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Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation ECUADOR

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					Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation – Ecuador 200275


Assistance to Refugees and Persons Affected by the Conflict in
                           Colombia




                           ECUADOR PRRO 200275

     Number of beneficiaries              120,100

     Duration of project                  36 months (July 2011 – June 2014)

     WFP food tonnage                     5,538 mt

                             Cost (United States dollars)

     WFP food cost                        US$4,958,200

     WFP cash/voucher cost                US$2,969,364

     Total cost to WFP                    US$13,571,583




                                                                              1
Approximately 50 Colombian asylum-seekers enter Ecuador each day, a 48 percent
increase over the past five years. Most are poor, socially fractured, and have limited
access to education and national safety nets. The northern border between Ecuador and
Colombia is characterized by high levels of insecurity and lack of social and
institutional development, with intense competition for resources and social services,
which creates tensions between refugees and Ecuadorians.

A 2010 emergency food security assessment found that 22.6 percent of refugees are
moderately food-insecure and 5.3 percent severely food-insecure. Refugee populations,
as well as poor Ecuadorian households, are particularly affected by malnutrition.

The Government of Ecuador has requested that humanitarian assistance focus on the
integration and the inclusion of Ecuadorians. In line with the 2011 joint assessment
mission conducted by WFP and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees, WFP will strengthen its operational capacity and presence aiming to: i)
reduce tensions associated with relief food distributions; ii) better target and monitor its
food assistance; and iii) support integration activities.

As part of its handover strategy, WFP will work closely with various governmental
institutions as well as local authorities. WFP will advocate for the inclusion of
community-based food security actions in local development plans, and for the
inclusion of refugees in national social protection programmes.

The protracted relief and recovery operation (PRRO) will begin in July 2011, costing
US$13.6 million for three years, reaching approximately 120,100 people. It is aligned
with Strategic Objectives 1 (“Save lives and protect livelihoods in emergencies”); and 3
(“Restore and rebuild lives and livelihoods in post-conflict, post-disaster or transition
situations”) and aims to: a) improve the food consumption of new asylum seekers and
refugees without creating new tensions; and b) rebuild sustainable livelihoods, and the
food and nutrition security of refugees and Ecuadorians, with a special focus on women.
The operation contributes to Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 1 - Eradicate
extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women;
and MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.

The PRRO supports the Government’s refugee and integration policies, food security
and sovereignty goals; it also focuses on the environment and in line with the Ecuador
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2010-2014).


                                                                                          2
SITUATION ANALYSIS AND SCENARIOS
Overall Context

    1. Ecuador receives the highest number of Colombian refugees in the region. As of
       early 2011, there are 167,189 Colombians in need of international protection, of
       which, approximately 52,000 are classified as asylum seekers, 53,342 are
       recognized as refugees and the remainder have never officially approached an
       institution to register. They remain vulnerable without legal documents and are
       deprived of their rights, access to basic services and economic opportunities.
       Colombian refugees have fled conflict, fearing threats, disappearances, murders,
       kidnappings, deliberate displacement and forced recruitment.

    2. The four-decade internal conflict in Colombia shows no signs of abating.
       Approximately fifty persons entered Ecuador everyday in 2010 and early 2011,
       doubling the number of new arrivals over the last two years.1 The number of
       asylum seekers requesting official registration increased from 7,784 in 2006 to
       28,998 in 2010. This increase is explained by the launch of a government
       registration programme in 2009-2010 as well as an increase in the absolute
       number of new arrivals each year.2

    3. Colombian refugees in Ecuador have a low profile, in part because they live
       among the Ecuadorian population rather than in camps. They move frequently and
       are scattered in 10 of the 24 provinces. The five northern provinces host about 50
       percent of the Colombian refugee population, with Pichincha hosting the single
       largest concentration (32 percent). Most refugees live in urban areas, with the
       remainder residing near the border in underdeveloped and isolated regions. Urban
       refugees tend to be better off than those living in rural areas; however,
       vulnerability is more a function of individual context than location.

    4. Refugees are a largely heterogeneous group; members are socially fractured, tend
       to conceal their identity and avoid mixing with local communities due to fear of
       recognition or deportation. Approximately 20 percent of registered school-aged
       refugee children are not enrolled in schools. Colombian asylum-seekers are unable
       to open bank accounts or access safety net programmes, contributing to their high
       levels of food insecurity.

    5. Women refugees represent 46 percent of the total number of refugees in Ecuador;
       21 percent of refugee households are headed by women and are particularly
       vulnerable to violence and exploitation;3 94 percent suffer from gender-based
       violence as many flee Colombia without male partners, leaving them vulnerable to
       abuse. A lack of economic opportunities forces many refugee women into
       prostitution; around 45 percent of sex workers began this activity after their arrival
       in Ecuador.4
1
  UNHCR, Progress, 2010.
2
  UNHCR, Progress 2010.
3
  WFP, Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA), 2010.
4
  UNHCR 2010
                                                                                           3
     6. The northern border is composed of three zones, with distinct topographies,
        cultures and demographics. A common factor shared by the three border provinces
        is lack of social and institutional development. The Revolutionary Armed Forces
        of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army of Colombia (ELN) as well
        as organized criminal groups operate with impunity. Thus, insecurity manifests
        itself in contraband activities (arms, drugs, gas, and products to manufacture
        drugs), robberies, kidnappings, assaults, and human trafficking. Insecurity exists,
        real and visible, but also there is an intense perception of insecurity as a result of
        the Colombian presence.

     7. On the Pacific Coast, the situation has dramatically worsened in the last couple of
        years., As a result, refugees are increasingly exposed to xenophobia and
        discrimination. While development in this area would require security and
        stability, the presence of Colombians has been perceived as having a destabilizing
        effect on the socio-economic conditions of Ecuador and on the relations between
        the two countries.

Food and Nutrition Security

     8. Over 38 percent of Ecuadorian households live in poverty, surpassing 61 percent
        in rural areas.5 Thirteen percent of households live in extreme poverty and are
        unable to meet their minimum nutritional requirements. Despite strong economic
        growth, Ecuador has a high level of chronic malnutrition; rates hover around 26
        percent for children under 5, and 6 percent are underweight. Levels of anaemia are
        the highest in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region at 62 percent of
        children under 6 years of age. Malnutrition affects both Colombians and
        Ecuadorians and is related to poor dietary diversity, with children and adults
        consuming large quantities of cereals. Parasites also contribute to the high
        prevalence of anaemia.

