Constraints and Opportunities that Allocate Investment in

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					Constraints and Opportunities that Allocate Investment
            in Sustainable Mobility Systems




                                            Samuel J. Lissner
                                                Peter A. Rose
                                        New York University
                                     Center for Global Affairs
                                        Spring Semester 2010
                         Energy & Environment Concentration
                                  Advised by Carolyn Kissane
                   Based on Field Research in:

                        Tel Aviv, Israel
                Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                       Pamplona, Spain




    Special Thanks to our Advisor and Mentor, Carolyn Kissane




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TABLE OF CONTENTS:
ACRONYMS & COMPANY NAMES…………………………………………………………4

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………….5

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….…………………………..7

TEL AVIV, ISRAEL.……………………………………………………..…………………10

I. ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVS)…………………………………………………………..….12

II. TEL AVIV LIGHT RAIL………………………………………………………………….17

III. TEL AVIV BUS RAPID TRANSIT………………………………………………………...21

IV. ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………...23

ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES………………………………………………….24

I. SURFACE TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN (STMP)…………………………………………...26

II. COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS VEHICLES (CNG)………………………………………...31

III. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL (ULSD)…………………………………………………34

IV. PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT (PRT)……………………………………………………..36

V. ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………..…………………...39

PAMPLONA, SPAIN………………………………………………………………………..41

I. SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY PLAN (SUMP)…………………………………………43

II. BIODIESEL……………………………………………………………………………...47

III. ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVS)……………………………………………………………48

IV. PEDESTRIAN THROUGHWAYS AND BIKE LANES………………………………………50

V. ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………..…………………...52

FINAL ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………….53

APPENDIX….......................................................................................................................................54




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ACRONYMS & COMPANY NAMES

Acciona Energy: a Spanish renewable         GHG: Greenhouse gas
energy company
                                            GRE: Government-related entity
ADFEC: Abu Dhabi Future Energy
Company                                     ICE: Internal-combustion engine

ADNOC: Abu Dhabi National Oil               IDEA: Institute for Energy
Company                                     Diversification and Energy Savings of
                                            Spain
Ayalon Highway Company: state-
owned company that manages and plans        IEC: Israel Electric Corporation
improvements to the public transportation
system in Tel Aviv, Israel                  LRT: Light rapid transit (aboveground
                                            passenger rail systems)
BRT: Bus Rapid Transit
                                            Mubadala: Abu Dhabi state-owned
CENER: National Renewable Energy            company and sovereign investment
Center of Spain                             vehicle

CIEMAT: National Research Center for        NBICI: “By bike,” a public bike-sharing
Energy, Environment and Technology of       program in Pamplona, Spain
Spain
                                            NILU: Norwegian Institute for Air
COP 15: Fifteenth conference of the         Research
Parties to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change                NTA: Metropolitan Mass Transit System
                                            in Tel Aviv, Israel
CNG: Compressed natural gas
                                            PPP: Public Private Partnerships
Dan Bus Company: a private bus
company that operates in metropolitan       PRT: Personal Rapid Transit
Tel Aviv
                                            STMP: Abu Dhabi Surface Transport
DoT: Abu Dhabi Department of                Master Plan
Transport
                                            SUMP: Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
EAD: Environment Agency Abu Dhabi           for Pamplona, Spain

Egged: a private bus company that           ULSD: Ultra-low sulfur diesel
operates in metropolitan Tel Aviv
                                            UPC: Abu Dhabi Urban Planning
EV: Electric Vehicle                        Council




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Governments and entrepreneurs are investing in sustainable mobility systems that limit
emissions, minimize the use of non-renewable resources and promote economic
development. To gauge trends in various geographic and political environments, and to
identify and study a broad range of systems and technologies, this paper is comprised of
three case studies that present ideas, policies, and market dynamics that are driving
investment in sustainable transportation projects in Tel-Aviv, Israel; Abu Dhabi, United
Arab Emirates; and Pamplona, Spain. In addition to policy documents and primary sources,
the case studies draw heavily upon personal interviews conducted with government officials,
investors, corporate managers and civil society members during research trips to Israel, Abu
Dhabi and Spain in January 2010.

Across cases, investment in sustainable mobility systems has been allocated to address three
transportation-related problems:

    1. Congestion - Car culture has become widespread and people generally prefer using
    their cars to existing public transit options. Roadway infrastructure has not been
    improved to accommodate the increasing number of vehicles that utilize it. The
    economic cost of sitting in traffic is already significant; urbanization and population
    trends forebode more gridlock, and more lost productivity.

    2. Oil Dependence – Light duty vehicles (cars, SUVs, motorbikes) rely on oil for fuel, a
    finite resource whose price can swing wildly. Global demand for crude has reached new
    peaks and is forecasted to continue rising. Due to supply and demand trends, relying on
    a steady flow of cheap petroleum is increasingly risky; governments are seeking to
    insulate their economies from the effects of oil price shocks.

    3. Air Pollution – Automobile tailpipes emit NOx, SOx and particulates that have been
    linked to illness and death. In addition to the public health costs of treating people with
    respiratory illnesses like Asthma, CO2 emissions that result from extracting, transporting
    and consuming petroleum and other fossil fuels contribute to global warming, which
    poses a daunting threat to humanity.

The case studies of Tel Aviv, Abu Dhabi and Pamplona provide in-depth analyses of specific
sustainable transport projects, in addition to assessments of various related trends. Each
offers insight into broad and circumstantial challenges being faced by local project
developers, and considers constraints and opportunities that drive investment decisions. The
initiatives that are analyzed include:

    1. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) – By dedicating existing road infrastructure for public
    transportation, Israeli planners hope to convince commuters that taking the bus can be
    more efficient than driving a car. Dedicated lanes for buses enable frequent trips at
    regular intervals, and make public transport significantly more reliable. Providing further
    incentive, dedicated lanes for BRT usually monopolize road space, which congests car
    lanes and makes buses even more convenient.




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    2. Light Rail Transit (LRT) – Surface level light trains provide seamless travel between
    and within population centers. They are electric powered and move quickly. Planners in
    Israel and Abu Dhabi hope that LRT networks will minimize the use of automobiles and
    reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

    3. Electric Vehicles (EVs) – Electric vehicles eliminate the need to use gasoline and
    diesel to fuel private cars. Powered by battery packs, EVs do not release tailpipe
    emissions, which positively impacts air quality and public health. The Israeli government
    has instituted policies that encourage early adoption of EVs, and a widespread electric
    charging network will be available in Tel Aviv by 2012. Pamplona is also being outfitted
    with EV charging infrastructure.

    4. Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) – PRT systems are comprised of automated,
    driverless pod cars that transport riders from origin to any destination in the network.
    PRT is an increasingly viable transport solution in a variety of local, airport and campus
    settings. The Government of Abu Dhabi has allocated funds for the development of an
    innovative PRT system to service Masdar City, a carbon-neutral and car-free community.

    5. Alternative Fuels – In both Abu Dhabi and Pamplona, cleaner burning fuels such as
    biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) are being
    used in buses and car fleets.

    6. Pedestrian Throughways and Bike Lanes – In all three cities, planners and civil
    society advocates are encouraging investment in better pedestrian access, which includes
    bicycle lanes, walkways and cross walks.

Although unique circumstantial factors influence every investment decision, certain broad
dynamics have catalyzed capital allocation to sustainable transportation projects in Tel Aviv,
Abu Dhabi and Pamplona. To encourage efficient economic activity, planners are designing
public transit systems that circumnavigate traffic jams and reduce the opportunity cost of
congested roadways. Governments are also supporting the development of sustainable
mobility systems to hedge against future oil supply disruptions. Due to negative health
externalities, using gasoline and diesel fuel for transportation is much more costly than the
price at the pump. Air pollution has been linked with respiratory illnesses like asthma, and
government-led investment in sustainable mobility systems aims to reduce long-term public
health costs.




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INTRODUCTION

The last hundred years saw a remarkable progression from Henry Ford’s first horseless
carriage to the worldwide adoption of automobiles. Although the first electric car was
unveiled around the turn of the twentieth century, weak and expensive battery-powered
automobiles quickly lost market share to internal-combustion engine (ICE) vehicles powered
by gasoline. Popular acceptance and use of ICE vehicles has resulted in the development of
petroleum infrastructure around the world. In the most and least-developed countries,
gasoline-powered vehicles facilitate the movement of people and goods.

In the twenty-first century, unpredictable oil prices and revelations about the environmental
and social costs of consuming fossil fuels have changed attitudes about the long-term
viability of ICE vehicles worldwide. In an effort to promote smart development,
governments and entrepreneurs are investing in mobility systems that limit emissions and
waste, minimize consumption of non-renewable resources, and promote economic activity.
Although unique circumstantial factors influence every investment decision, the following
case studies of Tel Aviv, Israel; Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; and Pamplona, Spain
illustrate broad dynamics that have determined capital allocation in sustainable mobility
systems:

    1. Planners seeking to maximize efficiency can reduce the opportunity cost of congested
    roadways by developing public transportation systems that circumnavigate traffic jams.

    2. As oil recovery becomes more expensive and global demand for crude continues to
    swell, government-led investment in sustainable transportation serves as a strong hedge
    against future oil supply disruptions.

    3. Tailpipe emissions from automobiles have been linked to respiratory illnesses that
    require expensive treatments, and officials hope that cleaner transit options will reduce
    long-term public health costs.

Metropolitan Tel Aviv, Abu Dhabi and Pamplona were chosen to gauge trends in different
geographic and political environments, and to enable a qualitative comparison of sustainable
mobility initiatives. The three projects comprise a catalogue of promising sustainable
transportation systems and technologies that are being deployed around the world. Each
case offers analysis of factors driving investment as well as the nature of public-private
partnerships that are financing and implementing the projects. While the particular systems
chosen for Tel Aviv, Abu Dhabi, and Pamplona may not work in every urban environment,
analysis of the local investment considerations and deployment challenges will be useful to
planners and investors.

PROBLEMS IN TRANSPORTATION

Across cases, investment in more sustainable mobility systems has been allocated to address
three transportation-related problems:

    1. Congestion - Car culture has become widespread and people generally prefer using
    their cars to existing public transit options. Roadway infrastructure has not been


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    improved to accommodate the increasing number of vehicles that utilize it. The
    economic cost of sitting in traffic is already significant; urbanization and population
    trends forebode more gridlock, and more lost productivity.

    2. Oil Dependence – Light duty vehicles (cars, SUVs, motorbikes) rely on oil for fuel, a
    finite resource whose price can swing wildly. Global demand for crude has reached new
    peaks and is forecasted to continue rising. Due to supply and demand trends, relying on
    a steady flow of cheap petroleum is increasingly risky; governments are seeking to
    insulate their economies from the effects of oil price shocks.

    3. Air Pollution – Automobile tailpipes emit NOx, SOx and particulates that have been
    linked to illness and death. In addition to the public health costs of treating people with
    respiratory illnesses like Asthma, CO2 emissions that result from extracting, transporting
    and consuming petroleum and other fossil fuels contribute to global warming, which
    poses a daunting threat to humanity.

SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY SOLUTIONS

The case studies of Tel Aviv Abu Dhabi and Pamplona provide in-depth analysis of specific
sustainable transport projects, in addition to assessments of related trends. Each offers
insight into broad and circumstantial challenges faced by local project developers, and
considers constraints and opportunities that drive investment decisions. The initiatives that
are covered include:

    1. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) – By dedicating existing road infrastructure for public
    transportation, Israeli planners hope to convince commuters that taking the bus can be
    more efficient than driving a car. Dedicated lanes for buses enable frequent trips at
    regular intervals, and make public transport significantly more reliable. Providing further
    incentive, dedicated lanes for BRT usually monopolize road space, which congests car
    lanes and makes buses even more convenient.

    2. Light Rail Transit (LRT) – Surface level light trains provide seamless travel between
    and within population centers. They are electric powered and move quickly. Planners in
    Israel and Abu Dhabi hope that LRT networks will minimize the use of automobiles and
    reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

    3. Electric Vehicles (EVs) – Electric vehicles eliminate the need to use gasoline and
    diesel to fuel private cars. Powered by battery packs, EVs do not release tailpipe
    emissions, which positively impacts air quality and public health. The Israeli government
    has instituted policies that encourage early adoption of EVs, and a widespread electric
    charging network will be available in Tel Aviv by 2012. Pamplona is also being outfitted
    with EV charging infrastructure.

    4. Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) – PRT systems are comprised of automated,
    driverless pod cars that transport riders from origin to any destination in the network.
    PRT is an increasingly viable transport solution in a variety of local, airport and campus
    settings. The Government of Abu Dhabi has allocated funds for the development of an
    innovative PRT system to service Masdar City, a carbon-neutral and car-free community.


