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					                  Technical Report
       Controls, Commissioning and Operation
             of the Accelerators of FAIR




                         Friday, 04 February 2005




Editors:   Petra Schütt, (p.schuett@gsi.de, phone: +49-6159-71 2026)
           Udo Krause, (u.krause@gsi.de, phone: +49-6159-71 2387)
           Wolfgang Schiebel (w.schiebel@gsi.de, phone: +49-6159-71 2498)



Team Members: Ralph Bär,
              Bernhard Franczak,
              Ludwig Hechler,
              Andreas Redelbach,
              Simone Richter,
              Volker Schaa
TR Controls, Commissioning and Operation

Content
1      DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT, SCOPE, MOTIVATION ................................. 3
    1.1 ROLE IN THE FAIR PROJECT, TASKS AND REQUIREMENTS ............................................. 3
    1.2 DESCRIPTION OF CONCEPTUAL LAYOUT ........................................................................ 4
      1.2.1 Parallel Operation in FAIR.................................................................................... 4
      1.2.2 Controls Architecture............................................................................................. 5
      1.2.3 Timing..................................................................................................................... 6
      1.2.4 Operation Tools...................................................................................................... 7
2      TECHNICAL LAYOUT................................................................................................... 8
    2.1 STRUCTURE OF WP COMMISSIONING AND OPERATIONS ................................................ 8
      2.1.1 Detailed Requirement Analysis (work in progress) ............................................... 8
      2.1.2 Accelerator Modeling & Settings Generation........................................................ 9
      2.1.3 Tools for Sequence Control.................................................................................... 9
      2.1.4 Tools for Monitoring During Operation .............................................................. 10
      2.1.5 Commissioning and Set-up Strategy .................................................................... 10
      2.1.6 Machine Protection and Safety ............................................................................ 11
      2.1.7 Upgrade Existing Facility WP 2.2.19 .................................................................. 12
    2.2 STRUCTURE OF SUBPROJECT CONTROLS ...................................................................... 12
      2.2.1 Front End Services ............................................................................................... 12
      2.2.2 Timing................................................................................................................... 13
      2.2.3 Equipment Interfacing.......................................................................................... 14
      2.2.4 Data Management ................................................................................................ 14
      2.2.5 Installation ........................................................................................................... 15
      2.2.6 Upgrade Existing Facility .................................................................................... 16
      2.2.7 Assisting Activities................................................................................................ 17
    2.3 DESIGN STATUS OF THE WORKPACKAGES ................................................................... 17
3      R&D PHASE (2005-2007)............................................................................................... 18
    3.1 DESCRIPTION AND RANKING OF NECESSARY DEVELOPMENTS .................................... 18
    3.2 GANTT DIAGRAM FOR R&D WITH MILESTONES ........................................................... 19
      3.2.1 Subproject Central Controls ................................................................................ 19
      3.2.2 WP Commissioning and Operation...................................................................... 19
    3.3 R&D COST ESTIMATE, INVESTMENT PLAN (MS-EXCEL) ............................................ 19
    3.4 PERSONNEL INVOLVEMENT IN R&D (MS-EXCEL)..................................................... 19
4      IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTS.............................................................................. 19
    4.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE ........................................................... 19
    4.2 GANTT DIAGRAM WITH MILESTONES ............................................................................ 20
    4.3 CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE, INVESTMENT PLAN ................................................... 20
    4.4 PERSONNEL INVOLVEMENT .......................................................................................... 20
    REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 20




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TR Controls, Commissioning and Operation

1 Description of the Project, Scope, Motivation
FAIR will be composed of 2 linear accelerators with 4 ion sources, 3 synchrotrons and 4 or
more storage rings. The truly parallel operation of these accelerators, serving up to 4 experi-
ments independently of each other, is one of its prominent characteristics.
High-capacity controls are mandatory to use the facility effectively. The control system, both
front-end installations and operations tools, must be able to handle different settings for dif-
ferent beams in parallel. Front-end controls, in combination with the timing system, must
switch the equipment according to the pattern of beams to be accelerated or transported in the
various sections of the facility. By appropriate interleaving of the different beams, dead-times
must be minimized. Effective set-up procedures and surveillance mechanisms are needed to
operate the accelerators by a small operator crew. High intensity beams require minimal
beams losses, and superconducting magnets set high demands for stability.
The controls must be operational in the early stages of the project already, as it must provide
access to device manipulation and all available diagnostics for the "Initial/First Commission-
ing" of the accelerators. The supply of a reliable and effective first set of expert tools is indis-
pensable. These must stretch over the different layers of the control system.
This report covers the complete accelerator controls, including operation tools. However, fa-
cility controls (water, air condition, wall plug power, etc.) is not included, nor is the control
system of the cryogenics system.

1.1 Role in the FAIR Project, tasks and requirements
The FAIR controls will benefit from the expertise and knowledge gained at the existing facil-
ity, where parallel handling of different beams even parallel to the medical cancer treatment is
successfully established. Proven mechanisms and concepts of the existing system will be used
in the FAIR controls. However, an overall design should be developed newly to abandon bur-
dens from the existing system. In a second step then, it may be revised to incorporate appro-
priate components of the existing system.
The FAIR controls demands for much more functionality than the control system of the exist-
ing facility:
     • High intensity operation enforces more precautions in beam handling. Interlock
        mechanisms, and set-up procedures must be defined and enforced to inhibit damage to
        the equipment. Other machine protection issues, like radiation hardness of electronics,
        have to be considered during system layout.
     • The accelerator model must be extended in various ways.
     • For an efficient exploitation of the FAIR facilities, more coordination of the accelera-
        tors will be needed. Therefore, timing and sequencing must be reconsidered.
     • In practice, the behavior of an accelerator during one cycle is not completely inde-
        pendent of the previous cycles, nor is the behavior of two neighboring rings in the
        same hall or tunnel. These cross effects must be handled properly in order to enable
        independent tuning for different experiments.
     • Parts of the new accelerator complex will be developed by external institutes as an in
        kind contribution. Those parts must be properly integrated in the control system. GSI
        controls group must integrate and provide standards for the entire control system.
Since SIS18 will serve as injector for FAIR, its upgrade towards higher repetition rates and
intensities is crucial for the parallel operation of FAIR. The aforementioned improvements
concerning handling of high intensities, the accelerator model, and the sequence control will
already be needed for the SIS18 upgrade.