     9. Whereas 33.8 percent of Ecuadorians depend on informal employment or are
        unemployed, about 70 percent of refugees are engaged in low paid irregular and
        short-term work because of lack of documentation, discrimination and lack of
        social networks.6 Over 67 percent of households in Sucumbíos and 35 percent in
        Carchi-Imbabura face extreme poverty, whereas 23.5 percent in Sucumbíos and
        33.7 percent in Carchi-Imbabura are poor.7 Food consumption scores indicate that
        5.3 percent of refugees are severely food-insecure and 22.6 percent moderately
        food-insecure. Refugees are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity because
        they lack access to social protection programmes.

     10. Historically low social investment, combined with an increasing refugee
         population, has put a severe strain on social services and increased competition for
         scarce resources and employment. Thus, both Ecuadorians and Colombians
         struggle to maintain their food security. These struggles increase social tensions,
         pressure for land, and exacerbate deforestation.


5
    Integrated System of Social Indicators for Ecuador (SIISE-MCDS) 2010
6
    2010 EFSA
7
    I SIISE-2006. In Ecuador a monthly food expenditure of US$56.6 or less defines consumption poverty.
                                                                                                          4
Scenarios

     11. The spillover effect of the conflict is ever more evident by the increase in the
         number of new refugees arriving in Ecuador as well as the security incidents
         involving Colombian armed groups. Three scenarios guide planning for the next
         few years: 1) the situation in Colombia remains volatile and the number of new
         refugees continues to increase; 2) the Colombian Government commits to greater
         control of the border areas which slows the flow of persons crossing the border; 3)
         the Colombian Government, at the request of the Ecuadorian Government,
         commits to assuming more responsibility for Colombians in Ecuador, thus
         relieving pressure on Ecuadorian social programmes and services. Indications are
         that the first scenario will be most likely for the duration of this new protracted
         relief and recovery operation (PRRO).




POLICIES, CAPACITIES AND ACTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHERS
Policies and Capacities of the Government

     12. The National Development Plan (2009-2013) prioritizes food sovereignty,
         implying protection and inclusion of citizens beyond Ecuador’s borders.
         Ecuador’s constitution recognizes the rights of asylum and Article 13 highlights
         the right to safe and permanent access to nutritious foods.8 The Government
         extends education and health services to refugees. However, social protection
         programmes, including the conditional cash transfer programme, specifically
         exclude refugees.

     13. In 2009, the Government adopted an asylum policy, and launched a project to
         register and identify those in need of international protection. In January 2011, the
         Refugees National Directorate introduced an initial admissibility review, an
         additional step which, at least temporarily, contributes to delays in registration. Bi-
         national discussions increasingly focus on how Colombia can contribute to the
         integration of refugees in Ecuador.

     14. National policy promotes sustainable development and human security in the
          northern border areas, the integration of refugees in Ecuadorian communities, and
          reaching the most vulnerable of both populations. Progress does not meet
          expectations, partly due to lack of funding and the complexity of the situation.

Policies and Capacities of Other Actors

     15. The United Nations Development Assistance Framework 2010-2014 (UNDAF),
         guarantees humanitarian assistance for refugee and host populations and supports
         the integration of refugee and host populations.9 The Office of the United Nations
         High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a key actor in the provision of
8
    Ecuador Constitution 2008 Article 4 and 13.
9
    UNDAF: Concentration Area 5.

                                                                                              5
        protection and humanitarian assistance to refugees, including legal support, micro-
        credit, and quick action projects that support production, water and sanitation,
        income generation, and gender projects. The International Organization for
        Migration (IOM) is promoting durable solutions and local integration in the
        northern border area, primarily through water and sanitation projects and training
        in gender-based violence. Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), Red Cross and
        Samaritan Purse are key actors among the non-governmental organizations
        (NGOs).

     16. The United Nations country team is developing a joint project with a human
         security focus in the northern border area. WFP is part of this effort, as well as the
         UNHCR-led United Nations Northern Border Inter-Agency Working Group.




OBJECTIVES OF WFP ASSISTANCE
     17. This PRRO will be implemented for three years, beginning July 2011. It is in line
         with WFP’s Strategic Objectives 1 and 3, with the following objectives:10
              To improve the food consumption of new asylum seekers and the most
              vulnerable and non-self reliant Colombian refugees in Ecuador, without
              creating tensions between Colombian refugees and Ecuadorian populations;
              To rebuild sustainable livelihoods and the food and nutrition security of
              Colombian refugees and Ecuadorians, with a special focus on women, and
              those most affected by the conflict in Colombia.

     18. This operation will pay particular attention to the needs of women and refugee
         protection issues, by systematically promoting gender equality, the empowerment
         of women, and actions that reduce tensions among all vulnerable groups.



WFP RESPONSE STRATEGY
Nature and Effectiveness of Food Security Assistance
     19. Following a first PRRO which covered the period 2005-2007, WFP launched a
         follow-up phase (PRRO 104430) in December 2007 with an original end date of
         30 November 2010. It was extended in time for 6 months, in response to a request
         made by the Government of Ecuador, due to the increased influx of refugees.
         UNHCR was responsible for final food distributions until April 2010, when the
         caseload increased and WFP assumed full responsibility for distributions. By
         August 2010, WFP was reaching 18,000 persons per month.

     20. The UNHCR/WFP joint assessment mission (JAM) carried out in 2011 concluded
         that the operation required a revised strategy and enhanced implementation
         modalities. The JAM identified WFP’s limited field presence as a major
         impediment to playing a more active role in decision-making forums and having a

10
   Strategic Objective 1: Save lives and protect livelihoods in emergencies.
Strategic Objective 3: Restore and rebuild lives and livelihoods in post-conflict, post-disaster or transition
situations.
                                                                                                            6
     protective presence on the ground. Specifically, WFP’s capacity to assess food
     and nutritional insecurity, target households and communities, and monitor its
     interventions needed strengthening. Also, the recovery component required an
     integrated livelihood community-based approach with closer coordination with
     UNHCR, IOM and local authorities.