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    5. Alternative Fuels – In both Abu Dhabi and Pamplona, cleaner burning fuels such as
    biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) are being
    used in buses and car fleets.

    6. Pedestrian Throughways and Bike Lanes – In all three cities, planners and civil
    society advocates are encouraging investment in better pedestrian access, which includes
    bicycle lanes, walkways and cross walks.

FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS

The following studies of Tel Aviv, Israel; Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; and Pamplona,
Spain present ideas, policies, and market dynamics that are driving investment by
governments and companies in sustainable mobility. Specifically, the studies consider the
political support, financial backing, and public-private sector partnerships that are facilitating
the development of sustainable transportation projects. The following questions guided
interviews and research:

    •   Demographics and Trends: What is the character of the city and how is it
        planned? Are there specific urban development aims? What are the population
        trends?

    •   Profile of Existing Transit Services: Does the existing network of roadways and
        public transportation options satisfy the needs of citizens and officials?

    •   Political Support: What is the role of leadership? How do governments support
        projects? Which institutions manage and regulate initiatives?

    •   Allocating Investment: What local transportation-related problems impact the
        investment climate? Why is the government leading investment? To what extent are
        local officials influenced by global trends? How important is civil society?

    •   Public-Private Partnerships (PPP): Who are the investors and service providers
        that finance and build the project?

RESEARCH AND LIMITATIONS

In addition to policy documents and primary sources, these case studies draw heavily upon
personal interviews that were conducted with government officials, investors, corporate
managers and civil society members during research visits to Israel, Abu Dhabi and Spain in
January 2010 (see Appendix 1 for itinerary). The interviews were open-ended and covered a
range of topics. Although translators and guides facilitated detailed research, certain officials
were unavailable and materials unobtainable due to physical distance or language barriers.
The subjects’ schedules and level of candor were sometimes limiting. Although officials in
Israel and Spain offered nuanced and critical views of economic policy and development
planning, officials in Abu Dhabi were reluctant to criticize executive decisions.
Documentation related to planning processes, project costs, and regulatory authority was
more easily accessed in Israel and Spain than it was in Abu Dhabi.


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TEL AVIV, ISRAEL
SUMMARY

The Israeli government has supported ambitious and progressive sustainable mobility
initiatives that reduce congestion, diversify the transport energy mix and decrease tailpipe
emissions in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area (the Dan cluster).

    1. Electric Vehicles (EVs) - A favorable import tax regime supports the Better Place
    Inc. plan to build necessary infrastructure for an EV charging network. The company is
    hoping that its electric mobility service will eventually eliminate the use of gasoline-
    powered vehicles in Tel Aviv.

    2. Tel Aviv Light Rail - The Metropolitan Mass Transit System’s (NTA)
    “Comprehensive Transportation Solution” includes provisions for an urban light rail
    system that would connect cities and towns throughout the Dan cluster.

    3. Bus Rapid Transit - The public transport division of the state-owned Ayalon
    Highway Company hopes to increase bus ridership by reorganizing the existing system
    into a more efficient and predictable network that utilizes dedicated bus lanes.

                                                 DEMOGRAPHICS AND TRENDS

                                                 Israel is small country that borders Lebanon
                                                 and Syria to the north, Jordan to the east,
                                                 Egypt to the south and the Mediterranean
                                                 Sea to the west. It is about 300 miles long,
                                                 spanning 85 miles at its widest point.
                                                 Approximately 40% of Israel’s 7.3 million
                                                 people live in the Tel Aviv metropolitan
                                                 area, which is located in the center of the
                                                 country on the Mediterranean Sea. To the
                                                 north, east and south, Tel Aviv blends into a
                                                 continuous built-up area that includes the
                                                 suburbs of Ramat Gan, Giv’atayim, Bat
                                                 Yam, and Holon. The main business center
                                                 of the metropolitan area is located in the
                                                 heart of Tel Aviv, which contains
                                                 approximately 16% of the Dan cluster’s
                                                 workplaces.1


                                                 Map of Israel2




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Between 1994 and 2003 many immigrants arrived in Israel from the Soviet Union, and the
population of Tel Aviv increased from 2.3 million to 2.8 million.3 Compared to the national
population density of 300 people/km2, the Dan Cluster is home to about 6,750 people/km2.4

The Dan Cluster:                             2000           2020
Population                              2,785,000       3,500,000
Employment                              1,1,46,000      1,550,000
Vehicles Entering Tel Aviv/day            514,000        660,000
             2
Density/km                                   6,800         8,1005

PROFILE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSIT SERVICES

Private Cars
Israel is a country of short distances and surface vehicles are the primary means of
transportation. The reliance on automobiles has become increasingly widespread: since 1990,
the number of vehicles in Israel has doubled from 1 to 2 million.6 In recent years, the road
network has been extensively expanded and improved to accommodate this rapid increase in
the number of vehicles, as well as to make even the most remote communities accessible.7
Still, traffic jams are very common in the Dan cluster and often restrict the movement of
people and goods.

Inter-city Rail
When the State of Israel was established in 1948, its government began building
transportation infrastructure to connect towns that dotted the rugged landscape. Railroads
radiating north and south from Tel Aviv, as well as several major roads in the center of the
country were constructed to encourage economic growth in the periphery.8 Israel Railways
currently operates passenger and freight services between Tel Aviv, Haifa, Nahariya,
Ashdod, Be’er Sheva and Dimona that serve approximately 1.5 million people each day.

Buses
In the 1960s two public cooperatives, Egged and Dan, were established to provide
subsidized bus service for the population.9 Today, the bus service network in Tel Aviv
includes 480 lines, which make up around 1500 routes in each direction. The majority of
these routes are still operated by Egged and Dan, but new companies began operating in the
metropolitan area when public transportation was opened to competition. Surveys indicate
an ongoing decrease in the use of buses in metropolitan Tel Aviv: as the population
increased from 2.3 million to 2.8 million between 1994 and 2003, the number of daily bus
journeys decreased by around 50,000 (to approximately 900,000 journeys per day).10




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1. ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVS)
Better Place Inc. is a global provider of electric vehicle services that aims to radically
minimize Israel’s need to import oil by electrifying the entire light duty fleet of automobiles
by 2020. The company is already installing vehicle-charging infrastructure at homes and
offices, and will open battery-swap stations that replace depleted batteries with fully charged
units in 2011.11

Historically, drivers have feared being stuck with expensive (and depreciating) batteries that
run out of charge and become obsolete. To eliminate this concern, Better Place will own all
of the batteries in its network. Similar to buying cell phone minutes, consumers will buy
miles from Better Place.12 Having already purchased miles on a monthly or annual basis,
subscribers will be guaranteed an available battery, as well as the electricity needed to charge
it. Compared to a gasoline-powered mile in Israel, which costs about 30 cents/mile
($6/gallon), electric miles will be very affordable (around $0.15/mile).

Better Place aims to offer this mobility service with a range of vehicles: so far, Renault and
Chery Automotive have signed on to manufacture compatible cars. A fleet of Renault
Fluence sedans is currently being used to shuttle visitors around the Better Place visitor’s
center outside Tel Aviv.13 The car is designed to permit a 90-second automated battery
swap, which Renault calls “Quickdrop,” enabling unlimited range in any region outfitted
with Better Place charging stations and swap bays.14




Better Place battery-swap technology.15

Political Support:

Tariff Regime
The Government of Israel has instituted a progressive policy regime that supports the
deployment of EVs and charging infrastructure. The import tariff for conventional vehicles
is 92%, but the rate for an imported EV is 10% through 2014, rising to 30% in 2015.16




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Allocating Investment:

Oil Dependence
Government officials have been keen to support electrification as a security initiative that
could help eliminate Israel’s need to import oil. As a petroleum importer, the Israeli
government is reliant on foreign partners for daily shipments of crude oil, whose price
fluctuates on the global market. Although oil consumed in Israel does not originate in Arab
countries, domestic demand exaggerates world prices and enriches enemies of the Israeli
state. At a speech to the President’s Conference in 2009, Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu said that electrification was a matter of “security, because dependence on fossil
fuels strengthens the dark regimes that encourage instability and fund terror with their
petrodollars.”17 By contrast, electricity prices are less volatile and offer a lower cost
alternative to imported gasoline.

Air Quality
There is a direct relationship between the number of cars on the road and the quality of
Israel’s air. Vehicle transportation contributes 56% of total NOx emissions - Tel Aviv
records an annual average concentration of 89 microgram/m3, the highest level in the
country. In addition, vehicles contribute 4% of SO2 emissions, 27% of SPM, and 23% of
CO2.18

On Yom Kippur (the Jewish Day of Atonement - observed nationally), the vast majority of
citizens do not drive their cars. Each year on that date, vehicular emissions such as Benzene
(measured in Haifa) drop to almost zero, establishing a local, forceful link between traffic
levels and air quality.




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Electric vehicles are not point sources of emissions. They do not have tailpipes and do not
spew pollutants. Thus, using electricity to power light duty vehicles may improve local air
quality.




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Greenhouse Gas Abatement (GHG)
Israeli civil society members regard their government’s presence at the IPCC “Cop15”
Summit to have signaled the country’s commitment to curb GHG emissions. In preparation
for the summit, the Ministry of Environment contracted consulting firm McKinsey & Co. to
quantify greenhouse gas abatement potential and costs in Israel. The report found that by
adopting a host of efficiency measures and reduction strategies, Israel could reduce its
expected emissions growth.20 At Cop15, President Shimon Peres committed his country to
reducing expected growth of “business as usual” emissions by 20%.21

The extent to which electrifying light duty fleets will aid the government’s effort to reduce
GHG emissions depends on the emissions profiles of the fuels that are used to generate
electricity for charging EVs. Israel’s rated electricity supply of 11.3GW is managed and
operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), a state-owned utility. As of January 2010
the IEC energy-mix was:

    Energy Source           Share      MW
    Coal-fired               41%       4840
    Fuel Oil                  3%        432
    Natural Gas              35%       4072
    Diesel/gas oil           20%       2320
    Total (60 plants)                1166422

Despite the fact that Israel has reduced its reliance on coal by 50% since 2000, the IEC
energy mix is a major source of emissions. However, the GHG density of IEC’s fuel mix
may soon be diminished by three realities that strengthen the link between electrifying
transport and abating GHG emissions:

           a. Local Natural Gas - A methane reservoir with enough natural gas to supply
           about 15 years worth of Israeli energy needs was recently found off Israel’s northern
           coast.23 The byproducts of burning methane gas (CH4) are nearly 60% cleaner than
           emissions from burning coal. Supplanting coal-fired plants with steam generators
           powered by natural gas would greatly diminish Israel’s emissions.

           b. Renewable Energy - The Government of Israel has committed to meeting 5& of
           the country’s electricity needs with renewable sources by 2014 and 10% by 2020.24
           Indeed, the southern Negev and Arava desert regions have been identified as
           “National Preference” regions for new solar energy plants.

           c. Flattened Demand Curve – As a consumer of off-peak electrons, Better Place
           batteries will flatten the demand curve for electricity, which should allow IEC
           facilities to run more efficiently.

Green Economic Engine
Israel has been a global leader in biotech and hi-tech research and development. Although
the national economy was relatively unscathed by the 2008 financial crisis, the Israeli
government hopes that investments in cleantech will pay dividends as an area of future
economic growth. In this spirit, the Minister of Industry, Trade and Labor, Benjamin Eliezer


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(aka. the “Green Minister”) has sought relationships and policy initiatives that stimulate the
growth of Israeli technological capacities in the cleantech sector.




Better Place Charging Infrastructure25

Public Private Partnership:

Installation
Starting in 2011, the Israeli government hopes to see 10,000 to 20,000 additional EVs on the
road per year.26 To ensure the viability of driving an EV, the government will simultaneously
oversee the development of 500,000 electric vehicle-charging stations and 200 battery swap
facilities across Israel.27 To install the charge ports, Better Place will contract local
electricians.

Conclusion: Electric Vehicles

Although Better Place battery-swap technology has yet to be scaled, the government’s
support of a nationwide electric charging network could pave the way to eliminating the use
of internal-combustion vehicles in Israel. Driving across Israel’s borders is generally not
permitted: short driving distances and a simple north-south highway system make the
logistics of electrification and battery swapping relatively straightforward. Nevertheless,
Better Place faces considerable challenges to deploying its infrastructure and convincing
drivers to subscribe.


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There are over twenty local municipalities that comprise the Dan Cluster, and each has its
own local governing body. Despite the support of Israeli President Shimon Peres, municipal-
level officials have not been quick to grant Better Place the right to build charging stations in
public areas. Better Place claims that public charge points are not necessary to achieve total
network coverage, and that its mobility model will work as long as subscribers can access
charging stations at home and at work. However, the company will also have to appeal to
co-op boards and property owners that are reluctant to allow Better Place to install charging
infrastructure.