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1.2 Description of Conceptual Layout

1.2.1 Parallel Operation in FAIR
Table 1.1 Standard Cycles of FAIR: Super Cycles of the Synchrotrons.
                                                                       Storage   Beam
   No             SIS 100                         SIS 300
                                                                        Rings    Time



                                                                                 20-40%
    1                                                                   RIB
                                                                                 (30%)




    2                                                                    no       10%




    3                                                                    no       10 %




    4                                                                   pbar      20%




                                                                        pbar
                                                                       NESR 20-40%
    5                                                                    for
                                                                       Atomic (30%)
                                                                       Physics



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Considering the known demands from experiments, the cycle times of the synchrotrons and
storage rings, as well as beam lines and accelerators, five standard cycles have been defined,
which will probably be run during most of the beam time and therefore determine the typical
load on magnet power supplies and cryogenics[1]. These are summarized in Table 1.1. Note,
that the cycle times take into account the magnet ramp rates, but not the time necessary for
longitudinal beam manipulations. These will in general increase the length of the injection
and extraction plateaus and therefore reduce the possible repetition rates.
Each of these standard cycles will possibly run for hours or even days without major interrup-
tion for luminosity production runs in the experiments.
Time between two shots to accelerate antiprotons and refill the HESR will vary between 5
minutes and several hours; similarly Plasma Physics experiments typically need single shots
every few minutes. Both can therefore be neglected in the standard cycles. However, they
pose important demands on the operation modes, namely the possibility to insert asynchro-
nous beam requests.
Furthermore, pulse to pulse switching between experiments will be used during set-up phases,
i.e. when new experimental conditions must be implemented. Especially, it must be consid-
ered, that the set-up or fine-tuning of one experiment may run in parallel to a production run
of another experiment, which must not be disturbed.
Finally, in emergency cases, a running cycle may be interrupted at any time. In those cases,
the beam must be dumped, and all necessary data for a post mortem analysis of the fault
which lead to the interruption must be made available. The correct settings for this emergency
handling must therefore be accessible in the equipment at any time.

1.2.2 Controls Architecture
The system will be designed as a decentralized distributed system. Front-end layer compo-
nents interface and control the installed equipment and provide network access to the equip-
ment. Extensive timed equipment handling suggests, as in the existing GSI control system, to
split the front-end in two sub layers: Equipment control, which implements the device con-
nection and timed equipment handling, and device presentation, which models the equipment
and implements the network access.




Figure 1.1: Architecture of the Control System.



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The equipment control sub layer interfaces the installed equipment to the control system. This
comprises physical connections in the hardware side and device drivers in the software. Syn-
chronized equipment handling is achieved by reaction to timing events, broadcasted by timing
generators. Usage of real-time operating systems or implementation purely in hardware, as-
sures precisely timed actions with µs reaction time jitter. In addition to actions triggered by
timing events, the equipment control level must service requests from the equipment itself,
typically signaled by interrupts.
Equipment connected to the control system will be modeled as devices in the device presenta-
tion sub layer. A device is a uniquely named item, representing a component of the facility
which can be regarded as independent in an accelerator physics view. For example, magnets
will be devices, rather than the power supplies which feed them. Equipment extending over
several components like RF generators will be combined into a single device. On the other
hand equipment handling several components, like temperature sensors, will be modeled as
independent devices.
Devices will be implemented as objects in the object oriented software terminology. They
provide access to the operating level via the controls network and will be modeled by similar
patterns for all devices. This allows access through identical mechanisms for all devices. A
protocol, providing a high level of abstraction like CORBA, will be used. Flexible protocols
will quite easily allow implementing gateways to other control systems, like industrial
SCADA systems.
Since all time critical handling is done in the equipment control sub layer, general purpose
operating systems can be used in the device presentation sub layer. Comfortable software
tools in these systems allow even complex modeling and access schemes. It has to be kept in
mind, however, that equipment control and device presentation are primarily logical layers.
For cases without stringent timing requirements both layers may be implemented on the same
platform.
Devices will support several beams at a given time. Several sets of reference and actual data
can be handled simultaneously, one for each of the beams configured in the accelerator facil-
ity. Switching the components settings to fit to the actual beam parameters is done in the
equipment control sub layer, according to information which is distributed by the timing sys-
tem.

1.2.3 Timing
The primary task of the timing system is to trigger equipment actions, timed according to the
accelerating cycle, and to synchronize devices which have to operate simultaneously. Timing
events, broadcasted by central timing generators, indicate central actions in the accelerating
cycle, like injection, start of acceleration and extraction. Timing events can be evaluated by
the equipment control sub layer, or directly by the equipment.
In a multi beam facility like FAIR, however, additional coordination is needed. Devices have
to be switched to other settings when a different beam is to be accelerated. Information about
the beam to be accelerated next, that is which data set has to be used next, has to be provided
for the equipment control components. Distributing this information also by the timing system
easily ensures correct timing, assuring the time for the equipment to reach its stable value
before another beam is to be handled.
Information about the beam to be handled next, and timing events for the actual cycle, are
distributed by local timing generators, one for each accelerator. A central sequencing unit
coordinates the local timing generators. The central sequencing unit establishes the pattern of
beams in the sections of the accelerator facility (see 2.1.3). It has to meet the limits for total
power consumption and the load for the cryogenic plant. The general timing system also dis-
tributes central clock signals and unique time information.


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Figure 1.2: Hierarchical Timing Structure.
For high precision synchronization, e.g. for beam transfer between the accelerator stages, a
bunch synchronous timing system will be provided. Careful selection of optical fibers and
compensation of propagation delays will provide timing signals in the sub nanosecond do-
main, with a deviation of no more than 100 ps between any two receivers in the facility [2].

