000 213,000 11,800 862,800 862,800
Germany 127,330 37,930 14,690 179,950 179,950
Ireland 6,350 6,350
Israel 410,000 410,000 410,000
Japan 320,000 80,000 250,000 330,000 650,000
Lithuania 30,000 30,000 30,000
Malaysia 3,000 3,000
Mauritius 500 500
Myanmar 500 500
New Zealand 303,700 303,700 303,700
Norway 5,145 10,040 10,040 15,185
Pakistan 401 401
Philippines 4,500 4,500 4,500
Poland 36,400 36,400 36,400
Portugal 121,612 121,612 121,612
Russian Federation 197,000 197,000 197,000
Spain 94,340 210,640 304,980 304,980
UK 57,377 745,700 176,600 255,000 1,177,300 1,234,677
USA 1,554,385 445,615 2,000,000 2,000,000
Total 418,273 3,500,255 2,202,830 2,419,297 8,122,382 8,540,655
* The data is based on the information provided by donor Members, as of 18 January 2000.
Evolution of Members’ contributions to VCP(ES) and VCP(F) 1980-1999
Total VCP(ES) VCP(F)
4,995,706 4,784,000 211,706
5,591,499 5,166,600 424,899
5,307,092 5,002,900 304,192
5,114,086 4,883,400 230,686
5,470,750 5,143,700 327,050
4,773,319 4,603,820 169,499
5,395,270 5,008,780 386,490
6,198,385 5,956,468 241,917
6,895,518 6,604,008 291,510
C 8,191,805 7,944,969 246,836
( 8,080,558 7,702,200 378,358
F 7,408,845 7,021,500 387,345
6,214,520 5,695,610 518,910
7,692,204 7,178,600 513,604
6,851,805 6,398,340 453,465
6,003,186 5,518,675 484,511
5,994,740 5,607,216 387,524
8,078,506 7,802,276 276,230
7,411,226 7,118,312 292,914
8,540,655 8,122,382 418,273
0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 (US$)
Statistics related to the support
received for VCP projects circulated amongst donors
during the period 1988-1998, and in 1999
(VCP requests related to fellowships excluded)
Number of Total Percentage Number of Total Percentage
projects number of projects projects number of of projects
having of projects having having projects having
Fields of co-operation received having been received received having been received
support circulated support support circulated support
during during during in in during
1988-1998 1988-1998 1988-1998 1999 1999 1988-1999
Surface observing stations 53 105 50% 1 18 44%
Upper-air observing stations 122 223 55% 10 10 57%
Satellite receiving stations 35 85 41% 1 5 40%
Weather radar stations 3 15 20% 0 1 19%
Telecommunication systems 89 199 45% 16 31 46%
Data processing systems 22 48 46% 6 13 46%
Maintenance workshops 6 21 29% 0 0 29%
Research and training centre activities 2 16 13% 1 4 15%
CLICOM and climatological activities 62 115 54% 11 16 56%
Hydrological activities 4 44 9% 14 18 29%
GAW and environment protection activities 3 50 6% 0 4 6%
Meteorological applications activities 30 62 48% 39 51 61%
Total 431 983 44% 99 171 46%