Electrifying personal transit is an excellent solution to Israel’s national oil dependence and
air quality concerns, but the extent to which Israeli consumers will adopt Better Place
mobility subscriptions and “go electric” is unknown. Better Place has inked deals with over
100 corporations that have committed to phasing EVs into their corporate fleets. Although
it is unclear whether private drivers will take advantage of the stated-cost reduction, Better
Place has already proven that fleet managers are keen to take advantage of long-term
operating cost reductions.




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2. TEL AVIV LIGHT RAIL
Despite recent problems in achieving financial closure, the Metropolitan Mass Transit
System’s (NTA) project to develop a light rail network in Tel Aviv is close to breaking
ground. The first step will be to develop the Red Line, 22km of railway that will run across
central Tel Aviv, and thirty-three train stations (ten of which will be underground) that will
service approximately one hundred million rides per year, at an estimated total cost of $2
billion. The Green, Purple and Yellow Lines are to be constructed in later phases.




Map of Tel Aviv Light Rail28




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Political Support:

Metropolitan Mass Transit System
The Mayor of Tel Aviv, Ron Huldai, has been a major supporter of light rail. The NTA was
founded in 1997, and was tasked with planning and implementing a mass transit urban
network to include mixed light rail and metro mass transit.

Financial Backing
Until January 2009, The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and KFW & Bayern had committed
$1.4bn to the project. AIG was insuring the project and following its collapse, reinsurers
refused to provide an Advance Loss of Profit insurance policy -designed to provide banks
with a safety net against lower-than-expected profits.
If funding cannot be secured in capital markets, the government is likely to step in to back
the project.

Allocating Investment:

Modernize
A subway system for Tel Aviv has been in the works since the 1960s, when Levi Eshkol and
Golda Meir, Israeli Prime Ministers, worked to realize Theodore Hertzl’s (the “founding
father of Israel”) vision of a modern train in Tel Aviv. A single subway station was opened
in 1967, but funds were diverted for different projects and the Tel Aviv underground system
fell by the wayside. Since 2000, the plan developed by NTA has become popular because it
has been associated with urban improvements and modernization of the downtown area.




Rendering of Tel Aviv Light Rail29




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Emissions Reduction
The urban light rail is powered by electricity, travels quietly and is not a point source of
pollution. Planners suggest that the completed system based on the current energy mix, will
significantly reduce the number of private vehicles and buses on the roads, and will eliminate
approximately 200,000 tons of CO2 per year.30

Gridlock
The Dan region is plagued by gridlock, and the opportunity cost of sitting in traffic has
incentivized business owners to relocate outside of the central district. NTA claims that the
Red Line will make travel more convenient and efficient, and will spur economic activity in
downtown Tel Aviv.

    Tel Aviv                             2000           2020
    Population                       2,785,000     3,500,000
    Employment                       1,146,000     1,550,000
    Vehicles Entering /day             514,000       660,000
    Density/km2                          6,800        8,10031

Urban Renewal
NTA also claims that the Red Line will result in an improved appearance of buildings; the
revitalization of small businesses; improved roads; upgraded infrastructure for sewage, water,
electricity, and communications; along with improved public gardens and urban
landscaping.32

Car Accidents
As planned, the light rail system is estimated to reduce approximately 6,500 traffic accidents,
in addition to traffic casualties and related economic damage.33

Job Creation
Due to the magnitude of the project, the construction and operation of a light rail transit
system will have a substantial positive impact on the Israeli economy and job market. NTA
has suggested that investment in the Tel Aviv railway transport project would create
thousands of jobs, and impact a net positive economic gain of 6 billion NIS.34

Public Private Partnership:

MTS
The “Mass Transportation Solution” (MTS), a consortium of Africa-Israel Investments Ltd.
(chaired by Lev Leviev), won the Tel Aviv light railway tender - the largest in Israeli history -
with a bid of NIS 7.15 billion. Made up of Siemens, HTM of Den Haag, Egged Bus
Company, Soares da Costa of Portugal, and China Civil Engineering Construction
Corporation, MTS signed on to build, operate, and transfer the Red Line after 32 years.35
Although the relationship between MTS and the Israeli government has come under
financial pressure, MTS is still ready to go ahead with the project development.




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Conclusion: Light Rail

There has been a lively debate about whether to build the underground section of Tel Aviv’s
light train system. Despite promises that a subsurface route is feasible, critics have charged
that the sandy soil that underlies coastal Tel Aviv will necessitate costly structural
reinforcement and repairs.

The LRT construction team will also be challenged by the preexisting built-environment. Tel
Aviv is bustling city full of shops, restaurants and malls – many business owners and
residents are afraid of disruptive infrastructure development. Mayor Huldai has assured local
entities that near-term disruptions resulting from the light train construction will yield long-
term economic and social benefits. However, municipal-level governors whose districts face
significant construction have criticized and attempted to stall the project.

Without financing from capital markets, there is a big question as to whether the Israeli
government will actually finance the project. In recent months, Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu has rallied much of his relevant political and financial capital behind a proposal
to expand the inter-city railway system (to the tune of NIS 65bn). Rather than spend state
funds on one downtown infrastructure project, the Israeli State seems to be leaning toward
building railways in the Northeast and South – that would encourage economic growth and
activity in the “periphery” (along the border with Syria and the West Bank). Whether
Netanyahu’s government can back two large-scale infrastructure development projects
remains to be seen.




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3. TEL AVIV BUS RAPID TRANSIT
Due to traffic jams and inconsistent bus management, wait times at bus stops in Tel Aviv are
long and unpredictable. The number of passengers using public transport has decreased over
time, and planners suggest that the variable commuting time is one of the most glaring
reasons that people opt not to take the bus. To encourage more widespread use of public
transport, the Israel Ministry of Transport directed the Public Transport Division of Ayalon
Highway Company to improve the structure of the bus system in metropolitan Tel Aviv.

The proposed BRT solution is a hierarchical system that separates main lines, which serve
long journeys on direct, high-frequency routes, from local lines that service neighborhoods.
Local lines would connect to main lines and urban centers of activity uniformly throughout
most hours of the day.

Political Support:

Mandate
The Ayalon Highways Public Transportation Department was established in 1999 to help
the Ministry of Transportation manage and plan improvements to the public transportation
system in Tel Aviv.

Allocating Investment:

Limit Pollution
Planners claim that the BRT solution will reduce noise and air pollution for 155,000
residents, and that it would exacerbate exposure to pollution for 55,000 residents (resulting
in a net improvement for 100,000 residents).36

Increase Efficiency
The bus companies that operate in Tel Aviv are uncoordinated and disorganized. There is no
central source of information for ticketing or schedules, and the posted departure times that
are issued by bus companies are generally inaccurate. Transport surveys carried out in recent
years indicate an ongoing decrease in the use of buses in metropolitan Tel Aviv: between
1994 and 2003 the population increased from 2.3 million to 2.8 million but the number of
daily bus trips decreased by 50,000 (to approximately 900,000 journeys per day).37 Planners
believe that the irregularity of scheduling and travel-time has caused many people to take
their cars instead of the bus. By implementing a BRT and dedicating lanes for public
transportation, Ayalon hopes to regularize the time it takes to get from origin to destination,
and to convince people that riding the bus is fast and reliable.

Congestion
The BRT solution hinges on dedicating lanes for buses, which will enable seamless travel for
passengers that utilize the system. At least one lane would be requisitioned on main arteries
leading to the central business district. Dedicated lanes will reduce interaction with private
vehicles and enable bus schedules to be better met.




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Expense of Light Rail
Planners have cast the Ayalon Company’s bus reorganization plan as a less-costly alternative
to the NTA light rail project. Although the Ayalon plan calls for dedicated bus lanes and
constructing some additional infrastructure, the build-out pales in comparison to what would
be necessary to develop a subway or rail system.

Public Private Partnership:

Bus Companies
There are currently thirteen independent bus companies operating bus lines in Tel Aviv, and
getting them on board with a redesign has been a challenge. Proprietary routes are
inaugurated based on perceived-demand for service, and each company utilizes a different
fare structure/schedule. A full-scale reorganization will require the government to restrict
bus service along certain routes, at certain frequencies, and may radically change the business
picture for certain providers.

Conclusion: Tel Aviv BRT

The extent to which the Ayalon Company’s proposed-bus system redesign will be
implemented depends on the political will to deploy it. Although the BRT network would be
a more efficient transit system, the reorganization would alter people’s regular commutes and
effected riders have formed groups to lobby in favor of the status quo. Although the Mayor
of Tel Aviv, Ron Huldai, and officials from the Israeli Ministry of Transportation have
supported the Ayalon Company proposal, a competing bus plan, devised by a civil society
group called “City For All,” has emerged and gained significant notoriety in Tel Aviv. Like
the Ayalon system, City for All’s concept is based on the principles of Bus Rapid Transit – a
network of interconnected dedicated bus routes. However, City For All’s political
spokesperson, Dov Khanin, has challenged Ron Huldai for Mayor, and is using the city’s
transportation inefficiencies as a rallying cry. If power shifts to Dov Khanin, there is little
chance that the Ayalon Company’s system-reorganization will be implemented.

There is also a behavioral element to the future of bus rapid transit. In Israel, as is the case in
many places, owning a car confers independence and is a sign of wealth. People enjoy
driving their cars, and the percentage of citizens that own them is on the rise. Although
politicians may see the benefits of reducing emissions and oil dependence, they have been
generally afraid to take steps that would restrict the ability to own and operate a car.




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ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN TEL AVIV:
Private investors will shoulder the majority cost of Israel’s sustainable transportation
initiatives, but government incentives have made the projects bankable. In large part due to
political support, Tel Aviv’s EV, LRT and BRT projects stand to significantly reduce oil-
dependence, while simultaneously making mobility more efficient and Israeli cities more
livable.

Although the current government has committed to ambitious transportation initiatives, the
tumultuous nature of Israeli politics makes it difficult to engineer long-term political support
for transportation megaprojects. The political system, which is loosely based on British
Parliament, is inherently prone to coalitions that rise and fall quickly. As a result, ministerial
appointments (by the Prime Minister) tend to change rapidly. This is especially true for the
Minister of Transport, who traditionally retains office for less than eight months.

Within the Israeli government, there is heated debate about which transport initiatives to
support. Although civil society and local leaders push for investment in urban renewal
projects like the Tel Aviv Light Rail, many politicians tend to be more concerned with
building national infrastructure. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu recently secured nearly
NIS 65 billion for an intercity rail project that would encourage economic development in
Israel’s periphery, and it is unclear whether the project will temper politicians’ support for
additional big-ticket transport projects.




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Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
SUMMARY

Plan Abu Dhabi 2030, which was approved by the Abu Dhabi Executive Council in 2007,
outlines the government’s intent to finance environmentally sensitive urban development
that encourages economic activity.38 Using the Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 document as a
blueprint, sovereign wealth funds and government agencies have allocated investment to the
following sustainable mobility projects:

    1. Surface Transit Master Plan (STMP) – Outlined in Plan Abu Dhabi 2030, the
    STMP calls for the implementation of an inter-modal sustainable transport system that is
    designed to shape urban development and encourage economic growth.

    2. Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles (CNG) – CNG is less polluting and less
    expensive than gasoline for automobiles. As part of an effort to improve air quality and
    diversify its fuel mix, the government of Abu Dhabi is committed to converting 20% of
    the government-owned vehicle fleet and taxis to CNG by 2012.

    3. Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) – Although many developed nations use diesel
    with minimal sulfur content, Abu Dhabi has remained dependent on fuel containing
    high levels of sulfur (up to 2500 parts per million [ppm]). In an effort to improve air
    quality and decrease respiratory illness, the Abu Dhabi Executive Council has initiated a
    three-phase plan to replace all diesel fuel with ULSD.

    4. Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) – The development of Masdar City, a carbon
    neutral, car-free community, is part of the government’s efforts to position Abu Dhabi
    as a hub for cleantech R&D. The city’s driverless, automated pod cars will be powered
    by solar energy and offer seamless transport between over 100 stations.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND TRENDS
                                                            ,-.!/0!123!456*!
Abu Dhabi is the capital and second largest
city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Situated south of Dubai on the Persian
Gulf, Abu Dhabi was part of Britain’s
colonial empire until the UAE gained
independence in 1971. The area was
originally settled as a pearling base, but
during the 18th and 19th centuries, camel
herding and date growing fueled the local
economy.