1.2.4 Operation Tools
For an efficient exploitation of the potential of FAIR, it is mandatory to use advanced set-up
procedures in order to maximize the availability of the beams for experiments. Sophisticated
modeling of the beam manipulations along an accelerator chain will allow the calculation of
good initial set-values for the equipment. Further optimization of the beam quality will be
supported by generic tools, which allow correcting set-values on the basis of measured beam
diagnostics data.
In practice, the behavior of an accelerator during one cycle is not completely independent of
the previous cycles, nor is the behavior of two neighboring rings in the same hall or tunnel.
To ensure reproducibility of these cross effects, regularly repeating cycles will be run most of
the time. Asynchronously inserted cycles will have to be accompanied by compensating
measures to ensure the normal starting conditions for the next regular cycle.
Since the layout of the pulsed power provision will exclude some of the possible operational
modes, and the cryogenic plant will need to run in different modes depending on the actual
load, energy- and cryo-management will be crucial and will be included in the sequencing
algorithms.
Operating FAIR will require many services to help both operators and equipment specialists
to understand the many complex situations, which will arise during commissioning or opera-
tion of the accelerator complex. The diagnosis of abnormal situations and the identification of
fault states of the equipment will require a uniform global man machine interface, allowing
access to the information in a coherent and well structured way. A complete beam operational
history during calibration as well as runtime data of accelerators is needed to build up a long
term understanding of accelerator performance.
Therefore, data management tools include a reference database for information such as the
accelerator layout, optics and calibration information, etc. as well as online databases to cap-
ture the operational history.
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2 Technical Layout
       SIS18 upgrade                                               Common Systems
             2.2                                                            2.14



  Commissioning/Operations           Machine Protection             Central Controls              Commissioning/Operations
           2.2.19                          2.14.14                        2.14.18                            2.14.19

 Enhance Facility Perfomance    Detailed Requirement Analysis       Front-End Services               Detailed Req. Analysis
           2.2.19.1                       2.14.14.1                     2.14.18.1                           2.14.19.1

  Migrate to FAIR Operation                                                                     Accelerator Modelling & Settings
                               Strategy of Emergency Handling
            Tools                                                         Timing                          Generation
           2.2.19.2                       2.14.14.2                      2.14.18.2                          2.14.19.2

                               Spec. Req. For Interlock System     Equipment Interfacing          Tools for Sequence Control
                                          2.14.14.3                     2.14.18.3                           2.14.19.3

                               Handling of High Intensity Beams      Data Management          Tools for Monitoring during Operation
                                          2.14.14.4                      2.14.18.4                          2.14.19.4

                                                                    Controls Installation         Accelerator Commissioning
                                                                        2.14.18.5                           2.14.19.5
     ToDo until TDR
                                                                  Upgrade Existing Facility
                                                                        2.14.18.6

    Concept for TDR                                                 Assisting Activities
                                                                        2.14.18.7
                                                                                                                                      ...


Figure 2.1: Covered part of WBS
Most of the work packages described in this report belong to the common systems WP
2.14.18 central controls and WP 2.14.19 commissioning/operation. In addition, parts of WP
2.14.14 machine protection are covered as well as the controls and operations aspects of the
upgrades of UNILAC and SIS18.
In the R&D phase of FAIR, the main task will be to collect a complete set of requirements
and to develop a consistent overall concept for the control system including the operation
tools and also integrating machine protection issues.
In parallel, the existing control system must be improved to allow high current operation of
UNILAC and SIS18 with increased repetition rates. This will support the SIS18 upgrade and at
the same time give a good opportunity to test critical parts of the new FAIR concepts.

2.1 Structure of WP Commissioning and Operations

2.1.1 Detailed Requirement Analysis (work in progress)
The requirement analysis will start with the operation conditions for the different experimen-
tal areas to be served within FAIR. Boundary conditions to be fixed are for example energy
ranges, intensity, pulse length and repetition rate, or spill structure and duty cycle.
Based on these experimental requirements, the necessary beam manipulations will be studied.
Although most of these measures will be techniques that are well known, such as focusing,
accumulation, cooling etc., it will be crucial to collect a complete set of all necessary manipu-
lations and their implications on the control of single devices, of groups of devices or of com-
plete subsystems.
Due to the complexity of requirements concerning beam manipulations in the FAIR accelera-
tion sections, many of the measures to ensure beam quality and to protect the machines have
to be automated. To this end it is necessary to implement different feedback and feed forward
systems to guarantee in-time beam corrections. These systems can be distinguished according
to their functionality and the specific response times. For very fast feedback systems, such as
RF feedback control for longitudinal emittances on the time-scale of nanoseconds, solutions
based on hardware logics are necessary. If the underlying response times are in the range of
microseconds, it is foreseen to implement feedback systems which use beam diagnostics re-
sults to correct set values. Finally, we will study the concepts of software tools to support
feedback systems on a millisecond time scale, and feed forward to the next equivalent cycle.
Together with the system design groups and the technical groups, the functionality of each
accelerator must be detailed and compiled into a consistent operation strategy. The resulting
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global operation concept will be distributed among experimental groups and accelerator spe-
cialists. If necessary, it will be iterated, aiming for a wide acceptance. This is vital in order to
avoid expensive late changes in the overall controls concept.

2.1.2 Accelerator Modeling & Settings Generation
In order to obtain a complete model of the accelerator complex, we have to derive parameter-
ized descriptions of the basic functionality of the accelerators and beam lines from ion optical
calculations. Generic models will be developed for linear accelerators, synchrotrons and stor-
age rings, which can then be customized by individual data sets. For the ring accelerators, the
existing model for SIS and ESR will be taken as a basis. However, the model will have to be
extended:
    • High current effects must be included in the accelerator model, and since loss budgets
         are much smaller, additional effects must be included, which have been neglected so
         far (e.g. eddy current effects).
    • The longitudinal manipulation of the beams is much more pronounced, tools to handle
         these RF-functions have to be developed.
    • Superconducting magnets may behave different (persistent currents).
The modeling of accelerator and beam parameters will need to be adjusted to the actual meas-
ured beam parameters. Based on the operation strategy, we will define those positions for
each accelerator section where monitoring of beam parameters is particularly important. Apart
from beam intensities and losses, it is crucial to measure beam positions as well as the struc-
ture of the beam in longitudinal and transverse phase space. In collaboration with the beam
diagnostics group, a complete specification of the necessary instrumentation has to be fixed as
soon as possible. These include dynamic ranges and optimal positions for beam diagnostics
instrumentations.
There will be continuing demands for various measures for the tuning of accelerator parame-
ters to special ranges during commissioning and operation of FAIR. Therefore it is mandatory
to study ranges in which beam parameters can be modified in simulations based on results
from measurements. This analysis will lead to algorithms for the tuning of special parameters
during commissioning and operation.
The modeling of the accelerator shall be open for corrections derived from beam diagnostics
results. We plan to implement an interface for user-defined corrections which are able to de-
scribe complex correlations between different physical parameters. A similar mechanism will
be used to take into account the cross effects of neighboring accelerators or the history of cy-
cles in the same accelerator.
The concepts for optimizations during the phases of commissioning and operation have to
consider the fast setting of accelerators for high performance. To this end, it is intended to
derive the required multitude of settings from a consistent and predefined set of default set-
tings for specific accelerator cycles. A systematic library of standard settings has to be devel-
oped and optimized according to the experience gained during machine tuning and operation.