Strategy Outline

 21. WFP’s response strategy is based on the government priority to develop integrated
     assistance models with a view to diffuse tensions between refugees and
     Ecuadorian communities and promote integration in both urban and rural areas.
     The project aims to ensure that assistance is provided in a manner that does not
     create or exacerbate tensions and contributes to conflict mitigation. WFP is in the
     process of designing a separate development project, which will complement the
     nutrition-oriented interventions envisaged under the PRRO and directly address
     the high levels of stunting and anaemia in the border area.

a) Relief Component

General Food Distribution
 22. WFP will provide relief food assistance, the largest component of this operation,
     to newly-arrived Colombian refugees and asylum seekers in order to ensure that
     their immediate food needs are adequately met. Food assistance will also act as an
     incentive for new arrivals to officially register and be recognized in Ecuador.
     Based on partner monitoring data and the JAM, WFP relief assistance will be
     provided for six months on average, depending on the vulnerability and food
     insecurity of each refugee. This will give some time to the targeted beneficiaries to
     access housing and stable employment or livelihood opportunities in Ecuador.

 23. Relief assistance will be part of a comprehensive package that integrates
     protection and other humanitarian assistance provided by partners including legal,
     psycho-social and employment support, and addressing gender-based violence.
     WFP will integrate food and nutrition modules to improve dietary diversity in
     partner trainings.

Conflict Mitigation
 24. To ensure that food assistance does not create tensions and to help reduce tensions
     in Ecuadorian communities with high concentrations of recently-arrived
     Colombian refugees, WFP will support socially inclusive and short-term food-for-
     work (FFW) activities in line with traditional communal cooperative works
     (Mingas). Involving all vulnerable members of the community regardless of
     nationality, activities will prioritize community sanitation through garbage pickup
     - in particular in water ways - and vegetative slope stabilization measures where
     refugees have established dwellings on steep slopes prone to erosion. Work norms
     will be aligned with province specific “Minga” arrangements so as not to
     undermine local customs.




                                                                                        7
b) Recovery Component

Barrio (Neighbourhood) and Community Integration Activities
 25. WFP will support the transition to stable livelihoods and the improvement of the
     food security of Colombian refugees and conflict-affected Ecuadorians in a
     selected number of barrios or communities where there is a high concentration of
     refugees and where integration is difficult. Particular attention will be given to
     supporting local safety nets, barrio or community-based approaches and the
     specific needs of women refugees.

     26. Interventions will be developed based on the priorities and capacities in each
         location, food security needs, the security situation, protection needs of specific
         targeted groups, and form part of an integrated package of assistance aligned with
         UNHCR and IOM and other partners.

     27. Community integration activities will be based on the following four
         implementation models:

     28. Community school-based activities: Since the national school lunch programme
         was terminated in late 2010, teachers report that poor children have trouble
         concentrating as they receive only a cookie and drink for breakfast, with no lunch.
         Therefore, many communities have organized contributions in kind, cash and
         labour in order to continue the lunch programme as the poorest families, in
         particular refugee families, have more trouble sending their children to school.11
         Activities will be implemented where parents have expressed their willingness to
         contribute to a community-based school lunch programme (either in urban barrios
         or rural communities). WFP will provide food, technical assistance and
         organizational support in order to expand the programme with increasing local
         contributions. School gardens and other production efforts will increase in-kind
         resources for the programme. Parents will participate in the design of balanced
         menus which combine food commodities from WFP and parents. WFP assistance
         will be phased out after one year, as parent, community and local authority
         contributions increase to maintain the programme. IOM, UNHCR and HIAS will
         be WFP’s main partners contributing to the building of school latrines and clean
         water systems.

     29. Food and nutrition trainings will be integrated into partner activities in both
         urban and rural areas. These integrated trainings will promote consumption of
         local nutritious foods, sound child care practices, combined with complementary
         training in human rights, legal services, sound sanitation, and gender. Incentives
         for participation of community members will be encouraged through food for
         training (FFT).



11
     According to a recent study, 20 percent of refugee children do not go to school in Quito and Guayaquil.
      Study on Colombian refugees in urban environments, the case of Quito and Guayaquil. January 2011. FLACSO-
      UNHCR.



                                                                                                             8
 30. Local production of nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables through
     environmentally sustainable practices will be supported by food-for-asset
     activities (FFA). Activities will be implemented in rural areas, targeting food-
     insecure families in critical periods of the year to encourage the diversification of
     crops. Home and community gardens will be developed as well as the planting of
     fruit trees in agro-forestry systems. WFP’s main partners will include UNHCR
     and local governments.

 31. Protection of watersheds and water sources will be supported through FFA
     activities in collaboration with IOM and local authorities from the Ministry of
     Agriculture and Environment where clean water systems are being introduced.
     Because many of these systems rely on forest cover, WFP would help ensure the
     sustainability of partner investments in communities with a high concentration of
     refugees. In Carchi, these actions may include a pilot bi-national project, as the
     water systems rely on sound catchment management systems that straddle the
     Ecuadorian-Colombian border. The bi-national pilot project will serve as a
     platform to advocate for greater levels of development cooperation in favour of
     the border area. Work norms will be established for each type of activity
     (reforestation, forest protection, water conservation and erosion control measures,)
     with local ministry experts. All activities will be planned with partners (IOM and
     OXFAM), with technical advice from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock,
     Aquaculture and Fisheries (Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuacultura, y
     Pesca - MAGAP).

Vulnerable Group Support
 32. Particular attention will be given to strengthening safety nets, in particular
     attending to the needs of the most vulnerable groups in both urban and rural areas.
     Household-level vulnerability assessments will be carried out and targeting will
     include non-self-reliant refugee households who have received WFP assistance
     upon arrival but who are no longer eligible for relief assistance, as well as other
     vulnerable refugee households or vulnerable Ecuadorians in the same community,
     excluded from national safety-net programmes. Assistance will be provided
     though the combination of family food rations and vouchers for an average of
     three months and for a maximum of six months. Transfers would be conditional to
     participation in trainings, sending children to school, receiving health checkups for
     pregnant and lactating mothers and children under 5, or vaccines for children.

Handover Strategy
 33. WFP will fulfil its obligation to assist refugees in need of international assistance
     and protection as required. Thus, each activity will require a specific handover
     strategy with a concrete timeline. Milestones will be agreed by WFP and
     counterparts to ensure transparency. Specifically, WFP will advocate for the
     inclusion of food security actions in local development plans and for inclusion of
     refugees in social protection programmes, including vulnerable group feeding and
     school lunch activities.

