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ALWAyS A STEp AHEAd

VIEWS: 57 PAGES: 60

									                                                                                  no.7    price: 50 den.        march, 2010
ISSN: 1857-6710




                  M a g a z iI n e o f t h e M iI n iI s t r y o f D e f e n s e o f t h e r e p u b l iI c o f M a c e D o n iI a
                  mAGA           E OF THE m            STR     OF dEFE SE OF THE RE BL C OF mACEdO A




                  THE COmmAndER OF THE nATIOnAL GuARd In
                  vERmOnT In THE uSA vISITEd ARm

                  FRuIT OF
                  LOnG pARTnERSHIp
                  BASIC SKILLS QuALIFICATIOn COuRSE FOR pERFORmInG
                  RAnGER OpERATIOnS


                  ALWAyS A STEp AHEAd
                  SpORTS - SEvEnTH ARmy BIATHLOn Cup
                  BIATHLETES AT WORK
                    ARM-NATO REPORTING WEAPONS                       MILITARY HISTORY GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
member of the second mechanized
infantry brigade „leopards“
Content:

                                                                                                                                      OUT OF MANY, ONE!            E pluribus unum
                                                                                                                                      The Republic of Macedonia remains de­
                                                                                                                                      dicated to following the road to Euro­At­
                                                                                                                                      lantic integrations. As a result of these di­
                                                                                                                                      rections and efforts the country proves its
                                                                                                                                      continual readiness to meet the needs and
                                                                                                                                      requests set by our partners for active par­
                                                                                                                                      ticipation and contribution to international
                                                                                                                                      peacekeeping operations, led by NATO, EU
                                                                                                                                      and the UN.
                                                                                                                                      Through an active participation in the ISAF
                                                                                                                                      mission in Afghanistan, together with its
             IntervIew wIth the                                                                                                       coalition partners led by NATO, our country
             Major General                                                                                                            will actively contribute in finding solutions
 Page        MIchael DubIe,                                                                                                           for stabilization of this “neuralgic” Central­
             the coMManDant of                                                                                                        Asian region.
  8          the verMont natIonal
             GuarD, uSa
                                                                                                                                      The USA is a strategic partner to the Re­
                                                                                                                                      public of Macedonia. As a result of that the
                                                                                                                                      USA shows constant support to our coun­
                                                                                                                                      try for Euro­Atlantic integrations.
                                                                                                                                      The USA and the Republic of Macedonia
                                                                                                                                      have a fruitful and successful cooperation
 Page        IN SEARCH OF NEW AFGHANISTAN                                                                                             in the military field as well. The cooperation

  4          RE-ESTABLISHING THE POLITICAL SYSTEM INSTEAD
             OF DESTROYING IT
                                                                                                                                      between the Army of the Republic of Mace­
                                                                                                                                      donia and the Vermont National Guard,
                                                                                                                                      USA started 15 years ago. Untill now this
                                                                                                                                      cooperation has been realized though mu­
                                                                                                                                      tual training, seminars, visitis, exercises and
                                                                                                                                      it will have been rounded off by the end of
 Page        RIFLE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY                                                                                               March with participation of 79 Macedonian

 18
                                                                                                                                      Army soldiers as part of the Vermont Na­
             AUTOMATIC RIFLE MODEL M21                                                                                                tional Guard, in the ISAF mission to Afghan­
                                                                                                                                      istan. This came as a result of the mutual
                                                                                                                                      efforts and determination for stabilization
                                                                                                                                      and development of Afghanistan.
                                                                                                                                      It demonstrates that the Macedonian
 Page        INVALUABLE EXPERIENCE                                                                                                    Army is firmly dedicated to contribute to
                                                                                   Page                                               the ISAF operation, which has also been
26           WITH THE MACEDONIAN PEACEKEEPERS
             IN THE ISAF MISSION IN AFGHANISTAN                                    11
                                                                                                                                      proven by our continual participation with
                                                                                                                                      available resources, over the years. This
                                                                                                                                      participation in the overall efforts the dem­
                                                                                                                                      ocratic world makes to build better future
                                                                                                                                      for Afghanistan is extremely important for
                                                                                                                                      a small country like Macedonia.
 Page        THE MACEDONIAN BLUE BARET                                                                                                The new ARM contingent consists of staff
33           From a peacekeeper’s journal
                                                                                                                                      officers, one MP squad and one Rangers
                                                                                                                                      squad. They will participate in a slightly
                                                                                                                                      different mission than the previous ones,
                                                                                                                                      which is providing assistance and help in
                                                                                                                                      the training of the Afghan Security Forces,
             CLIMATE CHANGE VS.                                                                                                       as well as other types of assignments.
 Page        DEFENCE AND SECURITY                                                                                                     The Macedonian contingent that consists

38                                                                                 Page                                               of experienced soldiers has conducted

                                                                                 26
             POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES                                                                                                    raining in several phases in the country
                                                                                                                                      and in the USA. Part of the members of
             OF GLOBAL WARMING                                                                                                        the ARM and the Vermont National Guard
                                                                                                                                      have already had previous experience by
                                                                                                                                      participating in this mission to Afghanistan.
 Page        A BOOK ABOUT THE MACEDONIAN PAST                                                                                         That is a valuable experience for successful

44
                                                                                                                                      completion of assignments in the future.
             A STORY WHICH “THE LEOPARD”                                                                                              Well planned and conducted training prepa­
                                                                                                                                      rations, as well as dedication of the ARM
             PROTECTS FROM OBLIVION                                                                                                   members guarantees that the ARM per­
                                                                                                                                      sonnel is capable to meet the challenges
                                                                                                                                      in the forthcoming mission, and to justify
 Page        A MATCH FOR THE BIG FIRE                                              Page
                                                                                                                                      the given trust. The ARM members have
                                                                                                                                      proven their readiness, with successful par­
48           THE “SPIRIT” OF THE FIRST FLIGHT
             OVER THE ATLANTIC
                                                                                 54                                                   ticipation in this as well as other similar mis­
                                                                                                                                      sions all over the world, in the past years.
                                                                                                                                      The Commander of the Vermont National
                                                                                                                                      Guard, Major­General Michael Dubie has
SHIELD - Year II, issue 7, March 2010, published monthly                                                                              visited the country to inspect the readiness
PUBLISHER - MINISTRY OF DEFENSE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA                                                                          of the Macedonian contingent for the forth­
                                                                                                                                      coming, missions.
PUBLISHING BOARD                                                                                                                      “These are critical moments for Afghani­
Emil Dimitriev (Chairman, Chief)                                                                                                      stan. The organization and mission of ISAF
Major general Naser Sejdini, Sashko Dimov, Lieutenant Colonel Mirce gjorgoski, Lieutenant Colonel Zdravko Rizovski,                   led by General McCrystal has set higher
Lieutenant Colonel Meri Rindzova, Ph.D. gorgi Malkovski                                                                               goals to be accomplished in the next 18
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF                                                                                                                       months. The ARM soldiers together with
Lieutenant Colonel Zdravko Rizovski                                                                                                   the soldiers of the Vermont National Guard
                                                                                                                                      have a great challenge ahead, as well as
EDITORIAL BOARD                                                                                                                       a very important mission” stated General
Biljana Ivanova (Copy Editor, Art and graphic Editor), Ivan Petrushevski (Associate Journalist) Ksenija Miteva (Lector), Aleksandar   Dubie.
Atanasov (Photographs)                                                                                                                High level of training and ability to com­
                                                                                                                                      plete the assignments in the forthcoming
CONCEPTUAL CONSULTING, ART OFFICE AND DESIGN                                                                                          mission, as well as previous experience, are
Zarko Stojanovik, Oliver Kurciev, Vesna Vujadinovik, Stefan Smiljanoski                                                               confirmation that this new contingent will
                                                                                                                                      finish its mission successfully.
Printed by: ”Evropa 92” Kocani                                                                                                        The guarantee for success in the forthcom­
                                                                                                                                      ing mission is the whole that has been
ADDRESSS                                                                                                                              created by incorporating affirmed profes­
MINISTRY OF DEFENSE - Magazine “SHIELD”                                                                                               sionals from both Armies. It is the same as
“Orce Nikolov” bb 1000 Skopje
Phone: 02 038 24 17; 02 328 20 58                                                                                                     the USA motto: „E pluribus unum“ (Out of
Fax: 02 3113 527; 02 3128 276                                                                                                         many, one). One but valuable.
www.morm.gov.mk; E-mail: stit@morm.gov.mk
                                                                                                                                                                  Zdravko Rizovski

                                                                                                                                                                                         3
    IN SEARCH
    OF NEW
    AFGHANISTAN
    RE-ESTABLISHING THE POLITICAL SYSTEM
         t’s been over nine years        cerning Afghanistan. This was    1. PrIMe MIn-   mere fact of Macedonia’s in-
         since the coalition forces,     announced together with the      ISter Gor-      volvement in Afghanistan.
         led by the USA, entered         UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-    Don brown       The determination of the po-
         the territory of Afghani-       moon, on 29 November last                        litical leaders of our country
    stan in order to make radical        year. The new conference, held   announcInG      to continue striving towards
    changes and to improve the           on 28 January 2010 in London,    the confer-     the Euro-Atlantic integrations
    situation of the country. How-       and all events that happened     ence In lon-    has meant adjusting to some
    ever, at the moment, things          during the sessions on the       Don             demands set by our partners.
    are not as many people wished        conference, confirmed the ob-                    Therefore, the idea of increas-
    at all. Whether they were an-        vious demand in changing the                     ing the number of the armed
    ticipated or not, challenges still   approach of dealing with Af-                     forces as peacekeepers in Af-
    exist in Afghanistan concerning      ghanistan.                                       ghanistan is a logical follow
    diplomacy, information, armed        The interest in the accepted                     up to those efforts. This is an
    forces and economy. Perhaps,         resolutions, to direct future                    extremely serous job forced
    a silent concession about the        development of the political                     upon the military and political
    situation is made by the Brit-       decisions which need to be the                   leaders; therefore, the interest
    ish Prime Minister, Gordon           foundation of the operational                    in the future developing strate-
    Brown, who voiced an idea to         tasks for the armed forces in                    gy of Afghanistan is absolutely
    search for a new strategy con-       the theatre comes from the                       more than necessary. The aim

4
                                                Secondly, the standard practice,
                                                which has been applied as a sys-
                                                tem for building nations, used for
                                                fast selling of the idea about the
                                                “western story of democracy”, has
                                                melted in questioning the possibility
                                                of successfully accepting this idea in
                                                Afghanistan in a way that has been
                                                done so far.
                                                LONDON CONFERENCE:
                                                ONE STEP AHEAD?
                                                There have been two clearly distin-
                                                guished approaches since the begin-
                                                ning of the campaign in Afghanistan.
                                                They still exist; therefore, they cause
                                                problems in creating a successful
                                                story about Afghanistan. Although
                                                the attitude towards the modern
                                                threat of terrorism, which is used by
                                                Al-Qaeda, is to condemn them and
                                                other groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda, it
                                                has been evident that there are two
                                                distinct types of differences in the in-
                                                ternational legal approach on the ter-
                                                ritory of Afghanistan. Consequently,
                                                these differences are the foundation
                                                for building the diverse approach in
                                                Afghanistan. It does not mean that
                                                the international legal differences are
                                                the only reason for disagreements
                                                about Afghanistan, but only that they
                                                are the foundation of the disagree-
                                                ments. This was the easiest way
                                                to get an acceptable compromise
                                                among the allies at that moment.
                                                Namely, after 11 September, 2001,
                                                the justification of using deadly force,
                                                from the domain of inherent right of
                                                war (jus bellum), thus, the USA and
                                                one part of the allies who support the
                                                USA, based its right of self-defense
                                                on the UN Charter, Chapter 51. This
                                                has been recognized and confirmed
                                                by the UN Security Council twice,
                                                (resolutions number 1368 and 1373)
                                                and by NATO, EU, other regional or-
                                                ganizations and by wider world opin-
                                                ion. Nevertheless, a larger number of
                                                European allies led by Germany and
                                                France withheld themselves from the
                                                USA aggressive attitude towards
                                                dealing with the 9/11 attack. However,
                                                they have expressed support, justify-
                                                ing it through the second internation-
                                                al legal right of use of deadly force in
                                                Afghanistan, i.e. Article number 42
                                                from the UN Charter. On one hand,
                                                it was obvious that EU verbally sup-

INSTEAD OF DESTROYING IT                        ported the USA. On the other hand,
                                                EU behaved differently on the field.
                                                Instead of actual support to the mis-
                                                sion “Iraqi Freedom”, the ISAF mis-
 of this article is to show that there is       sion was started under the UN man-
 a need of deeper and more analytical           date. In this way, a gap has occurred
 approach to the London conference.             in the diplomatic cooperation, which
 If a serous analysis from a different          has been causing confusion among
 point of view was made, it would only          the operational forces in the theatre.
 confirm how much the “western coun-            ISAF has been stationed in the ring
 tries” are upset about the situation in        around Kabul, and hasn’t moved,
 Afghanistan. Two reasons generally             however, the “Iraqi Freedom” mission
 cause these worries, and that’s why            made a framework where the coali-
 they are going to be the topic of de-          tion forces and their partners, fought
 tailed analysis in the next part of this       against Al-Qaeda and Taliban forces,
 article.                                       in the rest of Afghanistan.
 Firstly, despite all initiatives of the tra-   Since 2005, the USA enforced the
 ditional western partners to “smooth           idea to join these two missions, and
 up” their differences concerning Af-           that confirmed the existence of prob-
 ghanistan, still, their national inter-        lems not only in the diplomatic field
 ests have been smothering the initial          (in this particular case in the interna-
 energy for improving and advancing             tional legal aspect) but also in the
 forward.                                       field of information, military opera-


                                                                                           5
                                               Nevertheless, this has not brought            were put forward at the last London
                                               to the solution of the problems. Due          conference. These ideas are in terms
                                               to the changes that have been made            of demilitarization of the approach,
                                               in the course of warfare, it has been         which is needed to meet the criteria
                                               proven that in this kind of situations,       of the common people, and give solu-
                                               purely military solution is merely 20         tions to noted problems. Resolutions
                                               percent of the problem (see more in           have been brought pointing out the
                                               David Galulla Counter-Insurgence War-         idea of using an indirect approach in-
                                               fare: Theory and Practice, 1964). It has      stead of a direct one, an unconven-
                                               become clear that in order to achieve         tional way of dealing with problems
                                               the success which was planned at the          instead of solid and conventional
                                               beginning, there must be legitimacy of        ways. This new approach would not
                                               the actions. It means that in this kind       destroy the Taliban system of resis-
                                               of situation, that problem is more po-        tance; on the contrary, it would set
                                               litical rather than military (this attitude   conditions for returning to normal life
                                                                               .
                                               was recognized by John F Kennedy,             and mutual cooperation.
                                               1961). In order to have successful solu-      The first thing that was done on the
                                               tion, there is a need to win over the         conference was making a scenario,
                                               hearts and the opinions of the people.        according to which the military oc-
                                               According to the father of this idea,         cupation would get “stretched” to 5
    tions and economic approach. As a          this includes the emotional part (the         more years. According to some state-
    result, the following few NATO sum-        heart) and the cognitive part (con-           ments given by the Afghan President,
    mits were characterized by sharp           science - opinions) of people (see more       Hamid Karazi for the BBC before the
    criticism. The USA criticized their co-    in: John Cloake, Templer, tiger of Ma-        start of the conference, the military
    alition partners for not responding to     laya: the life of field marshal Sir Gerald    occupation could be “stretched” up to
    the USA demands, “... proactive and        Templer”, London, Harrap, 1985). In           15 years. This means that Obama’s
    more determined approach instead           addition, in order to reach that goal,        plan to start withdrawing troops
    of the soft approach that the Euro-        the culture of the people should be           from Afghanistan in 2011 should be
    pean forces use”                           understood. In other words, there is          altered. Obama presented his view
    This kind of dispute resulted in an        a need to understand the perception           about this as a very skillful politician
    unexpected effect in the operational       of people, traditions, the way of living      and adjusted the interpretation of his
    aspect (military plan). The brutal, di-    and the real existing needs of people         plan as a very long story, although
    rect and conventional approach used        (advised by the Commander of the              many did not understand it quite well.
    by the USA in the operation “Ana-          forces in Afghanistan, General Stanley        He showed how his plan coincides
    conda” in 2002, created the new “Al-       McChrystal). Understanding these as-          with the idea of the USA, “gradually
    Qaeda”. Although the physical force        pects of life, is going to clarify some-      withdraw troops in one region at a
    of Al-Qaeda was seriously damaged,         thing that Lawrence tried to point out        time”, and all that …”depending on
    the operation “Anaconda” and the           in the early twenties of the last cen-        the conditions which should be es-
    reserved attitude of ISAF helped the       tury, about the Arabs (see more in T.E        timated by the leaders in the the-
    creation of the new “Al-Qaeda”, i.e.       Lawrence, “Twenty-seven Articles”,            atre”… starting from 2011.




                                               The Arab Bulletin, 20th August, 1917).        Obviously, political efforts have
    the idea of “Al-Qaeda”. It caused a        Thus, it is better for the Afghans to do      been done in order to achieve this
    general reflection and a turning point     something satisfactory on their own,          goal. The initiative to cooperate with
    of the warfare. From a purely physi-       rather than to have something done            some of the warlords who are re-
    cal and kinetic war in the field, it has   perfectly by some outside factor. It co-      lated to the Taliban, and moreover
    turned into a war where by manipu-         incides with the set goals of this mis-       to integrate them into the new gov-
    lating information, it remained to         sion, according to which, Afghanistan         ernment of Karazi is a serious step
    fight for ideas and for winning over       needs to get on its own feet and deal         ahead in the new indirect (instead
    the people. They failed to recognize       with problems and challenges on its           of the straight military) approach
    this change, though they tried to          own.                                          which is taken in Afghanistan. Ac-
    unite their efforts, and to overcome       It is crystal clear that there is a need      cording to Karazi, in order to have
    the differences after uniting their        of completely new way of dealing              political success the king of Saudi
    two missions into one. Instead, be-        with the problem. This is necessary           Arabia, Abdul Aziz could play an im-
    cause of the legal right that the US       because you need to keep in mind              portant role (King Abdulah bin Abdul-
    wanted to keep (acting in the line of      the above mentioned problems con-             Aziz of Saudi Arabia). Karazi said
    war, where the fight against terror-       nected to the approach as means to            ...”he should have a dominant role
    ism is considered to be an act of war)     accomplish legitimacy (understanding          in the process of peace making ...
    another compromise was made and            the importance of respecting the law,         praying together with other friends
    both missions were taken under the         cultural perception and political as-         in Afghanistan, above all with the
    US command.                                pects of the operations). Some ideas          friends from Pakistan”.


6
Establishing of the so-called rec-                                                          ence showed that there is a
onciliation council (peace jigra),                                                          need to pay more attention
supplemented by the council of                                                              and spend more time on the
the elders, will have an only aim                                                           democratic aspect of the prob-
to reconcile and integrate every-                                                           lem in Afghanistan. One of the
body who are willing to make                                                                reasons might be accepting
peace. Certain measures have                                                                the fact that democratization
been taken at the same time at                                                              of Afghanistan would not func-
the international level, so as to                                                           tion in the way that the “west-
demonstrate a determination                                                                 ern” countries wanted, there-
in the success of the plan (for                                                             fore, this is a very painful blow
instance, some diplomatic influ-                                                            to the “western idea”. In any
ence was used to remove the                                                                 case, no matter what, almost
names of five Taliban leaders                                                               all the problems might be si-
from the UN list of individuals                                                             lently included in some parts of
subject to sanctions measures).                                                             the initiatives and statements
Despite the political measures,                                                             given by the political represen-
taking into consideration the                                                               tatives before and after the
economic measures is also                                                                   conference. Without getting
a considerable step ahead.                                                                  into too many details by ana-
Around 650 million dollars have                                           2. Secretary
                                                                                            lyzing them, we could conclude
been planned for donation by         problems will be dealt with so                         that, those who support the
                                     as to cause the fulfilling of cer-   General ban
the USA, Japan, Great Britain                                             KI-Moon SuP-      idea to leave the Afghan peo-
and Germany on the confer-           tain conditions which should                           ple to decide about the way of
                                     be achieved (a statement given       PortS the
ence, to “bribe” over 12.000                                              IDea for a        building their country and their
soldiers who fight against the       for Financial Times). One Brit-      new StrateGy      independence, are louder and
coalition partners. According        ish diplomat, who wanted to          for afGhanI-      louder.
to the British Prime Minister,       remain anonymous, called this        Stan              Therefore, instead of a deduc-
Gordon Brown, the indirect           approach “a carrot and stick                           tive approach, strong central
approach can be implemented          approach”. By explaining this        3. every-Day      power, there is a need of an
when the international trust         method, the anonymous diplo-         afGhanIStan       inductive approach. It means
fund is used for offering alter-     mat actually showed the idea                           that the people believe in the
                                     of the conference, to integrate      4. anGela
natives as well as prevention                                             MerKel anD        local leaders. Thus, to win
of joining and supporting the        all instruments of power (di-                          people’s trust you need to win
                                     plomacy, information, military       haMID KarzaI
rebels.                                                                                     the trust of the local leaders
The military part has given its      forces and economy). He said,                          whom the people trust. That is
                                     “there will be 40 000 soldiers       6. laSt con-
share in the completely new                                               ference In        the only way to win back the
role which has been tried to         more in the theatre, whose           lonDon            trust of the people and make
be imposed by the new com-           goal is to prevent Taliban’s ma-                       all efforts put by the coalition
mander of the armed forces in        neuver. Money and the political      5. MInISter       forces understood by the lo-
                                     powerful posts which are of-         of DefenSe,
                                     fered to the warlords are the        zoran Kon-
                                     “carrot”. The military forces        janovSKI, an-
                                     who should dissuade the reb-         nounceD the
                                     els from joining are the “stick”.    DeterMIna-
                                     In this way, this conference is a    tIon of rePub-
                                     considerable step ahead in alter-    lIc of Mace-
                                                                          DonIa to taKe
                                     ing the approach when dealing        Part In the
                                     with the problem in Afghani-         PeaceKeePInG
                                     stan, which was mentioned at         MISSIon In
                                     the beginning of this analysis.      afGhanIStan
                                     What is left to be seen is how,      wIth larGer
                                     at the London conference, the        nuMber of
                                     participants approached the sec-     arMeD forceS
                                     ond problem which the coalition
                                     forces faced in Afghanistan.         7. PreSIDent
                                                                          of the uSa,
                                     DEMOCRATIZATION                      baracK obaMa
                                                                          anD the KInG
                                     OF AFGHANISTAN                       of SauDI ara-
                                     All analysis and reports pre-        bIa, abDul azIz
                                     sented at the London confer-


Afghanistan, general Stanley
McChrystal. Although he was                                                                 cal people, and that is how the
generally and harshly criticized                                                            new conference will be fruitful.
in the USA because of his soft-                                                             In any case, time will show how
ening of the rules of engage-                                                               and in what way all the priori-
ment, so that he could win the                                                              ties set on this conference will
people’s trust, McChrystal is-                                                              reflect on the situation in the
sued orders which support the                                                               theatre. This is very important
indirect approach. Giving the                                                               for the Republic of Macedonia
new orders to the military lead-                                                            because we are a part of these
ers in the theatre, McChrystal                                                              efforts, and we need to take
emphasized the need to un-                                                                  into consideration Macedonia’s
derstand the people and deal                                                                intensive presence in Afghani-
with problems “through the                                                                  stan. Moreover, the announce-
eyes of the people”. The key                                                                ment of increasing the number
point of this is preparing the                                                              of peacekeepers in this country
military part of the peacekeep-                                                             makes it even more important.
ers to follow this approach.
According to McChrystal, the                                                                      PhD Metodi Hadji-Janev


                                                                                                                                7
                                                IMPRESSIVE
                               THE PROGRESS OF THE ARM IS
    Interview




    with the Major General Michael Dubie,
    the commandant of the Vermont National Guard, USA
    General Sir, what is the purpose of your                “the reSPect we have    – 15 years ago we started with very
    visit to the Republic of Macedonia?                                             simple exchanges between our two
                                                            for the MeMberS of      countries. The most important benefit
    – This is my annual visit as a Command-                                         is the personal friendships and relations
    er of the Vermont National Guard, USA,                  the arM IS GettInG      that developed between the members
    but it is also an opportunity to express
    my gratitude to the soldiers of the Army
                                                            bIGGer anD bIGGer.      of the Army of Republic of Macedonia
                                                                                    and the members of the Vermont Na-
    of the Republic of Macedonia for their                  the rePutatIon of       tional Guard. These relations helped us
    deployment in the upcoming mission in                                           get the best preparations for the mu-
    Afghanistan.                                            the MaceDonIan          tual deployment in the army base. Only

    The Army of the Republic of Mace-
                                                            SolDIerS IS wIDely      through long term contacts that formed
                                                                                    personal and professional relations we
    donia has been cooperating with the                     Known anD well          can gain that level of respect and mu-
    Vermont National Guard for 15 years                                             tual trust that we now have.
    now. How do you assess this coopera-                    DocuMenteD for
    tion and what are the benefits of this                  theIr ServIce In Iraq   The result of this successful coopera-
    mutual cooperation?                                                             tion is the upcoming joint mission of
                                                            anD afGhanIStan”

8
the members of the Vermont National
Guard and the members of the special
units of ARM in Afghanistan. Are you
satisfied with the readiness of the
contingent for conducting this mis-
sion, which is in many ways, different
from the others?

– I am extremely satisfied with the
preparations and the training. This is
a very serious mission in very serious
times in Afghanistan. Nevertheless, I
am convinced that the formations are
well trained, well equipped and with
good leaders.

What do you think about the actual
safety situation in Afghanistan?