2.1.3 Tools for Sequence Control
The interplay and synchronization of the different accelerators in conjunction with the great
number of possible combinations for individual cycles in a sequence of a super cycle requires
a dedicated sequence and cycle management.
The tool for setting up an operation mode will allow editing the cycles in the accelerator chain
for the production of a beam. Furthermore, this tool must assist the user in finding an optimal
sequence, which does not violate any applicable boundary conditions. In particular the proce-
dures for sequencing have to foresee measures for the management of power supply loads. As
an example for these caveats, simultaneous load throw-off in two accelerators must be
avoided. Moreover, we have to exclude a frequency of 3 Hz for the periodicity of net power

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supply. In addition it is planned to consider a test for an optimal energy and cryogenics man-
agement at the same time. Apart from the regular sequence, the cycles for asynchronous beam
requests have to be defined here as well as emergency handling procedures.
The predefined sequences represent possible beam production procedures in the FAIR accel-
erator complex. The central sequencing unit (see 2.2.2) will then choose the next beam actu-
ally to be produced at run time, and will broadcast the corresponding events. Selection criteria
for sequencing are for example the request status and the interlock status at run time.
Note that the underlying concept is an extension of the existing concepts at GSI allowing for a
flexible beam delivery to various experiments being based on the definition of virtual accel-
erators and super cycles. It should however be emphasized that future parallel operation will
pose new requirements on the complexity of the sequences.

2.1.4 Tools for Monitoring During Operation
A specification of the framework for the tools for operation will be based on a detailed re-
quirement analysis. For an efficient development of various software tools required for the
operation of FAIR, a modern platform and system software including a test environment for
software development and optimization is mandatory. The implementation of a flexible soft-
ware framework for consistent software development and for the support of the development
of GUIs will also be required.
In order to display the information on equipment status in a clear and well-focused way, dif-
ferent layers for the presentation are useful, including the whole accelerator facility, an accel-
erator or beam line, a group of devices or a single device.
In addition to the monitoring of the equipment status sorted by virtual accelerators, also the
results from beam diagnostics measurements for beam quality are necessary for the optimiza-
tion of settings for experiments. Due to the fact that target experiments will specify their re-
quirements for the beam quality, it is rational to display the results for the beam quality sorted
by the participating experiments.
In order to obtain a consistent visualization for online monitoring of the complete accelerator
status, the GUIs have to provide the most important data and status information in a clearly
arranged, yet concentrated way. Based on the experiences from existing visualization tools,
we will optimize them towards a better display of the most relevant data for the operation of
the more complex FAIR accelerators. More specifically, the visualization of the machine
status, the equipment status and the display of the super cycle and alarms have to be opti-
mized and adapted to future operation needs.
Data analysis of all relevant data requires the implementation of a logging system which guar-
antees that routine data will be stored automatically including the specification of their origin
with time stamp. This will also induce a definition of the corresponding requirements on data
management. In order to optimize a subsequent data analysis, the necessary data analysis tools
have to be implemented.
A post mortem analysis allows tracing back the reason for accelerator failures. This provides a
helpful tool for the optimization of accelerator performance and reliability to avoid further
failures due to the same reasons. The development of tools for post mortem analysis relies on
the definition of requirements on beam diagnostics and controls. The related implementation
of the corresponding data analysis tools is also foreseen.

2.1.5 Commissioning and Set-up Strategy
The phase of accelerator commissioning has to be organized in stages, so that testing and in-
tegration of subsystems and components can be accomplished gradually according to a well-
defined time schedule. A prerequisite for such an approach is the coverage of all relevant data,
such as calibration curves or minimum and maximum values, in the reference database (see
2.2.4). The data transfer to the online database, where the required data for accelerator set-up

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is held, must be defined. This comprises not only the determination of data structures and data
communication but also organizational directives which data sets are to be transferred.
There will be no accelerator or software component that has not been tested extensively ac-
cording to a strict testing and commissioning protocol. Thus the test environment constitutes
an important factor for their reliability and optimization.
For the existing GSI accelerators, each of the accelerators and beam-transfer lines has its own
set-up strategy. Although this was feasible so far, it is not an option for FAIR. A global set-up
strategy for all accelerators from the source to the target has to be developed. Not only energy
and charge state changes of the beams have to be taken into account but also the change of ion
or particle species. This initial set-value generation must be provided within a single opera-
tions tool. Nevertheless, first commissioning of parts of the accelerator facility must be sup-
ported, which are yet to be integrated into the facility.
For the high current operation, special accelerator set-up strategies have to be developed, ac-
companied by machine experiments at the existing accelerators. A concept for the transition
from set-values for a pilot beam to the set-values for the high intensity beam must be elabo-
rated. Similarly, sophisticated strategies for the handling of the antiprotons must be devel-
oped, as their production is very time consuming and it is not tolerable to lose the full beam
intensity in one of the necessary beam manipulations and transfers.
These new concepts can be tested and optimized at the existing accelerators. However, a reli-
able operation for production runs of experiments must still be ensured.

2.1.6 Machine Protection and Safety
Due to the fact that failures of single devices or subsystems cannot be excluded a priori,
strategies for emergency handling have to be developed and requirements for interlock sys-
tems must be specified. The corresponding measures for machine protection and safety are
particularly important for the handling of high intensity beams.
The starting point for the development of a concept for machine protection and safety is the
elaboration of a detailed requirement analysis concerning possible risks and underlying prob-
lems. More specifically, it is mandatory to analyze potential risks for different technical sub-
systems and to point out clear strategies which either avoid them or have to be handled in the
alarming and interlock system. This does not compensate for an internal equipment protection
level for the devices itself. To this end it is also necessary to analyze required response times
for different types of failures of components. A basis for the evaluation of risks for facility
components is provided by the studies of the HSSP group, analyzing future energy deposition
and neutron flux in simulations.
Furthermore, it is obvious that different fault states can arise in the subsystems including
magnet components, vacuum system, RF system, detector equipment and device controls.
After the specification of indicators for emergency, concepts concerning hardware and soft-
ware aspects of emergencies have to be discussed and worked out. As a result, it is possible to
define consequences and measures for machine status and device status in the different cases
of emergencies. In order to ensure protection of the machine from intolerable harms, the de-
velopment of a save dump procedure is foreseen.
Since malfunction of machine components cannot be ruled out in principle, one way to ensure
the automated protection of devices is the interlock system of FAIR. The system for inter-
locks will react according to the permanent monitoring of the machine and/or component
status. If e.g. a magnet quench is detected, both the powering system of the magnets and the
sequencing of the cycle have to react with minimal time delay. Note however that in this case
the dissipation of the energy stored in magnets represents an important constraint and will be
taken into account by the technical groups. In addition to that the central sequencer must re-
ceive the interlock signal. It is also relevant that the monitoring of intolerable beam loss has to
enforce a fast beam dump in order to protect machine components. At the same time further

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beam production has to be inhibited. We emphasize that reliability of triggering an emergency
dump while keeping the number of false alarms as low as possible, is particularly important
for accelerator performance.
When FAIR accelerators are operating in a high intensity mode, additional requirements con-
cerning the precision of beam control and machine protection will arise and have to be studied
in detail. In this context we have to implement measures to exclude unallowable settings in
high current operation. For that purpose the allowed range of settings of parameters for high
intensity beams has to be analyzed and thereafter specified.
On the other hand, it is required to develop tools to allow tuning in a safe mode with lower
beam intensities.