In the 1950s, geologists discovered large hydrocarbon reservoirs underlying Abu Dhabi.
Since that time, the exploitation of oil and natural gas has brought scores of immigrants to
Abu Dhabi City, which has haphazardly developed from a Bedouin village into a modern
metropolis. Through the 1990s, Abu Dhabi’s urbanization trends were significantly more


!                                                                                          "$!
measured than Dubai. But the Abu Dhabi Executive Council, which is comprised of the
Emirate’s royal and well-connected families, has been increasingly vocal about its desire to
see Abu Dhabi become a global center of political, industrial, financial, cultural and
commercial activities. To achieve this level of prominence, the Executive Council has helped
finance a range of large-scale infrastructure and real estate projects, and has capitalized and
empowered agencies and sovereign wealth funds to make diverse investments.

Since the mid 1970s Abu Dhabi’s population has grown three-fold. The Government of
Abu Dhabi has projected that sustained rapid urban development will continue to draw
millions of additional workers and tourists to the city.

    Year      Residents       Tourist Visas      Residential Units
    2007        930,000         1.8 million               180,000
    2013     1.3 million        3.3 million               251,000
    2020     2.0 million        4.9 million               411,000
    2030     3.1 million        7.9 million             686,00039

PROFILE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSIT SERVICES

Private Vehicles
Private cars are ubiquitous in Abu Dhabi: fuel is inexpensive and many business owners
offer vehicles to their employees. From 2000-2007, the number of registered vehicles in the
Emirate doubled from 242,409 to 526,161, and the development of road infrastructure has
not kept pace with the 250 drivers licenses that are issued each day.40

Buses
Patchwork attempts to
diversify Abu Dhabi’s
transport mix have included
gradually introducing public
buses and dedicated bus
lanes. In an effort to
encourage ridership, 7 of
the 12 new lines have been
available free of charge.
While the initiative has
drawn approximately 90,000
riders a day, it has done very
little to relieve the
overwhelming traffic that
clogs Abu Dhabi’s roadways.41

Contract Buses
Real estate developers and contractors hire foreign laborers who live in makeshift camps
near construction sites or in tenement style quarters around downtown Abu Dhabi. For
transportation, laborers often rely on company “contract” busing that is provided by their
employer.42


!                                                                                            "%!
1. SURFACE TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN (STMP)
In 2007, the Government of Abu Dhabi and the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC)
released Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 to guide the transformation of Abu Dhabi into a modern
metropolis. The planning document included a conceptual strategy for developing a
sustainable transportation system that would support the achievement of the Emirate’s
economic, social, cultural and environmental goals. The same year, the Department of
Transport (DoT) commissioned plans for a transport system that would satisfy the
stipulations of Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. The Surface Transport Master Plan (STMP) emerged,
which proposes an integrated travel network comprised of various transport modes as well
as policy recommendations to support development. The Abu Dhabi Executive Council
approved the STMP in February 2009, and tasked the UPC and DoT with managing the
construction of:




STMP Transport Mix43

Over the next 20 years, public private consortiums will implement the Dh 300 billion
($81.68bn) STMP projects in 6 phases. The financing will be a combination of capital
markets, developer cost‐sharing agreements, state grants and government guaranteed loans.
And as a rule, long-term operation and maintenance costs will be funded by transport fares,
congestion charges, public parking fees and an added-tax on taxi rides. The STMP also
recommends eliminating fuel subsidies, which would increase the cost of driving and
encourage the use of public transport over automobiles.




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Political Support:

Plan Abu Dhabi 2030
Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 outlines out a “visionary pathway to development” that calls for the
design and implementation of a world-class sustainable transportation network that will
support forecasted population growth, urban expansion, industrial development and the
projected rise in tourism to the Emirate over the next 20 years.

The Urban Planning Council (UPC)
The Executive Council created and empowered the Urban Planning Council to oversee the
planning aspects of implementing Plan Abu Dhabi 2030.44 The Council is staffed by
expatriates who have studied and practiced urban development, and has authority to propose
regulations that govern Abu Dhabi’s physical environment. The UPC “manages the
Emirate’s urban growth through efficient development review and proactive facilitation, and
is an important coordinator of the public and private sector development partners.”45

Department of Transportation (DoT)
The Abu Dhabi Department of Transport (DoT) was created to “regulate, plan and develop
an efficient and well-integrated transport system that serves the public interest by enhancing
mobility and delivering safe, secure and environmentally responsible aviation, maritime,
public transport and highways.”46 One of the DoT’s first tasks was to commission two
consulting companies, Mott MacDonald and Steer Davies Gleave, to draw up the Surface
Transport Master Plan (STMP), which provides a detailed transportation strategy to satisfy
the requirements of Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. The STMP was unveiled in February 2009 and is
comprised of a coordinated set of policies and detailed transport plans for Abu Dhabi that
includes roads, buses, ferries, rail, metro, freight and non-motorized transport.

Allocating Investment:

Congestion
Government investment in the STMP is specifically targeted to reduce the number of
vehicles on the roads and alleviate the problem of congestion. Rapid population growth and
urbanization during the past 30 years did not include the development of a coordinated
public transport system in Abu Dhabi. As a result, car culture has taken root – many Emirati
families own multiple vehicles – and the streets are extremely congested. A great deal of time
is wasted in traffic: estimates indicate that motorists spend an average of 45 minutes getting
to work, and that the UAE looses about Dh5 billion a year to road congestion.47

Population Growth
The population of Abu Dhabi is expected to triple by 2030, and the number of daily trips
has been projected to increase fivefold. Without a transport mix that will alleviate the
already-jammed roadways, traffic will lead to even more substantial economic losses, air
pollution and CO2 emissions.




!                                                                                           "'!
Greenhouse Gas Abatement (GHG)
A 2006 report issued by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center ranked the UAE
as third in the world for most CO2 emissions per capita. The World Wild Life (WWL) Living
Planet Report concurred in 2008 when it identified the UAE as having the world’s largest
ecological footprint.48




                                                                            49



The STMP calls for bus, light-rail. metro and personal rapid transit systems that will abate
GHG emissions by decreasing the number of automobiles on the road and increasing the
efficiency of public transport. To reduce GHG emissions even further, electric powered
transport systems will increasingly be powered by low carbon or renewable energy sources.

Abu Dhabi’s current fuel stock for generating electricity is highly CO2 intensive. In 2008,
natural gas generated 65% and oil generated 35% of total energy consumption.50 To satisfy
the rising demand for electricity and to achieve GHG emissions abatement, the government
of Abu Dhabi plans to diversify its energy mix to include nuclear power and renewable
energy sources.

CO2 Emissions
Energy-related       171 million metric tons: natural gas (57%) and oil (43%)
Per Capita           38 metric tons
Intensity            1.0 metric tons per thousand $2005 (purchasing power parity)51

In 2010, Abu Dhabi announced that it contracted a South Korean consortium led by Korea
Electric Power Corporation (Kepco) to construct four 1,400 MW nuclear reactors that will
deliver carbon neutral, base-load electricity starting in 2017. The $20 billion (Dh73.47bn)
investment will supply around 25% of the Emirate’s energy needs by 2020. The Government
of Abu Dhabi has also suggested that renewable energy sources will power 7% of total
energy production by 2020.52 The Mubadala sovereign investment arm, along with the Abu
Dhabi Future Energy Company will have to invest between $6-8 billion in renewable energy
technologies (mostly solar) to accomplish the objective.53




!                                                                                          "(!
Increase Economic Activity
The transport network will enable the development of mixed-use urban neighborhoods with
robust local economies.54 When the STMP network is complete and offers convenient
transportation throughout Abu Dhabi, the government hopes that foreign business and
investment flow into the area, and tourists visit outlying attractions (Formula 1 track,
museums, etc).

Public Private Partnership:

Developers
The development and use of the STMP systems will require massive investment in
infrastructure that accommodates light trains, underground metro lines, dedicated bus lanes,
etc. To build infrastructure for these various projects, the government will have to enter into
partnerships with local and international real estate and project developers.

Conclusion: STMP

The STMP will only be realized with sustained political support and government investment
over many years. Whereas better bus service, a parking management system and the first
phase of the PRT are already being implemented, planners are still working on the
specifications for Abu Dhabi’s light rail and metro systems. Local government entities have
allocated necessary land, but actualizing the STMP will require solidified plans from the
UPC. The total cost of implementing the STMP systems will depend on the extent to which
infrastructure is deployed, but the government will have to commit a massive sum to
complete each of the six planned-phases. The terms of the public private development
partnerships will also need to be finalized. Siemens, GE and many other large infrastructure
developers have expressed interest in working in Abu Dhabi, but contracts to commence
building the STMP systems are not signed.

The most pressing problem that has allocated government investment in the STMP is the
Abu Dhabi government’s perceived need to ensure mobility for a population that is
forecasted to triple by 2030. However, if the expatriates and tourists do not come in droves,
the government may be less willing to sustain its investment in the STMP.55 Indeed, the
success of the STMP will depend on the extent to which the transit systems are used.
Immigrant laborers and service sector workers are already taking advantage of new bus
service in Abu Dhabi, and will undoubtedly use trains and metro in the future. For cultural
reasons, most Emiratis (locals) favor their own personal vehicles, and do not seem inclined
to use the public transport network.

The GHG emissions reduction that can be attributed to STMP systems will depend on the
composition of Abu Dhabi’s fuel mix. Although Masdar has invested in foreign renewable
projects like the London Wind Array and Torresol Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) facility
in Spain, there is little sign that projects in Abu Dhabi will be undertaken with the same
haste or priority. There are plans to construct a 100MW CSP facility as well as 500MW of
hydrogen power in Western Abu Dhabi, but neither project has broken ground. The
investments in electrified transport systems that are outlined in the STMP will not reduce



!                                                                                           ")!
GHG emissions if the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority continues to rely on a
fossil fuel-heavy mix for electricity production.




!                                                                                       #+!
2. COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS VEHICLES (CNG)
In an effort to limit emissions and diversity the transport fuel mix, the Air Quality
Commission has approved a plan to convert 20% of the most polluting vehicles in Abu
Dhabi (mostly government fleet and taxis) to CNG; it also plans to permit 30 CNG refueling
stations by 2020.

Political Support:

Air Quality Commission
The Abu Dhabi Executive Council mandated the Air Quality Commission to oversee the
introduction of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). Comprised of representatives from the
Environment Agency Abu Dhabi (EAD)and the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company
(ADNOC), the Commission approved an Action Plan, and will continue to monitor the
impact of CNG in Abu Dhabi.

Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD)
Established in 1996, the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD) “provides direction to
government, business and industry, and the community on building environmental
considerations into the way they plan and live, without compromising the development of
the Emirate.”56 To address air quality issues caused by vehicle emissions, the government of
Abu Dhabi approved a partnership between EAD and the Norwegian Institute for Air
Research (NILU) to study the effects and perceived advantages of introducing compressed
natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel in Abu Dhabi.

Technical Committee
EAD chairs a Technical Committee that consists of members from the Abu Dhabi National
Oil Company (ADNOC), Emirates Standardization and Meteorological Authority, Abu
Dhabi Police General Headquarters, the Public Transportation Department, Federal
Environment Agency and Mubadala. In addition to coordinating the CNG initiative, the
Technical Committee was responsible for selecting 16 sites for CNG stations. The
Committee has also approved plans for a distribution pipeline network that will supply CNG
stations.57

Incentives
The government is planning to offer incentives for drivers to convert their current diesel
powered vehicles to CNG. These include: reducing registration or renewal fees for permitted
CNG facilities and vehicles, offering discounted car insurance on CNG vehicles (10%
discount currently), ensuring that CNG prices stay 30% below petrol, providing subsidies to
private vehicle owners for CNG conversions, and allowing tax exemptions for imported
CNG vehicles.




!                                                                                         #*!
Diagram of CNG refueling station.58

Investment
The Public Transportation Department has announced that it will purchase buses that run
on CNG. The General Transportation Administration will also meet with the waste
collection companies to look into switching some of its waste haulers to run on CNG.
Mubadala, in coordination with the Taxi Transport Regulation Center, will set a mechanism
to switch a percentage of its feel to run on CNG.

Allocating Investment:

Diversify the Energy Mix
Abu Dhabi produces about 4,500 MCF/day of natural gas. 3,600 MCF/day is needed for
local consumption, mostly to generate energy, and 720 MCF/day is exported as LNG.59 In
addition to the environmental benefits associated with vehicles running on CNG, using its
domestic sources of natural gas would reduce the country’s dependence on oil for
transportation.

