Vitamin A by yaoyufang


1.   GUINEA PIGS                  4.   peppers, broccoli, Brussels
                                       sprouts, sweet potatoes,
2.   healthy teeth and gums,           oranges and kiwi fruit.
     helps in the absorption
     of iron, aids in the         5.   Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid) 500MG
     maintenance of normal
     connective tissue, and
     promotes wound healing.      6.   Water Soluble
     It also helps the body's
     immune system.

3.   Pain or tenderness in
     extremity or affected area
     Redness or swelling in
     affected area
Thiamine (B1)
• Animals with dietary source (cattle, sheep)
• Increases growth and appetite
• Regulates metabolism
• Aids reproduction
• Reproduction in appetite (anorexia) and loss
  in weight.
• Cardiovascular disturbances,
  Lowered body temperature, and Hens:
  Lowered egg production.
Thiamine (B1)
• Alpha-tocopherol Germ or germ oils of
  plants, Green plants, and Green hays.
• Water soluble
Vitamin A
          Info               Vitamin A Deficiency
• Also known as           • In cattle a vitamin A
                            deficiency is usually
  retinol                   due to lack of green
• fat-soluble vitamins      feed
• Used in keeping up      • For example such as in
  Vision, resistance to     animals coming off of
                            dry summer pastures or
  infectious disease,       those fed poor quality
  bone remodeling,          hay
Vitamin A
Vitamin A Deficiency con..
• Can cause:
      – Blindness
      – Increased risk of mortality
        from infectious disease
      – Abnormal function of many
        epithelial cells,
      – Abnormal bone growth
• Animals are subjected to
    periods of stressful conditions,
    such as low environmental
    temperature or exposure to
    infective bacteria
• Cobalt (Co) is a strategic and critical metal used in
  many diverse commercial, industrial, and military
  applications. The largest use of cobalt is in
  superalloys, which are used to make parts for gas
  turbine aircraft engines. Cobalt is also used to make
  magnets; corrosion- and wear-resistant alloys; high-
  speed steels; cemented carbides (also called
  hardmetals) and diamond tools; catalysts for the
  petroleum and chemical industries; drying agents for
  paints, varnishes, and inks; ground coats for
  porcelain enamels; pigments; battery electrodes;
  steel-belted radial tires; and magnetic recording
Good Sources for plants and animals
• Needed by Rhizobium for nitrogen
  fixation; helps form vitamin B12;
  improves growth, water movement and
  photosynthesis; improves boll
  production in cotton; activates certain
Vitamin K

        • Promotes blood clotting and
          • Prevents hemorrhaging
Water or Fat Soluble

    • Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin
Disorders caused By Deficiencies
•   Eye hemorrhages
•   Gum Bleeding
•   Easy Bruising
•   Fractures
•   Nose Bleeds
•   Hematuria (blood in the urine)
         Good Sources For Animals
• Leafy green
• Tomatoes
• Egg yolks
• Cabbage
• Cauliflower
• Spinach
• Cereals
Animals Most Affected