                                         9
                                                                                                   Since the beginning of the cooperation
                                                                                                   between the Vermont National
                                                                                                   Guard and the Army of Republic
                                                                                                   of Macedonia in 1995, over 200
                                                                                                   activities have been completed with
                                                                                                   participation of over 4000 members of
                                                                                                   the ARM and the Ministry of Defense.
                                                                                                   The Vermont National Guard is a
                                                                                                   partner of the ARM in the executing
                                                                                                   the activities for cooperation with the
                                                                                                   US Army are, coordinated through the
                                                                                                   Military-contact program, as a part
                                                                                                   of the overall bilateral cooperation
                                                                                                   between the two armies. Through the
                                                                                                   above mentioned Military program,
                                                                                                   the Vermont National Guard has
                                                                                                   significantly assisted the ARM in
                                                                                                   achieving the standards of the
                                                                                                   NATO-alliance.

     – Regarding the present situation, I would      – I am not familiar with any kind of in-
     say that it represents a challenge for us. Of   creasing the cooperation at this time.
     course, progress has been made, that can        The entire focus at the moment is at our
     be seen also through the media reports,         present mission. I think that after it be-
     but we still have a long journey ahead of       gins, we will start allocating resources
     us. New tactics and procedures must be          for something that is yet to follow re-
     implemented and that is what the new            lated to our cooperation.
     ISAF command has been doing in the past
     year. I would like to point out that this is    General Sir, you have visited the Re-
     a modified mission in Afghanistan. Gen-         public of Macedonia on several occa-
     eral McChrystal has made a number of            sions. What was your greatest impres-
     changes in the deployment of the army in        sion during your first visit and how do
     Afghanistan. What we will do now is the         you describe the present situation of
     so-called combined action, in partnership       our country?
     with the Afghan forces, which still requires
     some mentoring and training.                    – My first visit here was in 1996. Today,
                                                     from what I have seen around Skopje, I
     General Sir, the Republic of Macedo-            noticed there is great progress concern-
     nia, even though not a full member of           ing the economy and the free market,
     NATO, actively participates in the mis-         and generally in the country. Regarding
     sions lead by the Alliance. How do you          the Army of the Republic of Macedonia,
     value the contribution of the ARM in            the progress that has been made is yet
     the international missions, especially          more radical. What is impressive is that
     the ISAF mission in Afghanistan?                a great number of ARM members have
                                                     trained with other armed forces, the
     – I already mentioned the professional-         armed forces of the USA, Great Britain,
     ism of the ARM. A progress towards the          Germany, Turkey, Greece and the armies
     Alliance, without a doubt will be made,         of all Balkan countries. It is exactly that
     but that is out of my hands, and that           kind of international experience that cre-
     well-known situation must be resolved.          ates a first class army. Also, I would like
     What is clear to me is that the ARM is          to point out that the progress in the
     a very professional army and their mem-         non-commissioned officer corps is sub-
     bers have been training for years accord-       stantial. The NCOs that I meet today are
     ing to NATO standards.                          just as trained and prepared as their col-
                                                     leagues, the NCOs of the other armies.
     Are there any future plans about increas-       That is of great importance for the devel-
     ing the bilateral American-Macedonian           opment of an army.
     cooperation in terms of the military?                Zdravko Rizovski/Ivan Petrushevski




10
2




                                                                                                           info
                                                                                                          инфо
      First Phase of the Project “ARM - My True Home”
           n the first phase of the       vey the Army members respond-           the central city area of Kumanovo    Konjanovski handed over the
           project “ARM – My True         ed what size apartment they want        281 apartments are expected to       “Strategy for Defence of the
           Home” according to the sur-    to buy. Asked about the price, the      be built with an area of 16,855      Republic of Macedonia” to the
           vey conducted among the        Minister expressed expectations         square meters, and in Shtip in the   President and Supreme Com-
           members of the Army of         that they will be much cheaper          suburb of Baba 279 apartments        mander of the Armed Forces,
    the Republic of Macedonia there       than the commercial ones. “Hav-         with an area of 16,340 square        Gjorgje Ivanov in his residency
    is an interest for the construction   ing in mind that they will be built     metres. In Skopje in the “Ilinden”   on Vodno.
    of 4,300 apartments with a total      on the territories of the former        barracks there should be 3,284       At this solemn ceremony Min-
    area of 252,670 square meters.        barracks, in certain municipalities     apartments with 192,990 square       ister Konjanovski emphasised
    The Minister of Defence Zoran         on state-owned land, and with           meters and in Veles in the frame-    that the Strategy is of a particu-
    Konjanovski at the announce-          the participation in the project by     work of the barracks, 126 apart-     lar significance for the country.
    ment of the results from the first    the mayors, they will be relieved       ments with 6,900 square meters.      “We have an exclusively signifi-

                                                                                  2
    phase of the project noted that       of utility charges for construction,                                         cant document that needs to
    the Government enables the ARM        we expect the price to be much                                               be updated every five years,
    members to have their own home        lower than for the commercial                                                and with the coming of a new
    under exclusively favourable condi-   apartments”, said Konjanovski.          new StrateGy                         President and Supreme Com-
    tions with a low price, opportunity   The initial interest, according to      for Defence                          mander, to have its own supple-
    for payment in the next 10 years      him, represents evidence on the         On February 23, 2010 the
    and only 30% down payment             justification of the project and mo-                                         ment”.
                                                                                  Minister of Defence Zoran
    without obligations for interest.     tive for a more engaged approach
    “With the project ‘ARM - My True      towards it. After the adoption of
    Home’ the costs for paying rent       the Law on Service in the ARM, he
    and transport are decreased in        announced that preparations will
    the Ministry of Defence, and the      begin on a Rulebook for acquiring
    ARM and MOD members will              an apartment and a programme
    benefit from this at the same         on the basis of which the project
    time”, said Minister Konjanovski      documentation will be prepared.
    during the press-conference of the    In the first phase, in cooperation
    Government of the Republic of         with the local self-governments,
    Macedonia. According to him, the      locations have been determined
    project will be carried out without   and a survey has been conducted
    additional fiscal implications on     with all ARM members. In the
    the budget of the MOD and the         municipality of Tetovo construc-
    Government, and the construction      tion will take place in the former
    companies, banks and local self-      barracks, and the initial interest is
    government will benefit. Minister     for the building of 146 apartments
    Konjanovski informed that the         with a total apartment area of
    construction of the apartments        8,905 square meters. In Kichevo
    will begin in October or November     they will be built in a location that
    the latest, and are with different    is part of the barracks, and there is
    size from about 35, 55 and 70         a request for 94 apartments with
    square meters, and with the sur-      an area of 5,500 square meters. In

                                                                                                                                                            11
     This is a second Strategy ad-      mander of the ARM Gjorge Iva-
     opted in the Republic of Mace-     nov on the combat readiness
     donia, 12 years after the first    of ARM, on the implementa-
     one was adopted. Regarding         tion of the plans and tasks for
     the size and scope of work         2009 in line with the functional
     during the preparation of this     areas of the ARM related to
     Strategy the Minister stated:      personnel management, force
     “In order to prepare a docu-       protection, operations, training
     ment of this kind, it is neces-    and exercises, logistic support,
     sary to address several strate-    signals and communications
     gic issues and challenges. We      and budgeting, as well as the
     have analysed all these issues     compatibility with the NATO
     and strategic positions of the     standards for 2009.
     Republic of Macedonia, as well     After the briefing, President
     as all the missions we have al-    Ivanov stated that he was in-
     ready determined, and these        formed about the participation
     answers were the basis for         in peace missions and the level
     building this Strategy.”           of their contribution for Mace-
     In the preparation of the Strat-   donia’s reputation in the inter-
     egy, besides experts from the      national community. President
     MOD and GS of the ARM, ex-         Ivanov emphasised for the          tries in the Republic of Mace-       supports Macedonia’s NATO
     perts from the NATO Advisory       press that during the Secu-        donia – Netherlands, Norway          and EU membership.
     Team were involved as well.        rity Conference in Munich the      and Switzerland, Simone Filip-       The Medical Training Centre
     The Minister announced that        participants were impressed        pini, Kjetil Paulsen and Nicole      was formed in 2000 within the
     in the forthcoming months          about Macedonia’s participa-       Wyrsch, respectively.                Military Hospital, as a Medical
     the Long-term Defence Devel-       tion in the peace mission in       The total donation for the           Training Centre for the neces-
     opment Plan will be handed         Afghanistan, although Mace-        Centre is worth approximately        sities of ARM and armies from
     over as well, which is another     donia is not a NATO member.        EUR 85,000, of which Swit-           the region. Approximately
     document of a particular sig-      Minister Konjanovski stated        zerland provides EUR 55,000,         1300 persons have been
     nificance.                         that he informed President         with Norway and the Nether-          trained so far, 300 of them be-

     3
                                        Ivanov that Strategy for Army      lands allocating EUR 30,000.         ing members of armies from
                                        Development has already been       The financial aid by these three     the region. Thus far this Cen-
                                        prepared, and in the forthcom-     countries for development of         tre was extensively assisted
     BRIEFING ON THE COMBAT             ing months the focus will be       the Medical Training Centre is       with training materials by the
     READINESS OF ARM                   put on creating a long-term        a confirmation for the excel-        Swiss Confederation and the
     On February 9, 2010 a briefing     plan for ARM development,          lent cooperation and, above          Kingdom of Norway, and by
     on the combat readiness of         which will be “Constitution of     all, their support for the efforts   the financial support in which
     the ARM for 2009 was held in       ARM and MOD”, on the basis         which MOD and ARM put in             Netherlands will take part real
     the MOD. The briefing on the       of the accepted partnership        strengthening of capacities of       opportunities will be created
     combat readiness is a regular      goals from NATO.                   general medical training and         for the Medical Training Centre
                                                                           special training before mis-         to become a modern medical
                                                                           sions.                               training regional centre for the
                                                                           Minister Konjanovski extend-         necessities of ARM and armies
                                                                           ed his gratitude for the long-       in the region.

                                                                                                                5
                                                                           standing assistance provided
                                                                           by the three countries. For the
                                                                           past ten years they have been
                                                                           unselfishly helping the devel-       thIS year IS DecISIve for
                                                                           opment of this Centre.               afGhanIStan
                                                                           “However, employees deserve          The Minister of Defence Zoran
                                                                           biggest praise due to their ef-      Konjanovski on February 5,
                                                                           forts, which have raised the         2010 visited Istanbul, Turkey,
                                                                           Centre at a high level”, he          where he attended the Infor-
                                                                           noted, adding that this will         mal Meeting of Ministers of
                                                                           also represent an incentive          Defence of NATO countries and
                                                                           for the prospective declared         countries which are not NATO
                                                                           more complex missions such           members, but contribute in
                                                                           as ROLE 2 missions, in which         ISAF .
                                                                           medical personnel for a light        The Meeting is a regular coor-
                                                                           manoeuvrable field hospital          dination of the international
                                                                           should be provided.                  community’s activities for
                                                                           “This is how a well equipped         achieving safe, prosperous
     obligation of the GS of the
     ARM, whereas the President
     of the Republic of Macedonia
                                        4
                                        A MEDICAL TRAINING
                                                                           regional training centre in the
                                                                           military health area should
                                                                           look like in accordance with
                                                                           NATO standards. The new fa-
                                                                                                                and self-sustainable Afghani-
                                                                                                                stan. The Meeting of Ministers
                                                                                                                was focused on the progress
                                                                                                                in achieving appropriate condi-
     and Supreme Commander of           CENTAR IN LINE WITH                cilities and the ones to be con-     tions for transferring the re-
     the ARM is being briefed on        NATO STANDARDS                     structed in the future would         sponsibility for the safety of
     the combat readiness of the        On February 18, 2010 in the Mil-   help promote the institution         Afghanistan to the Afghanistan
     Army in the past year.             itary-Medical Centre in Skopje     into a regional training centre”,    authorities, as well as to the
     At the briefing, the Chief of      a donation to the refurbished      pointed out Konjanovski.             achieved progress in the imple-
     General Staff of the ARM           section of the Medical Training    “Norway and Macedonia have           mentation of the initial estima-
     Lieutenant General Miroslav        Centre within the Military-Med-    close cooperation in the field       tion of the ISAF Commander,
     Stojanovski, the Commander         ical Centre formational struc-     of defence and security and          General Stanley McChrystal.
     of the Joint Operations Com-       ture was handed over.              we support the ambitions of          “This year is decisive for Af-
     mand of the ARM General Ma-        The ceremony was attended          Macedonia to become a NATO           ghanistan, and Macedonia
     jor Zoran Dimov, part of the key   by the Minister of Defence         member”, said Ambassador             through its participation in the
     personnel of the GS of ARM,        Zoran Konjanovski, the Chief       Paulsen.                             ISAF mission will continue in
     as well as the Defence Minister    of General Staff of the ARM        Dutch Ambassador Simone              the future to contribute for the
     Zoran Konjanovski, briefed the     Lieutenant General Miroslav        Filippini stressed that the inter-   stabilization of the situation
     President of the Republic of       Stojanovski as well as the am-     national community strongly          in the Central-Asian country”,
     Macedonia and Supreme Com-         bassadors of the donor coun-

12
stated Macedonian Minister of        operations in the world, confirm                                          missions, tasks, equipment
Defence Zoran Konjanovski.           that Macedonia succeeded in                                               and future plans of the units
In the margins of the meeting        merging into an equal credible                                            at the meetings, where experi-
Konjanovski held several brief       partner of NATO and the EU”,                                              ences on training and planning
informal meetings with his col-      stated Konjanovski. Macedonia,                                            were exchanged. In the course
leagues, where he received           as he stated, contributes to-                                             of its stay, the EUCOM delega-
their support in the efforts that    wards global security and world                                           tion had an opportunity to visit
Macedonia invests in the road        peace through the participation                                           some of the cultural landmarks
towards full NATO integration,       in missions led by NATO, the EU                                           in the Republic of Macedonia.
but also recognition for the con-    and the United Nations, with                                                          Biljana Stevchevska

                                                                                                               9
tribution, which it gives in the     about three percent of its land
ISAF mission.                        forces.
The Macedonian Minister met          The ambassador of the King-
the NATO Secretary General,          dom of Netherlands in Skopje                                              EXCHANGE OF
Anders Fogh Rasmussen, with          Simone Filippini believes that if                                         EXPERIENCES IN THE PART
the American Secretary of De-        in the future Macedonia needs                                             OF LOGISTICS
fence, Robert Gates, as well as      to participate with equipment, it                                         A work meeting was held in
with the Ministers of Defence        will need more finances intended                                          the Host Nation Support Coor-
of Norway, Slovenia, Spain and       for this. “These are tough times                                          dination Centre in the barracks
Italy, Grete Faremo, Ljubica         and all NATO members are think-                                           “Strasho Pindjur” in Petrovec,
Jelushic, Carme Piqueras and         ing how to redistribute the de-         members who served in the         with General Major Patricia
Ignazio La Russa. Rasmussen          fence budget. Macedonia, who            South--Eastern Europe Bri-        McQuistion, the 21st Theatre
confirmed that he received an        is still implementing the reforms,      gade – SEEBRIG. The eleven        Sustainment Command com-
invitation from the Macedonian       is in an even more difficult situ-      members of ARM were award-        manding general.
leadership to visit Macedonia        ation because in line with those        ed the SEEBRIG Medal by the       The guest was welcomed by
and that in due time it will be      reforms it needs to also procure        SEEBRIG Commander, Briga-         General Major Zoran Lekovski,
realized. He also held a meet-       equipment and that represents           dier General Ziber Dusku.         and the Chief of G-4 in the GS
ing with the British Secretary of    an additional burden in relation        The ceremony was also at-         of ARM, Colonel Kiro Ristovski
State for Defence, Robert Ain-       to the finances. This is why a          tended by the Minister of         and the Commander of the
sworth, with whom he spoke           long-term defence development           Defence Zoran Konjanovski,        Logistic Support Command,
about the essential things that      plan needs to exist where plans         the Chief of GS of the ARM,       Colonel Blagojcho Pejchinov
the Macedonian peacekeepers          for the procurement of equip-           Lieutenant General Miroslav       were present at the part of the
require in Afghanistan. Kon-         ment will be included”, stated          Stojanovski, part of the SEE-     meeting regarding logistics.
janovski received a confirma-        Filippini. Currently, according         BRIG personnel, families of the   Major Viktor Zlatkov and Major
tion that the Macedonian sol-        to her, Macedonia is giving the         awarded ARM members, rep-         Snezana Olevska presented
diers will receive the required      most important contribution by          resentatives of MOD and GS        the ARM transformation and
logistics support from the           providing personnel for the mis-        of ARM and other guests.          achievements in the part of
Great Britain contingent.            sions. “If in the future it is estab-                                     logistics before the USA del-
Afghanistan was the central
topic during the informal meet-
ing in Istanbul, which was
opened by the Secretary Gen-
                                     lished that it should also contrib-
                                     ute with equipment, then things
                                     will become more complicated,
                                     because with all the changes
                                                                             8
                                                                             worKInG vISIt
                                                                                                               egation representatives. After
                                                                                                               that, additional discussions
                                                                                                               followed which introduced the
                                                                                                               opportunity to broaden the
eral of the Alliance Rasmussen.      in the security challenges in the       A delegation of the United        cooperation between both
He stressed that 36 countries        forthcoming period, such a re-          States European Command           armies through activities that
that have their own peacekeep-       quirement will be imposed for           (EUCOM), led by Brigadier Gen-    will enable exchange of expe-
ers in ISAF have offered rein-       all NATO members and for the            eral Joe Ramirez - HQ Europe-     riences from this exceptionally
forcement in the mission. The        Republic of Macedonia”, added           an Command Deputy for Plans       important segment.
                                                                             and Strategy (J-5), recently

                                                                                                               10
Ministers also addressed the         ambassador Filippini.                   paid a working visit to Macedo-                               Е.Т.
situation in Kosovo during the       Minister Konjanovski stated that        nia and the Macedonian Army.
forum.                               due to the world economic crises,       The delegation visited units
The informal meeting was par-        the budget in all NATO member           that are part of the ARM Joint    INSPECTION OF A
ticipated by Ministers of De-        states has been decreased, not          Operations Command: the Mili-     SPECIFIED AREA
fence form 44 countries which        just in Macedonia. “But maybe           tary Police Battalion and ARM     Inspection teams from the
contribute in ISAF .                 now is the moment to discuss            AirWING, as well as the Special   armed forces of Republic of

6
                                     about this in the Ministry and in       Operations Regiment in “Ilin-     Bulgaria, the Russian Federa-
                                     the Army and to see where we            den” barracks in Skopje, where    tion, Republic of Serbia and a
                                     can save and to use those saved         it attended a demonstrative       representative from the armed
foruM on the                         money for procuring equipment           military exercise within this     forces of the Kingdom of Den-
contrIbutIon of                      and training for ARM members”,          unit’s training.                  mark paid a working visit and
MaceDonIa towarDS                    added Konjanovski. With the             Guests were informed on the       carried out an inspection of a
Global SecurIty anD                  announced increase in the con-                                            specified area in accordance
worlD Peace                          tribution in the ISAF mission in
“The Republic of Macedonia is        Afghanistan with additional two
strongly committed to meet its       platoons that together with the
strategic determination to be-       National Guard of the American
come part of NATO and the Eu-        State of Vermont will join in the
ropean Union and this is a goal      training and mentorship of the
to which we are not retreating”,     Afghan Security Forces, Mace-
stated Minister of Defence Zoran     donia will participate with 260
Konjanovski during his address       peacekeepers, or four percent
to the cadets of the Military        deployed army forces.

                                     7
Academy on the Forum “Contri-
bution of the Republic of Mace-
donia towards Global Security
and World Peace”, held on Febru-     ARM MEMBERS RECEIVE
ary 3, 2010, at which, besides the   SEEBRIG ACHIEVEMENT
cadets, were present military at-    MEDALS
tachés accredited in our country.    On February 22, in the Army
“The achievements in the seg-        Home in Skopje, a ceremony
ment of defence, most evident        was held on the occasion
through the large contribution of    of awarding “A SEEBRIG
our country towards the peace        Achievement Medal” to ARM

                                                                                                                                                  13
     with the Vienna Document
     1999 on February 11, 2010, in
     the First Mechanized Infantry
                                          about the changes in the inter-
                                          national strategic environment
                                          after the ’90-ies, which led to
                                                                               legal aspects of the contempo-
                                                                               rary counter-insurgency opera-
                                                                               tions in Afghanistan (European
                                                                                                                     14
                                                                                                                     from the activities of ororM
     Brigade in the barracks “Jane        re-evaluation of all the issues      perspectives and approaches as        DIGnIfIeD obServance
     Sandanski” in Shtip. The in-         pertaining to military organiza-     opposite to the US approach),         The Executive Board of ORORM
     spection teams were accom-           tion, including military leader-     dilemmas regarding rules of           from Kumanovo, in cooperation
     panied by a team from the            ship, military professionalism       conduct in ISAF missions and          with the Presidency of Union
     Arms Control and Verification        principles, application of the       “Enduring Freedom” operations,        of Fighters from the National
     Department of MOD, as well           leadership-model for appoint-        experiences regarding manners         Liberation War of Macedonia,
     as teams from GS of ARM and          ing officers, for the leaders to     of dealing with the local popula-     is an organizer of the traditional
     JOC.                                 be able to apply the so called       tion in the military operations,      Karposh Night as a symbol of
     The purpose was inspection           ‘mission commanding model’           the significance of SOFA agree-       respect for the legendary Com-
     of a specified area in the First     clearly and precisely on a tac-      ments etc. In addition, case          mander of the partisan battalion
     Mechanized Infantry Brigade in       tical and operational level”,        studies were analysed through         from Kumanovo “Orce Nikolov”,
     the area of arms control and         emphasised Prof. Dr. Gjorgji         which participants shared own         the legendary hero Hristijan
     verification, in accordance with     Malkovski with reference to          experiences from the past             Todorovski - Karposh. This digni-
     the obligations arising from         this book, published in Skopje       peace operations.                     fied observance, held on Febru-
     the Vienna Document 1999 re-         in 2010.                             What is of a special importance       ary 6, 2010 in the Culture Centre
     garding arms control and veri-       The book is divided into four        and what gave a special mean-         “Trajko Prokopiev”, represented
     fication.                            segments that chronologically        ing to the seminar, beside the        66 years from his heroic death
     The inspection of the specified      and thematically create a re-        mass international presence,          in the village of Biljacha on Feb-
     area was carried out by an in-       markably synchronized whole,         was the address of the new di-        ruary 7, 1944.
     spection team consisting of          with and easy and recogniz-          rector of the US Institute, who       In the crowded hall of the Cul-
     three members, led by team           able writing style. Each of the      stressed the importance of the        ture Centre were present many
     leaders from the armed forces        events elaborated and anal-          seminar and expressed warm            officers and non-commissioned
     of Republic of Serbia, Lieuten-      ysed step by step by a con-          gratitude to the Ministry of De-      officers in the reserve, survived
     ant Colonel Dragan Stojanovic,       temporary military-theoretical       fence of Republic of Macedonia        fighters, activists from the Union
     from the armed forces of Re-         writing style is easily under-       for the assistance in this project.   of Fighters, ARM representatives

                                                                               13
     public of Bulgaria Lieutenant        standable for the readers, and                                             and citizens from Kumanovo,
     Colonel Gencho Basharov, and         will undoubtedly find its place                                            including: President of ORORM,
     from the armed forces of the         in the studying of contempo-                                               Prof. Dr. Gjorgji Malkovski, del-
     Russian Federation Lieutenant        rary military doctrines in Mace-     PLANNING PROCESS FOR                  egation from the Main Board
     Colonel Nikolay Bugrovskiy.          donia and abroad.                    THE EXERCISE “BALKAN                  of Union of Fighters from the
     The team from the Verification                         Z. Janakievski     STAR 2010”                            National Liberation War of Mace-

                                          12
     and Armament Control Depart-                                              The planning process for the          donia, the first Chief of General
     ment of MOD of Republic of                                                forthcoming exercise “Balkan          Staff of ARM LTC General Mitre
     Macedonia and GS of ARM                                                   Star 2010” has started with           Arsovski (retired), the President
     was led by Colonel Zlatko On-        PREPARATION FOR THE                  the realization of conferences        of the Union of Army Veterans,
     chevski and Lieutenant Colonel       PROSPECTIVE OPERATIONS               and workshops in the Training         General Major Ilija Nikolovski (re-
     Tomislav Rizeski.                    IN AFGHANISTAN                       Centre “Pepelishte” in the past       tired), the President of the Ku-
     At the final briefing, the inspec-   An international seminar on the
     tion team leaders for evalua-        topic “International Legal As-
     tion expressed their gratitude       pects in the Fight against Terror-
     for the pleasant stay in the         ism: Preparation for Prospective
     First Mechanized Infantry Bri-       Operations in Afghanistan” was
     gade and mentioned that the          held in hotel “Metropol” in Ohrid,
     stated condition is in accor-        from 17 to 22 January, 2010,
     dance with the provisions from       within the cooperation involving
     the Vienna Document 1999.            Ministry of Defence of Republic