Improve Air Quality
CNG has been estimated to decrease CO2 emissions by 20%.60 Although there is debate
about the emissions profile of CNG, a study by the U.S. Department of Energy suggested
that CNG vehicles produced 75% lower carbon monoxide emissions, 49% lower nitrogen
oxides emissions, and 95% lower particulate matter emissions than diesel vehicles of similar
age.61




!                                                                                         #"!
Public Private Partnership:

ADNOC
The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) was established in 1971 and operates in
all areas of the oil and gas industry. Today the company produces more than 2.7 million
barrels a day, which ranks it among the top ten oil and gas companies in the world.62
ADNOC has been directed to build and manage a national network of CNG fuelling
stations. In addition to installing the needed distribution network, ADNOC will provide
conversion services to fit gas/diesel powered vehicles with CNG tanks. The locations for 16
CNG fueling stations have been selected by the Technical Committee, which has estimated
that each station will cost Dh4 million and have a 300 vehicle p/d capacity.63

Conclusion: CNG

Abu Dhabi’s limited capacity to extract natural gas is the greatest short-term obstacle to
deploying CNG infrastructure and vehicles. Despite the world’s sixth largest methane
reserves, Abu Dhabi is currently a net importer of gas. Development of its domestic
resource has not been commensurate to the rate of industrial expansion, which has left the
Emirate short of supply for domestic users. The government is actively diversifying its
energy mix, and is confident that rising domestic demand for gas will be supplied by
methane from local reservoirs. The CNG initiative is likely to succeed if Abu Dhabi can
economically extract and distribute gas from its domestic fields. To this point, only one pilot
has commenced, which deployed 35 CNG vehicles. Although ADNOC claimed that 16
fueling stations would be available by the end of 2009, officials have not confirmed the
location of any available CNG infrastructure.




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3. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL (ULSD)
The diesel fuel that powers automobiles in Abu Dhabi contains elevated sulfur content,
which has been linked to premature death, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and other serious
respiratory diseases.64 Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel has a substantially diminished sulfur
composition and results in decreased emissions of particulates, NOx, Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide. As of 2007, almost all diesel fuel available in
America and Europe is ULSD - decreased sulfur content also enables newer emissions
control technologies such as particulate filters and catalytic converters that further decrease
harmful emissions from diesel engines.

Political Support:

Technical Committee
The Abu Dhabi Executive Council has directed EAD and NILU to facilitate the transition
from current diesel fuels to ULSD by 2012. A Technical Committee comprised of members
from the EAD, the Federal Environment Agency (FEA), Takreer, ADNOC Distribution,
the DoT, General Headquarters of Abu Dhabi Police and the Emirates Standardization and
Meteorological Authority have devised an action plan for introducing ULSD.

Action Plan
The Abu Dhabi Executive Council has approved an action plan that is to be fully
implemented in three phases. In 2009, diesel with 500 ppm was introduced. In the second
phase, to be implemented in 2010, the 500ppm fuel will be replaced with a 50 ppm variety
and, in 2012, the 10 ppm ULSD will be used by all vehicles.65

Allocating Investment:

Improve Air Quality
Heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a significant source of sulfur oxides (SOx), particulate (PM)
and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, contributing an average of 60% to 90% of all urban air
pollutants in the Middle East.66 Although after-market emissions control technologies can
trap particles before they are emitted from a tailpipe, sulfur clogs the filtration systems and
limits the effectiveness of the emissions reduction systems. Sulfur is also partially responsible
for the dark clouds of air pollution.67

Public Health
ULSD is intended to replace diesel with a cleaner alternative that remains similar in
effectiveness and efficiency but with significantly reduced exhaust emissions. ULSD
improves ambient air quality reduce the public health costs of treating respiratory diseases
associated with the high sulfur diesel.68

Public Private Partnership:

ADNOC
The Government of Abu Dhabi wants its industrial complex to be modern and
technologically advanced. To keep its refineries up to developed-world standards, billions of


!                                                                                              #$!
dirhams have been invested to upgrade and install infrastructure to produce, deliver and
distribute new ULSD.

Conclusion: ULSD

Abu Dhabi’s ULSD initiative is designed to improve air quality and increase the populations’
standard of health. Poor air quality contributes to the plight of thousands of Emiratis who
suffer from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung
cancer.

Although the Emirates Standardization and Metrology Agency recently issued standards for
ULSD, diesel fuel with low sulfur content is not readily available in the region. In an effort
to limit the possibility of non-ULSD fuel finding its way into the local market, the
government has approved increased-monitoring of dedicated infrastructure and borders.




!                                                                                           #%!
4. PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT (PRT)

Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems provide personal, non-stop transportation between
any two points on a network of specially built guide-ways. The automated pod cars carry up
to six passengers and go directly from origin to destination, on demand. The PRT system
being constructed at Masdar City is unique in size and scope. Masdar was designed to
accommodate a PRT system in its undercroft: the city’s buildings are effectively built on
stilts and commercial activity takes place on a raised platform. The PRT eliminates the need
for cars in Masdar City.




Masdar Institute of Science and Technology atop a concrete “undecroft”69

The Masdar City PRT is an on-demand service that will be available 24 hours a day and 7
days a week. Passengers board the pod cars at designated stations, enter a destination into
the car’s passenger interface, and follow a computer-generated and machine-guided route. By
offering personal service throughout the entire city, these electrically powered pod cars will
serve the private mobility needs of residents and commuters while eliminating CO2 and
other transport emissions, as well as vehicle congestion.




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A pod car circulates in Masdar City70

Political Support:

Masdar Initiative
The Government of Abu Dhabi launched the Masdar Initiative - a multi-faceted initiative to
build Masdar City and invest in renewable energies and cleantech in 2006.

Masdar City will be a carbon neutral, zero-waste, car-free city situated on a six square
kilometer piece of land between Abu Dhabi and the international airport. It is being built to
showcase the latest applications of clean technology and to attract foreign investment. When
it is completed in 2020, the city is slated to house 1,500 businesses, 40,000 residents, the
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, the world headquarters of the International
Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and will accommodate 50,000 daily commuters.

Allocating Investment:

Diversify the Economy
Having recognized the finite nature of its oil and gas reserves, the Government of Abu
Dhabi is encouraging energy R&D that will help fuel its future growth. To jumpstart a local
cleantech industry, the government has made massive investments in domestic and
international renewable energy projects, such as the development of PRT at Masdar City.
The PRT system exemplifies forward-looking investments that Abu Dhabi is making in
cleantech: although the project is unlikely to be profitable, ADFEC believes that the
deployment of PRT in Masdar City will confer technical expertise and enable future business
opportunity.

Emissions Reduction
The PRT system in Masdar City will run on electricity generated by renewable energy: its
operation will result in zero CO2 emissions.




!                                                                                          #'!
Public Private Partnership:

Technology Partner
2getthere was contracted to develop the first phase of Masdar City’s PRT, which provides a
transport link from parking facilities to the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
(MIST) via 8 pod cars, 2 VIP (leather interior) and 3 freight rapid transit (FRT) vehicles. The
network is approximately 1.2 kilometers long and features 5 stations (2 for passengers, 3 for
freight). The pods are monitored and managed by a supervisory control system that dictates
routes and speed of travel. Unlike traditional PRT systems that run along raised guide ways
or tracks, the 2getthere pods move along magnet-guided pathways that are embedded in the
pavement. The lack of raised infrastructure enables the greatest flexibility to service multiple
destinations by different routes. Masdar City will be built in 13 phases over ten years. When
it is completed in 2020, planners hope to have approximately 1,000 pod cars servicing
hundreds of destinations.

Mubadala and ADFEC
Masdar is a subsidiary of the Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company (ADFEC), which is
owned by the Mubadala Development Company, one of Abu Dhabi’s sovereign wealth
vehicles.

Conclusion: PRT

Planners are excited about the innovative PRT system being developed for Masdar City. The
pod car and station network is slated to be significantly more expansive than any existing
PRT, and will be the first fully automated transit system powered by renewable energy.

Despite the enthusiasm, as the city expands and pod cars are introduced into the system,
developers will face great technological challenges. Beyond the theoretical challenge of
coordinating added pod cars, the expansion of Masdar City’s PRT will require capital
expenditure. The terms of Masdar’s deal with 2getThere are confidential, but experts have
estimated that adding each additional pod car to the network will cost between $1-3 million,
and that the cost of deploying infrastructure to accommodate a new station or route will cost
between $10-30 million. Despite the government’s vast wealth, the cost of upgrading the
system may prove to be prohibitive. Although Masdar and ADFEC hope that developing
the Masdar City PRT will provide saleable expertise, officials recently suggested that the
construction of the Masdar City is behind schedule and experiencing cost over-runs.71
Indeed, the Government of Abu Dhabi has already begun to scale back its financial support
for the PRT - a transport system that will (at best) serve the needs of 90,000 people (which is
also the number of people that currently use Abu Dhabi’s 12 available bus lines – at a
fraction of the cost of PRT).




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ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN ABU DHABI
Approximately 60% of Abu Dhabi’s gross domestic product (GDP) comes from the oil and
gas industries, which leave the Emirate’s economy particularly vulnerable to energy market
fluctuations.72Despite its status as a leading oil and gas producer, the Government of Abu
Dhabi is investing in renewable technologies and sustainable transportation that will
diversify its economy and energy mix. Through leadership of Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al
Nahyan and Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed, along with support from key
institutions such as the Abu Dhabi Executive Council, Abu Dhabi Investment Authority,
Urban Planning Council and the Department of Transport, the Emirate is positioning itself
to alleviate the pressures of population growth, urbanization and an oil-dependent economy
by investing heavily in sustainable transportation systems.

All of the development projects set forth in Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 and the transport goals
from the STMP are contingent on the government allocating massive investments in
infrastructure and technologies. Although the government capitalized Mubadala and the Abu
Dhabi Investment Authority (the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund) to acquire strategic
assets with an eye toward securing resources for future development, Abu Dhabi’s economy
faces mounting pressure that will make it difficult for the government to achieve its stated
development goals.

Oil wealth enabled the government to invest in infrastructure megaprojects such as new
bridges, an international airport, world-class multi-lane highways, citywide revitalization and
tourist attractions, but the global financial crisis of 2008 drastically changed the economic
landscape. Property prices have fallen and mortgage rates are high. Developers that had
borrowed heavily and invested huge sums to construct skyscrapers are finding it difficult to
offload apartments and finance their debt.

Despite high oil prices, Abu Dhabi’s $10 billion bailout of Dubai World sparked concerns
about the government’s ability to continue supporting its many government-related entities
(GREs). Despite the government’s claims that it continues to back its GREs, Moody’s
downgraded several Abu Dhabi-owned entities, including Mubadala. It has subsequently
become more expensive for Mubadala to finance its debt, which has slowed the construction
of Masdar City. Analysts say Masdar’s ambitions have fallen victim to the crash in global
property markets—felt particularly acutely in the United Arab Emirates. Masdar’s property
development division fired 34 people this week – or 20 percent of its total workforce,
according to local press reports. While Masdar has signed a number of preliminary
agreements to lease out commercial space within the first phase, the only deal that has been
finalized is for a 1,000-sq-metre plot with General Electric. Masdar developers recently
conceded that the entire project would not be finished until 2020 at the earliest, compared to
its initial deadline 2016.73

The Executive Council’s prescient recognition that Abu Dhabi’s oil dependence is
unsustainable has set the government on a noble course to diversify its energy mix and
economy. The Government of Abu Dhabi has made many statements of purpose, but the
extent to which it will expend capital to break ground and build infrastructure remains
unknown. The expansion of Masdar City’s PRT system has already fallen victim to the


!                                                                                            #)!
government’s cost cutting, and the fate of metro, light rail, or bus rapid transit in Abu Dhabi
remains to be seen.

If all of the sustainable transportation projects are completed as planned, the extent to which
the initiatives solve the problems of congestion, air pollution and oil reliance will still depend
on citizens’ willingness to leave their cars at home and make use of the new systems.
Automobiles are deeply entrenched in the local culture. Although expats will likely make use
of the public transit options, Emiratis who live outside of the commercial center and have
access to guaranteed parking spaces at home and work are unlikely to utilize public
transportation. Unless the cost structure of owning and operating a car becomes less
favorable, there will be no incentive for Emiratis to change their behavior and use the STMP
systems. Although some planners have advocated introducing electric cars, the Abu Dhabi
Water and Electricity Authority is struggling to meet current electricity demand and could
not yet satisfy the needs of EVs on the grid. Although it is possible that a pilot or electric car
demonstration project will be launched, is unlikely that gasoline-powered vehicles will be
supplanted by EVs in Abu Dhabi anytime soon.




!                                                                                              $+!
Pamplona, Spain

SUMMARY

Pamplona is the capital city of Navarra, Spain’s most affluent autonomous region. Located
just south of the Pyrenees Mountains, the city is perhaps best known for San Fermin and the
running of the bulls, but the Government of Navarra’s support for renewable energy
projects has also been recognized around the world. Having implemented policies that
resulted in a 70% share of renewable electricity, the regional government has recently
focused on decreasing local oil dependence by allocating funds to sustainable transportation
initiatives.