 34. By linking relief assistance for asylum seeking and vulnerable refugees to partner
     actions such as employment-related orientation sessions, and basic services such
     as children attending schools, refugees have a better chance of becoming self-
     sufficient in Ecuador. WFP will strongly advocate and support the practice of
                                                                                        9
           parent and community contributions to school lunch progammes. The focus on
           integration will help provide opportunities and networks for Colombians. As
           refugees gradually gain increased access to key social services and employment
           opportunities, their integration in the Ecuadorian society will become more
           durable.


   BENEFICIARIES AND TARGETING

        35. Based on the WFP 2010 EFSA, the 2011 beneficiary profiling exercise, and the
            2011 JAM, WFP has identified three main groups of beneficiaries: i) asylum
            seekers and persons in need of international assistance and protection; ii)
            vulnerable refugee groups unable to re-establish their livelihoods in Ecuador; and
            iii) Ecuadorian communities with a concentration of refugees affected by the
            conflict in Colombia.


                                TABLE 1: BENEFICIARY NUMBERS12

                                      RELIEF: 69,100 beneficiaries

                                                                                                         %
                                       2011             2012           2013           2014
Activities                                                                                           Refugees
                                      July-                                         January-
                                    December                                          June

General food distribution                  8,050         18,515         21,292          12,243               100

Conflict mitigation                        1,500           3,000         3,000           1,500                   30
activities - FFW

Sub-total - Relief                         9,550         21,515         24,292          13,743

                                    RECOVERY: 70,500 beneficiaries

Vulnerable groups                          4,250           8,500         8,500           4,250                   80

Community based                            6,000         12,000         12,000           6,000                   30
integration

School feeding                             1,500           3,000         3,000         1,500                     40

Sub-total - Recovery                     11,750          23,500         23,500          11,750

TOTAL                                    21,300          45,015         47,792          25,493          139,600


   12
      The total number of beneficiaries has been adjusted to exclude the overlap of beneficiaries assisted
   through more than one activity. The overlap will occur primarily between school feeding and other PRRO
   activities. GFD beneficiaries are estimated to increase 20% per year. The project needs will be reviewed
   annually based on the current situation and political developments. The average size of a refugee family is
   four members, thus this reference has been applied to all beneficiary and ration calculations used for this
   operation. Approximately 60 percent of the total beneficiaries will receive both food and voucher
   transfers.
                                                                                                          10
ADJUSTED TOTAL                                                                                    120,100


         a) Relief Component
  General Food Distribution
   36. The relief component will be implemented in the nine provinces13 that have the
       highest numbers of new arrivals and registered asylum seekers, and where the
       National Directorate of Refugees and partners have provincial offices. As agreed
       with UNHCR, beneficiary figures are based on actual number of people assisted in
       2010 with a 20 percent increase per year.

       37. WFP partners estimate that 90 percent of newly-arrived refugees and asylum
           seekers and those undergoing the admissibility review are in need of relief food
           assistance. However, only 28 percent of longer resident asylum seekers who are
           registered are food-insecure.14 The food and nutrition needs of asylum seekers will
           be assessed by partners through household level assessments conducted every
           three months. A household vulnerability assessment, with food and nutrition
           security criteria will strengthen the selection process and ensure that assistance is
           properly targeted. Beneficiary selection criteria will include the following priority
           refugee groups:
        • Households with limited access to food;
        • Households with income below extreme poverty levels (US$37.5 per month per
             capita); and
        • Households without a home or stable employment.

  Conflict Mitigation Actions
   38. An estimated 9,000 Colombian and Ecuadorian individuals will benefit from
       community-orientated relief activities in 180 communities or barrios in
       Sucumbíos, Carchi and Esmeraldas for one month. This estimate is based on the
       identification of urban areas with conflicts through a household survey undertaken
       in December 2010. Targeted communities will be based on concentrations of
       newly-arrived Colombian refugees, evident tensions between Colombians and
       Ecuadorians, high levels of poverty and food insecurity. Support from local
       authorities and partner capacity to organize community works are important
       considerations for the final selection process. Families will be self-selected with
       support from the barrio president.

         b) Recovery Component
  Barrio and Community Integration Activities
   39. Community interventions will target communities which have been particularly
       affected by the conflict in Colombia, with high concentrations of Colombian
       refugees or destabilizing interactions with Colombian groups, and have:
         • Above national average poverty rate
         • High chronic malnutrition and or anaemia prevalence

  13
     The PRRO will be implemented in nine provinces, Carchi, Esmeraldas, Imbabura, Sucumbíos,
  Orellana, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, Azuay, Guayas, with special attention to the three provinces along
  the Northern border (Carchi, Esmeraldas, and Sucumbíos).
  14
     WFP 2010 EFSA and 2011 household assessment.
                                                                                                     11
       •   At least moderate food insecurity
       •   Limited access to safety net programmes
       •   Partner capacity

 40. WFP, during a joint mission with UNHCR, identified 42 communities as
     particularly vulnerable to be targeted for barrio or community-based interventions.
     They are concentrated in 5 districts in the northern border: Putumayo and
     Shushufindi (Sucumbíos province), San Lorenzo (Esmeraldas province), Tulcan
     and San Gabriel (Carchi province). Targeted rural communities live on the border,
     many along rivers separating the two countries. Families depend on subsistence
     agricultural production, as their main source of food, and rely on the diverse
     natural resource base for their livelihoods. Their close proximity to Colombia and
     the resulting insecurity puts pressure on the stability of their income and
     livelihood sources. Access to basic services are minimal and many children are
     malnourished, not vaccinated and do not attend school regularly.

 41. Based upon a food security assessment and a self-targeting process, activities will
     benefit both refugees (documented, seeking documentation or part of the invisible
     refugee population) and equally poor and food-insecure Ecuadorians that fall
     outside social safety nets.