2.1.7      Upgrade Existing Facility WP 2.2.19
As crucial tasks for the upgrade of the existing facility we emphasize the enhancement of its
performance regarding repetition rate, high intensity operation and the development of a con-
cept for migration to FAIR operation tools.
The upgrade program of the existing GSI facility is designed to enhance its performance, so
that the specified beam parameters of FAIR will be attained. The upgrade of UNILAC and
SIS18 is a prime goal of ongoing efforts in research and development at GSI. In this context,
numerous machine experiments and technical studies have been performed. As for the timing
aspects of SIS18, we have presented a paper analyzing the requirements for a booster opera-
tion of SIS18 [3]. The repetition rate of SIS18 will be increased via an operation at 1 Hz to-
wards the design rate of 4 Hz. Additionally, interlock mechanisms and tuning tools for high
intensity operation of SIS18 have to be developed. The enhancement of the high current op-
eration tools for the UNILAC is covered here, too.
In order to meet the demands of the operation of the FAIR complex, existing operation con-
cepts and projects must be adapted to future needs. In this context, a detailed requirement
analysis will result in a specification for each module. Thereupon it is possible to develop a
migration concept consistently which will be supported by the implementation of test envi-
ronment. Subsequently the realization of migration will be planned, based upon scheduling of
the migration of different operation tools during dedicated beam times and periods of shut-
downs.
Moreover it is foreseen to migrate to a modern platform and implement new system software.

2.2 Structure of Subproject Controls

2.2.1 Front End Services
The front-end layer must provide precisely timed switching of the installed equipment on a
pulse to pulse basis, providing sufficient time for the equipment to reach stable values.
Autonomous actions, like feed-back loops, feed-forward corrections, and handling of inter-
lock conditions have to be provided. A broad range of equipment, requiring specific actions,
has to be supported. By modeling the equipment, peculiarities have to be hidden as far as pos-
sible to reduce complexity of the operations level. The front-ends should offer the possibility
to implement basic operation procedures to further simplify the operations levels.
Representative actual state of the art control systems, used in research or in industry, should
be evaluated. The system design will be based on concepts of these systems, combined with
proven principles from the existing GSI system. Since this analysis is not yet finished, only a
coarse layout can be given here.
The front-end system will consist of a core, implementing the central activities, with exten-
sions to handle equipment specific needs. The core provides mechanisms for precisely timed
execution of activities, means to handle different beams from pulse to pulse, device drivers,
functionality for equipment surveillance, alarm handling, and other central services. Specifics
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of the particular equipment will be handled in extensions, which have to be attached to the
core system. The front-end services work package comprises design and realization of the
front-end core system and a framework for the equipment specific extensions. Based on the
experience with the actual GSI controls, the front-end layer will be split in an equipment con-
trol and a device presentation sub layer.
The equipment control layer implements the connection to the installed equipment and all
time critical activities. A framework will be developed in which timing events from the gen-
eral timing system are decoded and equipment specific actions, attached to the core system,
are initiated. Requests from the equipment, typically signaled by interrupt, have to be consid-
ered too. Templates for these specific extensions have to be developed. Connection to the
equipment will be provided by device drivers, which will be implemented during develop-
ment of the physical connection to the equipment.
In the device presentation sub layer, the installed equipment will be modeled. Equipment will
be presented as independent devices, hiding peculiarities as far as possible. Presentation
should be in a physics view, e.g. magnets instead of power supplies which feed them. Proper-
ties should be in physical units rather than technical, equipment extending over several com-
ponents connected separately can be combined to one device, and, vice versa, equipment rep-
resenting several components will be separated to independent devices. A modeling scheme
has to be developed which allows representation of all kind of installed equipment. This will
include also components which are handled by foreign local control systems, for which ap-
propriate bridges and gateways have to be foreseen. Again, for implementation of device spe-
cific modeling, templates have to be developed.
The device presentation layer also includes the network access interface. According to differ-
ent requests from various areas of applications it will support different communication pat-
terns, like synchronous and asynchronous producer consumer access and publisher subscriber
mechanisms. The network access is one of the central interfaces in the accelerator controls. It
has to be based on a well established, comfortable, and flexible standard. Today CORBA
would be the adequate protocol.
Equipment control and device presentation are primarily logical layers. Both may be imple-
mented on the same controller, especially where no hard real-time requirements have to be
fulfilled. Separating them allows using a real-time operating system on the equipment control
sub layer to ensure precisely timed actions while using a comfortable general purpose control
systems like Linux for the more complex device presentation sub layer. Additional to soft-
ware implementations, in many cases equipment control functionality can be implemented in
pure hardware. Actual programmable logic is powerful enough to realize even complex func-
tionality.