     • Cats
     • Dogs
Vitamin E
 All animals are affected by vitamin E
 Some deficiencies are…
        white muscle disease
        cystic ovaries
        increased incidence of retained placenta
        Possibly
        increased risk of mastitis
Vitamin E Continue
 Animals that are ruminates can make their vitamin E.
 Animals also can get it from…
         wheat germ
         Vegetable oils (peanut, soya, palm, corn,
          safflower, sunflower, etc.)
         supplements
 It is fat soluble vitamin
B 12
•   Dairy CattleCobalt deficiency usually occurs after animals have
    been on a cobalt deficient diet for a considerable time and as
    vitamin B12 stores in the liver and other tissues are depleted
•   Beef CattleThe appearance of a cobalt deficient animal is
    similar to that of a starved one. An early symptom is loss of
    appetite, which is alleviated quickly following cobalt
    supplementation if the deficiency symptoms have not advanced
    too far and caused body organ damage.
•   SheepCobalt deficiency causes lack of appetite, lack of thrift,
    severe emaciation, weakness, anemia, decreased fertility, and
    decreased milk and wool production (155). Sheep are more
    susceptible to cobalt deficiency than cattle and the
    accumulation of fat in the liver of B12 deficient sheep, but not
    cattle, may be related to a methyl-group deficiency affecting
    liver lipid metabolism (252).
•   GoatsCobalt deficiency symptoms include a loss of appetite,
    emaciation, weakness, anemia, and decreased production. The
    1981 NRC committee on Nutrient Requirements of Goats
    assumes that a level of 0.1 ppm cobalt in the diet is adequate
    for goats since it is adequate for sheep (100).
•   Non-Ruminants
B 12
• Sheep Cobalt deficiency causes lack of appetite, lack
  of thrift, severe emaciation, weakness, anemia,
  decreased fertility, and decreased milk and wool
  production (155). Sheep are more susceptible to
  cobalt deficiency than cattle and the accumulation of
  fat in the liver of B12 deficient sheep, but not cattle,
  may be related to a methyl-group deficiency affecting
  liver lipid metabolism (252).
• Goats Cobalt deficiency symptoms include a loss of
  appetite, emaciation, weakness, anemia, and
  decreased production. The 1981 NRC committee on
  Nutrient Requirements of Goats assumes that a level of
  0.1 ppm cobalt in the diet is adequate for goats since it
  is adequate for sheep (100).
• Non-Ruminants
Riboflavin (B2)
• Riboflavin is a water soluble vitamin that's essential for
  releasing energy from carbohydrates, and to convert the
  carbohydrates into energy. Essential for growth and production
  of red blood cells and controlling hormones.
• Deficiency symptoms are found in different species of poultry,
  swine, and horses.
• There are a variety of symptoms such as retarded growth, moon
  blindness, slow growth, diarrhea and much much more.
• Good sources for animals are green pastures, leafy hays, grass
  silage, milk and milk products, meat scraps and fish meat.
• Grains are a poor source of riboflavin, many common rations are
  on the border line or deficient in riboflavin, especially swine and
What is Folate?
• Folate and folic acid are forms of a water-
  soluble B vitamin.
Folic Acid
• researchers say, folic acid may help prevent stomach
• Folic acid helps prevent seizures in animals
• If your animal ever does have a seizure, I'd
  encourage you to take it very seriously.
• If there's more than one, or if a single one lasts more
  than a couple of minutes, definitely treat it as a major
  emergency and call a vet right away.
• A seizure of 10 minutes or more can cause severe
  brain damage.
Pantothenic Acid
•   The animals that are most affected
•   Poultry-primary signs involve nervous
    system, adrenal cortex, and skin.
•   Swine- anorexia, poor growth,
    diarrhea, goose stepping (sciatic nerve
•   Humans- fatigue, headaches, muscle
    weakness, depression, impaired motor
Pantothenic Acid (cont.)
• Is essential for reproduction, growth,
  and normal physiological functions.
• Great sources for animals are, Calcium
  pantothenate and fish solubles.
• It is most likely to be deficient under
  drylot conditions.
• Water Soluble.
• Animals most affected are the dog, chicken,
  rat, human, and pig.
• Is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an
  important role as a coenzyme in the
  breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and
  proteins. It’s involved in red blood cell
  formation. Is important in endocrine system.
• Pigs show anorexia and poor growth.
  Chickens show retarded growth and
  abnormal feathering. Hens show lowered egg
  laying and hatch-ability.
Pyridoxine cont.
• Cereal grains,rice bran and polished
  green pastures, well-cured alfalfa hay,
• It is synthesized in the rumen of cattle
  and sheep and perhaps in the cecum of
  the horse. Also known as B6.
• Water Soluble.
•   Is a Vitamin
•   A B-Vitamin

•   Water soluble

•   Biotin is also essential for the breakdown of carbohydrates

•   Effects, egg shells, embryo health, pregnancy, litter size, Litter weight, hair

    coat and finger nails

•   Effects hoof health Including foot pads in poultry, Hooves in cattle, hair coat

    and finger nails.

