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Compensation Packages for Coaches

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					      Policy Decisions for a
Gender Equitable Athletics Program


  Connee Zotos, Ph.D.
  Director of Athletics
  Drew University
  NCAA 2001 Regional Seminars
   TWO OBJECTIVES OF TITLE IX SEMINAR


1. Review the list of Top 10 lessons learned
   from Title IX investigations.

2. Provide a process for assessing or
   restructuring an athletics program that
   incorporates specific policy decisions
   which are essential for Title IX
   compliance.
     LIST OF TOP 10 LESSONS LEARNED

1.   Title IX investigations are not diminishing, and
     they do not discriminate by size, divisional level
     or stature of the institution.
2.   Providing a gender-equitable athletics program
     always will be a work-in-progress that can be
     affected by fluctuations in enrollment, interest
     and economics.
3.   If OCR does investigate, they are much more
     apt to support an institution’s efforts toward
     compliance if there is an established plan and
     progress has been demonstrated.
     LIST OF TOP 10 LESSONS LEARNED

4.       Of the 13 variables included on the Title IX
         laundry list, five appear to be more significant
         in terms of potential ramifications (participation,
         coaching, scholarships, recruiting, facilities).

5.       There really are three ways for complying with
         the participation opportunities mandate:
     •     Proportionality – within one percentage point for each gender.
     •     Accommodating the under-represented gender when there is
           sufficient interest, ability and competition in the institution’s
           normal competitive region.
     •     Continued expansion – a strategy that can be used until
           proportionality or accommodating interest has been met.
  LIST OF TOP 10 LESSONS LEARNED

6. The nature of different sports can dictate
   the need for different benefits without
   compromising compliance.
7. An institution has the flexibility of
   offsetting a minor benefit for a male
   team by a minor benefit for a female
   team.
8. Not having the money has never been an
   acceptable reason for noncompliance.
  LIST OF TOP 10 LESSONS LEARNED

9. Actions and dollars spent demonstrate
   Title IX compliance not good intentions
   and dollars budgeted.
10. Title IX does not mandate anything about
    the size, structure or benefits provided
    by an athletics program; only that male
    and female participants are provided
    equal treatment.
    CREATING STRUCTURE
• An institution cannot assess, plan for, or
  implement a gender-equitable athletics program
  without a clear articulation of program structure
  that is framed by specific gender-neutral policy
  decisions.
• Despite a historical reluctance to admit it, most
  institutions administer a tiered-funding model.
• Tiered-funding models are appropriate under Title
  IX as long as men and women receive equal
  treatment within each tier.
  PD #1: HOW MANY TIERS?
Three Models:
• sport equity model = 1 tier
• major/minor sports model = 2 tiers
• multi–tier model = 3 or more tiers
Which Model?
• determined by an analysis and
  evaluation of current practices
       ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
         OF CURRENT PRACTICES

• What is the current model and how did it
  evolve?
• Is the model consistent with the role of
  athletics as it relates to the current
  mission of the university?
• Is the model still feasible with regard to
  funding, personnel needs, facilities,
  enrollment projections, Title IX mandates,
  conference affiliations, etc.?
PD #2: HOW WILL THE TIERS DIFFER?

 POLICY                     TIER 1            TIER 2           TIER 3
(Title IX Laundry List)


Staffing                  FT - Head Coach FT- Head Coach PT- Head Coach
                          FT - Asst. Coach PT- Asst. Coach No assistants
Policies
Scholarship                 Maximum            50% of             No
                            Allowable         Maximum         Scholarships
Offerings
Recruiting                   National       Regional Scope Regional Scope
                          (100% of Team)     (75% of Team)  (25% of Team)
Policies
Travel                    Fly-200+ miles,   Bus-150+ miles, Vans only travel
                          otherwise bus     otherwise vans up to 150 miles
Policies
PD #3: HOW WILL TEAMS BE PLACED WITHIN TIERS?
              (assumes 50% M - 50% W proportionality)



    TIER 1                  TIER 2                        TIER 3
  Mfootball (80)        MSoccer (24)                    MTennis (12)
 Mbasketball (15)       WSoccer (24)                    WTennis (12)
Field Hockey (25)     MSwimming (20)                    MTrack (18)
 WLacrosse (25)      WSwimming (20)                     WTrack (18)
   WCrew (30)             MCrew (15)                MSquash (14)
WBasketball (15)      WVolleyball (15)             WCrossCountry
                                                       (14)
PLACEMENT OF TEAMS WHEN INTEREST HAS BEEN MET