2.2.2 Timing
The general timing system comprises the central sequencing unit, the local event generators,
the links between central sequencer and local event generators, the timing distribution net-
work and timing decoders, both for front-end controllers and for direct evaluation by the
equipment.
Precise timing requires the generation of timing events by hardware sequencers. Only basic
functionality will be realized in hardware. Assigned controllers will provide the power for
even complex functionality and allow modifications due to experience, gained during opera-
tion of the facility.
The central sequencing unit has to coordinate the overall operation of the accelerator facility.
Operation of the parts of FAIR, accelerators and storage rings with connecting beam lines, has
to be optimized to make most effective usage of the investments. Dead times due to waiting
for beam delivery have to be minimized. Several constraints have to be fulfilled. Peaks in
power consumption due to simultaneous ramping of rings have to be avoided. The periodicity

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of the cycles must not coincide with resonances of generators in the power plant. Sequences
must be stable to result in a constant load for the cryogenic plant. However, asynchronous
beam production must be possible when a storage ring needs to be refilled.
Calculation of the sequences will be done by a sequence optimizer in the operations layer (see
2.1.3). However, the central sequencer must provide sufficient functionality to support all
operation modes, including autonomous handling of asynchronous requests for beam produc-
tion. Development therefore must be in close interaction with the development of the se-
quence optimizer operations tool.
A flexible timing system is crucial for FAIR's multi-beam operation. Besides synchronizing
the devices within an accelerator its task is coordination of the parts of FAIR, accelerators and
transport lines. This includes signaling which of the several beams in the facility has to be
handled next.
Timing signals are generated centrally and are broadcasted for evaluation by front-end con-
trollers or installed equipment. A general timing system provides synchronization with a pre-
cision down to µs. This system is organized hierarchically: Local event generators provide
information for the equipment of one accelerator or an area of transport lines. A central se-
quencing unit coordinates the actions of the local event generators.
Besides signaling the start of prominent sections of the accelerating cycles, like injection, start
of acceleration, extraction, the general timing system also has to indicate which of the beams
is to be produced next, and also has to provide marks for unique identification of events in the
accelerator: Cycle identifiers and central time information.
For high precision synchronization in the sub nanosecond domain an additional timing system
is foreseen, the bunch phase timing system BuTiS. It will provide synchronization signals
with a time difference of no more than 100 ps between any two receivers in the FAIR area.
This can be achieved by carefully selecting optical fibers and compensating distribution de-
lays. The bunch phase timing system will synchronize the RF generators of the accelerators.
Although they are located at different locations around the ring, they must stay in phase, even
during ramping. The system will also be used for bunch transfer between two accelerators
when the RF phases of both accelerators must match and the kickers must fire precisely in the
gap between bunches.

2.2.3 Equipment Interfacing
Several ways of connecting equipment to the control system will be supported. Front-end con-
trollers can serve several devices by a field bus; devices can be equipped with controllers
which implement the front-end controls functionality and allow direct network communica-
tion, and connection can be by software protocols like OPC. While controls functionality tra-
ditionally was realized primarily by software, powerful programmable logic nowadays allows
realizing even complex functionality in hardware too.
Pros and cons of the available interfacing technologies have to be checked carefully in a pro-
totype phase. According to the results, the techniques of choice will be selected for the vari-
ous areas. For each interfacing mechanism a set of interfacing components has to be devel-
oped. This includes hardware components as well as software drivers to attach the equipment
to the front-end controls.
Guidelines have to be produced for the development of equipment to be used in the facility.
These guidelines have to comprise definitions for electrical and mechanical connections as
well as the functionality which has to be provided by the equipment.

2.2.4 Data Management
The control system for the FAIR project has to deal with a high complexity in terms of num-
ber of components and in the manipulation of operational parameters. Operation and interac-
tion of all accelerators will rely on stringent control of the hardware settings. A complete

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beam operational history during calibration as well as runtime of accelerators is needed to
build a long term understanding of the accelerator performance. Such a variety and volume of
data demands for efficient data management tools.
An offline repository (reference database) will be one of the sources of data that is required to
configure the control application software providing essential information such as the accel-
erator layout, optics and calibration information, etc.
It will contain the physical layout of the facility that is the placement of the equipment in-
stalled in accelerators and beam lines with its dimensions and distances, describing the ge-
ometry. A parameterized description of all devices has to contain calibration data, conversion
functions and scaling factors as well as other physical and technical data.
The logical description of the facility will contain the setups for the devices, including error
conditions, error recovery and fallbacks. To model the facility, parameterized settings for dif-
ferent ion optics and tuning parameters are needed.
The controls configuration will contain type and class of all devices with its access methods.
Name services to allow access by names rather than by addresses require information of the
actual interconnection. Efficient management of the huge system request to keep track of type
and versions of controls equipment, software as well as hardware. Setup conditions for all
programs have to be managed, especially for application programs, GUIs and operator con-
soles.
For all data describing the facility, a history management is mandatory as well as information
on design and development changes.
While the reference databases will provide offline information during machine operation, sev-
eral online databases are required to capture the operational history. For “time critical” access
and reason of performance the online repository contains actual excerpts from the offline re-
pository. Main components of the online repository are the actual machine state describing
beam parameters like ion species, charge state, energy, beam path, and intensity for all beams
configured in the facility as well as the global timing information like sequences of beams. It
has to contain actual constraints like limits for power consumption as well.
Efficient operation of the facility, and long term optimization, requests to archive the ma-
chine's state. This comprises long term history of main measured parameters like intensities,
pressure profile, and others as well as all operators' manipulations. Set up conditions as well
as measures to correct and optimize the beams will be stored. Fast recovery from error condi-
tions requests alarm logging and a post mortem event archive.
A lot of data about the facility's layout emerges already during development and production of
the equipment. E.g. the field parameters of the magnets are determined by calibration meas-
urements on prototypes or on the magnets to be installed. To avoid corruption of the informa-
tion, the database, and the handling tools, must be ready to take these data already during the
measurement which is already in a very early stage.
Parts concerning the operation of the facility have to be fixed during the development of op-
erational concepts and the control system.

2.2.5 Installation
The controls infrastructure comprises the main and local control room equipment, central
servers, central services like data bases, communications network, general timing and bunch
timing networks, and front-end computers. Connection of the accelerator equipment to the
control system must be implemented. This includes physical connections as well as specific
software to cope for the equipment features. According to the selected interfacing technique,
the components developed will be used.
In addition to simply connecting hardware equipment to the control system, functionality to
assist the machine operation has to be implemented like feed forward corrections and feed-
back loops. The operations level should be relieved by running low level modeling and con-

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trol tasks in the front-end layers rather than implementing all functionality in the operation
layers.
Communication network and control room installations don't request research activities.
State-of the-arts components, available on the market, are already now capable to fulfill the
needs of the controls. Because of the developing technology, components will become even
more powerful in the future and should be purchased as late as possible.
However, space for cabling and switches has to be considered already in the layout of the
buildings. The network structure has to be fixed, in parallel to construction planning and plac-
ing the accelerator's equipment to be controlled. It is not expected that decisions about the
general network layout will become obsolete until the network has to become operational.
Layered star topology is very well established for quite a long time already. Future compo-
nents will be more powerful, but will not have a significant influence on the general network
structure. Adequate cables and fibers provide the capability to be also used for next generation
standards which are currently under development.
Control room's installations are primarily determined by operation's needs: Number and lay-
out of screens, input devices, printers, and other peripherals. The outline will be fixed during
development of the operations tools. This includes number and purpose of central servers for
central services like databases, logging and others.