     11
                    Zoran Janakievski     of Macedonia, the US Embassy
                                          in our country and the US De-
                                          fence Institute of International
     LEADERSHIP AND                       Legal Studies.
     MILITARY LEADERSHIP                  60 officers and civilians from:
     CHARACTERISTICS                      Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ro-          period. This exercise will be         manovo Municipality Council, Vik-
     “Leadership in General and           mania, Turkey, Slovakia, Serbia,     held from October 24 to No-           tor Cvetkovski, the Commander
     Military Leadership Character-       Slovenia, Montenegro, Croatia        vember 3, 2010, in the Military       of the Third Infantry Brigade,
     istics” is the title of the book     and the USA participated in the      Range “Krivolak”, in the Train-       Colonel Vladimir Bojmacaliev,
     whose author is Brigadier Gen-       seminar. It is important to em-      ing Centre “Pepelishte”, in the       the representative from Joint
     eral M.A. Dimche Petrovski.          phasise that the key personnel       barracks “Ilinden” in Skopje and      Operations Command, Lieuten-
     The launching ceremony was           from ARM members preparing           “Jane Sandanski” in Shtip and         ant Colonel Toni Stojanovski, the
     held in the barracks “Jane San-      to go on a peace operations in       at the Airport “Petrovec”.            presidents from the ORORM
     danski” in Shtip, in the atten-      Afghanistan participated in the      The military exercise “Balkan         organizational units from Kisela
     dance of Deputy Minister of          seminar as well.                     Star 2010”, by the number of          Voda (Nikola Gjurovski), from
     Defence Emil Dimitriev, Briga-       Professors from the USA and          personnel and participation           Chair (Dushko Bojchovski), from
     dier General Kiro Galazovski,        Macedonia, as well as experts        of land and air force compo-          Gazi Baba (Dushko Naskovski),
     Prof. Dr. Gjorgji Malkovski, part    from MOD were presenters of          nent is the biggest and the           the national hero Vladimir Todo-
     of the mayors from the area of       the seminar appropriate topics.      most complicated exercise so          rovski’s nephew, as well as the
     responsibility, high military and    At the seminar, among other,         far carried out with the ARM          Karposh’s comrade from the
     civilian guests and the media.       was discussed about the global       units, and 1200 ARM soldiers          “Orce Nikolov” battalion, Kraljo
     “In order to write this book it is   warfare change, counter-insur-       will participate in it.               Miloshevski.
     necessary to have knowledge          gency operations, international      The conference and the work-          At the opening of this cer-
                                                                               shops were opened and led             emony, the President of OOE
                                                                               by the director of the exercise,      of ORORM in Kumanovo and
                                                                               Colonel Mitre Stojanov. Lieu-         member of the Executive Board
                                                                               tenant Colonel Gjoko Maksimov         of the ORORM Assembly, Ra-
                                                                               is responsible for the complete       domir Karevski, addressed the
                                                                               preparation of the activities         attendants. After that, the his-
                                                                               arising from NATO level evalua-       torian Bogdan Tanevski spoke
                                                                               tions and self-evaluation level 2     about Hristijan Todorovski – Kar-
                                                                               with the evaluation team.             posh’s biography.
                                                                                                            Z.J.                   Zhivko Trajanovski


14
WONDERS

GERMANY
OF NAZI




SUPERWEAPONS THAT “FROZE THE BLOOD” OF THE ALLIES
     ermany versus the world. In the for-     ders of World War II, highly sophisticated   had dazzling power. It is logical to con-
     ties of the last century, one of the     weapons which, if put into mass use,         clude that the increased propaganda in
     darkest periods of human history,        would have fully changed the outcome of      Germany, especially after 1943 when the
     this thought was the undisputed          the war.                                     Nazi began to undergo severe damages
truth. The second big war, initiated by the                                                and losses on battlefields, tried to beau-
dictatorial regime of Nazi Germany, clear-    NEW POWERFUL WEAPONS:                        tify the facts related to the development
ly noted that the technological superi-       REALITY OR FICTION?                          of these weapons. Despite this, the
ority of an army is one of the essential      Immediately after the end of WWII, the       facts show that Nazi Germany since the
factors for rapid and effective removal of    terrible German weapons that were spo-       start of the war was in a major techno-
clearly established state boundaries at       ken for some time were the focal point       logical advantage over the allied forces.
the time. On one occasion the notorious       of interest for many scientists, but also    Hitler, however, very successfully used
Adolf Hitler, addressing his army said,       the world’s highest-circulation magazines    the evident technological superiority for
“We have unbeatable aircrafts and sub-        and tabloids that were the final destina-    presenting Germany in an even more
marines, colossal tanks and cannons,          tion of many rumors and assumptions.         frightening light and for provoking even
unimaginably powerful rockets and             But the question which occupied every-       greater fear among the allied forces than
bomb whose destructive power will sur-        one whether they were really incred-         the power of the Nazi weapons. One
prise the entire world ... We only have to    ible weapons in process of production,       example is the occupation of the castle
wait these weapons to be completed.”          remained open. However, we must not          Eben Emael (Belgium), where on a great
Here, we will introduce the German won-       forget titanic Goebbels machinery which      surprise to the Allies, the Crooked Cross

                                                                                                                                        15
     was raised after only 24 hours of
     the invasion of this Western Euro-
     pean country. Hitler linked it with
     the use of the new German super
     weapon called Angriffsmittel, for
     which no information was publi-
     cized at that time. It was later re-
     vealed that the weapon was not
     even a little more sophisticated
     than a typically explosive charge.
     But Hitler’s words had completed
     their task. Allies were really afraid
     of the new Nazi super weapons.
     A-BOMB OF THE THIRD REICH
     Astonishing, but true. The pow-
     erful Nazi machinery, according
     to all data, had a dead heat with
     the United States in the field of
     development of the atom bomb.           which is only 0.7% of the natural                       equivalent to uranium 235”, and
     However, the interest of en-                                                   Photo on
                                             uranium-238 is million times more                       hereinafter a description is given
     ergy released by the separation         explosive than conventional ex-        PaGe 15 (cover   about the creation of the par-
     of ions of uranium began even           plosives. Even more interesting        PaGe Photo)      ticularly important chain reaction.
     before the war - in 1938. Two           is that it says that the nuclear       vertIcal lIft-   “When the element 94 is placed
     scientists, Otto Hahn and Fritz         reactor can be used for creation       off – ba 349     in one location, such as a bomb,
     Shtrassmann, were the first wit-        of plutonium, which can also be        „natter“         most of the neutrons produced
     nesses of the process of nuclear        used as nuclear fuel. According                         by nuclear fission will be those
     fission, and then Lise and Otto         to the report, the critical mass to    1. one of the    that will enable a continuous fis-
     Meitner Frich explained the theo-       create this type of weapon was         MoSt faScI-      sion process.” It is “de facto” the
     retical mechanism of the process        estimated to 10-100 kg, which cor-     natInG nazI      way a plutonium bomb works.
     and pointed out the high energy         responded to the assumption by         ProjectS the
     that is released at that point.         the American scientists (2-100 kg).                     WITCH HUNT OR ...?
     Some information says it was                                                   flyInG DISc
                                             Another document that confirms         (ufo)            Besides all found drawings and
     the achievements of German sci-         the thesis that the German scien-                       reports of the German Army and
     entists that were blasting cap to       tists knew about the composition                        scientists, the basic question
     start the joint program to create                                              2. the fIrSt
                                             and the manner, in which pluto-                         remains - did the Nazi have in
     an atomic bomb, first by the Brit-      nium was used, was found in the        jet In the       their hands the most destructive
     ish TUBE ALLOYS project, and            archives of the Soviet Union. It is    worlD –          weapon, or did they have a func-
     then through the famous project         an initial version of the patent by    he-176           tional atomic bomb?
     known as MANHATTAN.                     the scientist Von Veinsacker from                       The answer to this probably is
                                             1941 which clearly indicates that      3. he-162        “yes”. Adolf Hitler had in his ar-
     KNOWLEDGE = POWER                       he knew exactly how to use the                          senal an atom bomb, but it was
     The basic question is: How much         plutonium (in this case it is called   4. the re-       primitive and difficult to adjust
     did German scientists know about        element 94). “Manufacturing            MaInInG of       for air discharge. The information
     the process of creating the bomb?       the element 94 in large enough         the natter’S     said that nuclear tests were car-
     Several authors carrying out the        quantities is best to be done by                        ried out at the end of WWII on an
     tests in the years after World War                                             fIrSt un-
                                             a uranium machine, i.e. a nuclear      SucceSSful       island in the Baltic Sea called Ru-
     II concluded that the scientist         reactor. Hence the element 94                           gen and on mainland, about 100
     Heisenberg and his colleagues                                                  flIGht “
                                             can in a very easy chemical way                         km south of Berlin in dense for-
     failed to understand the process        be isolated from the uranium”, is                       est. According to some sources,
     of the atomic bomb function.            written in the patent. Von Vein-                        although those Hitler bombs did
     This is claimed in the survey con-      sacker clarifies that this plutonium                    not have the destructive power of
     ducted by the U.S. Army called          can be used for creating a power-                       “the little boy” and “the fat man”
     “ALSO S - studies of the creation       ful bomb as well. “If we take into                      even close, several hundred peo-
     of the German Bomb”. The same           account what the ratio of energy                        ple from concentrate camps died
     statement is outlined in the book       per unit mass is , this explosive                       as a result of performing these
     “Heisenberg and Nazi Atomic             is ten million times more power-                        tests in their near surroundings.
     Bomb Project, 1939-1945”, sup-          ful than any other explosives, or                       However, the world was a wit-
     plemented by the opinion that
     the main problem was keeping
     the chain reaction in which fast
     neutrons emitted by uranium or
     plutonium nucleus cause a fission
     reaction. It said that the Germans
     failed to find out that the pluto-
     nium which is produced in the pro-
     cess of obtaining uranium can be
     used as nuclear fuel. However, the
     overall information is absolutely
     contradictory. Namely, in Febru-
     ary 1942, officials from the Ger-
     man Army responsible for weap-
     ons development described the
     progress of the uranium project
     in a report called “Getting energy
     from uranium”, which was discov-
     ered in the penultimate decade of
     the XX century. The report clearly
     states that pure uranium-238


16
ness to a great nuclear explosion by Nazi      a height of 12.400 m, while in horizontal      the allied forces’ attacks. But that does
Germany. This is likely due to not only        flight it reached a speed of 2000km/h,         not mean that the fighter was not suf-
the large initial successes by the German      which was a great success at that time.        ficiently powerful. On the contrary, it
Army on all battlefields but also the short    According to the English historian Henry       showed excellent results. In 1944 Cap-
time for development of such a terrifying      Stevens, there were 15 prototypes which        tain Oleinic near Leipzig managed to hit
weapon when they found that the war            had propellers on the bottom part and          four Allied bombers just with one Me-
changed the course in favor of the Allies.     jet openings on all sides of the rotating      163 B in less than five minutes. Some of
                                               disk. However, so far there have been no       the remaining projects that caused fear
“frozen” boMb                                  data that flying objects were used on the      among opponents which are worthy to
Certain information show that Hitler and       battlefield, and the main reasons behind       be mentioned are He-162 (construction
his associates were interested in creating     that are the lack of necessary materials       started on September 24, 1944, and the
a bomb whose effect is quite opposite of       for construction, engineering problems         first test flights in December the same
that of conventional weapons. The inter-       and major successes of the allied military     year reached a speed of 840 km / h), Ba-
est was focused on a bomb whose ther-          forces on the battlefields.                    8-349 and certainly, Ba-349 A (also called
mal indicators were endothermic, that                                                         NATER or BELOUSHKA).
is with a detonation would be released         FIRST JET PLANE
extremely low rather than high tempera-        Achievements of Nazi technology can            “BELOUSKA” ATTACKS
ture. The main objective of such a bomb        clearly be recognized in the construction      Hunters of the type Ba-349 A (NATER)
- instantly freezing a large area of land of   of conventional aircraft as well. Namely,      were really interesting, especially for the
about 1.5 km, which quickly and effectively    Professor Ernest Heinkel even since the        materials used in the construction. Name-
would destroy all living creatures on that     mid 30’s of last century began with the        ly, they were constructed of wood and
territory which, in turn can quickly return    elaboration of jet and rocket engines and      steel plates with low quality. The overall
to its original condition. Despite the great   their application in new types of aircraft.    process of preparation of a fighter took
advantages of this bomb, no actions            His He-176 was the first jet plane in the      only 60 hours, which is a very short time.
were taken nor the initial tests that would    world that made the first flight under         Its fuselage, which resembled the rockets
show the possibility of its construction.      the command of the pilot Erich Varsic on       of the type V-1 (and “fired” similarly), had
But certain information discovered a de-       June 20, 1939. With his He-76 he achieved      four rockets that “burned” for 10 seconds
cade after the war say that the Soviets        a speed of 850 km/h, which was almost          and with a rocket engine developed a
owned all reports pertaining to such a         twice faster than any aircraft in that time.   speed of 800km/h. The firing power of
bomb that failed to some extent to be          The excellent achievements continued           the “beloushka” was respectable as well.
developed and tested.                          with the aircraft of the type He-178 which     The fighter with the help of radar was led
                                               in tests on August 28 that year reached a      to its target which was attacked by the
nazI flyInG objectS                            speed of 700 km/h. The concepts of spe-        pilot manually. A battery with 24 rockets
According to the facts in the period after     cific aircraft with delta-wings were usually   with a small range for firing at air targets
World War II the most unidentified flying      attributed to Alexander Lippisch, who in       was placed on top of the front part of the
objects were observed so far. Although         1939 constructed the Me-163 A, fighter-        hunter. Considering the results, Ba-349 A
many really believe that extraterrestrial      bomber which on May 10, 1941 flew for the      fulfilled three of the four conditions set
beings frequently visit our planet, there      first time and managed to reach a speed        by the Fuehrer (speed, power, low price),
is another logical, and yet little known       of nearly 1000 km/h. The name of Lippisch      but failed the basic requirement - safety.
                                                                                              Aircraft operation was seen as follows:
                                                                                              after the attack, in a secure area, the pilot
                                                                                              was supposed to loosen the front part
                                                                                              of the bearings carrying the four rockets
                                                                                              and leave the plane. The pilot, the bear-
                                                                                              ings and fuselage were planned to land
                                                                                              safely. But the first flight (February 1945),
                                                                                              although the pilot Lothar Cyber success-
                                                                                              fully started the engine and quickly took
                                                                                              off at an altitude of 150 m, the roof of the
                                                                                              cockpit opened after which his neck broke
                                                                                              under the power of air pressure. The plane
                                                                                              was completely destroyed. In terms of
                                                                                              production, in April the same year, there
                                                                                              were ten NATERS stationed in Kirgheim
                                                                                              that were destroyed by their own pilots,
                                                                                              and the remaining four stationed else-
                                                                                              where, three ended up in the hands of the
                                                                                              Americans and one with the Soviets.
                                                                                              To be continued         Ivan Petrushevski

explanation. One of the most bizarre           was associated with the creation of the
weapons that should have brought the           so-called “flying triangles” as DM-1, which
last and decisive blow to the Allied Army      due to the neo-orthodox appearance was
was the flying disk. The main task of          believed to be able to develop tremen-
the Nazi creation was re-conquest of the       dous speed. It is interesting to mention
European sky. The information on this          that one of the DM-1 prototypes was lost
aircraft is really scarce, but it is known     on the territory of the United States.
that the disk should have had the char-        Since Hitler’s main objective in 1944 was
acteristics that would easily reach an         to halt enemy’s attacks on the German
indicated aim. It is said on February 14,      territory, he focused on the development
1945 near Prague, the German designers         of aircraft fighters. They developed the
Schrivers and Habermehl went in the air        Messerschmitt Me-163 B, which was the
in a strange aircraft whose base was a         successor of the Me-163 A, a fighter that
large ring that could spread and retract,      really promised a lot in 1941. Maximum
and it also revolved around the cockpit        speed of the hunter was 965 km/h, and
which was in the shape of a dome. The          the ascending speed was excellent three
characteristics of this aircraft were as-      kilometers per minute. 364 hunters were
tonishing as well as frightening. In just      built from the B version of this unusual
three minutes the spacecraft reached           aircraft; however, it was too little to stop

                                                                                                                                              17
     RIFLE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY




                         AUTOMATIC RIFLE MODEL M21
           small but professional and trained        an integral part of the automatic rifle - the         is made from quality plastic in matte black
           army, as the ARM should become            front “wooden” coating is replaced with a             and equipped with a rubber pad to place on
           with the transformation, requires not     plastic (polymer) one, but only the lower             the shoulder of the shooter (which can be
           only a certain number of soldiers. The    coating, i.e. the front stock. As in older            removed when necessary) to amortize the
           most important element is certainly       models, there is no upper coating, so the             recoil of the grenade launcher.
     the training course, but if it has already      lower coating is extended in order to pro-            This rifle is equipped with a below-barrel
     been done (despite the fact that no train-      tect the shooter from contact with the                grenade launcher GP-40. For a long time
     ing happens only once and lasts forever,        heated parts of the rifle (barrel and gas cyl-        in the region of former Yugoslavia the
     but it is a continuous process that must be     inder). It is open on the top, which allows           “supplement for rifle grenades” ruled, al-
     repeated periodically); however, it requires    better cooling. What makes it interesting             though the original Soviet rifle that was
     equipment which the soldiers of the ARM         (a “quantum leap” for the traditional rifles          an example of the automatic rifle M-70,
     will use to perform their tasks. The trans-     by Zastava), and what makes it a platform             was equipped with a below-barrel gre-
     formation of the ARM into a professional        for upgrading, is the “Picatinny” rail.               nade launcher. The advantage of this gre-
     army brought a number of novelties, espe-       This model has an optical sight OS-21 as a            nade launcher is that it is easily mounted,
     cially in the field of engineering and arma-    basic sight which is mounted in a traditional         doesn’t need a grenade launcher bullet
     ment, adequate for serving such an army.        way - the rail on the left side of the rifle, while   and thereby shortens the time to pre-
     What we are dealing with here is arma-          on the carrier of the optical sight there is a        pare for action, it does not require a gre-
     ment. Thus, we will mention the automatic       “Picatinny” rail where a number of accesso-           nade launcher supplement which must
     M-21 5.56 mm caliber rifle. The rifle with      ries from western origin that ARM owns as             be turned to the mouth of the barrel to
     its “first and second name” (automatic rifle    laser markers can be mounted like day-night           mount a rifle grenade. The assembling it-
     M-21 5.56 mm) introduces “the rifle for the     sights and tactical lights, etc. They are lighter     self is very easy and quick - it is put on an
     21st century,” but basically it is the good     and more efficient than similar older models          existing carrier for the bayonet under the
     old Kalashnikov, adapted in Zastava fac-        that are designed for these rifles. Another           barrel. Grenade launcher is a separate and
     tory, through the experiences from the          change is the fitting of a stock to overlap on        complete system and there is no need to
     models produced by Zastava with a 7.62          the side, already checked with the “sister”           add a sight (as with M-95) or to open a gre-
     mm and 5.56 mm caliber. It was produced         rifle that is an example of M-21, and that is         nade launcher sight (as with M-70), but it is
     in Yugoslavia based on the rifle from the       the Israeli “Galil”. When the stock is open, it       equipped with its own sight device that al-
     same factory with 5.56 mm caliber. Its de-      offers greater stability and acts as fixed, un-       lows aiming directly and indirectly. Also,
     velopment begins several years after the        like with some older models (for example,
     breakup of SFR Yugoslavia so that it was        M-70 AB2).It
     developed in somewhat more difficult con-
     ditions and with a reduced budget.
     The rifle kept its old principle of borrowing
     gunpowder gases, the way of decelerating
     the bullets in the barrel and everything else
     that makes Kalashnikov or the automatic
     rifles of Zastava long-lasting (provided
     they are maintained), durable and func-
     tional in all conditions. The barrel is made
     of chromium and the wood is no longer


18
regardless of the mechanism to trigger              serious piece of weapon that corresponds            have the same option on the left side. This
the gun, the grenade launcher is equipped           to the western competitors because of               is one point of merging. Another point is
with its own mechanism for triggering and           the upgrading possibility. However, the             when an electronic device is mounted on
a trigger.                                          first steps by Zastava in this direction,           the upper part of the carrier, that is, on the
This is a huge advantage over the grenade           (adapting to western type) are not and              “Picatinny” rail.
launcher mindset: with the rifle grenade, a         may not be final because when the M-21              Hence, in order to mount, for example, a
grenade launcher sight must be erected              is equipped with a grenade launcher and             laser target marker, its accuracy should
or set, to insert the grenade launcher bul-         optical sight it pays of “the weigh debt”.          depend on the quality and firm positioning
let, to turn the grenade launcher supple-           When fully equipped, it is not an easy rifle        of the laser marker on the “Picatinny” rail
ment (the carrier where the mine is put)            and it is not suitable for everyone. Possi-         which, in turn, through the carrier must be
- this is only possible with action by the          bly, there should be a little more “plastic”        well positioned on the rifle. These are two
grenade launcher mine or the magazine               where unnecessary metal is placed, for ex-          potential “links” that with extended usage
ammunition depending on how ready the               ample, the fire regulator is classical on one       may be loosened thus affecting the preci-
rifle is, but this preparation or transition        side and a lever is added on the side which         sion, unlike the rail which is directly mount-
requires a certain time which the soldier           should be grasped and moved in a desired            ed on the rifle.
does not have on the battlefield or may             position, but it is slightly harder to handle       Another challenge is the high position and
even cost lives.                                    -- it still needs more force to be moved,           the position of the carrier where you can
On the other hand, the under-barrel gre-            and it is not that accurate; thus, there is a       mount only one device at a time, and that
nade launcher allows parallel smooth ac-            possibility to mispossition from “locked” to        interferes the aiming line, unless it is a day
tion of the ammunition from the grenade
magazine or no need for preparation for
the bullet-to-grenade transition. Conse-                                     CALIBER AND BULLET         .5.56mm/5.56Х45 NАТО
quently, this is called “a quantum leap”
primarily in military leaders’ opinion who                                                  BARREL      375 mm length, 4 grooves and 4 fields with a
expect their soldiers to gain advantage                                                                 screw to the right with step 1 / 7 (177,8 mm)
on the battlefield. Another novelty is the                                           RIFLE WEIGHT       3.8 kg
mechanical sight. The front is retained, but
the rear tangent sliding sight was unnec-                        LENGTH WITH EXTENDED STOCK             915 mm
essarily removed and a rather odd sight                         LENGHT WITH COLLAPSED STOCK             666 mm
was introduced composed of two plates,
for 300 and 500 meters, which offers no                                              INITIAL SPEED      890 m/s
security. It is equipped with tritium sights
in lower visibility (“lower visibility” is delib-                   MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE             500 m
erately mentioned because aiming at night                                         FIRING VELOSITY       up to 680 rounds per minute
is impossible unless a target silhouette is
seen through enlighten tritium front and
rear mechanical sight). However, the rear
sight is sufficient for action up to 300 m, a
distance which may not be a problem for
any automatic rifle today. On the other
hand, the 21 optical sight offers accurate
aiming.
MODERN PLATFORM
M-21 5.56 is an automatic rifle that allows
successful action against the enemy force
with caliber 5.56 mm NATO (5.56 X 45 SS-
109), with an effective range up to 600 m
with an optical sight, and 300 m by me-
chanical sight. It uses a front and rear me-
chanical integral sight, as well as an optical
sight which can be mounted or removed
depending on the need. Concerning ma-
terial technical equipment without armor,           “burst fire” instead of “single fire” because       or night-vision optical sight. Consequently,
vehicles and infantry in the open or in shel-       the commands are placed in the same di-             when we mount a tactical light planned
ters and behind barriers, it uses an under-         rection. The American M-4, for example,             for the “Picatinny” rail, or a laser or infra-
barrel grenade launcher GP-40, which fires          has commands which are much easier and              red marker, the aiming is obstructed. By
40 mm grenades and a successful action              more accurate for handling because the              adding these devices, the shooter loses
up to 400 meters. This GP-40 launches de-           regulator rotates and is precisely placed in        the balance of the rifle by moving the ac-
structive, flammable, cumulative, smoke             the desired position, unlike the “noisy” fire       tual gravity thus making the suitable rifle
and practice grenades.                              regulator with the automatic rifle Kalash-          holding difficult, so we should be careful in
The rifle is fed with a 30-round two-row            nikov, M-21 in this case. Another unfortu-          choosing optoelectronic devices and their
magazine. The fire regulator enables single         nate solution has already been mentioned            position or where they would be mounted
fire and burst in locked position.                  about the rear mechanical sight. Although           on the rifle.
Due to the specific “galil” design, the rifle       the optical sight can “save the day” with           And finally, M-21 is designed for the sol-
is attractive to the eye, especially for pri-       its simplicity and efficiency (it provides ac-      dier-fighter. Experience has shown and
vate security agencies which use it in Iraq         curate aiming up to 600 meters); however,           proven that the ideas for solution to cer-
or Afghanistan. It takes a special place            the main sight for infantry armament is             tain problems in armament should always
in the ARM arsenal since it made a huge             still the mechanical sight and as such it           be sought from end users because it is
step towards the modern way of thinking             must provide accurate aiming. The 300               intended for them. The ARM owns these
concerning the needs of the soldier on the          and 500-meter levers provide an almost              rifles in its arsenal of weapons in the most
battlefield because it satisfies the basic          unusable aiming device that is not adjust-          elite part of the Army. M-21 with upgrad-
needs, and has options for adaptation and           able, for example, M-4 Commando “(we                ing options in the hands of professional
upgrading according to the needs. This is           will introduce it in one of the following is-       members is a sufficient argument for car-
the first time a rifle is acquired that will        sues). The automatic rifle has 5 locations          rying out complex tasks in the country or
serve not only “the right shoulder” and “           of “Picatinny” rail where anything can be           in the missions in Iraq and Afghanistan.
weapon knife” and keep up with modern               mounted, but it also carries a rear diopter         Traditional endurance of this type of arms
technology.                                         sight with additional equipment for aiming          renders hope that M-21 will show good re-
                                                    distances from 200 to 600 meters. Anoth-            sults in the hands of the people who are in
EXPERIENCES OF M 21                                 er weak point is the position of the “Pica-         charge of the security of Macedonia and
M-21 rifle has been used in missions in Iraq        tinny” rail. The optical sight carrier carries      its interests.
where it satisfied the needs of the mem-            the rail as well. It slides in the rail, the same
bers of the Macedonian Army as a first              way as with the old Zastava models which                                          Zoran Krstevski

                                                                                                                                                         19
                                              SMALL, BUT
                                              POWERFUL


                                                                                                                  Photo: Luhai Wong



     AIR FORCE OF SINGAPORE
           ingapore is one of the small-      CONTINUOUS                             1. the en-     The presentation of the next gen-
           est city-countries in the world,   MODERNIZATION                          trance of      eration fighter plane is taken into
           right after Monaco and the         One of the basic characteristics       the School     consideration. Singapore joined
           Vatican which gained its in-       of a well-established Air Force is     In auStralIa   the design and development proj-
           dependence on 9 August             its permanent modernization. In                       ect for F-35 Joint Strike Fighter in
     1965. Pressed between Indone-            1994, RSAF started with a mod-         2. flyInG In
                                                                                                    February 2003. Its delivery is not
     sia and Malaysia with its 710 km²        ernization program for its fleet of                   expected before 2015, but it was
     (for illustration only Macedonia is      about forty operational F-5E and       PaIr – Pc-21   necessary to replace Skyhawk by
     25,713 km²) and population about         F-5F aircrafts. The superstructure     froM rSaf      2007. Twenty F-16D-52+ were de-
     5 million, Singapore in terms of         was realized by ST Aero Singa-         anD an auS-    livered to the 145th squadron in
     the economic is one of the most          pore Technologies Aerospace,           tralIan Pc-9   the beginning of July 2004.
     powerful countries in the region of      and the respectively super struc-                     The competitive Eurofighter Ty-
     South Eastern Asia. In these sur-        tured aircrafts were marked as                        phoon, AMD-BA Rafale, Saab/
     roundings, in order to keep its sov-     F-5C and F-5T and operated from                       BAE Gripen, F/A-18E Super Hor-
     ereignty and economic stability,         the Air Force Base Paya Lebar.                        net, Boeing F-15T, Sukhoi Су35 и
     Singapore was forced to establish        Tanking in the air for the planes                     F-16C/D-block60 have tried to sat-
     a highly powerful defense system         F-16 and F-5 is carried out by four                   isfy the need for additional eigh-
     and at the same time one of the          KC-135P. The AEW&C- Airborne                          teen to twenty-four aircrafts. F-15T
     most presentable air forces in           Earls Warning and Control was                         (before Rafale) was chosen in Sep-
     the world. Singapore has a highly        presented even in 1987 when four
     trained and equipped military air        E-2C Hawkeyes were delivered to
     force founded only three years af-       the 111th squadron while the coast
     ter gaining its independence on 1        surveillance is secured by five Fok-
     September 1968. The spine of this        ker-50 in the Maritime Patrol con-
     little island’s air force is composed    figuration.
     of modern F-16C/D (Fighting Fal-         The land forces support program
     con Block) 52/52+. Due to its small      started when Singapore ordered
     geographical area, the Military Air      eight fighter helicopters Apache
     Force (RSAF-Republic of Singapore        AH-64D Longbow and after a
     Air Force) is looking for overseas lo-   long period of negotiations about
     cations in order to operate with its     getting the satisfactory radar
     complete stock of aircrafts. With        AN/APG 68 Longbow, the first
     F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-15SG Strike      helicopter was delivered in May
     Eagle, AX-64D Apache and some            2002. Additional twelve helicop-
     CX-47SD Chinook displaced in the         ters were ordered in 2001 even
     USA, Marchetti C-211, Pilatus PC-21      before the delivery of the previ-
     and Puma helicopters in Australia        ously ordered helicopters, thus
     and A-4 Super Skyhawk in France,         RSAF right now has its twenty
     a significant part of its Air Force is   fighter helicopters which were
     outside Singapore.                       based in the USA until 2008.