Vulnerable Groups Support
 42. This component will provide assistance to refugee groups who are unable to
     sustain themselves, have been in Ecuador for longer than a year, and do not
     benefit from relief assistance or social programmes but still require assistance.
     Based on the results of the 2010 EFSA, the number of vulnerable refugees were
     estimated and household targeting criteria developed, including:
       • Pregnant and lactating women
       • Children under 5
       • Handicapped, the sick and elderly
       • Young women (under 25) with more than two children and women headed
           households
       • Households with more than 3 children
       • Non-accompanied adolescents

 43. Beneficiaries will be selected through household level vulnerability and food
     security assessments by partner provincial offices, and through other partner
     community assessment processes. Ecuadorians may also receive assistance if they
     meet the stated criteria, in order to not create tensions in barrios or communities
     where the two groups live side by side. Beneficiary numbers are based on
     discussions with HIAS and UNHCR. WFP will continue to encourage the
     Government to assist vulnerable groups through social protection programmes.




                                                                                     12
       NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RATIONS / VALUE OF VOUCHER
         TRANSFERS
         44. Colombian refugee and host communities share similar food consumption
             patterns. Both have a monotonous diet, extremely high in carbohydrates and poor
             in protein and micronutrients. This operation aims to provide beneficiaries with
             opportunities for healthier and more balanced diets through a combination of food
             rations and vouchers. These rations will be complemented with nutrition training
             and the local production of vegetables, fruits and other nutritious foods. Women
             will be targeted to receive the food/ voucher transfers.


                                             TABLE 2
                        FOOD RATION/TRANSFER BY ACTIVITY (g/person/day)

                          General Food       Conflict          Vulnerable         School Feeding
                           Distribution     Mitigation           Groups &
                                                                Community
                                                                Integration
Rice                                 50                  0                   0                    70

Pulses                              125                  50                 50                    35

Vegetable Oil                        30                  23                 23                    15

Fortified wheat flour               150               100                  100                    60

TOTAL commodities                   355               173                  173                   180

Total kcal/day (food)              1,400              720                  720                   720

% Kcal from protein                13%                12%                 12%                    11%

% Kcal from fat                    21%                31%                 31%                    21%

Food voucher US$
per month                            20                  20                 20                     0

Total kcal/day
                                    700               700                  700                     0
(voucher)

Total kcal/day (food
+ voucher)                         2,100             1,420               1,420                   720

Number of feeding
days per year (on                   180                  30                180                   220
average)



         45. GFD rations will be distributed by WFP’s implementing partners in distribution
             points close to government offices where refugees solicit asylum. The family food
             ration will provide 1,400 kcal for relief beneficiaries. The food ration will be
             complemented with a US$20 per family food voucher.
                                                                                           13
           46. Family food rations for FFW/FFA/FFT activities, and for vulnerable groups, will
               provide 720 kilocalories per day per person. Individuals will participate for 2.5
               hours per day for 10 days. The incentive for participating is equivalent to half of
               the official minimum wage (US$2.6 per day). The total food and voucher transfer
               value is US$40 per month per family, at local market prices. This value is in line
               with the government social safety net programme for Ecuadorians.

           47. The school feeding ration will cover a third of the kilocalorie needs of children on
               a daily basis for 220 days, complemented by fruits, vegetables and other nutritious
               foods, produced in family or school vegetable gardens.

           48. All food rations, except for school feeding, will be complemented by a US$20
               family food voucher. The food voucher should provide approximately 700 kcal
               per individual per day based on a list of products to be selected from established
               food groups at preselected supermarkets.

           49. WFP will modify the relative proportions of food and vouchers to be distributed
               based on funding, security, market conditions and other factors as necessary.
               However, the overall kilocalorie and dollar values of the transfers will remain
               stable.

                                                    TABLE 3
                        FOOD (mt) AND VOUCHER (US$) REQUIREMENTS

                                     Relief                                     Recovery


Commodities                                    Conflict        Vulnerable        School         Community
                            GFD
                                              Mitigation        Group            Feeding        Integration

Rice                               541                     0                0          115                    0

Pulses                            1,352                13               229                57             162

Vegetable oil                      324                     6            105            24.                 74

Fortified wheat flour             1,622                27               459                99             324

TOTAL (mt)                        3,840                46               794            297                560

Food voucher (US$)           1,619,364             45,000            765,000                0          540,000




                                                                                                  14
IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS
Partners

 50. WFP’s main governmental counterpart is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
     Direction of Refugees. At the operational level, HIAS, Red Cross and Samaritan
     Purse will be the main implementing partners. Partners will carry out the
     beneficiary selection processes, the final distribution of food rations and vouchers,
     training sessions for newly-arrived asylum seekers, the organization of community
     activities and monitoring. WFP will monitor implementation processes and
     progress toward results and works with local authorities to increase their
     contribution to PRRO activities.

 51. In line with Ecuador’s decentralization policy to empower communities, WFP will
     engage and support local authorities through specific agreements with municipal
     and provincial governments, building on their commitment and complementing
     resources to strengthen social protection, nutrition and productive programmes.
     WFP is in the process of signing cooperation agreements with mayors and
     governors in priority PRRO areas. Also, WFP will establish partnerships with
     specialized local NGOs such as the Federation of Women.

 52. UNHCR and WFP will work towards joint programming options, in particular in
     the evaluation of needs of asylum seekers, and in the delivery of an integrated
     package of humanitarian assistance and protection. Specific actions include the
     development and use of shared assessment tools, joint agreements with and
     financing of key partners, prioritization of target areas, and joint planning
     exercises at the local level. These actions were agreed to in the JAM strategy
     meeting.

 53. WFP and IOM have agreed to support complementary actions at community level
     under the recovery component of this operation in sectors such as gender and
     women’s empowerment, nutrition and health, access to clean water and the
     protection of watersheds and water sources. Based on a country-level
     Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and local operational plans, WFP food
     and technical assistance will complement IOM resources and local organizational
     capacity.

 54. WFP will work closely with the Ministry of Agriculture and, in particular, its
     extensive network of local extension services to enhance the productive capacity
     and nutritional knowledge of small-holder producers in targeted communities. The
     strategic alliance with the Ministry of the Environment will be expanded to
     include environmental sensitization sessions, reforestation and watershed
     protection measures in community plans.

 55. WFP will advocate for the inclusion of refugees and the extension in coverage of
     social protection programmes in targeted areas with the Ministries of Social
     Development, Environment and Health. Local safety net initiatives supported by
     WFP, in particular interventions directed at vulnerable groups and school children,
                                                                                     15
    will complement national efforts with a view to facilitate greater government
    support and the eventual phase over of these activities.