    1. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) - An initiative that aims to increase the
    use of public transport, save energy and decrease CO2 emissions from the transportation
    sector.

    2. Biodiesel – After a successful pilot program, 50 public buses are now running on
    locally produced biodiesel. SCPSA (Servicios de la Comarca de Pamplona, S.A.), the
    administration responsible for public transport and waste collection in Navarra, will also
    be powering its fleet of vehicles with biodiesel by the end of 2010.

    3. Electric Vehicles (EVs) – A Spanish national EV initiative supports introducing
    2,000 vehicles and 550 charging stations by 2012. The regional Government of Navarra
    aims to stimulate the local use of EVs by developing public electric charging
    infrastructure in Pamplona.

    4. Pedestrian and Bicycle Paths - The Municipality of Pamplona has overseen the
    development of a network of dedicated pedestrian pathways and bicycle lanes to alleviate
    road congestion, reduce air pollution from vehicles and promote a more healthy lifestyle.
    Two examples of such initiatives include the “Bicycleability Plan” and “NBICI” (“by
    bike”), a public bike-sharing program that has gained popular support and increased the
    use of bikes.
                                                         74



DEMOGRAPHICS AND TRENDS

Pamplona is the capital of the autonomous region of
Navarra, Spain. For centuries, the population of
Pamplona hovered between 10,000-35,000, but since
1900, the population swelled swiftly to 200,000.
Pamplona has one of the best standards of living in
Spain. Its residents enjoy parks and leisure areas, a high
level of industry, good education and health systems
and low crime rates. Economic development over the
past several decades has shifted Pamplona from a rural
economy to one of medium size specializing in industry
and service sectors.


!                                                                                           $*!
Population of Pamplona75

PROFILE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSIT SERVICES

Buses
Pamplona’s public transportation infrastructure is well developed. Pamplona City Transport
(TCC La Montañesa), the local bus company, services 33 routes and carries approximately
38.5 million passengers per year.76

Private Vehicles
Like most European cities, Pamplona is full of small, light-duty, private vehicles that run on
diesel fuel. The historic center of the city is closed to vehicle traffic, and offers very few
parking options. On the outskirts of Pamplona, private homes and apartments generally
have dedicated parking spaces.

Taxis
Pamplona has multiple taxi fleets that circulate and are available for on-call pickups, but they
are used infrequently due to city’s small size.




!                                                                                            $"!
1. SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY PLAN (SUMP)
The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) for Pamplona was drafted to guide the
improvement of sustainable transportation in Pamplona. The document outlines the
government’s goals to increase the use of public transport, reduce fossil fuel use in private
vehicles, decrease CO2 emissions and promote non-motorized forms of transportation
(walking & cycling).

Political Support:

Due Diligence
In 2006, the Municipality of Pamplona and the Department of Public-Works, Transport and
Communications issued a report reviewing the mobility situation in metropolitan Pamplona.
The report highlighted the importance of diversifying the modal-split in transportation in
order to meet the sustainable goals for the municipality and region. It suggested utilizing
demand management strategies to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads, and
emphasized the need to further extend the bus network.

Public Transit Subsidies
Public transit subsidies incentivize use of public transit systems. Over time, the Government
of Navarra has increased its subsidies for public transportation to attract riders. Currently,
the Department of Public Works, Transportation and Communications subsidizes
approximately 65% of the cost to provide public transportation.




Public Transport Subsidies in Navarra77

Allocating Investment:

Vital Future
Pamplona’s municipal and regional transportation plans are designed to safeguard social and
economic wellbeing. The SUMP aims to address the external costs of traffic, oil dependence,
and illnesses that are worsened by emissions. The SUMP represents the regional
government’s response to a growing interest and social concern about the economic and
environmental costs of the municipality’s current transportation mix.




!                                                                                               $#!
Additional Vehicles
Pamplona is absorbing more people and vehicles. As a result, existing road and parking
infrastructure is being seriously challenged, and resulting traffic congestion is negatively
affecting the city’s natural environment, economy and quality of life.

Institutional Support
The SUMP involved multiple institutions that have collaborated and pooled their resources
to execute sustainability objectives. The Government of Navarra is working with the
Municipality of Pamplona, Department of Public-Works, Transportation, Communication
and the Institute for Energy Diversification and Energy Savings (IDEA) to plan and deliver
sustainable transport systems for Pamplona.

Public Private Partnership:

Service Providers
The Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona is a municipal entity that is responsible for
water, sewage, waster management and metropolitan transportation. In that capacity the
agency is able to negotiate and dictate the bus routes that are operated by La Montañesa, the
public bus provider.

Conclusion: SUMP

Navarra’s track record of institutional coordination and allocation of capital to renewable
energy projects bodes well for the implementation of the SUMP. The same government
commitment to the three pillars of vision, planning and appropriate investment will also be
necessary to realize the region’s sustainable transportation goals.




!                                                                                              $$!
2. BIODIESEL
To reduce emissions, support economic activity and diversify the transportation energy mix,
the Government of Navarra has supported initiatives to produce, distribute and utilize
biofuels. Since the completion of a pilot project in 2005, locally produced biodiesel has been
used to power 50 public buses, fueling 35% of rides in Pamplona.

Political Support:

Biodina Pilot
From October 2003 to October 2004, the Biodina Pilot Project tested the effects of
biodiesel on Pamplona’ fleet vehicles. Two buses and two waste haulers – one biodiesel and
one conventional diesel – were run along identical routes; a series of durability and emissions
tests measured the effectiveness, cleanliness and compatibility of biodiesel. The results of the
Biodina Project were positive: rubber engine replacement parts, injectors and pumps were
not damaged, and no incidents were reported. The project inspired confidence in local
leaders, and tempered the bus operator’s fears about damage that might be caused.

CENER
The National Renewable Energies Center (CENER) was opened in 2002 as a specialized
technological center for applied research and the development and promotion of renewable
energy. It has been financed by the Government of Navarra, the Ministry of Education and
Science, and the Energy, Environment and Technology Research Center (CIEMAT), which
joined together to create a facility that would support local project developers and R&D. At
present, there are six working labs: wind, solar thermal and PV, biomass, bioclimatic
architecture and energy storage.78 Information gleaned from biofuels laboratory experiments
at CENER has been transferred to various private sector companies doing business in
Navarra. The Center is currently building a demonstration plant that will innovate methods
of producing biodiesel.

Incentives
The Spanish government offers a tax exemption for biodiesel produced during the first five
years of a facility’s opening.

Allocating Investment:

Local Supply
The lack of local oil reserves spurred EHN, a government owned renewable energy
company, to invest in production facilities for alternative fuels. EHN contracted Lurgi to
build a plant for the production of biodiesel in Caparroso, Navarra. The feedstock includes
rapeseed, palm oil, sunflower seed and soy beans. When EHN was sold, Acciona took over
the facility. The Department of Transport has since entered into a large-scale supply
agreement with Acciona that guarantees delivery of 100% biodiesel to fuel 50 buses.




!                                                                                            $%!
Greenhouse Gas Abatement (GHG)
Emissions from vehicles contributes approximately 7% of Navarra’s CO2 emissions.




                                                                                           79



Compared to conventional fuel, burning B-100 non-waste oil results in 91% fewer
emissions. During the Biodina Project, emissions from the vehicles using biodiesel vs.
conventional diesel were:

    Carbon Monoxide      -22%
    SO2                   99%
    NOX                    5%
    HC                   -63%
    PM                   -52%
                            80
    CO2                -90%

The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of
unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to emissions
from diesel fuel. In addition, the exhaust emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates (major
components of acid rain) from biodiesel are essentially eliminated compared to diesel.
Emissions of nitrogen oxides are either slightly reduced or slightly increased depending on
the duty cycle of the engine and testing methods used. Based on engine testing, using the
most stringent emissions testing protocols required by EPA for certification of fuels or fuel
additives in the U.S., the overall ozone forming potential of the hydrocarbon emissions from
biodiesel was nearly 50% less than that measured for diesel fuel.81

Oil Dependence
The biofuel that is refined at Carparroso (alone) eliminates the need to import 30,000 Toe.82

Job Creation
The biodiesel plant at Carparroso has 33 direct employees, 100 indirect employees providing
services and 366 farmers whose work is linked to the plant.83




!                                                                                          $&!
Public Private Partnership:

Monitoring Committee
The government has setup a committee to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of using
biodiesel to power buses in Pamplona. Comprised of representatives from Acciona
Biocombustibles, La Montañesa, and Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona, the
Committee has been mandated to keep track of the performance of buses running on
biodiesel. In addition to recording any incidents that may occur, it is also responsible for
testing test oil samples every 10,000 km traveled.

Conclusion: Biodiesel

The Government of Navarra has successfully launched an ambitious program to encourage
the production, distribution and use of biodiesel fuel in the region. In December 2008,
Acciona Energy opened the first retail biodiesel station in Spain, which is located in the
Navarra region and patronized by locals. By all accounts, the biodiesel initiative has been
wildly successful and will be expanded in the coming years.




!                                                                                         $'!
3. ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVS)
As part of the Spanish National initiative to introduce electric vehicles and charging
infrastructure (Project Movele), the regional Government of Navarra is seeking to deploy
charging infrastructure that would enable the use of electric vehicles (EV) in downtown
Pamplona and surrounding areas. Although the government only plans to finance the
installation of 10 charge ports this year, the availability of electricity generated by renewable
sources, widespread popular approval of clean-tech initiatives, and political support for
sustainable transportation solutions make Navarra a perfect market for EVs.

Political Support:

Project Movele
The Zapatero government has supported a series of initiatives to reduce Spanish national oil
consumption and increase energy efficiency. Project Movele, which is being managed and
coordinated by the IDEA, aims to introduce 2,000 electric vehicles and to set up 500
recharging points within two years.

Subsidies
The Government of Navarra already offers subsidies to private consumers purchasing
automobiles. It has been suggested that the subsidy will be doubled for consumers
purchasing EVs.

Educational Campaign
Upon construction of the region’s first windfarm, school children from Navarra’s public
schools began taking class trips to the site, which were designed to educate local youth about
the benefits of green energy. The government is developing a similar curriculum to teach
students about the importance of using EVs.

Allocating Investment:

Project Movele
The Spanish government has announced plans to invest !1,017,000 to co-finance (along
with local governments) the installation of public charge ports in Seville, Madrid and
Barcelona. Under Project Movele, the Government of Navarra is eligible to receive a
maximum of !200,000 from the Spanish national government to finance the installation of
public-use charge ports.

Oil Savings
Despite Spain’s longstanding efforts to cut oil imports, the country spent !17 billion to
import oil in 2008. If the Movele Project is implemented as planned, Spain would save the
cost of between 5.8 and 6.4 million tons of oil over the three-year period.




!                                                                                              $(!
Price of oil in Navrra: Dec 1998-Dec 200884

Green Economic Engine
Spain’s minister of industry, business and tourism, Miguel Sebastian, said: “Electric vehicles
are the future and the driver of the industrial revolution. Every time we ease off the
accelerator, we boost national income and employment.”85

Greenhouse Gas Abatement
Since its first investments in 1994, the Government of Navarra has supported the
development of a vibrant renewable energy industry. In 2009, Navarra was home to an
associated industrial fabric of 88 cleantech firms: supporting over 4,000 jobs and
contributing 5% of the region’s GDP.86 Today, Navarra generates over 70% of its electricity
from renewable sources.

Public Private Partnership:

RFP
The Government of Navarra is preparing to issue a tender to install 10 public EV charging
stations in Pamplona.

Conclusion: EVs

Electric vehicles are currently unavailable for purchase in Navarra, but the government
hopes that companies will begin marketing EVs if charging infrastructure is accessible in the
region. Begoña Urien Angulo, Director General of the Department of Innovation,
Enterprise And Employment, has expressed the government’s desire for a comprehensive
solution to EV rollout, and has also suggested that the regional government intends to
purchase a number of EVs for its fleet.




!                                                                                           $)!
4. PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE PATHS

The most sustainable modes of transportation are walking and bicycling, which not only
reduce vehicles and emissions, but also make people healthier. Compared to the costs of
building metro or rail, designating pedestrian and bicycle paths requires relatively little
investment. In 2006, the Municipality of Pamplona supported a project to identify and
develop a cycling network for the city. A “Bicycleability” Plan was issued by the municipality
and efforts were made to expand the network of bikes lanes. The plan determined that the
creation of paths in the city centre should begin in sections that would prove most useful to
the greatest number of users and then address areas of lower demand.87

To further support the use of bicycles, the mayor of Pamplona, Mrs. Yolanda Barcini,
launched a bike-sharing program in 2007 called NBICI (“by bike”). NBICI is a public service
that allows users to remove bicycles from a station (bicycle parking), use them for a short
period of time, and then return them to the original station or any other station in the city.
The first phase deployed 100 bicycles located at 5 stations throughout Pamplona. Since then,
the program has expanded to 350 bicycles and 20 stations. NBICI users have a personal
magnetic card that automatically registers when a bicycle is taken and returned. The service is
free for 60 minutes, and then costs 1 euro per additional hour with a maximum usage time
without interruption of up to 4 hours.88

Political Support:

Urban Planning
The Municipality of Pamplona oversees the development and regulation of designated
pedestrian and bicycles paths in the city. It was the lead institution involved with
commissioning the “Bicycleability Plan” to optimize the network of bicycle lanes in
Pamplona.