20
tember 2005 and the delivery started in       the coast and the maritime Singapore           where together with the National Guard
2008.                                         lines, and the 145th squadron provided         of the US they perform missions oper-
Analyzing the activities of its neighbors,    with the modern F-16D BLK52+.                  ating the Chinook helicopters.
Singapore is planning and directing its       Sembawang Air Base was founded as a            The advanced training for jet planes is sta-
activities as well. Thus, soon after find-    base to support the British Navy for serv-     tioned in France. A detachment with 18
ing out that Malaysia had modernized its      ing the aircrafts from their carriers. Anti-   planes A4-SU Super Skyhawk and about
MiG-29 and supplied Bsmpel P-77 mis-          Aircraft Defense Command of Singapore          200 personnel have been stationed in Ca-
siles, Singapore ordered 100 pieces of        took over this base in 1971 and it has been    zaux Base since June 1998.
AIM-120. We can mention the rumors that       an Air Base for helicopters since 1983. The    Aircrafts of Singapore are displaced in
Israel had already delivered to Singapore     following squadrons are placed on this         three bases in Australia. The nursery for
its “air-to-air” missiles from the fourth     base, 120th squadron provided with the         pilots for this powerful air force is also
generation Python-4, and the project was      fighter helicopters AH-64D Apache, 123rd       there. Selection of pilots is realized in Tam-
supplemented with the installation of the     squadron provided with light helicopter        worth where ten flying instructors have
HDMS system and sensors DASH-3 set            for training purposes and surveillance,        lived together with their families on the
up in F-16 cockpit.                           AS-550 Fennec, 125th squadron whose            base since 1999. After that, the training
                                              task is search and rescue provided with        continues in Pearce Base in Perth where
AIR FORCE BASES                               Super Puma helicopters; 126th squadron         the 130th squadron is located equipped
Despite its small territory, Singapore        represents the majority of the helicopter      with the planes S-211 and Pilatus PC-21
Air Force is mainly stationed in four Air     fleet AC-532 Cougar whose task is search       and completes its mission using the ex-
Force Bases. The vicinity of the maximum      and rescue as well as performing tactical      cellent flying conditions and the favorable
twelve-kilometer distance from one to an-     tasks for the needs of the armed forces,       climate. This is the Flight School of Sin-
other take-off-landing track doesn’t make     and the 127th squadron authorized with         gapore where candidates are trained by
any problems in the coordination of the       the transport of people and equipment          the time they receive their pilot insignia.
great number of aircrafts in the relatively   for the army operating the Chinook heli-       About 50 RSAF families are on the base
small air space.                              copters.                                       at this moment. The 126th squadron with
The Air Force Base “Tengah Air Base“,                                                        its Cougars is in Queensland Base at the
founded by Great Britain in 1932 as Air       FORCES OUTSIDE THE BORDERS                     Army Aviation Center-“Oakes”.
Force support to the base “Sembawang“,        Due to the limited air space and with an       RSAF participates in many international
became a Royal Military Air Force Base        aim to maintain a high degree of training      missions and tasks and carries out short-
in 1939 and it has constantly been super      and combat preparedness of the person-         term missions with its detachments. Such
structured ever since in order to satisfy     nel, Singapore is forced to “spread its        as the missions in Bangladesh, Thailand,
the needs of more and more sophisticat-       wings” in the overseas countries as well.      Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia.
ed aircrafts. Aircrafts E2C, F-16 and A4SU,   In that way, in addition to the well-estab-
operate from this base, displaced in the      lished foundations of mutual understand-       PRIDE OF RSAF
111th, 140th and 143rd squadron.              ing and cooperation, the long-time his-        1973, although it was only their fifth an-
The Military Base “Paya Lebar“ started        tory and experience in the Air Force of the    niversary, is a special year and basis for
functioning in 1955 as a civil airport and    host countries are also enriching the host     the history of RSAF because of the debut
twelve years later it was transformed into    countries; Australia, France and the USA       of the first acrobatic group of Singapore-
a military base and it is used for serving    are hosts of the Singaporean program for       “Black Knights”. Since then, the “Black
military flights for passenger transporta-    long-lasting detachments.                      Knights” have been a symbol of Singa-
tion and cargo transportation, charter        The cooperation with the USA started           porean Air Force and are a synonym for
flights of the Ministry of Defense and        in 1988 with the Peace Carvin (PC) pro-        a spectacular performance, close forma-
foreign military aircrafts. It has been a     gram which ended in 1990, and program          tion and great speed. The progress of the
completely military airport since 1981 and    PC II started in 1993 and it is still go-      “Black Knights” went in tandem with the
aircrafts C-130 Hercules and F-5 Tiger II     ing on. This program enables the 425th         technological development and started
have operated from this airport, displaced    combat squadron from Luke Air Force            from the formation of four Hawker Hunt-
in the 122nd, 141st, 144th and 149th squad-   Base, Arizona, and performs its mis-           er in the 70-ties to the formation of six
ron.                                          sions operating the planes F-16. For           planes, flying the pride of the domestic
“Changi Air Base“ has been the biggest        that purpose there are 130 members             military industry, the super structured A-
transport base in the region since WWII       of RSAF together with their families. In       4SU Super Skyhawk. In 2000, this team
which became a civil airport after its        2009, the 428th combat squadron in             became the first acrobatic group that
reconstruction in 1975. One more take-        Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho,           flew two different types of planes in a
off-landing runway was opened in 2004         was reactivated and it is equipped with        joint formation flying A-4SU and F-16. In
which divided the airport into two parts;                                       ,
                                              the last enforcement of RSAF planes            2008, on the occasion of their fortieth
western and eastern complex. The follow-      F-15SG Strike Eagle. The Training De-          anniversary, the “Black Knights” showed
ing aircrafts operate from this base now;     tachment with KS-135 is placed in the          themselves in a new light at the Singa-
the 112th squadron provided with four         McConnell AFB in Kansas. One hundred           pore Airshow 2008, one of the top three
tankers KC-35P, 121st squadron whose          and fifty members of RSAF with their           Airshows in the world. The new “Black
mission is surveillance and protection of     families are in Texas, Grand Prairie Base      Knights” were flying in a formation of six
                                                                                             F-16C Fighting Falcon, in their national red
                                                                                             and white color.
                                                                                                                           Borce Manev




                                                                                                                                              21
     ALWAYS                 A STEP AHEAD


     BASIC SKILLS QUALIFICATION COURSE FOR PERFORMING
     RANGER OPERATIONS
          he basic skills qualification course
          for performing ranger operations is
          designed for qualifying all the new
          enlisted members of the Special
          Operations Regiment of ARM. The
     duration of the course is six months and
     during that time there is training in all
     the necessary skills for performing com-
     bat operations, starting with small unit
     tactics, urban combat tactics, alpinism,
     parachuting, as well as infantry weapons
     training and shooting, topography train-
     ing, signals, medical training and training
     in mines and explosives.
     We have recently visited the Macedonian
     “Rangers” on the army area “Krivolak”,
     where they were trained in mastering
     the ranger skills. As always, with utmost
     discipline and responsibility, fully profes-
     sional, they all worked as one. Every
     member of the unit was devoted to ex-
     ecuting the assignments of their forma-
     tion duty in the unit. The task of every
     “ranger” is clear and simple - gaining the
     necessary knowledge and skills of the
     mission of the unit.
     “The more you give, the more you try
     and devote yourself, the less the risk
     of unwanted consequences when you
     face some real situation during some
     combat actions, regardless of whether it
     is a training activity or a peace support
     operation”, stated, among the rest, in his
     analysis, the Commander of the Special
     Operations Regiment, Colonel Zoran
     Dodevski, who during our visit, was in-
     specting the execution of the ranger


22
course, but were also a few mem-
bers of the “Wolves” in the units.

InStructorS –
eXPerIenceD ranGerS
The course begins by individual
training where every individual is
assessed to see the specialty they
have affinities, tendencies or previ-
ous knowledge. In accordance with
it, the formation is created and ev-
ery individual is being appointed
formation duty in the course. After
the basic training, the formation is
made into classic ranger platoons
and the training continues with
small units tactical training and ur-
ban combat training.
The course is being conducted
by instructors of the unit - experi-                     The raid is a tactical combat pro-     als and technical means that can
enced rangers that have previously                       cedure composed of three ele-          be of help in the further combat
                                        1, 2, anD 3.
finished this kind of courses in the                     ments: element for security, ele-      actions in gaining more informa-
country or abroad, usually in the       raID IS a bat-
                                        tle tactIcS      ment for support and element           tion concerning the enemy.
US Army, which is a benchmark                            for attack. The function of the ele-   In a real combat situation, strictly
in the execution of this course in      MaDe uP of
                                        3 DIStInct       ment for security is to prevent the    following the standard operat-
the ARM. One of them is Captain                          approaching and entery of the en-      ing procedure, the members of
Nikola Vasilev, Course Commander        eleMentS:
                                        to Secure,
                                                         emy forces into the building and       the Special Operations Regiment
and our host during the visit.                           to direct the people inside the raid   demonstrated this complex and
The course itself is composed of        SuPPort
                                                         building, to prevent the escape        responsible combat procedure.
five stages. First stage is individ-    anD attacK       of the people inside to which the      The tactical procedure for raiding
ual training where the individuals                       raid is carried out. The element of    was conducted according to ex-
are trained in signals, using first                      support fires upon the target and      actly established procedure. The
aid kit, mines and explosives, us-                       destructs it, while the element of     personnel spread out around the
ing means in topography and                              attack carries out detailed search     building, than the security was
navigation and training in using                         of the building and captures all       set, and after that the support
the personal weapons and the                             the people found on the place          and in the end the attack itself.
collective weapons which is in                           who are not neutralized, than cap-     The action was initiated by the
the unit’s structure. The second                         turing enemy documents, materi-        support with an efficient open
stage includes the small unit tac-                                                              fire, in order to direct the atten-
tics, third stage refers to urban                                                               tion of the enemy on them, while
combat, fourth stage - alpinism,                                                                the attack element moved for-
a stage that can be completed                                                                   ward on a round route, unnotice-
earlier, depending on the weath-                                                                ably towards the building and on
er conditions, and fifth and final                                                              a signal to cease the fire support,
stage is the training in parachut-                                                              the attack happened on a short
ing which is the crown of the                                                                   range and they finished annihilat-
training of this course. Upon fin-                                                              ing the enemy. Subsequently they
ishing the course the personnel is                                                              captured all the significant mate-
completely trained in carrying out                                                              rials and prepared to destroy ev-
all combat actions of the unit of                                                               erything that the soldiers cannot
the Special Operations Regiment                                                                 take with them. About the techni-
of the ARM. Then the personnel                                                                  cal means which were large-sized,
is appointed in combat teams                                                                    an explosive was set and on a
and in the other companies, in the                                                              previously agreed signal the ele-
Rangers Battalion or in the Spe-                                                                ment for attack withdrew. Only
cial Purposes Battalion, and they                                                               the specials in mines and explo-
continue to carry out the other                                                                 sives remained on the scene that
combat assignments, like carry-                                                                 was in charge of detonation. The
ing out national and multinational                                                              element for support also with-
exercises and assessment of the                                                                 drew on the second agreed sig-
declared units, followed by the                                                                 nal, and on the third agreed signal
participation in different exercises                                                            the security also withdrew and
abroad and in missions and oper-                                                                the explosive was ignited. That
ations carried out by the Army of                                                               was the finish of this combat pro-
the Republic of Macedonia.                                                                      cedure. The unit continues accord-
                                                                                                ing to plan, regardless of whether
raID In a buIlDInG                                                                              that includes carrying out a sub-
On the day of our visit, according                                                              sequent mission or exfiltration in
to the plan and program of the                                                                  their own lines.
course, “the rangers” conducted                                                                 That was the end of our time
theme 20 of the small unit tac-                                                                 together with the Macedonian
tics - raid. It was conducted by                                                                “Rangers”. They stayed on the
one platoon of the ranger course.                                                               army area “Krivolak” and contin-
The location was the winter camp                                                                ued to move forward in mastering
2 on “Krivolak”. The instructors                                                                the remaining tasks of the course.
passed on the mastered lessons
to the new rangers.                                                                                                     Z. Rizovski


                                                                                                                                       23
     FRUIT
     OF LONG
     PARTNERSHIP
     THE COMMANDER OF THE NATIONAL GUARD IN VERMONT,
     IN THE USA VISITED ARM
          ecently, a high delegation from    ARM, Lieutenant General Miroslav       1. General
          the National Guard of Vermont,     Stojanovski. In accordance with        DubIe: we
          in the USA came to a three day     General Duby’s program he met          have Great
          official visit to ARM and Repub-   the President of Republic of Mace-     reSPect
          lic of Macedonia. The delegation   donia, Gjorgje Ivanov, the Minister    towarD the
     was headed by the Commander of          of Defense, Zoran Konjanovski, and     MeMberS of
     the National Guard, Major General       the director of the Center of Crisis   the arMy of
     Michael Duby.                           Management, Pande Lazarovski.          the rePublIc
     The aim of this visit to ARM was                                               of MaceDonIa
     analyzing the possibilities of fur-     a new,
     ther improving the cooperation          DIfferent KInD of MISSIon              2. StreSSInG
     between the National Guard of Ver-      At the meeting with the Chief of       the IMPor-
     mont and ARM, and analyzing the         Stuff of ARM, Lieutenant General       tance of
     readiness of the contingent of ARM      Miroslav Stojanovski, includiing       the uPcoM-
     for its involvement in the upcoming     other representatives of the Gen-      InG joIneD
     joint mission ISAF in Afghanistan.      eral Stuff and ARM, the guests         MISSIon In
     Official host of the delegation from    of Vermont were informed about         afGhanIStan
     Vermont was the Chief of Stuff of       the process of preparation of the




24
contingent of ARM for the upcoming joint         tance of joint work in the upcoming new
mission together with the members of the         type of mission in Afghanistan. General
National Guard of Vermont in the mission         Duby said that it is important to mention
ISAF in Afghanistan.                             the fact that in the upcoming joint Amer-
“The new contingent of the ARM, which            ican-Macedonian mission, Macedonian
consists of stuff officers, one platoon of       peacekeepers are going to be a comprising
Military Police and from the Rangers bat-        part of the 86th Infantry Brigade Combat
talion, are going to be sent in Afghanistan,     Team (Mountain), which is the only unit of
at the end of March, on a little bit different   that kind in the USA army. Consequently,
mission than before, i.e. assisting and help-    this fact gives the soldiers of ARM great
ing in training Afghan Security Forces”.         honor as well as great responsibility.
This was emphasized by the Chief of Stuff        As a symbol of remembrances, the Com-
of ARM, Lieutenant General Miroslav Sto-         mander of the Special Operations Regi-
janovski, after meeting the Commander            ment of ARM, Colonel Zoran Dodevski,
of the National Guard of Vermont, in the         presented Major General Michael
USA, Major General Michael Duby.                 Duby with a unit’s testimonial of ap-
The Chief of Stuff of ARM stressed that he       preciation. In the name of the long
was convinced that this contingent is ca-        and fruitful years of cooperation
pable enough to face the challenges of the       between the USA and Macedonia,
mission and justify the faith put in them.       General Duby presented both com-
He also said that 15 years of cooperation        manders of the units whose soldiers
between the National Guard in Vermont            are going to take part in the upcom-
and the ARM will be strengthened with            ing mission, with tokens of grati-
their joint involvement, because 79 sol-         tude.
diers from ARM, at the end of March, will        After the ceremony everybody,
be a part of the National Guard of Vermont       including generals Duby and Sto-
in the mission ISAF in Afghanistan.              janovski, the peacekeepers from
General Duby was amazed by the devel-            both of the battalions, US Am-
opment of the ARM and whole country              bassador in the Republic of
which has been achieved since his last visit     Macedonia, Philip Riker, and
in 1996.                                         the commander of the Joint
“The soldiers from ARM are respected             Operations Command, Major
more and more. Macedonian soldiers’              General Zoran Dimov had
reputation is widely known and well re-          lunch together at the mass
corded by their serving in the missions in       hall in the military barracks
Iraq and Afghanistan”, said General Duby.        “Ilinden”.
He expressed his great pleasure about the                   Editorial “SHTIT”
cooperation so far. He is convinced that
Macedonian and American soldiers can
work together at these critical times for
Afghanistan in the following 18 months.
reaDy to face the challenGeS
On the second day of their visit of ARM,
the commander of the National Guard
of Vermont, Major General Michael Duby
visited the soldiers of ARM who are mem-
bers of the contingent which is planned to
be deployed together with the National
Guard of Vermont in the Mission ISAF in
Afghanistan. The Commander of the Joint
Operations Command of ARM, Major Gen-
eral Zoran Dimov, was the host at the visit
of the delegation from Vermont, when
they came to the military barracks “Ilinden”
in Skopje. The members of the Rangers
battalion and Military Police battalion did
a demonstration exercise in front of the
guests from Vermont. The demonstration
exercise contained some of the activities
from the training exercises they have been
doing while they have been having their
pre-deployment preparations for a mis-
sion.
General Duby could not but be satisfied
with the degree of readiness and training
of the soldiers of ARM demonstrated at
the exercise. As a token of long lasting
partnership, General Duby presented the
commanders of both units with a testi-
monial of appreciation from The National
Guard of Vermont.
After the demonstration exercise, there
was an official ceremony attended by
the commander of the National Guard of
Vermont, Major General Michael Duby, the
Chief of Stuff of ARM, Lieutenant General
Miroslav Stojanovski, the US Ambassador
in Republic of Macedonia, Philip Riker, and
the members of the Macedonian contin-
gent. In the speeches held at that occa-
sion, the speakers emphasized the impor-

                                                                                              25
     INVALUABLE
     EXPERIENCE


     WITH THE MACEDONIAN PEACEKEEPERS IN THE ISAF MIS-
                   SION IN AFGHANISTAN
          formal ceremony was held in the bar-       confidence is the fact that our soldiers have      you welcome and to congratulate you on
          racks Mihailo Apostolski in Ohrid on the   returned with a lot more than just simple          your successful mission in Afghanistan. In
          occasion of the return of the last con-    praise for a successfully completed mis-           this mission you have proudly shown your
          tingent of the Army of the Republic of     sion. I believe that it will be like this in the   professionalism and readiness, as well as
          Macedonia from the peacekeeping mis-       next period and we will continue achieving         your humanity and solidarity.
     sion ISAF in Afghanistan.                       similar and greater successes”, emphasized         From the distant Afghanistan, as major keep-
     Expressing his satisfaction that all the        Colonel Velichkovski.                              ers of the world peace, you have respectfully
     ARM members had returned home safe                                                                 addressed the Macedonian peace message.
     and sound, the Chief of the General Staff       RESPECTFULLY ADDRESSED                             In this mission each one of you has shown
     pointed out that the soldiers acquired new      MACEDONIAN PEACE MESSAGE                           in practice the centuries-old Macedonian con-
     experiences which were invaluable for the       On the occasion of the successfully com-           tinuity in devotion and patriotism, in dignity
     preparation of the next contingents. “Once      pleted mission, the Minister of Defense ad-        and humanity, in ideas and sacrifice.
     more in a real environment, in international    dressed a letter to the ARM members of             I was assured in all of this during my last
     surroundings and on a high risk mission,        the peacekeeping mission ISAF in Afghani-          visit in Afghanistan in October, when we all
     the members of the ARM have shown               stan who returned to the Republic of Mace-         together celebrated the Day of the Macedo-
     that they are competitive in the context        donia where he stated, “Dear peacekeep-            nian Revolutionary Struggle. As a Minister of
     of skill, knowledge and professionalism.        ers, with great respect and pleasure, from         Defense I was happy that I was with you,
     They have once again in the best possible       the same place from where we sent you              but at the same time I was also especially
     way affirmed not only ARM and everything        off seven months ago, I would like to wish         proud of the words of praise which I heard
     which means a step forward in the reform
     processes, but also as ambassadors of
     our fatherland have affirmed the Republic
     of Macedonia on an international level”,
     stated General Stojanovski. He expressed
     his expectation that the ARM peacekeep-
     ers serving at this moment in Afghanistan
     and the other places where the Republic of
     Macedonia is contributing for improving the
     general security will achieve the same, even
     better results.
     The Commander of the Second Mecha-
     nized Infantry Brigade, Colonel Metodija Ve-
     lichkovski, speaking with military language,
     reminded that every military assignment
     is successfully done if the people and the
     material-technical means return from where
     they departed for within the anticipated
     time. “What makes us especially proud to-
     day after carrying out the analysis of the
     performed task and what raises our self-

26
from Commander McCrystal about
you, as well as from our friends from
the NATO Alliance. And that is why, I
told you in Afghanistan: You are the
heroes of your profession! You are
worthy followers of all Macedonian
ARM peacekeeping generations. You
are an example for all future Macedo-
nian peacekeepers. With all of this,
you obligate us to further devot-
edly work in the interest of the ARM
members and to continue to enable
you to show your readiness in prac-
tice. At the end, I would like to once
again congratulate you on your suc-
cessful mission, to you and of course
to your families, with assurance that
you can always depend on our sup-
port. Allow me once again to thank
you for making me feel proud”.
The Army of the Republic of Mace-                        hands of the new commander of the         am referring to their families. To the
donia participated in the seventh         2. arM’S       Macedonian contingent- FP Coy of          new contingent I would like to tell
rotation in the peacekeeping mission      chIef of       ISAF HQ in Kabul, Afghanistan.            them that I believe in their capabili-
ISAF in the period from July 2009         General        The flag of the Commander of the          ties, I don’t doubt their support and
to January this year with its mecha-      Staff: the     Macedonian contingent, Major Blaze        I’m convinced that we will accomplish
nized infantry brigade. In that period    MeMberS
                                          of the arM     Nikoloski, was handed over by the         another successful mission.”
149 “leopards”, together with the old-                   Deputy Commander of the Second
est national representative and three     once aGaIn
                                          ShoweD         Mechanized Infantry Brigade, Colonel      TRADITIONAL
staff officers were disposed at the                      Blagoj Iliev, who said, “I do hope and    FRIENDSHIP CONFIRMED
ISAF HQ in Kabul. The members of          theIr SKIllS
                                          KnowleDGe      believe that you will accomplish the      Among the first contacts that the
ARM carried out their assignments                        mission successfully and the people       new Macedonian contingent had in
within the contingent of the UK           anD ProfeS-
                                          SIonalISM      you have taken with you will come         the mission ISAF and the first who
Army for the past six months where                       back safe and sound to the Republic       welcomed them with warm friendly
their main task was providing force                      of Macedonia.”                            salute were the members of the
protection to the ISAF HQ in Kabul.                      “The flag of the Republic of Macedo-      national support element for the
In addition to this, the ARM peace-                      nia will be carried and kept with pride   Turkish Army. Pleasantly surprised
keepers in Kabul executed many                           and we will successfully accomplish       by the fact that the Commander of
other complex assignments such as                        the ISAF mission,” underlined the         the Macedonian contingent speaks
patrolling and securing the military                     Commander of the Macedonian               Turkish fluently as he attended the
                                                         contingent, Major Blaze Nikolovski.       Command-Staff Academy in the Re-
                                                         Moreover, Colonel Blagoj Iliev ad-        public of Turkey, our Turkish friends
                                                         dressed the members of the previ-         opened their doors for cooperation
                                                         ous and the new contingent and            of both armies, but the most impor-
                                                         greeted the present guests from           tant is the cooperation between the
                                                         the superior command, the com-            rapid response units that act in close
                                                         mander of the battalion group for         areas of responsibility. The Macedo-
                                                         base support, the chiefs of sections      nian delegation had a reception with
                                                         and the representatives of the units      the Turkish General, the Commander
                                                         with whom the FP Coy cooperates           of the Regional Center and the Com-
                                                         on regular basis.                         mand of the City of Kabul, who
                                                         Accepting the noble and responsible       stressed that this kind of a meeting
                                                         assignment, the new commander             once again shows the close coopera-
                                                         of the contingent, Major Blaze Niko-      tion between the two countries and
                                                         lovski, said ” To the personnel from      the two armies. Moreover, he said
                                                         the previous contingent I recom-          that the Macedonian contingent will
                                                         mend to be proud of what they have        have all information and all capacities
                                                         done and in the next period to relax      of the Turkish combat group at their
                                                         and enjoy with the ones who took          disposal with an aim to successfully
                                                         the biggest burden on themselves          complete their mission.
                                                         because of their absence, and here I                           Zlatko Ordevski

base and facilities of vital importance   1. 3. anD 4.
for the population of Afghanistan,        follow-
providing combat force protection         InG the
of communications and regions and         footStePS
other assignments depending on the        of theIrS
mission requirements.                     colleaGueS
For their immaculate and profession-      – the Mace-
al execution of the assignments, as       DonIan
well as the shown compatibility and       flaG StanDS
interoperability with the NATO forc-      ProuD In Ka-
es in the ISAF mission, the members       bul for the
of ARM received the highest grades        17th tIMe
from the ISAF Command and the
highest commanding structures
MaceDonIan flaG
flyInG In Kabul
These days the Macedonian flag was
flying for the seventeenth time in the