WFP Capacities

 56. To strengthen WFP’s role in protection and project implementation oversight, in
     particular in areas such as food security needs assessments, targeting, and
     monitoring of interventions, WFP must reinforce its presence and capacities at
     local and central levels. Hence, 3 WFP sub-offices will be established in Tulcan,
     Lago Agrio, and Esmeraldas. Each office will have a project coordinator and two
     programme assistants. These offices will ensure greater operational proximity to
     targeted communities in the border areas and allow WFP to more effectively
     participate in local humanitarian committees. In addition, WFP will work more
     closely with NGO partners and coordinate its actions with UNHCR and IOM; both
     have substantial presence in these provinces.

 57. Operational capacities in Quito will be reinforced with a team composed of a
     project manager and a programme assistant. This team, supported by international
     technical consultants, will help ensure adequate coordination, planning,
     monitoring, and reporting, as well as provide operation support in southern
     provinces such as Pichincha, Azuay and Guayas.

Non-food inputs

 58. The emphasis of this operation on tension reduction and integration will require
     higher levels of other direct operational cost (ODOC) than in the last PRRO.
     Increased capacity to carry out food security and nutrition assessments will require
     financial support for NGO implementing partners and social workers in charge of
     beneficiary evaluations, as well as for training for NGO staff in the execution of
     protection and food and nutritional security activities.

 59. The development of nutrition, health, and gender-based violence sensitization
     sessions will build on materials that WFP has already developed; however they
     will need to be expanded and adapted to specific cultural contexts, reproduced and
     disseminated in training sessions. WFP will need to cover some costs for
     community activities; however, WFP and partners will lobby for the Government
     to provide inputs such as seeds.

 Participation

 60. This PRRO will systematically promote gender equality and will seek to empower
     women with respect to all project implementation stages and modalities. Women
     will be prioritized at the targeting stage with a view to positively influencing
     family food consumption and empowering them with alternative sources of
     income. This operation will also ensure that women have a high representation in
     community-based activity implementation and food distribution committees with
     the aim of strengthening women’s roles in community structures and as decision
     makers. WFP will also seek to sensitize all actors regarding violence against
     women through trainings with partners and by adequately considering gender roles
     and the specific needs of both women and men in all activities.
                                                                                   16
 61. Community activities will require active participation in the design, targeting,
     implementation and monitoring. Community representatives and barrio presidents
     will be key participants in the elaboration of community plans and in beneficiary
     targeting.

Transfer modalities - food vouchers

 62. The food voucher component has been designed based on the lessons learned from
     a cash and voucher pilot project implemented in two northern provinces. In the
     PRRO, food vouchers, with a set value of US$20, will complement food rations
     valued at US$20, in total equivalent to the value of the government transfer.
     Vouchers will be distributed to participants on a monthly basis. Supermarkets will
     be identified in urban areas and participants in rural areas will use either urban
     supermarkets or small shops. As vouchers may not be feasible in particularly
     isolated communities, beneficiaries will, in this case, receive a full in-kind food
     ration to meet their nutritional requirements.

 63. WFP will monitor this process and will establish the necessary agreements with
     selected local supermarkets. Serialized food vouchers, which will be printed
     centrally by WFP, will not be transferable, and will have a validity of 30 days. A
     list of participants will be sent to the designated supermarkets each month. The
     supermarket will retain the vouchers and confirm the food items and quantities
     purchased on the backside of the voucher. The supermarkets will redeem the
     vouchers at the local Pichincha Bank. The bank will credit the shops’ accounts or
     pay cash once the shop keeper redeems his voucher. The bank will submit a
     monthly report to WFP, indicating the number of vouchers deposited by each
     supermarket, with the names of participants.

Logistics - food assistance

 64. WFP will deliver food from a central warehouse in Quito, on a monthly basis, to
     eight distribution points located in provincial capitals, from which NGO partners
     will directly deliver food to beneficiaries. In order to minimize food handling,
     storage costs and losses, partners will maintain temporary storage and distribute
     food immediately upon delivery.

 65. The dispersion of community, insecurity and access difficulties in the target areas
     of the North result in high logistics and transport costs. This is particularly the
     case for communities located near the San Miguel and Putumayo rivers in
     Sucumbíos, and the mangrove areas in Esmeraldas with over 250 distribution
     points and where water transport is the only means of delivery. In order to reduce
     costs, trimester deliveries of food will be organized for most of the targeted
     communities.

Procurement

 66. WFP expects most of the donor contributions to be in-kind food donations, such as
     fortified wheat flour, vegetable oil and pulses. However, WFP is also asking for
     cash contributions to complement these products with other basic grains that are
     more culturally acceptable in some of the targeted areas. The Government has also
     asked WFP to consider local purchases of some cereals such as rice. WFP will
                                                                                     17
    pursue this option to the extent that funding and procurement procedures allow
    local purchases.




PERFORMANCE MONITORING

 67. Project monitoring will be carried out in accordance with WFP procedures. A
     detailed monitoring results framework has been prepared in line with the WFP
     Strategic Framework (2008–2013). A monitoring system is being set up and will
     allow WFP and partners to track progress and performance. Outcome
     measurement and the evaluation of project results will be complemented by a
     learning component, in particular related to the voucher transfers and conflict
     reduction and integration activities.

 68. Particular attention will be given to process monitoring of the food voucher
     distribution and end-use by beneficiaries. WFP will conduct regular focus group
     discussions and monitor product availability in supermarkets, beneficiary security
     issues, possible misuse of vouchers, and commodity price trends.

 69. To improve overall performance monitoring, WFP must augment its field
     presence. Process and output monitoring will be the responsibility of WFP
     technical units in Quito, supported by WFP field monitors in three sub-offices.
     WFP will monitor all steps in the targeting and distribution processes carried out
     by implementing partners. Data collected will be reviewed at the sub-office level
     and entered into a standard database, allowing staff to track progress on an
     ongoing basis.

 70. WFP will provide technical assistance and training to partners to ensure that
     assessments used during the selection process adequately integrate protection with
     food security, nutrition and livelihood related indicators. WFP will also assist
     partners in the processing and analysis of data which will be used as the basis for
     outcome level reporting. To reflect the opinions of women beneficiaries more
     accurately, women monitors and interviewers will be recruited.

 71. A mid-term review of the PRRO will be conducted during the first quarter of
     2013, and there will be a final independent evaluation before the end of the PRRO.




RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING
Hazard and Risk Assessment

 72. The most significant risks are associated with a potential worsening of the
     situation in Colombia and the possible spillover effect in Ecuador, resulting in an
     increase in the number of refugees seeking asylum.



                                                                                     18
 73. Another risk is a possible change in government policy towards refugees. The
     current open door policy facilitates the delivery of assistance and protection for
     persons in need of international protection. Increasing discrimination and
     xenophobia may impede the implementation of integration actions. Finally,
     diversion of assistance is an ongoing concern, thus WFP will strengthen its
     presence, its needs assessment and monitoring to minimize this risk.

Contingency Planning
 74. Building on current contingency planning efforts, WFP will contribute to
     scenarios and responses to mitigate risks, working with UNHCR, IOM and local
     authorities to integrate food security in local plans, emphasizing local responses to
     population influxes and natural disasters.

Constraints and Assumptions

 75. Lack of state presence and partner implementation capacity affects food
     distributions, and technical support for community interventions. WFP will cover
     part of this gap through ODOC and landside transport, storage and handling
     (LTSH). Insufficient or late funding will affect integration actions, a priority of the
     Government.




SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

 76. The United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) has established
     Security Level 4 for a 30 kilometre wide area along the border with Colombia.
     The rest of the northern border provinces of Esmeraldas, Carchi and Sucumbíos
     have a Security Level 2 rating.

 77. Illegal groups and gangs operate along the border associated with the conflict,
     drug trade, and other contraband activities. Over 120 Colombian camps along the
     border were dismantled by the Ecuadorian army in 2010. Though these groups
     consider Ecuador as a “safe haven” and military actions should not take place,
     their presence fosters instability and corruption. Smuggling of arms and drugs,
     human trafficking, money laundering, and daily executions are common place.

 78. Following the recommendations of the WFP March 2011 security assessment
     mission in the northern provinces, WFP Ecuador will substantially strengthen its
     staffing, Minimum Operating Security Standards (MOSS) compliance and
     communication capacities, in three sub-offices. Security measures for the sub-
     offices have been included in the direct support cost (DSC) budget.




                                                                                         19
RECOMMENDATION

 79. The Executive Director is requested to approve the proposed protracted relief and
     recovery operation (Ecuador 200275), designed to benefit 120,100 people with a
     food cost of US$4.9 million and a total cost of US$13.6 million.




APPROVAL




…………………………………………                                 Date:
 …………………………………...
Josette Sheeran
Executive Director
United Nations World Food Programme




                                                                                   20
                                                                                                      ANNEX I -A

                                     PROJECT COST BREAKDOWN

Food15                                                  Quantity             Value                  Value
                                                         (mt)             (US$ per mt)            (US$ Total)

    Rice                                                    656.40                 668.16*               438 571
    Pulses                                                1814.82                1099.76*              1 995 861
    Oil and fats                                            535.64               1935.06*              1 036 498
    Fortified Wheat Flour                                 2531.71                  597.46*             1 487 270
Total food                                                5538.70                                      4 958 200
Voucher transfers                                                                                      2 969 364
Subtotal food and transfers                                                                            7 927 564
External transport                                                                                       878 790
Landside transport, storage and handling                                                               1 080 962
Other direct operational costs                                                                         1 052 160
Direct support costs16 (see Annex I-B)                                                                 1 744 246
Total WFP direct costs                                                                                12 683 722
Indirect support costs (7.0 percent)17                                                                   887 861
TOTAL WFP COSTS                                                                                       13 571 583
         *Average commodity cost considering 5 percent increase in price per year




         15
              This is a notional food basket for budgeting and approval. The contents may vary.
         16
              Indicative figure for information purposes. The direct support costs allotment is reviewed annually.
         17
              The indirect support cost rate may be amended by the Board during the project.
                                                                                                                     21
                                                                ANNEX I-B
                            DIRECT SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS (US$)
Staff and staff-related costs
Local staff – temporary assistance                                      1 009 095

International consultants                                                   199 499

Commercial consultancy services                                              40 000

Staff duty travel                                                           106 388

 Subtotal                                                               1 354 982

Recurring expenses

Rental of facility                                                           51 246

Utilities                                                                    15 930

Office supplies and other consumables                                        18 831

Communications services                                                      19 578

Equipment repair and maintenance                                             10 440

Vehicle running costs and maintenance                                        60 378

Office set-up and repairs                                                     6 000

United Nations organization services                                         33 900

 Subtotal                                                                   216 303

Equipment and capital costs

Vehicle leasing                                                              61 200

Communications equipment                                                     49 411

Local security costs                                                         62 350

 Subtotal                                                                   172 961

 TOTAL DIRECT SUPPORT COSTS                                             1 744 246




                                                                       22
ANNEX II: LOGICAL FRAMEWORK

Strategic Objective 1 : Save lives and protect livelihoods in emergencies

           Results                                      Performance indicators                                 Risks, assumptions
Outcome 1.1                        Household Food Consumption score for relief beneficiary households   No pipeline breaks
Adequate food consumption over
assistance period for Colombian    Target: Score exceeds threshold (35) for 80 percent of targeted Beneficiaries exchange food
asylum seekers                      households                                                     vouchers for nutritious foods, and
                                                                                                   consume them
                                                                                                        Supermarkets follow agreed
                                                                                                        distribution procedures
Outcome 1.2                       Tension perception score                                              Availability and sufficient
                                                                                                        capacity of implementing partners
Food    assistance   delivered
without increasing tensions Target: Tensions reduced in all targeted communities/barrios
between host communities and                                                                            A sudden large influx of new
Colombian asylum seekers
                                                                                                        refugees does not create conflict
                                                                                                        over scarce resources




                                                                    23
                                   •   Number of households receiving food /vouchers, by gender and               WFP and partners apply
Output 1.1.1                           refugee status and as a percentage of planned                              household food security
Food/vouchers distributed in •         Tonnage of food distributed by type, as percent of planned                 assessment tools to target the most
sufficient quantity and quality on     distribution                                                               food insecure households
time to targeted HH, under • Vouchers redeemed, as percentage of total vouchers distributed per
secure conditions                      distribution
                                   • Number of security incidents in relation to assistance distribution