2.2.6 Upgrade Existing Facility
The existing facility will be upgraded to become the injector of the new accelerators, while
operation for regular experiments continues. Designed in the mid 80s, the system depends on
several in-house standards. These restrict the controls on both the operations level and the
front end level to special hardware and operating systems: OpenVMS on AXP workstations
and no longer available proprietary M68020 VME boards running pSOS. Before extending
the controls for operation as FAIR injector, consolidation of central parts of the existing con-
trol system is required.
Commercially available PowerPC VME boards, preconfigured with Linux, will replace the
outdated 68020 VME boards in the present device presentation sub layer. Rebuilding the sys-
tem core, using actual object oriented technologies, is preferred to adapting the existing com-
ponents. Special focus is on portability to other platforms. This suggests replacing the pro-
prietary network protocol, implemented for OpenVMS only, by a CORBA based communica-
tion, and moving the operational data base from OpenVMS-RDB to Oracle. After the renova-
tion, the controls will have a solid fundament again, and will be open for extensions in various
ways. Especially the CORBA based communication will allow integrating other systems eas-
ily.
The then extensible system will offer the possibility of checking components of the later
FAIR controls in the existing system, which will be under real-life conditions in a running
machine. Weak points in the future system will then be detected very early and can be cor-
rected, far before FAIR comes to operation. Furthermore, the renovation opens a migration
path to the final FAIR controls so that existing and future accelerators finally will use a
unique system.
After renovation of the system, enhancements can be integrated to prepare the existing facility
as an injector for the new accelerators. Reworking ramp generators, and optimizing the
equipment control software, will allow faster ramping. Together with an optimization of the
timing system, to minimize dead times, the injector then can be operated with increased repe-
tition rate of 4 cycles per second [2].
Increased beam intensities will request enhanced machine protection and interlock procedures
which will have to be supported by the control system. Higher intensities also require devices
and procedures for beam stabilization which have to be integrated.


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2.2.7 Assisting Activities
Work on the controls components has to be assisted by various activities. Although they do
not result in products which can be installed in the facility, they are very important to achieve
the stability and the clarity in a system with the high complexity which is needed for FAIR
controls.
Development standards have to be established, both for soft- and hardware. Frameworks and
guidelines have to be provided for documentation. Development tools have to be selected,
purchased and maintained. Storage systems, both for products and documents, have to be de-
veloped to allow easy navigation for each team member. Version management has to be es-
tablished.
A very important task is quality management. It covers various activities, ranging from set up
of an appropriate working environment, checking completeness and consistency of require-
ments and architecture, reviewing the development regularly, up to testing the final products.
Verification of proper functioning will be done, in the first stage, in a test bed. This test envi-
ronment should represent the main aspects of FAIR operation, providing representatives of
the major equipment of the facility. In a second stage, crucial concepts and components will
be installed in the existing accelerator facility and tested under real-life conditions.


2.3 Design Status of the Workpackages
For the UNILAC, SIS and ESR, all necessary operations tools exist and are running under
OpenVMS: there is an accelerator model for the rings and settings generation tools for the
linacs and rings. For sequence control tools for editing the super cycles in the different GSI
accelerators already exist. The handling of asynchronous beam requests is well established. A
diversity of monitoring tools and beam diagnostics interfaces also is available. To cope with
high intense ion beams in the UNILAC a transmission-loss-control system is already in use and
will be extended. Nevertheless, the overall concept will be reconsidered based upon the re-
quirements analysis for FAIR. Only after this, there will be a decision which of the tools will
be migrated to a new platform and can be reused for FAIR. A tool for the overall sequence
control and a modern uniform GUI will be newly developed.
Activity of the controls group had to be focused on the existing facility. Consolidation of the
existing control system is prerequisite. It will form a profound basis to support the continuing
experimental program with as little assistance as possible and provide a solid interface for
FAIR controls.
Rebuilding of components to replace the outdated VME boards, and conversion to CORBA
based communications, is in progress. In a laboratory environment the practicability of the
renovation concepts could be has been demonstrated. The comfort of the modern PowerPC
board with preconfigured Linux operating system, and the potential of CORBA, allowed
building a first implementation of the main components rather quickly. The basic functional-
ity of the existing system is provided with much less programming effort than that needed for
the original system. It has been demonstrated that the existing equipment specific extensions,
needed to model the installed equipment, can be integrated. Also, hard- and software of the
real-time equipment control sub layer can be reused. Only minor modifications are required.

Some functionality has still to be added to fully replace the old components. This includes
rebuilding the old operation's program interface, needed for seamless integration of the modi-
fied front-ends. All extensions will be straightforward, nevertheless it must be assured that the
functionality of the existing system is restored completely. When the renovated system com-
ponents are completed, they will be combined with the existing equipment specific extensions
and will be implemented step by step in all 42 VME crates of the accelerator controls.


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The CORBA based communication is a prerequisite to overcome the restriction to OpenVMS
on the operations level. A fail-save Oracle database system has already been successfully in-
stalled on a Linux platform. Work to integrate it in the operation's environment, and to trans-
fer the contents of the existing OpenVMS-RDB operational database, has just started. When
the Oracle database is operational, and the CORBA based access to the equipment is avail-
able, Linux may be used on the operation's level in the control system. Using Windows will
be possible, too. Transferring all existing applications within short time is not foreseen.
OpenVMS will still be used, but new applications should be developed under Linux.

When the renovation will be finished, operation of the existing facility will need moderate
support by the controls group only. The system will then be prepared for upgrade of the exist-
ing accelerators for injection into FAIR. It will allow integration of first components for the
future FAIR controls and will offer evaluating the usability of concepts and new components.

Becoming injector for FAIR requires faster cycling of the SIS18 synchrotron. Requirements
for the new operation mode have been collected. A concept was developed to extend the repe-
tition rate to 1 cycle per second. First ideas have been developed to achieve the final repetition
rate of 4 Hz.
Work for the final FAIR controls is still in an early stage. Studying modern equipment inter-
facing techniques, either by state-of-the-art field busses or by integrating embedded proces-
sors, are arranged. First ideas exist for the overall concept and the architecture of the future
controls. Collection of requirements can start. The new Oracle database, installed in the reno-
vation of the existing controls, will be the platform for collecting equipment description data
which is generated during the development of FAIR's equipment starting soon.