                                                                                                                                             27
                         NON-COMMISSIONED
     ADVANCED EDUCATIO FOR
                                            OFICERS




     Advanced Course for Non-Commissioned Officers
     within the Croatian Army
          he Advanced Non-commis-           in Split, and about air force and air   1. anD 4. the   did. He has been posted in the
          sioned Officer (NCO) Course       defense in Zadar.                       atMoSPhere      Army of Republic of Macedonia
          for was established in Octo-      The students who attend this ad-        In the          as first NCO in a company. There
          ber, 2002, as the most ad-        vanced course are mainly people         School for      are certain conditions which need
          vanced step of education for      who serve in the Croatian armed         non-coM-        to be fulfilled when choosing the
     NCOs in the frame of the NCOs          forces; nevertheless, there are         MISSIoneD       candidate from the NCOs so that
     professional development within        a few NCO students who come             offIcerS        he can be sent to the advanced
     the Croatian army. After imple-        from other countries, especially                        Croatian course. The NCO who
     menting the reforms within the         armies from countries that used to      2. battle       is sent to the Croatian advanced
     armed forces of the Republic of        be a part of the former Yugoslavia.     tranSPort-      course needs to uphold certain
     Croatia, according to NATO stan-       Last year, Staff Sergeant First class   er of the       standards and to be chosen under
     dards, since September, 2008,          Dragan Stojanovski was the fourth       croatIan        some criteria, such as: he needs
     the Advanced NCO Course has            student from the Army of Republic       arMy            to at least have the rank of Staff
     become a part of the only Non-         of Macedonia who attended this                          Sergeant first class; to have the
     commissioned Officers’ School at       Advanced NCO Course. According          3. a war Mu-    required education, i.e. to have
     the Department of Advanced NCO         to the head of the department, he       SeuM – the      completed the NCO course for
     Education. The lectures take place     has presented himself as an ex-         baSeMent of     first NCOs; to be recommended
     at the Military Academy, in Zagreb,    cellent student, just as the other      the hoSPItal    by his commander or comman-
     as well as in Split and Zadar. The     three Macedonians, who had at-          In vuKovar      dant; or to be planned to do or to
     students study about naval tactics     tended this advanced NCO course                         have been doing the job of Chief

28
Non-commissioned Officer in his unit. The
candidate is preferred to have some other
additional qualifications, for instance, to
have completed some specialized cours-
es connected to his type of work, to know
foreign languages, to have taken part in
international peacekeeping missions …
traInInG ncos for toP DutIeS
The aim of this advanced course is training
NCOs to do the duties with the highest
responsibilities, starting from the Chief
NCO of the battalion, then Chief NCO of
the brigade and the NCO work post with
the highest responsibility, Chief Non-com-
missioned Officer in the ARM. It is im-
portant to mention that NCOs who have
completed this advanced course are not
only highly capable of doing the duties of
                                                 Allied Commander of the Allied Command        with a certificate and a silver ring for the
                                                 Transformation) and before the retired        Advanced NCO Education. The received
                                                 Chief of the General Staff of the armed       knowledge represents the highest level
                                                 forces of Finland.                            of education according to NATO (OP-9).
                                                                                               It is also at the same level of USASMA
                                                 AMONG THE HIGHEST RANK OF                     (United States Arms Sergeant Major
                                                 ADVANCED EDUCATION IN NATO                    Academy), where Macedonian NCOs are
                                                 During the course, for each subject stu-      sent, as well as to other advanced NCO
                                                 dents have to do a seminar paper and to       courses and schools of other armies in
                                                 prepare presentations. The exams have         the world.
                                                 an oral and a written part, and at the end    As a part of the course curriculum there
                                                 of the course the students prepare final      are field trips which are used to visit dif-
                                                 graduation papers. Students who attend        ferent units of the Croatian army. Presen-
                                                 the Advanced NCO Course, together with        tations about the work of the units are
                                                 the students who attend Command and           held especially showing the NCO’s con-
                                                 General Staff School take part in the joint   tribution. Moreover, these field trips are
                                                 simulation exercise “CAX”. At the end of      good for familiarization with political, eco-
                                                 the course there is a closing ceremony        nomic and cultural aspects of Croatia. As
                                                 in Vukovar, when the graduates of the         a part of the subject History of war, the
                                                 Advanced NCO Course are presented             students have recently visited Vukovar. In-
Chief NCO, but also have firm knowledge
of staff duties of NCOs in a brigade and
in larger units. The latter is very important
as Macedonian NCOs have been taking               The advanced course lasts one
part in NATO missions where one needs             academic year (10 months). It has
to show understanding and operational,            been developed and upgraded so as
tactical knowledge, as well as familiarity        to have today’s form consisting of
in intelligence and logistics.                    four areas with appropriate content
The lectures of the Advanced NCO Course           as follows:
are mainly high ranking officers from the
Croatian armed forces, NCOs (advanced
instructors) and civilian experts in the ap-      1. General Issues in the Military:
propriate fields. Students from the Ad-           – Geography in the Military;
vanced NCO course also attend lectures            – History of War;
given by foreign guests, together with            – Physical Education;
students from the Command and General             – Computers.
Staff School (future generals), Command
and Staff School (future commanders and           2. leadership and Management:
high ranking staff officers). The last lectur-
er was Luciano Zapata (Deputy Supreme             – Communications in the Military;
                                                  – Leadership in a military organization;
                                                  – Management of Training;                    cluded in the subject Tactics, students vis-
                                                  – Human Resource Management;                 ited the peninsula Istra where at the cape
                                                  – Military ethics and religious              Kamenjak there was an air defense dem-
                                                     awareness.                                onstration. Distinguished guests from the
                                                                                               Croatian armed forces, including the Chief
                                                  3. tactics and work in the                   Commander of the Croatian armed forces
                                                     headquarters:                             were present at this demonstration.
                                                                                               The students of the eighth generation
                                                  – Tactics;                                   have become good friends. Despite the
                                                  – Basics of military intelligence support;   professional fulfillment of their obligations,
                                                  – Operations;                                they socialize in the afternoons, talk about
                                                  – Logistics Support;                         many things, exchange opinions about
                                                  – Decision making in the military;           military and other topics. The students
                                                  – Modern Military operations.                are satisfied by their education because
                                                                                               they have gained knowledge, experience
                                                  4. extras:                                   and friends. After successfully completing
                                                                                               the course, the students will convey their
                                                  – Final (graduation) papers;                 knowledge to their fellow NCOs in the
                                                  – Spare time;                                ARM in the best way they can.
                                                  – Field trips.                                                                        D. S.


                                                                                                                                                29
                                                                                      CID
                                                                                                              Courtesy of U.S. Army



      UNITITED STATES ARMY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DIVISION
        he United States of America                                             1. cID aGentS’       of whom approximately 1000
        as one of the world`s su-                                               baDGe                are Special Agents.
        perpowers have the most
        powerful and the most so-                                               2. cID’S SPecIal     HISTORY
     phisticated army. The US armed                                             aGent on Duty        During World War I, General
     forces can be deployed at any                                              In Iraq, 2005        John J. Pershing ordered the cre-
     time or to any place in the world                                                               ation of a separate organization
     with one single goal- to secure                                            3. 4. anD 5. cID’S   within the Military Police Corps
     and protect American vital geo-                                            SPecIal aGentS       to prevent and detect crime
     political, economical and safety                                           conDuct              among the American Expedition-
     interests. There are 5 compo-                                              crIMInal             ary Force in France The newly
     nents that comprise the US                                                 InveStIGatIonS       created Criminal Investigation
     armed forces: the Army, the                                                In anD out           Division (CID) was headed by a
     Air Force, the Navy, the Marine                                            of the arMy          division chief who served as the
     Corps (known as the Marines)                                               baSeS, alonG         advisor to the Provost Marshal
     and the Coast Guard. The total                                             wIth theIr           General on all matters relating
     number of personnel on active                                              colleaGueS           to criminal investigations. At
     duty is 1.5 million. There are also                                        froM the             the end of the war, the United
     900 000 troops that act as re-                                             other State          States Army was reduced in size
     serve components of the US            nal Investigation Command –          anD feDeral          during the transition to peace-
     armed forces – the Army Na-           USACIDC is that kind of federal      aGencIeS             time and the size of CID shrank
     tional Guard, the Navy Reserve        law enforcement agency (in the                            dramatically.
     and the Air Force Reserve. Since      text we will use the shortened       6. a forenSIc        With the onset of World War II in
     military installations-bases, are     acronym CID commonly used to         worKInG In hIS       December 1941, the armed forc-
     not only places for training and      refer to the criminal investiga-     lab                  es rapidly swelled in size and the
     performing military duties, but       tion and operations).                                     Army once again became a force
     also provide housing for the          The Commanding General,                                   of millions, and the need for a
     members of the armed forces           USACIDC, is dual-hatted as the                            self-policing law enforcement
     and their families, the high crime    Provost Marshal General and is                            system rematerialized. Howev-
     rate in the armed forces is quite     supervised by the Chief of Staff                          er, by early 1942, investigations
     understandable. For that rea-         of the Army.                                              of crimes committed by military
     son, special commands have            The current CID Commanding                                personnel were still considered
     been formed in order to deal          General is Brigadier General Col-                         to be a “command function” to
     with criminal activities at all       leen L McGuire. Worldwide, the                            be conducted by local military
     levels within the armed forces.       organization has slightly fewer                           police personnel. The Office of
     The United States Army Crimi-         than 3,000 soldiers and civilians,                        The Provost Marshal General
                                                                                                     felt that the agents in the Inves-

30
tigations Department were not prop-
erly trained for criminal investigations,
so in 1944 CID was reestablished under
the Provost Marshal General’s Office.
The organization exercised supervision
over criminal investigation activities,
coordinated investigations between
commands, dictated plans and policies,
and set standards for criminal investi-
gators.
After the war, the CID was once again
decentralized, with control of criminal
investigations transferred to area com-
mands in the 1950s and further down
to the installation level. In the middle of
the 1960s the need for reestablishing
a command responsible for the army
criminal investigations was evident.
Thus in 1965, criminal investigative
elements were reorganized into CID            and allied military personnel, facilities,    nel, major felony crimes committed
groups corresponding to geographical          and other interests. Upon collecting          by US personnel and, when directed,
areas in the United States, and in 1969,      this information, agents recommend            crimes committed by foreign nation-
the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation          countermeasures to combat subver-             als in which there is an Army interest,
Agency was established to supervise           sive activities through coordination with     criminal acts by indigenous personnel,
all CID operations worldwide. As the          military intelligence, the Military police,   factions, and ad hoc groups, special/
agency did not have command author-           rear-area operations officers, and host       sensitive investigations, hostage ne-
ity, in 1971, the Secretary of Defense        nation military and civil intelligence        gotiations, polygraph operations, and
directed the Secretary of the Army to         agencies. Additionally, when directed,        force-protection operations. CID de-
form a CID command (USACIDC) with             the USACIDC becomes the lead US mili-         tachments provide enhanced cover-
command and control authority over all        tary investigative agency at theater lev-     age and protection for designated
Army-wide CID assets.                         el. When this happens, it is tasked with      key and essential leaders during war.
                                              leading the prevention-of-terrorism ef-       The protection requirement for senior
CID MISSION                                   fort from all services, not just the Army     Joint Task Forces and Army command-
As the Army’s primary criminal inves-         component. During war, the criminal in-       ers may be significantly greater during
tigative organization, the “CID” is re-       vestigation effort includes: war crimes       war than during peacetime or war as
sponsible for the conduct of criminal         and, when directed, crimes against co-        the propensity of asymmetrical threats
investigations in which the Army is, or       alition forces and host nation person-        (such as criminal and terrorist groups)
may be, a party of interest. Headquar-                                                      operating in the Area of operations
tered at Fort Belvoir, Virginia and op-                                                     also increases.
erating throughout the world, the CID                                                       CID is branched into several units de-
conducts criminal investigations that                                                       pending on the specific tasks. Some of
range from death to fraud, on and off                                                       them are described in the text below.
military reservations, and, when appro-
priate, with local, state and other fed-                                                    Field Investigative Unit
eral investigative agencies. The Com-                                                       Sensitive investigations are normally
mand supports the Army through the                                                          conducted by the field investigative
deployment, in peace and conflict, of                                                       unit (FIU). The FIU is a one-of-a-kind
highly trained soldier and government                                                       organization within the Department of
service special agents and support                                                          Defence that enables the Secretary of
personnel, the operation of a certified                                                     the Army to conduct sensitive investi-
forensic laboratory, a protective ser-                                                      gations requiring access to special in-
vices unit, computer crimes specialists,                                                    formation or programs that are highly
polygraph services, criminal intelligence                                                   classified. The FIU works closely with
collection and analysis, and a variety                                                      the Army IG, the Judge Advocate Gen-
of other services normally associated                                                       eral of the Army, and the Army General
with law enforcement. CID’s mission is                                                      Counsel to support commanders in
the same in both the installation and                                                       the special-operations and intelligence
battlefield environment; however, addi-                                                     communities and in the area of classi-
tional requirements are taken on during                                                     fied acquisition programs. The FIU may
battlefield support                                                                         also be assigned investigations involv-
There are four primary missions of                                                          ing senior Army personnel or those of
the CID: logistic security, criminal in-                                                    special interest to the Army leadership.
telligence, criminal investigation and
protective service operations. Logistic                                                     The Computer Crime
security function protects the Army’s                                                       Investigation Unit
supply pipeline against criminal activi-                                                    The computer-crime investigative unit
ties from the manufacturer, through                                                         (CCIU) deals with intrusions involving
logistics channels, all the way to the                                                      classified networks or multijurisdic-
frontline soldier. It involves preventing,                                                  tional offenses. The CCIU works closely
detecting, and investigating criminal                                                       with MI and federal law-enforcement
and terrorist activities such as supply                                                     agencies to coordinate military actions,
diversion, destruction, and sabotage                                                        nonmilitary-affiliated offenders, and
or product substitution. Criminal intel-                                                    foreign-intelligence services. In addi-
ligence collection efforts focus on the                                                     tion, it provides technical assistance
identification and prevention of terror-                                                    to CID elements that are conducting
ist and non- terrorist crimes against US                                                    computer-related investigations.

                                                                                                                                       31
     The Protective Service Unit
     The protective-service unit (PSU) pro-
     vides worldwide protective services to
     designated personnel to protect them
     from assassination, kidnapping, injury,
     or embarrassment. The PSU plans, co-
     ordinates, and executes executive pro-
     tection for: the Secretary of Defense,
     the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the
     Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
     the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
     of Staff, the Secretary of the Army,
     the Army Chief of Staff, the Army vice
     Chief of Staff and others (as directed).
     During war, the USACIDC routinely pro-
     vides protective-service support to se-
     nior Army ground commanders and, in
     some cases, to Joint task forces com-
     manders. The USACIDC agents also
     provide training to the Military Police     military service (not more than 10 years),   Fraud Investigations, Child Abuse Pre-
     details providing protective services to    at least one year of military police ex-     vention and Investigative Techniques,
     senior field commanders.                    perience or two years of civilian law        Crisis/Hostage Negotiations, Combat-
                                                 enforcement experience. Other require-       ing Terrorism on Military Installations,
     Criminal Investigation Laboratory           ments include (but are not limited to)       Protective Service Training as well as
     Forensic-laboratory support is provided     credit checks, physical fitness require-     other subjects.
     by the US Army Criminal-Investigations      ments, normal color vision, the ability
     Laboratory (USACIL) that is currently       to obtain a Top Secret clearance, and        UNIFORM AND FIREARMS
     located at Fort Gillem, Georgia. The        a drivers license. To qualify for Warrant    As criminal investigators, CID Special
     USACIL is a nationally accredited fo-       Officer positions, candidates must be at     Agents typically dress in professional
     rensic laboratory that provides all three   least an E-5 SGT, currently serving as a     suits, business/casual attire, or com-
     services with dedicated, highly respon-     Special Agent, with 2 years of investiga-    fortable clothing when appropriate for
     sive, deployable, state-of-the-art scien-   tive experience with CID, have a Top Se-     their daily investigative responsibilities.
     tific and forensic investigative support.   cret clearance and a Bachelors degree        Due to the nature of their work, un-
     The six forensic divisions of the USACIL    (may be waived as a requirement). Can-       dercover assignments dictate further
     include the following: Chemistry (serol-    didates must have also demonstrated          variations of attire to support specific
     ogy, drugs, trace, and deoxyribonucleic-    leadership potential, management abili-      undercover mission requirements.
     acid [DNA] testing), questioned docu-       ties and good communication skills. CID      When deployed to certain combat en-
     ments (alterations and comparisons                                                       vironments, and during other special
     of handwriting, typing, and printing),                                                   times and circumstances, CID agents
     firearms and tool marks (weapons and                                                     wear Army Combat Uniforms, replac-
     obliterated numbers), photography                                                        ing rank insignia with subdued versions
     (evidence, charts and photos for court),                                                 of officer “U.S.” collar brass and some-
     latent prints, and computer forensics.                                                   times wearing “CID” brassards on their
     The USACIL collects, receives, and ex-                                                   upper left arms. Military CID agents
     amines evidence and prepares reports                                                     continue to be soldiers of the Military
     of findings. It also provides expert-wit-                                                Police Corps. For official photographs,
     ness testimony at court-martials.                                                        and certain duty assignments, they
                                                                                              wear the uniforms, rank and insignia of
     Crime Records Center                                                                     any other MP soldier of their respec-
     US Crime Records Center (CRC) main-                                                      tive ranks. CID agents are issued the
     tains the Army’s criminal records.                                                       9 mm Sig Sauer and for combat envi-
     It maintains more than two million                                                       ronments, agents are issued the M4
     Military Police reports and USACIDC                                                      carbine.
     reports of investigations. The CRC                                                       To conclude, it is obvious that law
     conducts more than 10,000 criminal-                                                      enforcement and criminal investiga-
     history name checks each month to                                                        tion are a very important part of the
     identify victims and perpetrators of                                                     US armed forces, in this case the US
     criminal offenses. The checks are re-                                                    Army, and are vital for the law and or-
     quested not only by USACIDC agents,         does not employ Commissioned Offi-           der within the units both at home or
     but also by other military and civilian     cers as Special Agents. CID Battalions       deployed worldwide. When it comes to
     law-enforcement officials. The CRC          and Brigades (Groups) are commanded          the Macedonian armed forces and the
     also manages the Army’s polygraph           by Commissioned Officers from the            future transformation and organizing
     programs and their support to Army          Military Police Corps. These officers do     of the law enforcement and criminal
     installations around the world.             not supervise the conduct of criminal        investigation within the Ministry of De-
                                                 investigations. Criminal investigations      fence and the Macedonian Army, which
     SELECTION AND TRAINING                      conducted by field Special Agents are        have been conducted so far by the Mili-
     There are several criteria concerning       supervised by senior Warrant Officer         tary Police and the military intelligence
     the CID selection and training. Special     Special Agents.                              and counter intelligence units of the
     Agent candidates must be currently          Special Agent candidates initially re-       Army, we should use the experience
     serving in the active Army, National        ceive training at the US Army Military       of the CID as well as its organization
     Guard or Army Reserve. Enlisted sol-        Police School (USAMPS) at Fort Leon-         which has been functioning for over
     diers must be US citizens, at least 21      ard Wood, MO where they attend the           90 years and of course adjust it to the
     years of age and a maximum grade of         Apprentice CID Special Agent course.         needs of the Ministry of Defence and
     E-5 SGT (non-promotable). Candidates        Later, agents may return to USAMPS to        the Macedonian Army.
     must have served at least two years of      attend specialized training in Advanced                               Borche Jakimov


32
                                                                              THE MACEDONIAN

                                                                              BLUE
                                                                              BARET


From a peacekeeper’s journal
      n previous editions we presented                                         THE ROAD TO LEBANON
      you a few Macedonian peace-
      keepers who employed all their                                           An interesting fact characterizes the way
      potential in Iraq, Afghanistan and                                       the name of at that time Major Mitrev
in the EU-led mission in Bosnia – AL-                                          was on the short list of officers proposed
THEA. Only one Macedonian officer                                              to be our country’s representatives to
presented our small country in the UN                                          the Lebanon mission. His qualities and
UNIFIL mission in Lebanon. The first one                                       his long-years of service in the ARM were
to break the ice was Lieutenant Colonel                                        his “ticket” to take part in UNIFIL.
Simeon Mitrev, our representative in                                           “I didn’t apply for the mission and I didn’t
the UNIFIL mission.                                                            ask to go. I remember that I was having
                                                                               a day off after a night duty, when I got
A CAreer tHAt NeeDS                                                            a phone call from somebody who asked
tO Be reSPeCteD                                                                me what I was doing. I said that was that
“I graduated at the Military Academy                                           I was taking a rest after duty. I was told
in Belgrade, and my first post was in                                          that I was chosen for the Lebanon mis-
Vinkovci in 1989. Then, riots started in                                       sion and asked for my opinion. My an-
ex Yugoslavia, so I came back to Mace-                                         swer of course, as an officer was that if
donia”, started LTC Mitrev. He began his                                       I were chosen there was nothing else to
military career in Macedonia in the Stru-     we are aPProachInG the           be said, I accepted. Honestly speaking, I
mica garrison. He is originally from the      fIrSt DecaDe of the new          didn’t know if it was a joke or not. After a
Strumica village Novo Selo, and now he        century. It IS unbelIevable      week I got an order to go to the Depart-
works as an operations and planning           that In thIS era of DeveloPeD    ment for International Cooperation at the
officer in “Jane Sandanski” barracks in       huMan rIGhtS the baSIc IDeaS     Ministry of Defence. I found out there
Stip. “After returning to Macedonia I         of Peace anD welfare are         that names of ten other officers were on
worked as a commander of the recon-                                            the list and my name and a name of an-
naissance unit which was part of the          only a DeSIreD cateGory.         other major were underlined.”
special units in the brigade, after that I    unfortunately, factS aSSure      Although according to the initial plan two
was a commander of a battery, then an         uS that Peace IS not an          Macedonian officers were supposed to
officer for fire support in the brigade. I    abSolveD toPIc In all PartS      take part in the UNIFIL mission, a letter
worked three years in the battalion as        of our Planet. nevertheleSS,     from the UN claimed that there was only
an operations officer and after that as       only reachInG Peace IS not       one free post. “The idea at the beginning
fire support officer in the brigade. In the                                    was that both of us should go, but later
last two years I have been working as         enouGh. It ShoulD be KePt anD    we were informed that the UN provides
operations and planning officer in the        ProtecteD. It ShoulD be Done     only one post. My colleague, who was a
brigade”, explained LTC Mitrev.               In all PoSSIble wayS             commander of the Tetovo battalion, said


                                                                                                                              33
     that he was extremely busy at
     the time, so I became the first
     ARM representative in the UNI-
     FIL mission. On 15 May 2007 I
     went on a mission,” explained
     LTC Mitrev.
     What is interesting is that our
     representative was part of the
     UNIFIL-2 since as of 2006 the
     terrorist organization the Hez-
     bollah was left out from the UN
     area of responsibility.