Allocating Investment:

Accessibility
The Government of Navarra and the Municipality of Pamplona are allocating investment to
make pedestrian and bike lanes more accessible. Many citizens are wary of riding their bikes
on regular roadways, but when bike lanes are available and connected, bicycling is thought to
be safer and becomes more popular.

Congestion
Pamplona’s roadways have become increasingly congested. The government’s support of
bicycling has reduced the number of cars in circulation and alleviated parking problems.


Public Private Partnership:

CEMESA
The NBICI program is managed by CEMSA, a leading Spanish advertising company, and is
funded through advertising contracts and subsidies that are provided by the Institute for the


!                                                                                           %+!
Diversification and Energetic Savings (IDAE), the Government of Navarra and the
Municipality of Pamplona. CEMESA provides the physical infrastructure and bicycles, while
the government contributes funding and a public awareness campaign.

Conclusion: Pedestrian and Bike Paths

Like many other European cities, Pamplona has embraced the use of bicycles. “For mayors
looking to ease congestion and prove their environmental bona fides, bike-sharing has
provided a simple solution: for the price of a bus, they invest in a fleet of bicycles, avoiding
years of construction and approvals required for a subway. For riders, joining means cut-rate
transportation and a chance to contribute to the planet’s well-being.”89 The expansion of
pedestrian and bicycle paths have made a significant impact on the number of people who
use them. Generally, pedestrians are more inclined to walk or bicycle to their destination
when there is a sidewalk or lane that is separated from the road, and offers safety from
motorists.

Similar to bike-sharing programs in Paris and Barcelona, the NBICI initiative has faced
problems of theft, vandalism and maintenance costs. “On one level, the Vélib' scheme has
worked admirably, with 61 million cycle journeys having taken place since July 2007.
However, alarm bells must now be ringing in the Mayor's Transport office at the escalating
costs and difficulties of the Paris scheme…8,000 of the cycles have been stolen and 18,000
deemed beyond repair as a result of vandalism or mechanical failure.”90




!                                                                                            %*!
ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN PAMPLONA
Pamplona’s relatively small size and existing transit systems limit the need for large-scale
capital-intensive transportation infrastructure projects. The historical center of the city is
virtually closed to vehicles, and short-distances make walking and cycling a good choice for
residents and tourists. Nevertheless, the regional Government of Navarra has invested in
sustainable transportation initiatives that make mobility in Pamplona more efficient and less
harmful to the environment.

The Government of Navarra has a long history of partnerships with cleantech and
renewable energy companies. In the mid 1990s, the government’s investment and
cooperation with Gamesa and EHN (now Acciona) spawned the development of wind
power infrastructure that satisfies over 70% of local demand for electricity. The government
has utilized the same PPP strategy to facilitate the development of sustainable transportation
initiatives. NBICI, the bike-sharing program, is financially supported by the government and
executed by CEMESA, a private sector outdoor advertising company. CEMESA provides
the physical infrastructure and bicycles, while the government contributes funding and a
public awareness campaign. Progress for Pamplona’s public bus network has also been a
product of PPP. The Government of Navarra was initially invested in EHN’s biofuels plant
outside Pamplona. When the plant was up and running, the government tested the
possibility of using biodiesel to fuel public buses. Acciona, a leading Spanish company in the
renewable energy industry, had since purchased EHN. After the successful Biodina Pilot,
Acciona partnered with the local bus operator, La Montañesa, to supply biodiesel that is
needed to power 50% of the public fleet. PPP facilitates cost sharing and allows the
government to take advantage of industry expertise.

As part of the Spanish national government’ introduction of electric vehicles (Project
Movele), the Government of Navarra is set to launch a regional EV program. The initiative
in Pamplona aims to take advantage of the region’s abundance of wind energy, which is
usually strongest at night (when demand for electricity it lowest). Because EVs will be
plugged-in when their drivers are sleeping, the cars would be almost entirely charged with
clean, renewable energy. The government hopes to partner with private sector automobile
and infrastructure companies to introduce electric vehicles, and is currently developing a
Request For Proposal to locate companies that can help implement the initiative.

Twenty years from now, Pamplona will probably look very similar to the way it does today,
but its transportation systems will be increasingly less harmful to the environment. In
addition to increased cycling and walking supported by NBICI and the renovation of
municipal walkways, the bus fleet is rapidly approaching 100% dependence on biodiesel. As
developers deploy electric vehicle infrastructure, more hybrid and electric vehicles will be
purchased and utilized.




!                                                                                           %"!
FINAL ANALYSIS
The studies of Tel Aviv, Abu Dhabi and Pamplona illustrated problems that compel
entrepreneurs and governments to allocate capital to sustainable mobility initiatives.
Decisions to invest in transportation initiatives are the product of complex economic and
social calculations that weigh long-term costs and benefits of policy shifts and large-scale
infrastructure deployment. By investing in alternatives to the automobile, governments are
betting that the long-term economic benefits of sustainable transportation will pay for the
massive upfront costs of development. Although unique circumstantial factors influence
every investment decision, certain broad dynamics have catalyzed capital allocation to
sustainable transportation projects in Tel Aviv, Abu Dhabi and Pamplona.

In cities where car cultures have flourished, urbanization and population trends forebode a
future mired in gridlock. Saddled with the opportunity cost of traffic jams, governments and
planners are introducing improved and innovative public transportation systems that
alleviate congestion by making mobility more efficient. Over time, access to light-rail, metro
and bus rapid transit options will increase and these systems will handle more trips. In
addition to maximizing efficiency and economic output, government-led investment in
sustainable transportation is a hedge against future oil supply disruptions. Recent efforts to
diversify national transport fuel mixes around the world are representative of changing
attitudes about the reliability of cheap, steady petroleum supplies, and suggest that many
governments (including Abu Dhabi – a massive reserve holder) believe that developing
alternatives to oil will pay dividends in the future.

In the past two decades policymakers and citizens have realized that fueling automobiles
with petroleum is far more costly than the price at the pump. Carbon dioxide emissions that
result from extracting, transporting and burning fossil fuels for transportation contribute to
global warming and pose a daunting threat to humanity. Although the international
community did not agree to binding emissions targets at Cop 15, the most recent meeting of
the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen, the commitment to
develop a global climate change mitigation strategy is stronger than ever. Notwithstanding
the benefits of reducing CO2 emissions, governments are increasingly inclined to allocate
investment to transportation systems that also limit other airborne pollutants. NOx, Sox, and
particulate emissions from tailpipes have been linked with asthma and other respiratory
illnesses that require expensive treatment. By phasing oil out of the transport fuel mix,
governments hope to reduce long-term health care costs.

Convincing people to give up their cars and assimilate to new transit modes may be more
difficult than optimizing solutions to transportation-related problems. The deeply-rooted car
cultures of Israel, Abu Dhabi and Pamplona are not likely to disintegrate overnight. To
speed the shift, governments need to implement policies that dissuade citizens from buying
and using automobiles. When combined with reliable and inexpensive public transport
options, tariffs on imported internal-combustion engine vehicles, highway tolls and
congestion charges can effectively reduce automobile use. Although it is highly unlikely that
automobiles will vanish in the near future, it is possible that oil over-dependence will
diminish.


!                                                                                          %#!
APPENDIX 1

Field Research
Meeting Itinerary: January 6-28, 2010

Tel Aviv, Israel

Wednesday, January 6

    •   Ronen Guedj, Project Engineer, Green Energy Programs, Israel Aerospace
        Industries (IAI)

    •   Charles Solomon, Deputy Directory General, Israel Ministry of Transportation

Thursday, January 7

    •   Itzhak Benenson, Head of Geogrpahy Department, Tel Aviv University

    •   Ofer Ben Dov, Sustainable Energy Director, Assif Strategies

    •   Amit Ashkenazi, Stakeholder, City for All

Friday, January 8

    •   Itay Alon, Manager and Owner, Alternativi: Inspiring Driving Culture

Sunday, January 10

    •   Pini Leiberman, Manager of Infrastructure, Better Place !
        !
    •   Tamar Keinan. Director, Transport Today & Tomorrow

Monday, January 11

    •   Sigal Yaniv, Director, Green Environment Fund

    •   Ruti Amir, Head of Public Transport Department, Ayalon Highway Company

Tuesday, January 12

    •   Uri Gabai, National Economic Council, Prime Minister’s Office

    •   Yehuda Elbaz, Director of Public Transportation, Israel Ministry of Transportation

    •   Ron Adany, Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University

Wednesday, January 13



!                                                                                        %$!
    •   Ira Green, Arava Power Company

    •   Arik Tappiro, The Society for the Protection of Nature

    •   Yishay Dotan, General Manager, Tel Aviv Metropolitan Transport Authority (NTA)


Thursday, January 14

    •   Michal Perle, Director Environmental Policy, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC)


Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Sunday, January 17

    •   Dr. Scott Kennedy, Professor, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology

    •   Dr. Alan Perkins, Senior Planning Manager, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council
        (UPC)

Monday, January 18

    •   Sameer Abu-Zaid, Department Manager Power & Distribution, Masdar

    •   Theodor Connon, Network Consulting, Siemens AG

    •   Maha Matraji, Department Manager Design Coordination, Masdar

    •   Reem Al Hashimi, Chief Commercial Events Officer, Department of Economic
        Development

Tuesday, January 19

    •   Yasmine Abbas, Environmental Sociologist, Masdar

    •   Chris Novack, Transportation Programme Manager, CH2M Hill

    •   Khaled Awad, Project Development Unit, Masdar

    •   Stephen Hayes, Transportation Manager, Masdar

    •   Robert Lohmann, 2getThere Technology

    •   Faris Abu Yaghi, Business Development, Enviromena Power Systems




!                                                                                        %%!
Wednesday, January 20

    •   Ahmed Al Nassay, Head of Power Forecast, Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity
        Company (ADWEC)

    •   Basil Daham, Air Quality Specialist, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)/
        Environment Agency Abu Dhabi (EAD)

    •   Helene Pelosse, Director General, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

Thursday, January 21

    •   Martin Tillman, Head of Middle East Business, Steer Davies Gleave

    •   Huda Shaka, Sustainability Associate, ARUP

    •   Masara Alamerii, Urban Planning Department Manager, Masdar

    •   Mark Hermans, Principal, PRTM Management Consultants


Pamplona, Spain

Monday, January 25

    •   Begoña Urien, Director General of Business, Department of Business, Innovation
        and Employment, Government of Navarra

    •   Department of Economics and Work, Government of Navarra

    •   Miguel Sanz Sesma, President, Government of Navarra

Tuesday, January 26

    •   Ignacio Martí, Technical Director and Director of R&D, Spanish National
        Renewable Energies Center

    •   Gurutz Urcelai, Director, Wind Energy Test Lab (LEA)

    •   Jose Luis Girones Remierez, Marketing Department, Gamesa

Wednesday, January 27

    •   Pablo Mendivil, Communications Director, Volswaken

    •   Mikel Echeverría, Director General, IDIMA



!                                                                                       %&!
    •   Charo Martinez, Chief of Staff, Government of Navarra


Thursday, January 28

    •   Idoia Arteta, Director, National Center of Renewable Energy Vocational Training
        (Cenifer)

    •   Miriyam Ezcurdia Soria, Department of Public Transportation and Communications

    •   Gavin Lee Williams, Manager, Acciona Energy


Special Thanks to:

    •   Lane Greene, The Economist

    •   Antoine Halff, Deputy Head of Research and Head of Commodities Research,
        Newedge