•   Greater milk production in high producing cow: large amounts of food being

    taken in, causes a greater need for more Biotin creating a great amount of

               • Animals most affected
 • Beef Cattle A severe deficiency of zinc in young
      calves results in parakeratosis a condition that
  resembles mange. Many recent studies have shown
  zinc to be essential to maximum immune function in
                  stressed feedlot cattle.
    • Dairy Cattle The cattle grow slower due to a
       decreased feed intake and less efficient feed
   • SwineThe symptoms of zinc deficiency are
    reduced appetite and growth rate, skin lesions
    (parakeratosis) that look like mange, diarrhea,
          vomiting, and death in severe cases
• Horses horses show reduced tissue and blood zinc
 levels and reduced blood alkaline phosphatase (154).
• Sheep Zinc deficiency in lambs results in a lack of
  appetite, reduced growth, slipping of wool, swelling
  around the eyes and hooves, excess salivation,
  general listlessness, impaired growth of testes and
  cessation of spermatogenesis
• Goats Zinc deficiency in goats includes reduced
  feed intake, weight loss, parakeratosis (mange-like
  condition), stiffness of joints, excessive salivation,
  swelling of the feet and horny overgrowth, small
  testicles and low libido (120).
• Poultry Zinc deficiency causes growth retardation
  and abnormal feather development in poultry.
  Feather fraying occurs near the end of the feather.
  The severity of the fraying varies from almost no
  feathers on the wings and tail to only slight defects
  in the development of some of the barbules and
1.   Macro mineral
2.   energy functioning of every living cell. It is also involved
     in RNA, DNA and cell wall synthesis. The acid-alkaline
     balance of the blood is controlled by phosphorus. About
     80% of the body's Phosphorus is contained in the
     bones,10% in muscles, and 1% in the nervous system the
     remaining 9% is distributed throughout the body.
3.   Appetite loss, bone pain, fatigue, irregular breathing,
     nervous disorders; Bone and tooth problems, heart and
     kidney problems.
4.    MILK

5.   are minerals required by the body in the greatest
     amounts since they make our bony skeleton and teeth.
                  Info                  •   Calcium requirement during the
•   A Macro mineral                         dry period is .39 percent of
•   Sorces of Calcium                       ration dry matter,
      – Legumes and grasses.            •   Feeding calcium levels above
                                            .39 percent may substantially
•   Calcium requirements need to            increase the incidence of milk
    be balanced for the complete            fever in your herd.
    lactation cycle.                    •    For high-producing cows,
•   It is important to monitor the          dietary calcium levels of .80
    calcium in levels during the late       percent
    dry period (last four weeks) to
    reduce the incidence of milk        • Sorces
    fever.                                   – Alfalfa
• Iodine is a macro mineral that is needed by the
  thyroxin gland for making thyroxin, which is a
  hormone which controls the rate of body metabolism
  or heat production.
• Disorders caused by iodine deficiency is Goiter (big
  neck) in calves, lambs and kids. Stillbirths and weak
  young, hairlessness.
• There is no treatment for animals that have
  developed an iodine deficiency symptoms.
• Good sources of iodine is stabilized iodized salt and
  calcium iodate.
• Enlargement of the thyroid gland is natures way to
  making enough thyroxin when there is insufficient in
  the feed.
• Micro
• Essential in enzyme systems, hair
  development and pigmentation, bone
  development, reproduction, and
• Fading hair coat: light wool growth and
  straight, hair-like fibers,
  ataxia,lameness, swelling of joints,
  fragility of bones, and nutritional
Copper cont.
• Trace mineralized salt containing
  copper sulfate or copper carbonate.
• A variable store of copper is located in
  the liver and spleen. Milk is low in
  Copper young animals raised almost
  exclusively on milk may develop
          (Water soluble)
                                    •   Controls fat/cholesterol buildup
    Animals Affected:               •   Prevents fat accumulation in liver
•   Swine                           •   Controls fat movement in cells
•   Rats       (not found in man)   •   Regulate kidneys, liver, bladder
•   Poultry                         •   Nerve transmission
                                    •   Helps improve memory
•   nuts
•   lettuce                         Deficiency Symptoms:
•   milk                            •   Cirrhosis of liver
•   eggs                            •   Hardening of arteries
•   wheat                           •   Heart problems / High blood
•   oats                                pressure
                                    •   Hemorrhaging kidneys
         Functions:                    (Micro/ Trace mineral)
•   Iron usage
•   Converting food into energy            Disorders:
•   Prevention of anemia          •   Reduces Cu absorption