     THE ARABIC PARADISE

     They say that the first impres-
     sion is the most important one,
     but when we have the pitch dark-
     ness in front of us, then the first
     impressions about the exotic
     Arabic culture should wait for the
     day light.
     “I arrived in Beirut via Prague.
     I was met there by a civilian
     from Egypt, a UN employee.
     He was standing in the airport
     lounge holding a peace of pa-
     per with my name written on it.
     It was 3 am, so he took me to
     the American hotel “Marriott”. I
     wasn’t able to see Beirut at all.
     Anyway, the hotel was incred-
     ible. It was the same as the one
     in America. The first thing that
     popped into my mind was if this
     country really needed a mission.
     The following morning around 10
     o’clock, two soldiers from Po-
     land arrived in a jeep and I left      shift was from 8 pm till 8 am.         1. the baSe In    unit should intervene, if there is a
     with them. My first impression         My working environment was full        al-naKura         need of a patrol or not and so on.
     was of the extreme heat, and           of telephones and computers.                             There were a lot of maps in the
     high humidity.” Since he was           There were two main telephones         2. anD 3.         GS where all activities should be
     sent from Macedonia as a GS of-        because the whole base was di-         beIrut Seen       marked. At the same time I had
     ficer he was offered two posts,        vided in two sectors – eastern         throuGh our       to write a report, prepare a pre-
     liaison officer and watchkeeper.       and western, with two brigades         PeaceKeePer’S     sentation and deliver it in front of
     “I had an appointment with the         each. The leader of the eastern        eyeS              the Force Commander. I should
     GS human resources personnel           part was Spain and Italy was                             mention here that there were
     situated in An Nakurah (2.5 km         the leader of the western part.        4. conrollInG     two commanders, a force com-
     from the Israeli border), where I      There were representatives of          the „blue lIne“   mander and a base commander.
     was offered two posts. The first       31 countries in the base. All infor-                     I remember that the force com-
     possibility was a liaison officer      mation about all events was re-        5. anD 6. on      mander at that time was the
     and the second one was watch-          ceived by the watchkeeper. Not         Duty In the       Italian General Claudio Graziano.
     keeper in the Command, i.e. the                                               un’S oPeratIve
                                            only informing, but on the basis                         Each morning at 8 o’clock a re-
                                                                                   center
     UNIFIL HQ. I didn’t know any-          of these information decision                            port was to be sent to all im-
     thing about the obligations for        should have been made – which                            portant sectors and authorities,
     neither of the two posts. I was                                                                 even to Ban Ki Moon.”
     told that as a liaison officer I was                                                            There were no representatives
     supposed to work for one week                                                                   of nations close to ours, so time
     in Israel, one week in Lebanon                                                                  for recreation and relaxation was
     and I would have a week off. I                                                                  not easy to pass. “At the begin-
     didn’t like this option very much                                                               ning it was very difficult since
     so I decided to accept the other                                                                there were no people from this
     offer. I must admit that later on                                                               region. I made friends with peo-
     I regretted my decision because                                                                 ple from Indonesia and Malaysia,
     it was really hard working in the                                                               but as it is known we are of dif-
     HQ,” stressed LTC Mitrev.                                                                       ferent cultures. Three moths later
                                                                                                     a representative of Slovenia ar-
     THE ARM PEACEKEEPER                                                                             rived followed by one from Croa-
                                                                                                     tia. Things got easier – we used
     We asked LTC Mitrev to tell us                                                                  to go out together, we played
     more about the watchkeeper’s                                                                    sport together. They had more
     duties and obligations. “I worked                                                               free time than I did, I spent most
     in 12 hours shifts – from 8 am to                                                               of my free time resting because
     8 pm. After that I had a night and                                                              the job I did was very demand-
     the next day off, and the next                                                                  ing.”


34
                                               was completely destroyed by a 70 kg
                                               explosive car-bomb. All this happened in
                                               less than five minutes right behind our
                                               jeep. Six peacekeepers died during this
                                               accident,” says LTC Mitrev.

                                               MACEDONIA, OR?

                                               Although the Lebanese people call our
                                               country Macedonia, our peacekeeper
                                               faced the ever-present name issue
                                               – the correct name of our country. “I
                                               was introduced to a Greek represen-
                                               tative at the very beginning. Asked
                                               where I come from I replied loud and
                                               clear – Macedonia. He said: “You are
                                               not from Macedonia, you are from FY-
                                               ROM.” But as they say even gods fall
                                               faced with facts, even if they are from
                                               Olympus. “After my short lesson in
                                               history he never mentioned the same
                                               issue again,” added LTC Mitrev. As we
                                               all know the official UN name of our
                                               country is FYROM, in all documents
                                               our country was referred to with this
                                               abbreviation. On our peacekeeper’s re-
                                               quest this abbreviation was replaced
                                               by FYR Macedonia.

                                               DOUBLE BENEFIT

                                               The benefits of deploying Macedonian
                                               peacekeepers in various missions of
                                               international organizations (UN, NATO)
                                               are double – Macedonia gains expe-
                                               rienced officers, prepared to face the
                                               challenges of the new era, and at the
                                               same time it proves that there is a pro-
DANGER IS LURKING                              fessional and well trained personnel in
                                               our country that can work shoulder to
Water used to turn into wine on today’s        shoulder with the representatives of
Lebanon territory. It’s not like that any-     more developed countries. “The most
more. It’s not like that since the terrorist   important thing for me was getting ex-
organization “Hezbollah” has been infil-       perience since I worked there as a staff
trated in the parliament of the country.       officer. After I returned from this mission
People…..they are friendly and open.           I mainly work in the operational centers
This is what our peacekeeper thinks. He        of our exercises, precisely because of
adds that the encounter with danger            this gained experience. Regarding the
couldn’t be avoided.                           benefits for the country I can say that
“Each month we were supposed to con-           a big number of people from the dis-
trol the so called blue line checking the      tant countries have never before heard
UN positions, so I was directly exposed        about Macedonia. I personally think that
to the Lebanese climate. I started hav-        taking part in these kinds of missions is
ing kidney problems, and I was hospital-       very important for an international affir-
ized for 15 days, outside the UN zone.         mation of our country.”
One day I had to do a check up in a ve-        There are also certain disadvantages be-
hicle. At the border of the control zone       ing absent from Macedonia. Our peace-
I had to dismount the UN flag from the         keeper is a husband and a father of two
jeep, I stopped at one of the border           girls. “While I was away on a mission
check points and I met people who pa-          my daughters went through the most
trolled there. I did the check up and on       sensitive period in their lives – teenage
my way back from the hospital which            period, a period that requires special pa-
was not later than two hours I noticed         rental attention, which at that time was
that everything was blocked. At the            mostly on my wife’s shoulders. This is
place of the police control the vehicles       the reason why we have to pay a spe-
were completely destroyed and there            cial respect to all mothers who raise our
were injured people. The vehicles were         children while we take part in peace-
destroyed because they stepped on a            keeping missions.”
mine which was very likely I could have        The mission of our peacekeeper ended
stepped on.”                                   in May 2008, but his professional contri-
The danger didn’t finish there. “All UNI-      bution to the development of the ARM
IFIL contingents had parties for their         and Macedonia continues.
national holidays. For the national day
of Spain we went to the eastern sec-                                 Zdravko Rizovski /
tor and on our way back a Spanish APC                                  Ivan Petrusevski


                                                                                             35
     GUIDE FOR KEEPING AND
     DOGS

     soldiers and their best friends – dogs – v
          ear is one of the most com-        kind of dog will not allow anyone   1. DoGS are        adult disturbs the dog while it
          mon reasons for aggressive         to enter the yard and the house,    SenSItIve to       is resting. The law reduces our
          behavior of the dogs. Fear         apart from the members of the       MoveMentS          responsibility when it comes to
          generally appears because          family. Training obedience is the                      other people’s negligence, and
          of some stressful and un-          best way to keep the situation      2. SoMe            yet we have to do everything so
     usually noisy situation. If the dog     under control and to send a mes-    SounDS can         as to avoid to physical or verbal
     is frightened we should put a           sage to our pet that it has gone    DISturb the        irritation of the dog.
     basket muzzle on it, place it in a      too far with the aggression.        DoG. In that       We should teach the children
     fenced yard or in some quiet and        The dog is very perceptive of       caSe, It IS rec-   never to approach unfamiliar
     dark room until it calms down.          movements and is sensitive to       oMMenDeD to        dogs and not to do any sudden
     If we know that certain occur-          it. The experienced trainers know   taKe the DoG       movements with the hands to-
     rence and sounds such as thun-          this well and therefore they        SoMewhere          wards the dog, and especially
     der, sirens, upset the dog and we       stand still when the dog shows      quIte              not to approach a dog from be-
     are not sure how it will react, it is   the least of aggression. If the                        hind. At the same time, children
     advisable to take it to a quieter       dog is nervous it is best not to                       should not be allowed to be par-
     place or to restrain it. In those       do sudden movements. The ag-                           ticularly loud so the dog will not
     moments we should avoid touch-          gressive reaction of irritation                        feel threatened. When they are
     ing or petting the frightened dog       happens when some child or an                          playing with the dog, the chil-
     despite the fact that we have a
     close relationship. In that situa-
     tion the dog can react in an un-
     usual manner and instinctively
     bite us.
     The territorial aggression is an
     expression of mutual instinct
     and can be often noticed in cir-
     cumstances when the dog tries
     to guard the yard, the car or the
     house. Depending on the natural
     born aggression, the territorial
     instinct and the training, the dog
     will tend to guard its territory
     and family. Dog owners generally
     think that certain degree of ag-
     gression in dogs is needed.
     Nevertheless, this territorial in-
     stinct can lead to unwanted con-
     sequences and dimensions. That

36
                                                                                            the dog with a piece of meat, the dog
                                                                                            will come for the meat. While it is coming
                                                                                            towards him, the owner calls the dogs


BREEDING
                                                                                            name several times and then gives the
                                                                                            meat. If the puppy doesn’t react to the
                                                                                            command, than the owner should go to
                                                                                            it and get the meat close to its mouth
                                                                                            while at the same time saying its name.
                                                                                            We do that while the puppy is eating the
                                                                                            meat, and we pet it after. When it hears
                                                                                            that simulation, the puppy understands
                                                                                            that something good is happening, that
                                                                                            is, it is given food or approval, thus it ac-
                                                                                            cepts the name and responds to it. Also
                                                                                            we have to pay attention to our tone,
                                                                                            not to be artificial, because the dog un-
                                                                                            derstands the intonation in our voice,,
                                                                                            as a result the artificial voice may create
                                                                                            doubt in the dog.

                                                                                            PRAISES AND PUNISHMENTS
                                                                                            If we read some old book for dog train-
                                                                                            ing we will see that there are only pinch
                                                                                            collars and beating as discipline mea-
                                                                                            sures. From these books we will learn
                                                                                            that there was an opinion that the dog
                                                                                            should be hit with hands, with a special
                                                                                            leash to certain parts of the body to
                                                                                            punish it.
                                                                                            Before we punish the dog we must first
                                                                                            find the reason for its disobedience. We
                                                                                            may have addressed the dog with a ner-
                                                                                            vous tone, unusual and unknown to it or
                                                                                            the dog’s attention could be attracted
                                                                                            on something other than you. We have
                                                                                            to make sure that the dog understands
                                                                                            us, and then to expect to obey our com-
                                                                                            mands at once.
                                                                                            The answer to the question when can
                                                                                            we hit the dog is - never. We have to find
dren often provoke the dog to jump and          to the collar, and with the right hand we   some other means of force. We have to
scratch them.                                   put the basket muzzle. The dog usually      give as fewer commands as possible
We should carefully observe the dog             wants to take it off, but we will not al-   because this means of establishing au-
and know everything about it. Shout-            low it by playing a game and walking. If    thority loses its value. The command
ing, pulling its ears, tail or hair and other   we don’t succeed like that, than we give    should be short, strict, calm, but never
kinds of aggravation, represent danger          a strict command “no” and we pull the       loud and rough. The tone must differ
to the dog.                                     leash. The dog gradually gets used to       to the one we usually address the dog.
We should not chase the dog, boost              the basket muzzle, thus we will gradu-      The dog should not be punished by hit-
its aggression, and we shouldn’t allow          ally get it used to wearing the basket      ting with a hand, but only by pulling the
other people to do it too. Instead, we          muzzle.                                     leash that affects its neck and causes
should offer some other, more accept-                                                       pain that the dog doesn’t connect with
able approach with the dog, like scratch-       PUPPY GETTING USED TO ITS NAME              us and our hand.
ing their sensitive points, their belly and     When we bring the dog home, we should       We must be careful and distinguish be-
so, which arouses pleasure in the dog.          teach it its name. The name of the pup-     tween a ban and a command. The more
                                                py presents a sound simulation that         the dog obeys our banning-orders,
GettInG uSeD to collar,                         should be short and easily pronounce-       the more it will obey our commands.
leaSh anD baSKet Muzzle                         able. Learning its name can be done in      Banning-orders are: banning-order for
The dog is getting used to all these            several ways. When the owner calls out      urinating and defecating in the house;
things while it is young and during play-                                                   nibbling objects; jumping on furniture;
time and walks. The owner calls the                                                         whimpering; howling; standing by the
dog, pets it and at the same time puts                                                      table. All of this, the dog has to learn
the collar on his neck. If the dog tries                                                    along with its physical and mental train-
to take it off, the best way is to make                                                     ing. It is never too early to forbid things.
it forget about it through play. During                                                     But, we have to start giving orders only
the walks we need to put the collar on                                                      when we are certain that the dog has
and take it off several times. After it                                                     developed physically and mentally. We
gets used to the collar, we put the leash                                                   have to ask the dog only the things it
and we walk the dog with it. It will get                                                    knows. When it obeys us, we should pet
used to these two things easily because                                                     it and it is good to give some reward.
they represent a signal that it is walk-                                                    Every time it obeys it should be reward-
ing time, and that is something that                                                        ed. The dog can become disobedient
the dog likes. After the walk the collar                                                    due to fear of the hand of the one who
should be taken off because it damages                                                      hits it. Experience shows that the dog
and plucks the hair.                                                                        can be hit on two occasions: if it shows
We have to be fast with the basket                                                          aggression towards the owner and if it
muzzle. The procedure is the following:                                                     takes something off the ground.
We get down on our knees, we hold the
dog with one hand on the leash close                                                                                      Riste Giovski

                                                                                                                                            37
                 .
     CLIMATE CHANGE
             V S
     DEFENCE AND SECURITY




                                                                        Photo: Paul Haze



     POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING
          n recent years the climate                       ciations participated in protests all
          change and their negative in-                    over Europe asking the world lead-
          fluence on the living creatures                  ers to sing a contract for a confer-
          on planet Earth have been                        ence to prevent climate change.
     discussed more often than in the                      These NGOs and environmental
     past. Therefore it is crucial to con-                 organisations demanded that the
     sider the possible consequences                       developed countries take seri-
     of global warming and climate                         ous measures for fighting climate
     change, with particular stress on                     change and the annual increase
     defense and security.                                 of temperature. In addition, they
                                                           insisted on reaching an agreement
     KYOTO AND BEYOND                                      in Copenhagen according to which
     In December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan                      the signatory countries would take
     more than 180 countries signed                        the responsibility for the decrease
     an agreement, however that was                        of emission of exhaust gases by
     not enough to solve the problem                           34%, certain organizations
     of global warming. Nevertheless,                          also insisted for the European
     this agreement was a step ahead                           politicians to promise to be
     in solving this important issue.                          decrease the emission of dan-
     Still, many of the countries which                        gerous gases which cause the
     signed the agreement did not act                          green house effect to 40 % (by
     in compliance with it. It is valid un-                    2020). Moreover, these organi-
     til 2012 after which the new con-                         zations addressed other states
     tract from Copenhagen, Denmark,                           such as –the USA, China, Aus-
     which unfortunately has not been                          tralia and Japan to become part
     closed yet, is coming into effect.                        of one ambitious agreement
     The main goal of the Copenhagen                           for high and realistic goals for
     agreement is control of emission         1. PoSter    climate protection.
     of exhaust gases, which directly         for the      Despite the optimism among the
     affects global warming. According        coPenhaGen   countries of the UN Framework
     to the analyses made by experts          clIMate      Convention for climate changes
     for climate change significant in-       conference   to reach sustainable contract for
     crease of temperature is expected                     reduction of emission of green-
     in the future.                                        house effect gases, no agreement
                                              2. the
     Before the conference in Copen-                       was reached in Copenhagen on
     hagen, last year in the period be-       atMoSPhere   the 15th conference of the UN
     tween 9 to 19 December, many             DurInG the   Framework Convention Countries
     NGOs and environmental asso-             conference   and the 5th meeting of the Kyoto


38
Protocol Countries. Significant improve-                                                        rorist and suicidal bombers that will pose
ment was reached considering financial                                                          a serious threat for the world peace and
aid for the underdeveloped countries. A                                                         security. Manifestations of extreme na-
special fund for investment of 30 billiard                                                      tionalism are also possible, racial and re-
dollars is to be established and by 2020                                                        ligious tensions, illegal drugs, weapons,
the amount will have increased to 100                                                           and people trade as well as proliferation
billion dollars. This financial support is                                                      of means for massive destruction can be
mainly aimed at helping the most vulner-                                                        expected.
able countries from the consequences of
climate change. Since an agreement has           sequences on the security of developed,        SMALL BUT RESPONSIBLE
not been reached for most of the other           underdeveloped countries, including the        Macedonia is an active participant in the
open questions, the German Chancellorr           security of the Republic of Macedonia. Ac-     entire process of protection from climate
Angela Merkel suggested that this is             cording to some predictions if we do not       change and takes precaution measures
reconsidered again on a smaller confer-          take the negative effects seriously, there     for decreasing the emission of exhaust
ence in Bonn, in June and close the issues       will be serious problems in the global se-     gases, and the protection of the envi-
for which principal agreement has been           curity, especially with the so-called asym-    ronment. Macedonia is directly involved
reached.                                         metric threats.                                in the UN struggle for reduction of the
Upon completion of the Copenhagen                The increase of temperature, especially in     consequences from climate change under
conference, countries from all around            the regions where it is already high, will     the auspices of the member of UN Sec-
the earth expressed their criticism. It is       cause a decrease of production of agricul-     retary General for climate change Ph. D.
particularly stressed that the declaration       tural products and lack of food especially     Srgjan Kerim. We as a country have to
does not contain concrete measures for           in the underdeveloped countries. It will       take additional measures for protection
reduced emission of exhaust gases. Ac-           also cause floods, dry and windy weather       from security problems caused by climate
cording to the NGOs and environmental            and hurricanes. This will lead to lack of      change as well. The geographical position
organizations this was a huge failure and        drinking water, problems with usage of         of our country is on the cross section for
a step back from the agreements in Kyo-          natural and energy resources in the world      illegal migration from the underdeveloped
to. The text from the declaration of the         (oil, gas, mine minerals etc.) which might     to the developed world. When Macedonia
summit in Copenhagen calls the devel-            be one of the major reasons for armed          becomes a NATO and an EU member,
oped and underdeveloped countries to             conflict.                                      the responsibilities for protection and
officially confirm the actions they will take,   Based on all of the above mentioned            security will be even higher, especially for
to control the emission of green house ef-       problems, which might be caused by             protection of borders and airports from
fect gases by the end of January 2010.           the global warming, illegal immigration        illegal immigrants from the neighbor-
                                                 from poor to rich, developed countries         ing countries that are not EU members.
POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON                              is expected. Poverty, especially in the un-    The Macedonian borders will become EU
THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY                         derdeveloped countries, which are most         boarders once the country enters in the
Climate change caused by the emission            affected by the climate changes, will be       European Union.
of dangerous gases can have serious con-         fertile ground for recruiting potential ter-                        M.A. Stojan Dimchov




                                                                                                                                               39
                                                    RESULTS
                                                FOR RESPECT
     HONORING THE ARMY NORDIC SKIERS
           arko Damjanovski and Gjorgi          not only a very significant achieve-      ary 15, 2010 and I expect to achieve
           Icoski, professional soldiers (PS)   ment for the army and the country,        excellent results. I know that we will
           from the Second mechanized in-       but also for themselves and the ef-       represent ourselves in the best light”,
           fantry brigade of ARM who have       fort they have invested. Today, we        said Darko Damjanovski, PS.
     accomplished the Olympic norms to          are honoured to have two members          Unfortunately, according to the
     enter the Winter Olympic Games in          of the Army that have met the criteria    propositions, only 33 countries have
     Vancuver, Canada, have proudly post-       to represent us in Vancuver “, stated     entered the biathlon competition
     ed the testimonial and the certificate     Konjanovski.                              (Macedonia is at position 34). In ad-
     of honor that have been awarded            At the meeting, our Olympians ex-         dition to the accomplished individual
     to them by the Minister of Defence,        pressed their gratitute to the Minister   norms, PS Gjorgi Icoski was not able
     Zoran Konjanovski, for their accom-        of Defence for the constant and un-       to represent our country this year
     plishment.                                 conditional support they are receiving    at the Olympics. “This year, for the
     “I, from the bottom of my heart as         from the General Staff of the Repub-      first time in the history of the win-
     well as on behalf of the employees         lic of Macedonia and the MoD “I am        ter sports in Macedonia, we have
     in the MoD congratulate the sucess         going to compete at the 15km nordic       reached individual Olympic norms.
     of the members of the ARM. This is         skiing that is taking place on Febru-     Unfortunatelly, I am most probably
                                                                                          not going to attend the WOG due to
                                                                                          objective reasons that you have al-
                                                                                          ready been familiar with”, added PS
                                                                                          Icoski.
                                                                                          It is an imperative for ARM and the
                                                                                          MoD to invest in the future genera-
                                                                                          tions and to create available, excel-
                                                                                          lent conditions for developing the
                                                                                          potentials. “In 10 days, a public bid
                                                                                          for complete refurbishment of the
                                                                                          Popova Sapka watch-tower will be
                                                                                          announced, which is a huge step
                                                                                          that is going to take place over the
                                                                                          course of the following two years.
                                                                                          This centre will be built and equipped
                                                                                          in the next two years and at the end
                                                                                          of 2011, it will be available for use.
                                                                                          Afterwards, we will promote and de-
                                                                                          velope it as a centre for training in
                                                                                          winter conditions “, explained Minis-
                                                                                          ter Konjanovski.


40
The magazine “Stit” joined in the cel-
ebration of the success of the young
Olympians, by printing its sixt edition
on the day when the awards were be-
ing presented, covering the event on
the cover page.
On February 5, PS Darko Dam-
janovski and Gjorgi Icoski had met
the Chief of GS of the Army of the
RM, Lieutenant General Miroslav
Stojanovski. At the reception, in
addition to the Olympians from
the Second Mechanized Infantry
Brigade of ARM, the Commandant
of the JOC, Major General Zoran Di-
mov, the Commander of the Second
Mechanized Infantry Brigade, Colo-
nel Metodija Velichkovski as well as
the coach of the Macedonian na-
tional team in Nordic skiing, Gjoko        first representative of the ARM at           be pertinacious and to show why the
Dinevski attended the venue.               the Olympic Games which were initi-          leopard as a myth animal symbolizes
At the meeting, Lieutenant General         ated in the antient times of the hu-         the unit to which they belong. In the
Stojanovski wished Damjanovski             man civilization, stating the following:     name of the brigade, Colonel Velich-
great success and emphasized that          „The challenge to participate in such a      kovski bestowed testimonials to Dar-
the participation of a representa-         historic event is large for Macedonia        ko Damjanovski and Gjorgi Icoski with
tive of the ARM at the Olympics            as a small country, especially at times      the brigade logo written on them.
was a historical event and would           when Macedonia is faced with solv-           After being given the opportunity to
be a motivation to all represen-           ing the name issue. It is more then          kiss the army flag of the SMIB which
tatives of the Army for further            certain that the views of many will          is a great honour for every brigade
achievements and great results in          be focused on our Olympians due to           representative, Darko Damjanovski
sports. He also emphasized that            the fact that a small sovereign state        addressed the audience. After thank-
not only Damjanovski would repre-          managed to develop two soldiers,             ing the ARM, the General Staff and
sent Macedonia in Canada, but he           members of the ARM who achieved              the Second Motorized Infantry Bri-
would also share the Olympic spirit        the Olympic norms. This is the pick of       gade for the assitance in achieving
as a representative of the ARM             the sports and achieving all of it with      the demands, he stated: “It is an hon-
with the sportsmen from all over           our modest means as a Brigade, as            our to wear this uniform and I send
the world.                                 an Army and as a State, with unwav-          my regards to the members of the
                                           ering will and much effort, and all of       SMIB and the symbol of the leopard
                                           you being the witnesses during the           that I will be presenting at the Olym-
                                           training period, it has proven that          pic Games in Vancuver 2010.“
                                           the goal could be reached If you had         The Selector of the Macedonian del-
                                           strong faith, belief, respect for the bri-   egation, Gjoko Dinevski, at his expose
                                           gade and for the flag as well as for         gave a short overview of the prepara-
                                           the “leopards”. We need to promise           tion and the achieved results of the
                                           to ourselves that we would do ev-            Army Olympians Damjanovski and
                                           erything that is in our interest and         Icoski.
                                           prospect and send our national team          After the ceremony in front of the
                                           representatives to the 2014 Win-             formation of the Second mechanized
                                           ter Olympic Games, hopefully other           infantry brigade, the delegation com-
                                           representatives besides Darko and            posed of the members of the Olym-
                                           Gjoko”.                                      pics, the Brigade commanders and
                                           Further in his speech, Colonel Velich-       colonel Zikica Jovanovski, was ac-
                                           kovski, showing his professional at-         cepted by the mayor of Municipality
                                           titude towards his work, as an ARM           Kichevo, Blagoja Despotoski.
                                           representative, personally and on
                                           behalf of the representatives of the                       Elizabeta Tashkovska/
                                           SMIB, recommended Damjanovski to                                Ivan Petrushevski


wIth MoDeSt MeanS
to the olyMPIc GaMeS

Honoring the Army Olympians, just
before leaving for Vancuver, Canada,
at the Kichevo garrison, a ceremony
had been held for the departure of
Darko Damjanovski, where in front of
the honorable formation of the units
of this garrison and next to the war
flags of the Second Mechanized In-
fantry Brigade, Colonel Metodija Ve-
lichkovski, on behalf of the „leopards“-
members of the unit, wished him
good luck and good scores. He was
not hiding the satisfaction that he
was the commanding officer of the


                                                                                                                                 41
     sports



     BIATHLETES AT WORK
                             Seventh Army Biathlon Cup
          he biathlon as a military dis-   THE OLIMPIC NORMS –                    1. ShootInG,   the 7th Army Biathlon Cup in team
          cipline is one of the leading    CONFIRMED                              aS Part        competition included the 7.5 km
          sport disciplines. Besides       The winner of this year’s ARM          of the         cross-country skiing, where the
          popularizing the sport spirit    Biathlon Cup in the discipline indi-   bIathlon       team of the Ski Club “Musica” from
          among the young people,          vidual run - sprint was professional                  Krushevo won first place, second
     the Army cup has an intention to      soldier Gjorgi Icoski from the Sec-    2. our         was the team of the Ski Fed-
     establish the biathlon as a sport     ond Mechanized Infantry Brigade,       rePreSen-      eration of Macedonia, third place
     discipline in cross country skiing,   with a result of 26.54. Second         tatIveS        went to the team of the Second
     and also as a military discipline     place went to professional soldier     near           MIB, and fourth place was the
     which is accepted in the ARM with     Darko Damjanovski, also from           KIProvo,       team from the for Special Opera-
     an extremely important role in        the Second MIB, with a result of       KruShevo       tions Regiment of the ARM.
     strengthening the combat readi-       28.20, and third place went to De-                    On the official closing ceremony of
     ness in terms of the condition and    jan Stojanoski from the Ski Club       3. the         the Seventh Army Biathlon Cup,
     rifle sharp shooting. This event,     “Musica” from Krushevo, with a         olIMPIc        along the competitors, there was
     organized by the Army of Republic     result of 31.04.                       norMS –        also the mayor of Krushevo, Mr.
     of Macedonia, has become a tradi-     As expected, on this competition,      confIrMeD      Vasilcho Damcheski, the Comman-
     tion.                                 both best placed on this year’s                       dant of the Second Mechanized
     On January 30 and 31, on the ski      ARM Biathlon Cup confirmed the                        Infantry Brigade, Colonel Metodija
     slopes in Krushevo, on the ski        qualified Olympic norms.                              Velichkovski, sport personnel from
     slope of Kiprovo, the Seventh         The previous day the program of                       the Ski Federation of Macedonia
     ARM Biathlon Cup was held. On
     the Army Cup, in addition to the
     ARM units, teams of the Ski Fed-
     eration of Macedonia and the Ski
     Club “Musica” from Krushevo will
     participate as well. The teams and
     the individuals competed in 7.5
     km cross-country skiing in team
     competition, and in the individual
     event, discipline sprint, also 7.5
     km. The president of the organiz-
     ing committee for the realization
     of the biathlon was Colonel Zhi-
     kica Jovanovski. The competitions
     were held under the control of
     referees of the Ski Federation of
     Macedonia and the ARM, where
     the main referee was the Selec-
     tor of the Macedonian Nordic and
     Biathlon representation, Gjoko
     Dineski.