Output 1.2.1                                                                                                      Joint participation of Colombian
                                                                                                                  refugees and Ecuadorians in
Incidents at barrio level between      • Number of incidents at barrio/community level between refugees
refugees and host communities                                                                                     common activities will reduce
                                         and host communities,
decreased                                                                                                         tensions

Output 1.2.2
Host communities and                   • Number of communities where social inclusion activities (Mingas)         Tradition of Mingas (communal
Colombian refugees participate           are carried out                                                          works) in targeted communities
in joint social inclusion activities   • Number of people that participated in social inclusion activities), by   encourages widespread
(Mingas)                                 gender, nationality and type of activity                                 participation in selected activities
                                                                                                                  from both populations




                                                                           24
Strategic Objective 3 Restore and rebuild lives and livelihoods in transition situations

           Results                                      Performance indicators                                 Risks, assumptions
Outcome 3.1                     Dietary Diversity score by assistance modality (Score measures          Sufficient resources for voucher
                                                                                                        component of ration - (vulnerable
Improved dietary diversity over quantities of diverse products consumed)
assistance period for non self Target: Score exceeds threshold for 80 percent of targeted               groups and community based
                                  households                                                            activities)
reliant households in targeted
communities
                                   Percentage of communities with improved access to vegetables, fruits Sufficient resources for
                                   and other nutritious foods                                           community based integration
                                   Target: 80 percent communities produce vegetables, fruits and other activities
                                     nutritious foods for own consumption
Outcome 3.2                                                                                             Sufficient resources for voucher
                                   Household Food Consumption score for relief beneficiary households   component of ration
Improved food consumption over
                                   Target: Score exceeds threshold (35) for 80 percent of targeted
assistance period for Colombian
                                    households
asylum seekers        and host
communities




                                                                     25
Outcome 3.3                                                                                         Implementing partners and WFP
                                   Community Asset Score                                            are able to create alliances at the
Increase access to assets in
communities affected by the        Target: Functioning, useful and productive assets created in 80 community level and with local
conflict in Colombia                percent of targeted communities                                 authorities and sector specialized
                                                                                                    institutions (environment,
                                                                                                    agriculture, etc)
                                   Coping Strategy Index
                                   Target: Reliance on negative coping mechanisms decreased for 80%
                                    of targeted households
Outcome 3.4                                                                                             Parents participate and contribute
                                   Retention rate in schools (disaggregated between Colombian and       to school lunch programme with
Stabilize enrolment of girls and
                                   Ecuadorian children and boys and girls)                              increasing resources
boys including refugees, in
                                   Target: Retention rate in schools equals 90 percent for girls/boys
assisted communities
                                                                                                     Lunch provides an incentive for
                                   Parents and communities gradually increase contributions to       refugee families to send their
                                   community school lunch programme, facilitating WFP’s phase out    children to school
                                   Target: WFP phases down assistance in 75 percent of schools after
                                      one year




                                                                       26
            Results                                        Performance indicators                                   Risks, assumptions

                                     • Number of households receiving Food /Vouchers, by gender and          No pipeline breaks and sufficient
Output 3.1.1, 3.2.1                   age and refugee status, as a percent of planned                        resources to fund food vouchers
Food/Vouchers distributed in         • Tonnage of Food distributed by type, as percent of planned
sufficient quantity and quality on   • Vouchers redeemed, as percentage of total vouchers distributed per
time to targeted HH, under             distribution                                                          A number of food products are
secure conditions                    • Percent women receiving food and vouchers as percent of planned       subsidized in Ecuador, keeping
                                                                                                             prices relatively stable (for
                                     • Number of security incidents associated with distributions
                                                                                                             example rice, milk and bread).
                                                                                                             However over the duration of the
                                                                                                             project, some staples could change
                                                                                                             price
Output 3.3.1                         • Number of women and men trained in food, nutritional, health and      WFP increases its partnership base
                                       gender violence thematic areas                                        to meet demand
Food nutritional, health and
gender      violence     training    • Number of training sessions in food, nutritional, health and gender
delivered to beneficiaries under       violence organized with WFP support
recovery component




                                                                        27
Output 3.3.2                   • Number of community assets created or restored by targeted            Communities and participants
Assets created to increase      communities and individuals (by type: schools, health centers, water   share the same priorities and do
production and protect water    systems, latrines etc, Ha of reforested land, family vegetable         not face significant constraints to
sources                         gardens, etc)                                                          participate in PRRO activities
                               • Number of women and men trained in watershed, livelihood and          supported
                                 sustainable agricultural support thematic areas
                               • Number of training sessions in watershed , livelihood and
                                 sustainable agricultural support thematic areas                       Food for assets and training are
                               • Number of communities targeted by integrated community based          effective incentives for
                                 interventions                                                         widespread participation
                              • Number of children receiving food, by gender, age and refugee          Communities contribute and
Output 3.4.1                      status, as a percentage of planned                                   participate in school lunch
Nutritional school lunches    • Tonnage of Food distributed by type, as percent of planned             preparation activities with
provided in targeted schools,   distribution                                                           nutritious foods such as vegetables
with collaboration of parents • Number of schools assisted by WFP                                      and fruits
                              • Average number of school lunches per year served to targeted
                                children                                                               WFP support to family and school
                              • Average number of participants contributing per school in the          vegetable gardens increases
                                preparation of school lunches (disaggregated by sex)                   production of nutritious foods at
                              • Number of project school gardens contributing food to school           the local level
                                lunches
                              • Average USD value of monthly food contributions provided by
                                parents to school lunch activities




                                                                   28
ANNEX III - LIST OF ACRONYMS
ACNUR            Agencia de la ONU para los Refugiados
EFSA             emergency food security assessment
ELN              National Liberation Army of Colombia
FARC             Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
FFA              food for assets
FFT              food for training
FFW              food for work
HIAS             Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society
IOM              International Organization for Migration
JAM              joint assessment mission
LAC              Latin America and Caribbean
LTSH             landside transport, storage and handling
MOSS             Minimum Operating Security Standards
MOU              memorandum of understanding
NGO              non-governmental organization
ODOC             other direct operational costs
SIISE            Integrated System of Social Indicators for Ecuador
UNDAF            United Nations Development Assistance Framework
UNDSS            United Nations Department of Safety and Security
UNHCR            Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
WFP              United Nations World Food Programme




                                      29
ANNEX IV: MAP AND SUPPORTING DATA




                                30
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