Sources for animals:
•   Dark leafy greens
•   Beans
•   Peas
•   Nuts
•   Whole grains
   Potassium is a micro mineral
   Potassium is an extremely important electrolyte that functions in the
    maintenance of:
          Water balance and distribution
          Acid-base balance
          Muscle and nerve cell function
          Heart function
          Kidney and adrenal function
    Potassium Continue
   Deficiency Signs and Symptoms are…
           muscle weakness
           Fatigue
           mental confusion
           Irritability
           Weakness
           heart disturbances
           problems in nerve conduction and muscle contraction
   Good sources for potassium are…
           Alfalfa
           Meats
           Fruits
           Leafy vegetables
 Facts about Selenium
• Selenium can be added to diets of all food animals.
  Either sodium selenite or sodium selenate can be used.
  Selenium is added to feed as follows:
• Up to 0.1 ppm in complete feed for swine, beef cattle,
  dairy cattle, sheep, poultry, rabbits, dairy goats, etc.
• Turkeys may be fed 0.2 ppm and small pigs up to 50
  pounds, may be fed up to 0.3 ppm.
• Horses and other non-food animals (game birds, zoo
  animals, laboratory animals, etc.) can be fed up to 0.1
  ppm selenium in the total diet.
Facts about Selenium
• Excess selenium in animal diets must be avoided.
  However, selenium is no more toxic than some of the
  other trace minerals.
• This margin of safety for selenium is greater than for
  copper, zinc, iron and possibly manganese for the
• Therefore, selenium can be used if proper
  precautions are taken in its addition to animal diets.
Selenium and Folic Acid
Macro or Micro Mineral
   Sulfur is one of seven Macro-Minerals:
                   • Sulfur
                  • Calcium
               • Phosphorous
                • Magnesium
                 • Potassium
                  • Sodium
                  • Chlorine
• Mineral

• Micronutrient

• Effects all Animals reproductive system. It is required for synthesis

   of estrogen, testerone, cholesterol. These chemicals are essential

   to reproduction and health.

• It effects digestion in animals. High dietary levels of calcium, iron,

   potassium, magnesium and phosphorus may reduce the availability

   of manganese.

• Disorders include reproductive and digestive problems.
• A pale yellow
  nonmetallic element
  occurring widely in
  nature in several
  free and combined
  allotropic forms
What Dose it do?
• Sulfur is necessary for collagen
  synthesis. Collagen is an insoluble
  fibrous protein found in vertebrates.
• Sulfur operates as a synthesizer and
  activator with the B vitamins, thiamin,
  Vitamin C, biotin, and pantothenic acid,
  all of which are needed for metabolism
  and healthy nerves.
•    Disorders
    Slow wound healing
•   Scar tissue
•   Brittle nails
•   Brittle hair
•   Gastrointestinal challenges
•   Lung dysfunctions due to inflammation
•   Immune dysfunction
•   Arthritis
•   Acne
•   Rashes
•   Depression
•   Memory loss
Source of Sulfur
•   Garlic
•   Red hot peppers
•   Cabbage (when spicy)
•   Brussels sprouts
•   Horseradish
•   Onions
•   Radish
•   Mustard leaves
•   Mustard, radish flowers
•   Domesticated
    cruciferous vegetables
• Iron is a micro mineral
• Iron helps the blood and muscles
  deliver oxygen, thus energy, to every
  body cell, and it removes carbon dioxide
  from them.
• Iron is important to many immune
  system functions.
• Benefits include a strong immune
  system, provision of energy, and mental
• Possible Benefits

• Prevents and treats anemia.
• Provides energy and prevents fatigue.
• Enhances immune system and promotes resistance
  to disease.
• Promotes protein metabolism.
• Improves respiratory action.
• Improves mental acuity.
• Brings back good skin tone
• Aids growth
•   Deficiency symptoms (anemia)
•   Lack of energy (weakness)
•   Low blood pressure
•   Loss of appetite
•   Good sources for animals is alpha and
• Micro
• Protects against tooth decay in children and
  possibly other animals.
• Excess of fluorine are of more concern than
  deficiencies in livestock production.
• There’s no need to supplement livestock but
  if necessary put 1 ppm in the drinking water.
• Fluorine is used in the synthesis of organic
  fluorine compounds.
• Is a member of the B complex vitamins,
  and is water-soluble. As a co-enzyme,
  niacin assists enzymes with the
  breakdown and utilization of proteins,
  fats, and carbohydrates. It is known to
  be necessary for the synthesis of sex
  hormones in animals and the proper
  activity of the nervous system.
Major Functions of the mineral
• Niacin can reduce lipids in your blood,
  including lowering low-density lipoprotein
  cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) and
  triglycerides, and raising high-density
  lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good"
  cholesterol). Studies show that niacin can
  also slow the progression of atherosclerosis
  when used with other cholesterol-lowering
  drugs, diet and exercise. However, in the
  doses typically needed for these effects
  (usually greater than 1,000 mg/day), niacin is
  being used as a medication, not as a vitamin.
  So take increased doses only with your
  doctor's advice.
Disorders Caused by Niacin Deficiency
• rare liver problems have occurred at
  amounts in excess of 1,000 mg per day.

• in amounts as low as 50–100 mg, may
  cause flushing, headache, and
  stomachache in some people.
  Resources for Selenium
Folic Acid Resources

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