42
                                                                                                  by   Zdravko Rizovski
and other guests.                                                                                 games under the sponsorship of the Inter-
On the official ceremony, the three best                                                          national Military Sports Council (CISM). This
placed in team and individual competition                                                         year, from March 20 to 25, we will partici-
were awarded with certificates. At the                                                            pate with two of our biathletes in the First
same time, for the cooperation and the                                                            World Military Games - the first military
help in the organization and realization                                                          Olympic Games, which will be held in Aus-
of the Army Biathlon Cup, Colonel Zhi-                                                            tria and Italy. This is an opportunity for our
kica Jovanovski presented certificates of                                                         promotion in the world. This will also be an
gratitude to the Ski Federation of Mace-                                                          incentive in the next four years to create
donia, the Second Mechanized Infantry                                                             a team of four competitors in biathlon in
Brigade and to part of the members of                                                             individual competition, and in cross-country
the Ski Club “Musica” from Krushevo.                                                              skiing. Our goal is to be among the first 28
A certificate for gratitude was also pre-                                                         world forces. According to the past results
sented to the representatives of “Red                                                             of our soldiers and representatives, there
Bull”, the energy drink that they provided                                                        is hope that we will succeed and promote
for the competitors. Also, , a certificate of                                                     ourselves in the world.”
gratitude was given to the monastery “St.                                                         The International Biathlon Union is one
Preobrazhenie” for the hospitality and the                                                        of the leaders in the world. The fact that
logistic support, the venue of the ceremo-                                                        among the three best athletes in the
nial lunch for the participants, with army                                                        world one is biathlete, which indicates
beans as a main course, prepared by the                                                           that the biathlon is becoming more appre-
skillful hands of the cooks of the Second       Games as well. That states that 50 per-           ciated, says a lot about the attention giv-
Mechanized Infantry Brigade of the ARM.         cent of the state capacities are filled by the    en to the biathlon in the world. The ARM
                                                ARM. This gives us incentive for the future,      and the Republic of Macedonia should
IncentIve for the                               to create a possibility with our capacities       benefit from this, since our country has
DeveloPMent of SKI DIScIPlIneS                  and abilities for participation of more sol-      a base, capacity and army potential that
In his estimation about the Seventh Army        diers and skiers. To improve the conditions       can accomplish it. According to the words
Biathlon Cup, Colonel Zikica Jovanovski,        for Nordic skiing and biathlon in the ski         of Colonel Jovanovski, our ambition for
among other stated: “We put our strength        centers in Krushevo, and create a regional        the next Olympic Games in 2014 in Sochi
to the test and we have gained additional       center in the garrison in Kichevo, where we       are to participate with an entire team of
experiences with the help of the Ski Fed-       will improve the disciplines in biathlon, ski     army members that will represent the Re-
eration of Macedonia. In team competition       orienteering and marksmanship. In addi-           public of Macedonia in this sport.
the team of the Second Mechanized In-           tion to the members of the army, we want          The past results of our biathletes and the
fantry Brigade won third place. In the indi-    to include the army teams of the armies in        professionalism of the people involved
vidual competition the competitors of the       the region into the development of these          in the preparations, organization and re-
ARM won first and second place. There are       disciplines as well, in order to turn it into a   alization of the biathlon on ARM level,
the two competitors that achieved Olym-         tradition. By doing that we will increase the     and on national level as well are guaran-
pic norms, and one of them will participate     capacity of the number of soldiers-biath-         tee enough that our representatives will
in the Olympic Games in Vancouver, Can-         letes, in order to create better teams in the     represent the Republic of Macedonia re-
ada, and with a little luck, we expect the      future competitions for the world military        spectfully in the world.
other representative to go to the Olympic

                                                                                                                                                   43
     A BOOK ABOUT THE
     MACEDONIAN PAST




     A STORY WHICH “THE LEOPARD”
     PROTECTS FROM OBLIVION
           he fascinating appearance of the Com-     which time conveys the traditional Macedo-       Each piece of embroidery, word by word,
           mand building in the “Chede Filipovski-   nian architecture. The solid construction im-    tells the story of a tortured nation, its up-
           Dame” barracks, the home of the           mediately implies the strength and unity of      risings and victories.
           Second Mechanized Infantry Brigade        this brigade. Although invisible to the eye,     When the visual impressions will eventually
           of the ARM, gives the impression of       it is easy to notice the flame in its interior   settle, you feel the smell of clay, which the
     a complete urban building. However, this        prompted by their love for the fatherland.       Macedonian cuisine aficionados will imme-
     unity of power and discipline hides in its      This flame warms the souls like the fire         diately associate with the traditional Mace-
     arms a small nook which, for the hosts, is of   warmed the child in the cradle by the fire.      donian pottery. Just one look is enough to
     a particular importance. It is the “Macedo-     The loom weaves the memories of the              see where all of this comes from. The clay
     nian room”, a nook in which the assiduous       woman who bids farewell to her husband           pots, although some of them have existed
     “leopards” immortalized a part of the Mace-     at dawn, as he leaves abroad to earn their       for centuries, look like they have just been
     donian past, and they invite everyone who       living, carrying an almost empty bag over        made and are “waiting” to be used.
     visits their unit to for a time travel.         his shoulder.                                    It seems as if the time has stopped for a
     Completeness is the first thing to notice       The collage of colours is magical for the        moment. The only thing that “moves” is
     and you get the impression as if every          curious eye, and seduces you immediately,        the carriage that you imagine by looking
     millimetre of this small but extremely rich     leaving you astonished by the inspiration        at the wooden wheels by the walls. You
     “Macedonian room” is a very important           of the Macedonian embroiderers. Maybe            can even hear its sound and you instantly
     part of a harmonious whole.                     they were inspired by the faith that their       create a picture: a rich man with his young
     The stone fireplace is a mirror through         beloved child will return alive from battle.     bride, a sound of a bagpipe heard from
                                                                                                      somewhere, and a young girl offers you
                                                                                                      cold spring water from the clay jugs.
                                                                                                      The faith in the power of their Brigade has
                                                                                                      prompted some members of the unit to
                                                                                                      leave a part of their legacy here. Obviously,
                                                                                                      the “leopards” faithfully protect this magi-
                                                                                                      cal tale from oblivion.
                                                                                                      Due to the power of the “Macedonian
                                                                                                      room” to quite skilfully present the Mace-
                                                                                                      donian culture and tradition, this corner
                                                                                                      within the premises of the Command has
                                                                                                      the role of a place for welcoming guests
                                                                                                      from the country and abroad. The idea
                                                                                                      is not for the guests to sit in a room full
                                                                                                      of artefacts, but to read the book of the
                                                                                                      Macedonian past with their own senses,
                                                                                                      so when they leave, they will carry with
                                                                                                      them the memory of time-travel through
                                                                                                      Macedonia’s past, given as a special pres-
                                                                                                      ent by the staff from the “Chede Filipovski-
                                                                                                      Dame” Barracks in Kichevo.
                                                                                                                                      Mice Koteski

44
FOOD FOUND
IN NATURE


COLLECTING AND PREPARING
       hen a military unit is in a state   Once the products are introduced to       Hedgehog
       of survival several groups for      the groups, the officer in charge, in     All hedgehogs found in the area are
       gathering products from plant       agreement with the instructor, sends      edible. They are found in the woods,
       or animal origin are formed.        the groups to the field. He previously    bushes, near water. After being found
They can be divided into the following     points out the region where they can      the hedgehog is captured with pro-
categories:                                collect, time of returning in the camp,   tective means (which are at hand or
– group for collecting plants and          how to stay connected and precau-         exist in the formation) in order to pro-
  roots ;                                  tion measures.                            tect the hands from its spines which
– group for hunting wild animals           After the groups return to the camp       it uses for protection from the enemy.
– group for processing the collected       all the collected products are taken
  products.                                to the control point where the in-        How to prepare it:
In real life situation these groups are    structor selects, controls and checks     You should turn the hedgehog on its
not limited to collecting only one type    them. Once checked and sorted out         back and step on it on the sides in
of product but they are also collect-      useless products are thrown away          order to open the internal soft part
ing products assigned to the other         and buried under ground. He points        of its body. After the soft part has
groups.                                    out the mistakes the groups made          been found, head is located and
Collecting plants and animals is done      while collecting products- and how to
strictly by obeying the orders of the      recognize edible ones. The instructor
survival instructor. Before sending        explains practically how to cook the
the groups out the instructor him-         edible products.
self explores the terrain and gathers
the products planned to be collected       PREPARATION OF
that day. When he returns to the           CERTAIN PRODUCTS
camp he calls the groups and pres-
ents the products, describes their         The territory of the Republic of Ma-
charactersistics, places where they        cedonia has an abundance of edible
can be found, similar products which       products form the wild flora and
are not edible (poisonous,useless          fauna.
etc.), and other important features        Further down in the text we will
for their collecting and usage. In         elaborate about the products which
addition to the above stated, the          have been found during the training
instructor points out that the col-        for eating in nature, conducted in the
lected products must not be mixed          region among the villages Slatino,
but divided in separate containers or      Slivovo, Turje, Arbinovo and Mra-
plastic bags.                              morec.


                                                                                                                                45
     slaughtered by pulling the          between the front and back
     knife from the neck to the          legs. The lower part of the
     top of the head (nose). Af-         shelf is pulled inside out, cut
     ter slaughtering the hedge-         with a knife and removed from
     hog is left to bleed. Then you      the body. The upper part of
     should take its front and back      the shell remains on the body.
     legs and stretch it to see the      Front and back upper legs are
     soft part of the skin without       separated from the body be-
     spines. After that the skin         cause they are edible. The liver
     near the front and back legs        is also edible if its surface is flat
     is cut and striped from the         and smooth. If there are some
     body. Once the skin is re-          spots and cysts on the surface
     moved the internal organs are       it is useless. You must cook
     taken out and thrown away.          the meat. The fist water should
     You must boil the meat be-          be thrown away and then you
     fore eating and then prepare        prepare it as you wish. If it is
     as you wish.                        a female tortoise eggs should
                                         be removed from her body and
                                         they are also edible.
                                                                                 1. anD 2.         Frog
                                         Snake                                   InlanD           On the territory of the Repub-
                                         All snakes found on the territo-        turtleS are      lic of Macedonia the so called
                                         ry of the Republic of Macedonia         the only oneS    green frog can be used. It lives
                                         (both poisonous and not poi-            eatable          in water (rivers, lakes, pounds
                                         sonous) are edible. While catch-                         etc.) The green frog can be
                                                                                 3. all SnaKeS    caught in several ways with a
                                         ing the snake it is important to        can be uSeD aS
                                         follow the precaution measures                           fishing rod and a lure (insect
                                                                                 fooD             or small cloth), in the evening
                                         in case it is poisonous.
                                                                                 4. froG’S leGS   hours with a barrel on which
                                         How to catch it:                        are very taSty   a primitive light has been put.
                                         When you find a snake ap-                                Then frogs jump on the insects
                                                                                 5. anD 6.        gathered around the light and
                                         proach it carefully and step            SaltInG anD
                                         on it with a boot right behind                           fall into the barrel etc.
                                                                                 cooKInG fISh
                                         the head. Then cut it two fin-
                                         gers below the head. The cut            7. the Green     How to prepare it:
                                         off head must be buried under           lIzarD can be    When you catch a frog, cut off
                                                                                                  the back legs which are edible,
                                                                                                  and throw away the rest. Sep-
     Tortoise                                                                                     arate the foot from the leg and
     All tortoises found on the ter-                                                              strip the skin, then wash the
     ritory of the Republic of Mace-                                                              meat and fry it.
     donia are edible (turtles are
     not edible). They can be found                                                               Fish
     in oak forests, bushes and near                                                              Fish can be used as food all
     water.                                                                                       through the year fresh or dried.
                                                                                                  You can catch it with a fishing
     How to prepare it:                                                                           rod, with a handmade net, axis
     Front legs of the tortoise are                                                               or hands.
     pulled out so that it protrudes
     its head hidden in the shell. The                                                            How to prepare it:
     head is stretched and cut off.                                                               You clean the scales with a
     The tortoise is left to bleed.                                                               knife in direction from tale to
     After that the tortoise is put                                                               head. You start cutting from
     on its back and the shell is cut                                                             the anus towards the neck,
     in two, with an axe or a knife,                                                              remove and throw away the


                                         ground or burned since the poi-         cooKeD the
                                         son is active 6 months after it         SaMe way aS
                                         had been killed and can harm            fISh
                                         human if they step on it.
                                                                                 8. the SnaIl
                                                                                 IS taStIeSt In
                                         How to prepare it:
                                                                                 early SPrInG
                                         The skin is stripped form the
                                         body at the neck of the snake           9.
                                         and then it is pulled towards           GraSShoPPerS
                                         the tail. While the skin is pulled      are frIeD In
                                         the internal organs – the guts          oIl
                                         go out with it. The snake is cut
                                         near the anus and the part be-          10. ant’S
                                         tween the anus and the end of           eGGS are
                                         the tail is thrown away. Wash           uSeD In SMall
                                         the rest of snake’s body and            quantItIeS
                                         prepare it as you wish.


46
                                            then wash the body. Prepare the liz-
                                            ard the same way you prepare fish.

                                            Snails
                                            Snails can be found all over the ter-
                                            ritory of the Republic of Macedonia,
                                            mainly near water flows and damp
                                            areas, areas with grass, bushes
                                            and places with nettle. Snails are
                                            very active and can be found in
                                            early spring, as well as in the sum-
                                            mer. They are best in spring before
                                            they start eating and reproduction.
                                            Being one of the main sources of
                                            infectious diseases in the later pe-
                                            riods of the year they should be
                                            cooked.

internal organs. If the fish has eggs                                                 ows. After you collect them fry them
they can be eaten too. The head of                                                    in hot oil.
the fish is used to make stew but
there are certain types of fish which                                                 Ant eggs
head is not edible. (e.g. mrena from                                                  Ant eggs can be found inside the ant
our regions). The preparation of eel                                                  nest. Eggs of a forest ant, which is
is specific since it must not be eaten                                                larger than a regular ant, are edible.
raw due to the poisonous blood. Eel
is prepared similarly to fish but it                                                  How to collect them:
should not be eaten in big quantities                                                 When you find the aunt nest, re-
because it is greasy and causes di-                                                   move the soil or the stones with
gestion problems and stomach pain.                                                    which the nest is covered. Take the
Fish can be prepared fresh, on a flat                                                 eggs and dispose them to sun. Put
stone, on a skewer, folded in a big                                                   some branches or a box close to
leaf and put on fire, etc. If the fish is                                             this. The aunts transfer the eggs
needed for a longer period and there                                                  under a shadow themselves. After
are no appropriate conditions for its                                                 the aunts had transferred the eggs
storage, you put salt on, then dry it                                                 in the box or on the branches take
on sun and smoke it hung 2 meters                                                     them and prepare them. Fry the
above the fire. After that you can eat      How to prepare them:                      eggs but do not eat larger quanti-
the fish or keep it in hot water and        You put the snails in a container with    ties because it can cause stomach
cook it.                                    water and boil them until the body        problems (stomach ache, nausea
                                            gets out of the shell. Then remove        and vomiting etc.).
Green lizard                                body from shell and take out inter-
A green lizard which lives in the lower     nal organs. After cleaning, put the       Big and small game
parts of oak forest and bushes can          snails in water again until dirt gets     All sorts of wild animals which are
be used as food. Grey (brown) lizard        out. Finally you can grill, boil or put   found on the territory of the Repub-
found in the same area is not used for      the snail in stew. If you don’t have      lic of Macedonia and the Balkans can
food due to the insufficient amount         enough containers or time snails can      be used as food. Meat of wolf, fox,
of meat.                                    be grilled on an open fire. When they     wild cat, badger, marten, cony, wea-
                                            are ready remove the burnt shell and      sel and squirrel should be avoided
How to prepare it:                          eat them.                                 but in exceptional situations, when
Cut off the head, legs and tail of the                                                there is no other food, this meat
caught lizard. Cut the skin at the bot-     Grasshoppers                              can be used if previously properly
tom of the tale and strip it. Remove        Grasshoppers are insects that can         cooked.
the internal organs from the lizard,        be found everywhere on our mead-          The internal organs of wild animals
                                                                                      should not be eaten due to diseases.
                                                                                      If there is no expert around, the qual-
                                                                                      ity of wild meat is visually checked
                                                                                      by observing the lungs and liver. If
                                                                                      you see spots on the lung or on the
                                                                                      liver do not eat the meat. Wild meat
                                                                                      must be cooked before eating.

                                                                                      Birds
                                                                                      All types of birds with high qual-
                                                                                      ity meat can be used for food. Vul-
                                                                                      tures (raven, magpie etc.) are not
                                                                                      eaten because their meat is not of
                                                                                      a good quality. Wild birds are pre-
                                                                                      pared in the same way as home
                                                                                      birds but they must be cooked
                                                                                      much longer.

                                                                                                               Igor Jovanov


                                                                                                                                47
                                                                                                            Photo: Raul654




     A MATCH
     FOR THE BIG FIRE
     THE “SPIRIT” OF THE FIRST FLIGHT OVER THE ATLANTIC
             e live in an era of great miracles.   “the SPIrIt of St. louIS” IS a    the offer was on nobody tried to win
             Man has conquered the entire          wonDerful Plane. It’S lIKe a      it, so Orteig extended the period to
             planet, and now its views are di-     lIvInG creature, GlIDInG alonG    five more years. This time everything
             rected beyond the planet. Every-                                        changed.
             thing considered normal today,
                                                   SMoothly, haPPIly, aS thouGh      The technology was so advanced that
     for our not so distant ancestors was a        a SucceSSful flIGht MeanS aS      made pilots think seriously about tak-
     true magic. Man has relaxed so much in        Much to It aS to Me, aS thouGh    ing the risk and trying to achieve the
     the convenience of its big achievements       we ShareD our eXPerIenceS         unimaginable idea at that time. In
     that he forgot to think, the fact that        toGether, each feelInG beauty,    September 1926, the French maverick
     it takes only a few minutes to fly over       lIfe, anD Death aS Keenly, each   from World War I, Rene Fonck, became
     the Atlantic doesn’t give him any excite-     DePenDent on the other’S          interested in winning Orteig’s prize.
     ment. That’s why we have to refer to the                                        Unfortunately, Fonck’s two engines sil-
     germ, to refer to the atom that created       loyalty. we have MaDe thIS        ver plane with luxurious cabine explod-
     a brand new world – the creation of “the      flIGht acroSS the ocean,          ed on the runway before even taking
     global village”.                              not I or It - StateD the Great    off. Fonck survived the accident, but
                                                   charleS lInDberG In 1927          two crew members died.
     THE FLYING ERA HAS STARTED

     The flying history started on the 17
     December 1903 in North Carolina, the
     USA. The Right brothers started it with
     their twelve seconds in the air. It is
     even more amazing that after only thir-
     ty years people thought about flying
     over the big water massive between
     Europe and America. People were mo-
     tivated from two aspects – to be the
     first to fly over the Atlantic and to win
     the 20.000 dollars prize, which have
     been feeding the pilots’ desire since
     1919 to undertake this big accomplish-
     ment. The Frenchman Raymond Or-
     teig, the owner of the “Brevoort” and
     Lafayette” hotels in New York offered
     the prize. During the first five years


48
AIRMAIL PILOT                                                                              a half demolished building which
                                                                                           used to be a canned fish factory.
Planes can safely connect Europe                                                           “There is no runway, no hangar,
and America. This is the fact that                                                         nor sound of engineers doing
made the young Charles Lindberg                                                            their work. There is only the smell
an airmail pilot who worked for                                                            of dead fish”, thought Lindberg
“Robertson” start thinking about                                                           after arriving in the factory. Af-
flying over the Atlantic Ocean.                                                            ter he spoke with the chairman
Though very young, Lindberg had                                                            Mahoney and the chief construc-
a rich experience flying through                                                           tor Hall, Lindberg was assured in
snow and fog, and he has worked                                                            their professionalism. Mahoney
as a mechanic as well. Anyway,                                                             and Hall approved Lindberg’s
the most important thing was his                                                           plans for a single engine plane.
desire and courage to be the first                                                         They strongly believed in Lind-
to “connect” the two continents                                                            berg’s plan that they agreed to
by air. “Why shouldn’t it be me                                                            make the plane in two months,
who will first fly from New York                                                           which required a big sacrifice of
to Paris? I have four years fly-                                                           all the employees and the chief
ing experience and I have flown                       was passing and the rivalry was      constructors. Hall practically lived
storms through half of the Ameri-     1. anD 3.       increasing.                          in the factory while constructing
can states. I have more than          charleS                                              the plane.
2000 flight hours. Don’t I have       lInDberGh In    In the focuS
the sufficient qualification for      the „SPIrIt     of “ryan aIrlIneS”                   ONE GOAL DESIGN: PARIS
such a flight”, Lindberg tried to     of St. louIS“
convince the public.                                  In February 1927 Lindberg’s luck     Working on the planes of the
                                      2. charleS      changed for the better. Only 24      plain’s body they had to make
FINDING “BENJAMIN”                    wIth hIS        hours after hearing about the        a few completely new designer
                                      wIfe anne       young pilot’s plans, “Ryan Air-      constructions. Due to the long
It was time to surpass the first      Morrow          lines” corporation from Sen Di-      flight duration they concentrated
obstacle on the long way to Par-      lInDberGh       ego, California offered to produce   on placing the gas tanks which
is, finding finances to cover the                     the plane for only 6000 dollars,     had to hold 1.700 liters (1082kg).
expenses for his pioneer flight.      4. center       not including the engine. Lind-      The main gas tank was placed
Starting with his humble 2000         – the           berg’s impressions after visiting    in the front part of the body, be-
dollars savings, he managed to        SwaStIKa        the factory were not promising.      fore the cockpit, which contrib-
deliver a presentation for the lo-    waS a           “Ryan Airlines” was situated in      uted to the gravitation center,
cal businessmen. This was done        talISMan                                             and at the same time it reduced
with the great help of Harry          for lucK of                                          the possibility of pilot finding
Night, his big admirer. He showed     the natIve                                           himself between two fires – en-
them that a flight like this will     aMerIcan                                             gine and main tank, when land-
bring benefits for the city and       PeoPleS. It                                          ing. The disadvantage of this
winning the Ortega award will         waS uSeD by                                          design was the impossibility of
mostly cover the expenses. The        the PIoneer                                          placing a front window which
“Saint Louis supporters” agreed       PIlotS aS                                            constrained the pilot’s visibility
to give him 15.000 dollars, the       well.                                                on the side windows only. The
amount sufficient for this big                                                             problem was solved by installing
achievement.                                                                               a periscope that would avoid an
After he had all the money he                                                              accidental crash with trees when
needed, Lindberg started look-                                                             flying a low altitude. There is no
ing for the right plane. Maybe                                                             evidence if Lindberg used it at
his unconventional thinking, at                                                            all during the flight. The naviga-
a time when everybody thought                                                              tion was conducted via special
that two engine planes are the                                                             navigation instruments like Earth
most suitable for accomplishing                                                            Inductor Compass which deter-
this long flight, about flying in a                                                        mined the magnet declination
single engine plane (the second                                                            from the Earth.
engine will lessen the chances                                                             The cockpit was designed ac-
for a successful arrival in Paris)                                                         cording to the standard func-
was crucial for reaching the goal.                                                         tions, simple and light. It was
His search was aimed towards                                                               94cm wide, 81 cm long and 130
finding a single engine plane he                                                           cm high – dimensions that didn’t
would fly himself and thus have                                                            give Lindberg a chance to stretch
bigger advantages – decrease                                                               his legs.
the patrol costs and increase the                                                          The reliable 223 horsepower
range. After unsuccessfully trying                                                         Wright J-5C “Whirlwind” gave
a couple of times to persuade                                                              “Spirit” the power to fly a maxi-
the manufacturers in his good                                                              mum operating time of 9,000
concept, Lindberg was offered a                                                            hours. Right’s engine had a few
single engine “Columbia Aircraft                                                           extremely important special
Corporation” plane worth 15.000                                                            features that supported its con-
dollars. Still, the project was not                                                        tinuous work. Some of these
realized because the head of the                                                           features were a mechanism that
corporation insisted on choos-                                                             kept the engine clean during fly-
ing the pilot and the crew. Time                                                           ing and a mechanism for valve



                                                                                                                                  49
     self-lubrication for the duration of 40                    SPecIfIcatIon                     Ryan Airlines into abyss. Namely, two
     hours. The engine was constructed in                                                         Frenchmen, Charles Nungeser and Fran-
     “Wright Aeronautic” in Peterson, New                             CREW         1              çois Coli, whose track was lost started
     Jersey by a 24 year old constructor Tom                        LENGTH         8.4 m          on a flight from Paris to New York.
     Rutledge, who received a thank you let-                                                      On 12 May Lindberg arrived in Paris in
                                                              WINGS’ SPAN          14 m
     ter from the manager of the company                                                          his “The Spirit of Saint Louis”, and due
     four days after the flight was success-                        HEIGHT         3m             to the bad weather had to wait patiently
     fully conducted.                                          WINGS’ SIZE         29.7 m2        for a couple of days before he started
     The original Ryan M2 wings size was                                                          his journey.
     enlarged for twenty centimeters so                    WEIGHT (EMPTY)          975 kg
     that they could hold the additional fuel             WEIGHT (LOADED)          1.310 kg       “WHAT DO YOU THINK –
     tanks (in the left, right and middle wing).                                                  LET’S TRY”
                                                         MAXIMUM WEIGHT            2.330 kg
     Regarding the aerodynamic stability,
     Donald Hall decided not to change the                      PerforMance                       The weather was not in favour of Lind-
     original Ryan M2 wing design in order                MAXIMUM SPEED            220km/h        berg a few days after he arrived in New
     to minimize the time for constructing                                                        York. On the 19 May before watching the
     the plane. Another advantage was the                            SPEED         160-175 km/h   play “Rio Rita” Lindberg and a couple of
     smaller aerodynamic stability which                             RANGE         6.600 km       his friends called the Weather Forecast
     didn’t allow the pilot to fall into the                                                      bureau, they got good news. Finally, it
     world of dreams during the long flight to                                                    was time to conduct the historical flight.
     Europe.                                       the fIrSt flIGht                               After a few hours work on the plane,
     Remarkably, Ryan NYP construction             anD the journey to new yorK                    Lindberg returned to his hotel and was
     didn’t include a radio, which at the time                                                    met by a crowd of reporters who want-
     was not a very reliable device. This was      The big effort of Ryan Airlines engineers      ed to interview him. It was more than
     the reason Lindberg decided to reduce         was worth it – the 60 day deadline was         obvious to him that he couldn’t rest.
     the plane’s weight and didn’t include a       met and on 28 April 1927 Ryan Airlines         On 2:30 am on 20 May Lindberg was
     radio in the final design.                    conducted its first completely success-        on the Curtis Field, where the plane
     The design was finished, and the con-         ful flight. The following few days were        was. When it stopped raining at 4:15 am
     struction was on. The only thing left was     spent in testing the new plane’s perfor-       Lindberg asked that the “The Saint Louis
     naming the plane. In honour of and ex-        mances, as well as in the adjustment           Spirit” be taken to Roosevelt Field so
     pressing gratitude for the financial sup-     of fuel consumption. The probe flights         that he could take off on his long jour-
     port to the businessmen from Saint Lou-       showed that the plane didn’t lose power        ney to Paris.
     is, the plane that was to undertake the       though fully filled with fuel to the satis-    Everything was ready. An army of peo-
     revolutionary aviation step was named         faction of Hall and Lindberg.                  ple were filling the tanks with fuel using
     “The Spirit of Saint Louis”.                  The information Lindberg got on 10 May         buckets and 1.700 liters were already
                                                   could push his and the entire work of          filled (100 liters more than planned). The
                                                                                                  wet weather which decreased the en-
                                                                                                  gine power and untested weigh gave
                                                                                                  Lindberg a lot of headache.
                                                                                                  At 7:51 am Lindberg fastened his seat
                                                                                                  belt put on his helmet and his goggles.
                                                                                                  The journey to Paris started in a minute.
                                                                                                  Although he had problems because of
                                                                                                  the weigh, after touching the ground for
                                                                                                  a couple of times “The Spirit” took off.
                                                                                                  At 7:54 am Lindberg started his glorious
                                                                                                  journey.