    •   John Van Schaik, Bureau Chief, Energy Intelligence Group

    •   Michael Granoff, Head of Oil Independence, Better Place

    •   Carolyn Kissane, Clinical Associate Professor, NYU Center for Global Affairs




!                                                                                         %'!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1
  Israel. Ministry of Environment. Sustainable Urban Transportation.
2
  Map of Israel. <http://www.thirdtemple.com/images/israel-map/israel.jpg>
3
  In the decade between 1990-2000 Israel absorbed one million people, most of whom came
from the Former Soviet Union.
4
  CIA World Factbook. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-
factbook/geos/is.html>
5
  Israel. Tel Aviv Mass Transit System.
6
  Israel. Israel Ministry of transport. <
http://info.mot.gov.il/EN/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog
&id=41&Itemid=73>
7
  Israel. Ministry of Environment. Sustainable Urban Transportation.
8
  http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-6770.html
9
  http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-6770.html
10
    Israel. Ayalon Highway Company. Reorganization of Public Transport in Metropolitan Tel
Aviv. Final Report.
11
    .Better Place. <www.betterplace.com/solution/ charging/>
12
    LaMonica, Matthew. Q&A: Agassi’s Better Place idea--brilliant or nuts. CNET News, 23
April 2009: <news.cnet.com/8301- 11128_3-10225464-54.html>
13
    Voelcker, John. Driving Electric To Cost No More Than Using Gas, Says Better Place.
Green Car Reports. 28 September 2009:
<http://www.greencarreports.com/blog/1035839_driving-electric-to-cost-no-more-than-
using-gas-says-better-place>
14
    Better Place debuts EV services platform at Frankfurt Motor Show. Better Place. 15
September 2009: <www.betterplace. com/company/press-release-detail/ better-place-
debuts-ev-services- platform-at-frankfurt-motor-show/>
15
    Better Place. <http://www.betterplace.com/images/photos
16
    Fisher-Ilan, Allyn. Israel declares revolution against gas guzzlers. Reuters. 8 June 2009:
<www.reuters.com/article/GCA- GreenBusiness/idUSTRE5573ZA20090608>
17
    Israel. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2009/Speech_P
M_Netanyahu_President_Conference_20-Oct-2009.htm
18
    Israel. Ministry of Environment.
19
    Fried, Inbal. Mesaurable Environmental Benefit of EVs. Better Place. 18 March 2010:
<http://blog.betterplace.com/2010/03/measurable-environmental-benefit-of-evs-the-israel-
case-study/>
20
    www.mckinsey.com/.../israel_cost_curve_exec_summary_english.pdf
21
    Israel. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
www.mfa.gov.il/.../Speeches.../President_Peres_UN_Climate_Change_Conference_17-Dec-2009.htm
22
    Michael Perle. Personal Interview. Israel Electric Corporation. 14 January 2010
23
    Pederson, Daniel. Israel’s Offshore Gas Deposits May Lead to Cleaner Air but Not
Energy Independence. Green Prophet. 22 January 2009:
<http://greenprophet.com/2009/01/22/6210/israel-natural-gas/>
24
    Kachan, Dallas. Israel & Abu Dhabi compete on renewable energy targets. Cleantech
Group. 19 January 2009: <http://cleantech.com/news/4069/israel-abu-dhabi-compete-
renewable-energy-targets>
25
    Better Place. <http://www.betterplace.com/images/photos/B_342.jpg



!                                                                                                                                                             %(!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
26
    Kanellos, Michael. Israel launches electric-car program. CNET. 21 January 2008:
<news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-9854591-54.html>
27
    Kivat, Barbara. Israel Looks to Electric Cars. Time. 20 January 2008:
<www.time.com/time/world/ article/0,8599,1705518,00.html>
28
    Green Prophet. <http://www.greenprophet.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/tel-aviv-
subway-map.png>
29
    Tree Hugger. <http://www.treehugger.com/light-rail-jaffa2.jpg>
30
    Israel. Tel Aviv Mass Transit System. PowerPoint Presentation.
31
    Ibid.
32
    Israel. Tel Aviv Mass Transit System. www.nta.co.il/site/en/homepage.asp
33
    Israel. Tel Aviv Mass Transit System. PowerPoint Presentation
34
    Ibid.
35
    Railway-Technology.com. 18 February 2010: <http://www.railway-
technology.com/projects/telaviv-lighrail/>
36
    Israel. Ayalon Highway Company. Reorganization of Public Transport in Metropolitan Tel
Aviv.
37
    Israel. Ayalon Highway Company. Reorganization of Public Transport in Metropolitan Tel
Aviv.
38
    The document was issued in 2007.
39
    Government of Abu Dhabi, Department of Transport. Surface Transport Master Plan, A
Vision for Connecting Abu Dhabi. June 2009
40
    Absal, Rayeesa. Abu Dhabi streets feel the strain as vehicles double. Gulfnews.com. 24
February 2008: <http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/traffic-transport/abu-dhabi-streets-
feel-the-strain-as-vehicles-double-1.86329>
41
    Zaman, Samihah & Chung, Matthew.A bumpy ride for the bus network. The National. 10
January 2010:
<http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100111/NATIONAL/701109
853>
42
    Government of Abu Dhabi, Department of Transport. Surface Transport Master Plan, A
Vision for Connecting Abu Dhabi. June 2009
43
    Government of Abu Dhabi, Department of Transport. Surface Transport Master Plan, A
Vision for Connecting Abu Dhabi. June 2009
44
    The Urban Planning Council (UPC) was created by law 23 in 2007 to serve as the agency
responsible for the future of Abu Dhabi’s urban environment and to act as the expert
authority behind the “Plan Abu Dhabi 2030.”
45
    Abu Dhabi. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council.
46
    As outlined in the "Surface Transport Master Plan" (STMP), the Abu Dhabi Department
of Transport (DoT) was established by law 6 in 2006 to bring the development, management
and regulation of all transport modes under one roof.
47
    Abu Dhabi. Department of Planning and Economy. Traffic Congestion in Abu Dhabi
City. 22 June 2008.
48
    Boden,Tom, Marland, Gregg, and Andres, Bob. “Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis.”
Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory.April 29, 2009:
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ndp030/global.1751_2006.ems
49
    Government of Abu Dhabi, Department of Transport. Surface Transport Master Plan, A
Vision for Connecting Abu Dhabi. June 2009



!                                                                                                                                                             %)!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
50
  “ United States of America. Energy Information Administration. (EIA). United Arab
Emirate Country Brief. November 2009. <www.eia.gov>
51
    Abu Dhabi. Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. Fact Sheet. 15 April 2010:
<http://www.ead.ae/_data/global/files/fact%20sheet%202010/english%20revised%20ead
%20fact%20sheet2010.pdf>
52
  Emirates News Agency. WFES 2009 exceeds target, attracts 16,427 attendees: organizers.
21 June 2009:
<http://wam.org.ae/servlet/Satellite?c=WamLocEnews&cid=1226858122649&pagename=
WAM%2FWamLocEnews%2FW-T-LEN-FullNews>
53
    Abu Dhabi Sets Seven Percent Renewabes Target. Renewable Energy World.com 19
January 2009: http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/01/abu-
dhabi-sets-7-percent-renewables-target-54536
54
    Perkins, Alan. Personal interview. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. 16 January 2010
55
    Gale, Ivan. Throttle May Ease on Transport Plans. The National. 17 March 2010:
http://abu-dhabi-metro.com/transportation/throttle-may-ease-on-transport-plans
56
    Abu Dhabi. Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. Fact Sheet. 15 April 2010:
<http://www.ead.ae/_data/global/files/fact%20sheet%202010/english%20revised%20ead
%20fact%20sheet2010.pdf>
57
    16 CNG stations to be installed around the UAE. AMEinfo.com. 7 October 2006:
<http://www.ameinfo.com/98296.html>
58
    Ecogas. <http://www.indiacon.com/ecogas/admin/products/cng-safety.jpg>
59
    “Abu Dhabi & Sharjah to Have CNG Powered Transport Sector. APS Review Gas
Market Trends. 27 November 2006: <http://www.allbusiness.com/agriculture-forestry-
fishing-hunting/support-activities/4003455-1.html>
60
    Chung, Matthew. Natural Gas Stations Ready by End of the Year. The National. January
28, 2009: <http://www.thenational.ae/article/20090128/NATIONAL/814941495/1041>
61
    United States of America. U.S. Department of Energy. Alternative Fuels and Advanced
Vehicles Data Center. http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/
62
    Abu Dhabi. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company. About ADNOC. 15 April 2010:
<http://www.adnoc.ae/content.aspx?mid=22&tree=>
63
    Elewa, Ahmed. Adnoc to open CNG stations. Gulf News. 23 November 2006:
<http://www.zawya.com/printstory.cfm?storyid=ZAWYA20061123051226&l=051200061
123>
64
    American Lung Association. Facts About Diesel Exhaust:
<http://www.alaw.org/air_quality/outdoor_air_quality/facts_about_diesel_exhaust.html>
65
    Abu Dhabi Progresses Toward Introduction of Green Diesel As Fuel. AMEinfo.com. 4
January 2007: <http://www.ameinfo.com/108612.html>
66
    EAD Chairs For Introduction of Green Diesel in Abu Dhabi. AMEinfo.com. 29 July
2007: <http://www.ameinfo.com/127811.html>
67
    EAD Chairs For Introduction of Green Diesel in Abu Dhabi. AMEinfo.com. 29 July
2007: <http://www.ameinfo.com/127811.html>
68
    Introducing Green Diesel To Abu Dhabi. UAEInteract. 31 July 2007:
<http://www.uaeinteract.com/docs/Introducing_green_diesel_to_Abu_Dhabi/26383.htm
>
69
    Masdar City Under Construction.
<http://www.folkecenter.net/mediafiles/folkecenter/news/Masdar-City-3.jpg>



!                                                                                                                                                             &+!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
70
    2getthere. 21 January 2010.
<http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.2getthere.eu/media/pictures/medi
um/the-first-personal-rapid-transit-prt-on-site-at-masdar-
city.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.2getthere.eu/Company/News_Archive/&usg=__DA8PJO
YSqQpZB9v47jblEF3T4Kw=&h=293&w=440&sz=15&hl=en&start=5&sig2=wmYj86vle
24LXqjZtikoHA&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=6PYuTu8jDE4k1M:&tbnh=85&tbnw=127&prev
=/images%3Fq%3Dpersonal%2Brapid%2Btransit%2Bmasdar%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den
%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DG%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-
US:official%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=5onMS7SzIYK88ga5072oBQ>
71
    Mandel, Jenny. Financial Woes Crimp Celebrated Middle East Green City. The New York
Times. 17 March 2010: <http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2010/03/17/17greenwire-
financial-woes-crimp-celebrated-middle-east-gr-91007.html>
72
    Oxford Business Group. Abu Dhabi Profile.
www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/country.asp?country=36
73
    Stromsta Karil-Erik. Masdar City downsizes goals as property market sours. Recharge. 17
March 2010: <http://www.rechargenews.com/energy/solar/article208829.ece>
75
   Government of Navarra. Department of Transport. Transporte en Navarre. 2008
76
   Perez Velasco, Jesus. Experience the use of B100 in the urban transport fleet in the
Pamplona district. Mancomunidad Comarca de Pamplona.
77
   Government of Navarra. Department of Transport. Transporte en Navarre. 2008
78
   Government of Navarra. Department of Innovation, Enterprise And Employment.
Renewable Energies in Navarra. 23 April 2009
79
   Government of Navarra. Department of Transport. Transporte en Navarra. 2008
80
   Perez Velasco, Jesus. Experience the use of B100 in the urban transport fleet in the
Pamplona district. Mancomunidad Comarca de Pamplona.
81
   The Offical Site of the National Biodiesel Board. FAQS:
http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/faqs/
82
   European Union. Sustainable Community Through The Production Of 30000Tm/Yr Of
Biodiesel Starting From Sunflower, Rapeseed And Palm Biomass.
<ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/biofuels/doc/biodiesel/biodina.pdf>
83
   European Union. Sustainable Community Through The Production Of 30000Tm/Yr Of
Biodiesel Starting From Sunflower, Rapeseed And Palm Biomass.
<ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/biofuels/doc/biodiesel/biodina.pdf>
84
   Government of Navarra. Department of Transport. Transporte en Navarre. 2008
85
   Business Green.com 31 July 2008: <http://www.businessgreen.com/business-
green/news/2223025/spain-aims-million-electric>
86
   Government of Navarra. Department of Innovatiom, Enterprise And Employment.
Renewable Energies in Navarra. 23 April 2009
87
   Government of Navarra . The Municipality of Pamplona. Bicycles lane in Pamplona.
<http://www.pamplona.net/verPagina.asp?idPag=364&idioma=5>
88
   CEMUSA’s Bike Share Program NBICI Opens In Pamplona. CEMUSA. 28 June 2007:
<www.cemusa.com>
89
   Rosenthal, Elisabeth. European Support for Bicycles Promotes Sharing of the Wheels. The
New York Times. 9 November 2008:
<http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/10/world/europe/10bike.html>



!                                                                                                                                                             &*!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
90
    Paris bike hire scheme hit by theft and vandalism. Cycling Weekly. 25 November 2009:
<http://www.cyclingweekly.co.uk/news/latest/432324/paris-bike-hire-scheme-hit-by-theft-
and-vandalism.html>




!                                                                                                                                                             &"!

				
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