• If accommodation of interest has been satisfied,
  equal percentages of athletes by gender should
  comprise each tier. For example, if the athletics
  program has:
                  250 males 200 females
  Tier 1 @ 50%       125          100
  Tier 2 @ 20%        50            40
  Tier 3 @ 30%        75            60

• If adding teams to achieve proportionality or to
  accommodate interest, long term plan must
  project appropriate placement in tiers.
DETERMINE HOW STAFFING PATTERNS DIFFER BY TIER


• Size of staff and how determined (NCAA
  limits, athlete-to-coach ratio, special
  needs of sport).
• Terms of appointment (12 mo., 10 mo., pt).
• Minimum credentials required.
• Hiring practices (national or local search,
  means of outreach, search committee or
  athletics director appointment).
      DETERMINE HOW JOB RESPONSIBILITIES OR
           EXPECTATIONS DIFFER BY TIER

•   Teaching/Training
     – rigor of nontraditional and off-season training programs; win/ loss record.
•   Recruiting
     – scope; yield and retention
•   Advising/Monitoring Student Athletes
     – academic support; disciplinary measures; retention/graduation rates; athlete awards.
•   General Program Management
     – scheduling; facilities and equipment assessment.
•   Budget Management
     – budget preparation; budget monitoring; cost-saving initiatives.
•   Fund Raising
     – marketing strategies; projected goals; new initiatives.
•   Public Relations
     – media relations; community service; national reputation of coach and program.
   DETERMINE STANDARD EMPLOYMENT
           PACKAGE BY TIER

• Minimum Annual Salary
  – compensation for basic coaching duties paid to all coaches in the
    same tier.

• Adjusted Annual Salary
  – adjustment to the minimum salary based on differences in
    education, applicable experience, demonstrated success and
    additional duties contained in the position description.

• Standard Benefits
  – institutional benefits given to all employees (i.e., health insurance,
    retirement, disability, etc.).
DETERMINE PERQUISITE BENEFITS BY TIER

• Bonus Availability
  – bonus given in the current year only (not added to base) to recognize
    extraordinary performance.

• Merit-Based Increases
  – increases that are added to the base salary due to high performance of job
    responsibilities or expectations.

• Nonmonetary Benefits
  – additional benefits given to coaches in a specific tier due to higher
    expectations or the need to attract a certain level of expertise or talent
    (i.e., multi-year contracts, house, car, country club membership, etc.).
  DETERMINE DIFFERENCES IN COMPENSATION, BENFITS AND
 PERQUISITE PACKAGES FOR COACHES WITHIN THE SAME TIER


• Experience, Education, Ability
   – hiring strategies must reflect similar/equivalent intentions.

• Additional Duties
   – cannot offer opportunities for additional duties in a discriminatory
     way.

• Marketplace Factors
   – coaches salary is not justified by the marketplace value unless the
     marketplace value is dictated by the experience, expertise or skills
     required of the coach.

• Revenue Production
   – can justify salary discrepancies if the university provides the same
     amount of support to comparative coaches to assist them in raising
     revenue.
DETERMINE HOW COACHES WILL BE FORMALLY EVALUATED
   ON JOB RESPONSIBILITIES & EXPECTATIONS BY TIER


• Design a set of assessment instruments.

• Determine how each piece of the evaluation
  process is tied to compensation, benefits and
  perquisites.
   – Is success in some areas of responsibility valued more then others?
   – Does failure to succeed in any one area result in termination of
     employment?
   – If a coach exceeds expectations, could he or she receive additional
     benefits that are not normally available to coaches in that tier?
     RESOURCES USED FOR THIS SEMINAR

Achieving Gender Equity: A Basic Guide to Title IX and Gender
  Equity in Athletics for Colleges and Universities. NCAA
  Publications.

Creating Gender Neutral Coaches Employment and Compensation
   Systems. Women's Sports Foundation.

EEOC Enforcement Guidance on Sex Discrimination in the
  Compensation of Sport Coaches in Educational Institutions.

Title IX Athletics Q & A. Good Sports, Inc. Publications

Title IX Compliance Bulletin for College Athletics. LRP Publications.

				
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posted:10/19/2011
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