3 R&D Phase (2005-2007)
3.1 Description and Ranking of Necessary Developments
Every single requirement within the subprojects Controls, Commissioning and Operation can
be fulfilled with state of the art methods. The risk lies in the size and complexity: any large,
complex software system has an immanent risk of time and cost overrun. But the time scale is
given by the development of accelerator equipment: commissioning and operation will not be
delayed, even if the control system is not ready. Instead, incomplete functionality and possi-
bly insufficient quality of the system would result in longer, more cumbersome commission-
ing, more frequent occurrence of fault states and longer down times for diagnosis and repair,
or, in summary, in a poor exploitation of the FAIR facilities.
In order to minimize these risks, the first measure is to collect and fix a complete set of re-
quirements. Based on that, a complete and consistent concept must be developed for the op-
eration tools as well as the control system. This concept has to be discussed and fixed together
with all system and equipment specialists to make sure, that all requirements can be fulfilled.
As soon as possible, reports on the controls concept and on the interface standards must be
made available for external and internal technical groups. Special care must be taken to en-
sure, that the necessary functionality is completely covered and responsibilities are clearly
defined at the interfaces to other subprojects, like equipment development, feedback systems,
machine protection, personnel safety and others.
Although the conceptual design of the whole system must be done first, implementation will
be iterative, testing critical components as early as possible in the running machines. The re-
sults of these tests and the controls and operation concept together with the interface specifi-
cations and definition of FAIR controls standards will form the Technical Design Report,
which is aimed for within about two years after project start.

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3.2 Gantt diagram for R&D with milestones

3.2.1 Subproject Controls

3.2.2      WP Commissioning and Operation


3.3 R&D cost estimate, investment plan (MS-EXCEL)
Estimated R&D costs are listed in k€ in Table 3.1 for each year. They mainly comprise costs
for the completion of the upgrade of the existing facility and costs for prototypes of front end
electronics and the timing systems.

Table 3.1: R&D cost estimate in k€
                                                   2005           2006            2007
      Upgrade existing control system
      Bunchphase Timing System BuTiS
      Prototypes for FAIR controls


3.4 Personnel involvement in R&D (MS-EXCEL)
Required personnel are listed in Table 3.2 for each year and the qualifications scientist (Sci),
software engineer (SW) and electronics engineer (HW).
Table 3.2: Personnel involvement in R&D
                                     2005                 2006               2007
                               Sci   SW HW Sci            SW HW Sci          SW HW
         Control System
         BuTiS
         Operation Tools


4 Implementation and Tests
During the construction phase of the accelerators, the control system and the operation's tools
will be implemented, tested and commissioned. Time scale and cost depend heavily on the
system design, which will be developed in the R&D phase. Therefore only very rough esti-
mates can be given in the current stage of the project.

4.1 Description of the Implementation Phase
This phase comprises:
   • detailed specification
   • procurement and installation of hardware
   • implementation of software
   • component tests, integration tests and field tests.



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In order to minimize the coordination overhead, the preferable way of implementation would
be a complete in-house development. Out-sourcing will only be possible for clearly separable
modules. Coordination overhead for these modules is typically in the order of 50%.

4.2 Gantt diagram with milestones
All components must be available for the first commissioning of the accelerators in stage I of
FAIR. A project plan will be available for the TDR in 2007.

4.3 Construction cost estimate, investment plan
Cost for the controls depends very much on functionality to be implemented, besides number
and type of devices to be controlled. Although the arrangement of the main equipment like
magnets and RF devices is more or less fixed, the variety and number of smaller components
to be controlled is unknown. Additionally, the means to effectively operate a facility with
superconducting components are not clear enough yet.
A very rough cost estimate (accuracy approx. 20%) can be given by scaling typical controls
costs for modern accelerator facilities like SNS, LHC or JParc. This results in total investment
costs of xxx Million Euro.
A compatible result was calculated by adding up the costs for
    • network (cables and active components),
    • front-end electronics,
    • the general timing system and
    • the bunchphase timing system BuTiS,
    • computers,
    • the equipment for a main control room,
    • and software licenses.
Extended functionality, and increased diversification in functionality, may extend controls
installation cost significantly. The same is true for machine protection measures, if it should
turn out during R&D, that an independent, fast and reliable emergency system is necessary.
This dedicated machine protection system for high intensity beam operation must be built up
in parallel to the interlock system, as it will not be suitable to substitute it.

4.4 Personnel involvement
For a complete in-house implementation of the control system and the operation tools, a team
of approximately xxxxx developers, working exclusively for FAIR is required. The qualifica-
tion is mainly physicists and software and electronics engineers.




References
[1] P. Schütt, "FAIR Standard Cycles, Operation Modes of Synchrotrons and HEBT", GSI
   internal Report, in preparation.
[2] P. Moritz, "Technical Concept Bunchphase-Timing-System BuTiS", GSI internal Report,
   2004.
[3] P. Schütt, R. Bär, B. Franczak, U. Krause, A. Redelbach, S. Richter, V.R.W. Schaa, W.
   Schiebel: "Schneller Pulsbetrieb am SIS", GSI internal Report, 2004.




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Glossary
Accelerator: Section of the facility where beam pulses are either accelerated or accumulated
and stored. This concept of accelerators includes linear accelerators, e.g. UNILAC, synchrotron
rings, e.g. SIS100, and storage rings such as RESR.

Accelerator chain: Chronological sequence of subsequent accelerators and beam lines re-
quired for delivery of a beam pulse

Beam: Describes the properties of a physical beam pulse passing through the accelerator
chain from source to target

Beam Line: Beam transport between different accelerators

Cycle: Chronological sequence of timing segments (ramps) within one accelerator, acting on
one beam.

Device: A device is a uniquely named item, representing a component of the facility which
can be regarded as independent in an accelerator physics view.

Facility: The whole FAIR complex including infrastructure, accelerators and experiments

Sequence: The set of super cycles of all accelerators needed to produce beams. The central
sequence control is the instance which decides for all accelerators, which cycle to run at
which time.

Standard Cycle: One of five operation modes, which have been defined as a basis for the
optimization of equipment design with respect to operation costs.

Super Cycle: The sequence of Cycles in one accelerator.

Timing segment: A period of time during which all devices of a ring accelerator must act
synchronously on the beam. Started by a local timing event.

Trigger: Short pulse actuating an event

Virtual Accelerator: Represents a complete set of different accelerator parameters allowing a
change of beam parameters, e.g. energy, ion species or intensity from pulse to pulse




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