                                                                                                  33H 30MIN 29.8 SEC
                                                                                                  AND AFTER THAT

                                                                                                  Despite the absence of a front window,
                                                                                                  the thick fog and ice, after flying for 33
                                                                                                  hours, Lindberg landed his “Spirit” on the
                                                                                                  “Le Bourget” runway in Paris, France,
                                                                                                  where he was welcomed by 150.000
                                                                                                  people. The pilot who won the Ortega
                                                                                                  award became a celebrity. He said: “I
                                                                                                  was amazed by the effect my landing in
                                                                                                  Paris had over the whole world. A fire
                                                                                                  was set with my small match”. On his
                                                                                                  way to the USA, Lindberg flew his plane
                                                                                                  to Belgium and after that to England,
                                                                                                  where he got the USS Memphis cruiser
                                                                                                  to take him to USA. Lindberg, the hero,
                                                                                                  arrived in Washington DC on 11 June, es-
                                                                                                  corted by a fleet of military ships, bomb-
                                                                                                  ers and fighters.
                                                                                                  The great Charles Lindberg contributed
                                                                                                  a lot to humanity. He started the era
                                                                                                  of connecting the west which was the
                                                                                                  reason he was awarded “The Cross for
                                                                                                  Outstanding Accomplishment in Flying”.
                                                                                                                         Ivan Petrushevski


50
                                                                                              MODERN
                                                                                              PERSPECTIVES
                                                                                              IN PLANNING

                                                                                              COIn
                                                                                                                 Photo: Ronald W. Stauffer



               COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS - VII
       n the last issue we explained the for-    situations direct actions will be included       to the need for this approach but it is be-
       mation, withdrawal and “seizing” ini-     as well.                                         lieved that at this stage it is still early to
       tiative, so in this issue of “Shtit” we   Given that we already said that the              start the execution of such tasks. Their
       will interpret the rest of the phases     modern approach to tackling the global           arguments (those who advocate posi-
       that should be taken into account         threat imposes the need for an indirect          tions that at this stage should not be ap-
when organizing or planning a campaign           approach to solving set challenges, in the       proached by indirect and unconventional
for counterinsurgency operations. These          section that follows we will in detail focus     methods) are based on the assertion
phases, as we mentioned in the last issue,       on the specifics to be considered during         that these procedures should be applied
are: dominance (derived from: dominate),         this phase - dominance in the counterin-         in the next phase of stabilization, not at
stabilization (comes from: stabilize), and       surgency operations planning.                    this phase when more aggressive dealing
support and training civilian authorities        Although for many classical operatives           with insurgents is needed.
(comes from: enable civilian authority).         this may seem ridiculous and not related         Although it seems logical, what is prob-
Counterinsurgency operations and                 to military operations, facts point out to       lematic in this context is that these atti-
dominance: During this phase, the activi-        different conclusions. In particular, the lat-   tudes do not take into account the possi-
ties of troops who conduct the counter-          est guidelines issued by the current com-        bility of building legitimacy. As a segment,
insurgency operations are the most ex-           mander of forces in Afghanistan, General         legitimacy may carry the total weight
plicit. But it must not be understood that       Stanley McCrystal (ISAF and Enduring             during the counterinsurgency operations,
operations should prevail predominantly          Freedom), are precisely in this direction.       especially when they are carried out
with dimensions of armed conflict. Given         Thus, the isolation between the popula-          against rebels who have the same basis
that this is a specific way of warfare (com-     tion and the rebels will not be done with        (national, ethnic, etc.) with the population
bat with ideas or for ideas), it becomes         aggressive operations, something that is         that should be won and gained (for more
clear that the access to building a strat-       characteristic and typical for the classical     details further in the text).
egy will determine the operations which          conventional combat operations. Other            Counter arguments that this article repre-
will be performed. If counterinsurgency          operations will dominate instead, in which       sents have the view that during the sta-
operations are designed according to the         the main objective will be isolation of the      bilization there next, more advanced step
strategy that will have direct access, in        rebels from the population through un-           with foundations set in advance for the
this case they will dominate the offensive       conventional approach, or what almost all        operation legitimacy should be initiated.
operations (so-called direct actions, ac-        military books about military operations         The best proof for this error is the same
tions such as movement to contact and            call them as additional activities. These        one that the U.S. and coalition partners
contact, etc.), where they in some cases         operations should serve as a basis to win        have made in both Afghanistan and Iraq.
will have operation dimensions of armed          the respect by the population.                   Thus, for example, if instead of the ap-
conflict. However, if the approach at this       Next point of disagreement in this con-          proach that was advocated and applied
stage is indirect, in that case dominance        text may arise during the installation of        this viewpoint had been used (applying a
is based on different parameters. This           these frames. We refer to the application        more indirect approach even during this
should not be understood that in the first       of so-called “soft operations” (“soft” infil-    phase), then in that case there would not
case (direct access) there will be no tasks      tration, “soft” approach during the control      have been such resistance to the coali-
for support or tasks that are more spe-          points, “soft” approach during the search,       tion forces. Namely, according to some
cific for the indirect approach. The same        etc.), which mark the indirect approach.         opinions, the initiative loss is due to the
goes for the latter case; thus, in certain       There are viewpoints that do not oppose          application of direct actions (part of the

                                                                                                                                                   51
                                                                                                     how kind-heartedly it is, represents
                                                                                                     a risk which could create additional
                                                                                                     problems in terms of loss of legiti-
                                                                                                     macy, i.e. the acquisition of legiti-
                                                                                                     macy. This will be discussed during
                                                                                                     the next phase - stabilization.
                                                                                                     It is difficult to determine in a unidi-
                                                                                                     rectional way which actions should
                                                                                                     be undertaken in these opera-
                                                                                                     tions. Frequently in such situations
                                                                                                     (when the goal is the domination
                                                                                                     over the insurgents) operations
                                                                                                     are undertaken with an abundance
                                                                                                     of activities through which they
                                                                                                     could win the hearts and minds of
                                                                                                     the population. In this context, dur-
                                                                                                     ing the operation in Manila, for ex-
                                                                                                     ample, General Templer, one of the
                                                                                                     best strategists in fighting against
                                                                                                     insurgents, said: “Victory in Manila
     direct approach), which reported         stand the population and to under-     1. cloSe aIr    will not be gained if we accumu-
     many adverse casualties that ir-         stand the real needs. Therefore, all   SuPPort         late troops in Manila only, but by
     ritated the people which at that         initiatives, which means building                      finding the proper steps that will
     time was neutral. Thus, the for-         schools, bridges, roads, or in one                     win the hearts and minds of the
     mula that was shown by McCrys-           word, investing funds to improve       2. GaInInG      population.” This Templer’s idea is
     tal HQ for mobilization (2 rebels        the conditions and gain confidence     confIDence      widely benefited, but it does not
     killed multiplied by 10 new recruits)    during the period of stabilization,    In the DoMeS-   have the same meaning for every-
     would have been avoided if at this       will be according to the needs of      tIc PeoPle IS   one out of a simple reason that
     stage this approach was applied          the population. For example, be-       the Key for     these procedures are associated
     (unconventional and indirect ap-         fore giving modern means of mon-       a SucceSSful    not only with natural elements
     proach). The reason for the focus        itoring and receiving/transmitting     counterIn-      (such as hearts of the popula-
     to these debates in this dimension       the information to the population,     SurGency        tion), but also the cognitive parts
     and in this part of the debate over      someone needs to show how and          oPeratIon       of their minds. This is an additional
     counterinsurgency operations is          in which way those assets should                       problem that imposes a series of
     because the way of planning will         be used, then to serve as a means      3. the coM-     additional conditions to be fulfilled
     later depend on how operations           through which information will be      ManDer of       in order to achieve the desired
     are performed.                           transmitted. The problem of un-                        goal. We will mention the most
                                                                                     ISaf In af-     important among them: the level
     This approach will create a basis        derstanding and transferring infor-
     which will facilitate the work of                                               GhanIStan       of education of staff that plans,
     the military leaders on how to suc-
     ceed properly in understanding the
     real needs of the population on
     the field. These needs will be es-
     pecially important during the next
     phase - stabilization. It certainly
     destroys the counter arguments
     of the stands that are contrary to
     this approach and related to the
     fact that if we accept this as true,
     there would be no need for the
     next phase. According to these
     views, it undermines the whole
     concept of planning according to
     the system theory.
     Despite this, I think that if this ap-
     proach is applied, conditions will
     be created from this point onward,
     while taking the initiative and while
     establishing dominance, to under-


                                              mation through electronic media is     – General       organizes and performs counter-
                                              mainly conditioned by the level of     Stanley a.      insurgency operations, the legiti-
                                              education. If the population does      McchryStal
                                                                                                     macy of the forces that perform
                                              not know how to read, or is not                        counterinsurgency operations, and
                                              educated, the information cannot                       perhaps the hardest part - the har-
                                              be transmitted. Another problem        4. the eXceS-   monization of political objectives
                                              is the cultural values. Although the   SIve uSe of     with the expectations of the popu-
                                              western civilization has managed       force can be    lation.
                                              to impose cultural imperialism in      counterPro-     Level of staff education is of par-
                                              other parts of the world, like us,     DuctIve         ticular importance in terms of ac-
                                              and electronic media have become                       quiring adequate capacity of key
                                              an important factor for the forma-     5. froM the     personnel (and to some extent,
                                              tion of attitudes among the popu-      traInInG of     to the rest of the participants on
                                              lation in every respect, this does     the afGhan      the terrain) that will allow proper
                                              not mean that the level of culture     SecurIty        access to the cultural perspectives
                                              which Afghans have will be toler-      forceS          of the population. The understand-
                                              ant of such an approach. All this,                     ing of these perspectives must not
                                              if applied aggressively, regardless                    be seen separately, but in the con-

52
text of political tradition, in the context      The next phase which should be taken
of the interests and objectives which the        into account when planning the counter-
population has, as well as in the context        insurgency operations is stabilization.
of history. All this has a strong impact on      Counterinsurgency operations and
the way counterinsurgency operations             stabilization: This phase is the phase
are planned, organized and performed             in which all those who agree that the in-
when the idea on which these operations          direct approach is needed and it is clear
are built is an indirect and unconventional      that it is to be formed on the principles of
approach.                                        unconventional warfare and through op-
Legitimacy of forces is perhaps the most         erations whose aim is to stabilize the ter-
complex segment that should be provid-           rain from counterinsurgency operations.
ed in the counterinsurgency operations.          This phase aims to prepare the condi-
Provision of legitimacy is often associ-         tions for transition and transfer of full
ated and dependent on perceptions of             governance in the hands of the people.
the population that exists on the terrain        However, what is important is whether
where counterinsurgency operations are           the government will be supported by
performed. Moreover, legitimacy can be           coalition forces, or the armed forces
perceived as the legitimacy of local au-         that perform counterinsurgency opera-
thorities and the legitimacy of the armed        tions will have the necessary legitimacy.
forces to appoint these authorities.             Without such legitimacy, the transition
Legitimacy of the Armed Forces who               will be considered a failure. Therefore,       Only through this approach the confi-
perform counterinsurgency operations at          based on what we agreed since the              dence “conceived” in the previous phase
this stage is being built through indirect       previous phase that the foundations            will be built, and will lay the foundation
access. Namely, the art of the leaders           should be laid on the indirect approach,       for the next phase, namely the transfer
and participants on the terrain to man-          what is important for this phase is the        of power in the hands of the people or
age to dominate the insurgents by em-            experience gained over the perceptions,        the representatives chosen by it in par-
phasizing indirect operations (unconven-         perspectives and expectations of the           ticular. These representatives will have
tional, though as we mentioned it does           population to be adequately addressed          the legitimacy and all decisions will be
not mean that direct operations will be          by the armed forces. This is the only way      respected by the population. Only in this
forgotten), is the key to success later in       to continue the set goals and to create        way the trap of setting the central gov-
the next phase which will be of particular       conditions for transfer of authority. What     ernment before the local will be avoided
importance.                                      is difficult and appears to be a problem       for the population that instead of a
Elements that build the legitimacy of lo-        for the leaders and other participants is      deductive approach has a culture that
cal authorities at this phase may come           that they are often trapped in their own       rather operates in an inductive approach.
to expression only if the forces that carry      “stereotyped framework”.                       What actually does this mean?
out combat actions and are supported             This framework refers to measuring             This means that local leaders are those
by local authorities succeed in presenting       the effects of stabilization. For ex-          who the population trusts rather than
themselves as legitimate. Indirect access        ample, it is very erroneous if the ef-         the central government. Hence, the key
through the respect of the people and            fects of stabilization and preparation         player in building the legitimacy of power
their real needs, without any gross errors                                                      is not the central government that is not
(civilian casualties, for example) is certain-                                                  legitimate and it is corrupted in the eyes
ly the key to ensure legitimacy.                                                                of Afghan people, but the local leaders
The next element that is necessary for                                                          who the population believes in. If this is
successful implementation of the coun-                                                          observed at this phase as coalition forc-
terinsurgency operations in the phase of                                                        es did, it will remain an error and instead
domination through indirect (unconven-                                                          the entire process to be completed ear-
tional) approach is compliance with na-                                                         lier, it will require additional time to cor-
tional interests. Consequently, if at this                                                      rect inconsistencies.
very phase is acted indirectly, that will cre-                                                  The last phase is the phase of support
ate conditions for a real assessment of                                                         and training the civilian authorities.
how and in what way national policy can                                                         Counterinsurgency operations and sup-
adapt to the armed forces, i.e. the coali-                                                      port and training civilian authorities: This
tion forces with the interests of the pop-                                                      is the last phase of the overall enter-
ulation. In this context, it is the best to                                                     prise that should be taken into account
indicate the courage of McCrystal. What                                                         when planning the counterinsurgency
does it mean?                                                                                   operations. At this phase, as the name
McCrystal had the courage to oppose                                                             itself says, the handover of power is
Obama and to inform him that the de-                                                            performed. Of course, this phase and
mocracy in Afghanistan is simply not pos-                                                       its outcome largely depend on previous
sible under the concept promoted by the                                                         ones. In any case, legitimacy of the ci-
“western world”. Although it is nowhere                                                         vilian authorities comes to term at this
officially reported, it remains true to the                                                     stage. In this respect, six indicators are
fact that after his address in London, Mc-       for transition are measured based on           determined.
Crystal and Obama had an “unpleasant             the built schools or hospitals. It is a        Taking over security means: ability of the
flight” in the US Airforce1 from Ramstein        fact that this is a necessity, but not         government to secure the population un-
to Washington. As the Pentagon report-           if this doesn’t correspond to the real         aided, selection of leaders in accordance
ed, during the flight the President and the      situation on the field. For example, if        with the will of the major population, a
General were reconciling their attitudes.        people have lost their children in those       high level of participation of the popu-
After this “smoothing” as the Pentagon           schools, as it is the case with Afghans,       lation in supporting political processes,
called it before the penultimate summit          everyone will refuse to send their chil-       culturally acceptable level of corruption,
in London, Obama announced that the              dren to school. The same goes for hos-         culturally acceptable level of social, eco-
strategy for withdrawing from Afghani-           pitals. Therefore, by understanding the        nomic and diplomatic development, and
stan will be implemented by 2011, but in         real relationships on the field, as an         high level of acceptance of the regime,
phases and according to estimates by the         alternative to this, for example, would        i.e. establishment of the population.
commanders on the terrain. However, if           be building a common mechanism for
this is compared to what was announced           protection of the population. In this          In the next issue, we will focus on the
about the withdrawal, for few it would           mechanism, the population must hold            part of counterinsurgency operation per-
have the same meaning with the original          the key place. Thus, the population will       formance.
speech and the Obama’s idea on with-             become an important part of effective
drawal from Afghanistan.                         protection from the Taliban.                                         Metodi Hadzi Janev

                                                                                                                                                53
                               LONG LIVE THE KING, LONG


          LONG LIVE
           RTS WITH TURN–BASED ELEMENTS




     now IS tIMe for chanGeS. I have DecIDeD to rePlace the GunS anD the rIfleS wIth
     StIcKS, bowS anD arrowS. the MISSIle launcherS have becoMe the aXeS anD the
     tanKS tranSforMeD Into cataPultS. My favorIte weaPon-the nuclear boMb IS
     now rePreSenteD by an arMy of ten thouSanD that DeStroyS everythInG that
     croSSeS ItS Path. anD after a lonG tIMe I have fInally chanGeD the worlD In con-
     flIct Screen Saver on My coMPuter whIch DePIctS the MoDern conflIct In the
     worlD toDay. now My coMPuter IS worKInG wIth only one aIM- revIval of the
     MeDIeval DarK aGeS. anD I MuSt aDMIt that It SucceSSfully occuPIeS My atten-
     tIon. the aIM IS achIeveD. I aM taKen Into another worlD- far froM realIty.




54
LIVE MEDIEVAL II: TOTAL WAR


 THE KING!




                              55
     THE GLORY OF THE PAST
     What does the fourth game of the To-
     tal War series offer us? It simply offers
     us the world of brave knights, archers
     and cannons. It is the time when prin-
     cesses through arranged marriages
     made firm alliance. It is the time of the
     greatest European monarchies. At the
     beginning of the campaign from 21 pos-
     sible monarchies (17 are available) only
     5 are given - the Kingdoms of England,
     France, Spain the Holy Roman Empire
     and the Republic of Venice. The game
     progresses through several centuries
     of history, spanning the years 1080-
     1530 — the most turbulent period in
     European history when high diploma-
     cy and merciless destruction where a
     way of living. Basically every aspect
     of medieval life is covered. If you’re a
     Catholic nation you can even get in-        Complicated? You just have to concen-     my or allow you to build the latest in
     volved in some popery by getting your       trate on your main task: creating and     15th-century military technology. For
     man elected pope. Having the pope on        raising a powerful army and issuing       example, building paved roadways
     your side can be a very powerful thing,     movement orders as well as, develop-      not only increases trade in a province,
     because he’ll be much more willing          ing the economy of your empire.           but it also helps speed along troop
     to overlook some of your aggressive                                                   movement; improving farmland, fur-
     transgressions against your Christian       DUALITY                                   thermore, can help generate more
     neighbors. On the other hand, if the                                                  food, and thus more gold which will
     pope is close to your enemies, the          Since it’s a Total War game, Medieval     be scarce especially at the beginning
     best you can hope for is to get excom-      II has two layers. The “big picture” is   of the gameplay.
     municated, and the worst is that you        covered in the turn-based strategic       Campaigns will last even longer if you
     find yourself the target of a crusade.      layer, where you can examine a map of     choose to fight out each battle in real
     The papal election basically works like     Europe and manage your empire and         time when you can use your strategy
     this: You enlist priests to help maintain   real time. From here, you have com-       most effectively (there is an option
     the faith in your provinces. The more       mand of all your settlements (towns       to let the computer instantly gener-
     effective a priest, the more likely he’ll   and castles) as well as your armies,      ate the result). I would most certainly
     be promoted by the church to become         navies, and agents. Each turn lasts       recommend this way of playing not
     a bishop, then a cardinal and with a bit    six months. You can also construct        because of the computer generated
     of luck a pope.                             improvements to enhance the econo-        results but because there are plenty




56
of jaw-dropping moments in             princesses, diplomats, mer-          influence over most of the Isles,
Medieval II combats and the            chants, assassins and spies.         but its power is contested by
awesome spectacle of the co-           Each agent has attributes that       the united and rebellious Irish
lossal armies is glorious.             develop the more he is able          led by their chieftain Brian O`
Control over all these units is        to successfully be used. Prin-       Neill and the Welsh united by
a bit nightmarish, but battles         cesses, for example, have a          the Prince Llewellyn ap Gruff-
tend to have that effect on            “Charm” attribute that governs       ydd. In the north, the English
command and control, as all            their success in diplomacy and       have a very weak alliance with
plans fall apart once contact          the likelihood that a proposal in    the fierce Scots but they also
with the enemy is made. You            marriage will be accepted. Spies     have to stop the warlike Nor-
are rewarded for using tac-            with each completed task gain        wegians who are determined
tics correctly, like not sending       more experience. Diplomacy is        to conquer Britannia. Perhaps
knights into the teeth of pikes        performed by diplomats mainly        worst of all, dissent smolders
and maneuvering them to hit            involving negotiating treaties       within its own borders, in the
the enemy from the flank or the        such as cease fires, alliances       form of the English barons,
rear. Or you keep your archers         and marriages. Inquisitors are       who threaten to unify into a
safely protected to the rear,          controlled by The Papal States       full-fledged rebellion. In the ex-
where they can inflict the most        and are sent to the player’s         tension the player can also take
damage on your enemy.                  lands if you have fallen out of      part in the Crusades Campaign
PRINCESSES AND
VAGABONTS
The list of characters in Medi-
eval II is long and diverse. Each
character has attributes that
determine their prowess. The
generals are members of the
Royal Family of the chosen
faction. A character’s actions
can affect his attributes - for
example, a general who rou-
tinely kills prisoners of war and
exterminates captured settle-
ments may see his “dread” in-
crease, making him frightening
to foes; a general who prefers
to release prisoners and oc-
cupy settlements may instead
increase his “chivalry”, which
makes his own troops much
braver. Characters can also
regress and for example turn           favour with the Pope. To get         (the Third and Fourth Crusade)
to alcoholism or even develop          rid of Inquisitors, you can gain     as one of the less known fac-
paranoia. Some traits, mostly          favour with the Pope by build-       tions: the Kingdom of Jerusa-
positive, are brought out by           ing churches and converting the      lem, the Seljuk Empire, the Byz-
victories in battle: for example,      population                           antine Empire and others. We
generals can become increas-                                                also have to mention the fourth
ingly scarred as time goes on,         THE NEW WORLD                        campaign - the Teutonic cam-
and generals who successfully                                               paign. Starting from the date
complete a Crusade gain chival-        The success of Mediaeval II was      1250 it focuses on the conflict
ry, command, and piety points.         evident since it was released        between Christianity and the
Others accumulate while gov-           in 2006, so Sega released its        Teutonic Order, represented by
erning a city: poorly managed          expansion in 2007 Medieval           the Eastern European pagans
backwaters tend to bring out           II: Total War: Kingdoms. It has      led by Lithuania.
the worst in generals, whereas         four new campaigns, focusing
advanced; central cities improve       on the discovery of the New          ANY FINAL WORDS?
a general’s traits. Owners of          World. The Americas campaign
strong traits earn epithets, such      is set in the early sixteenth cen-   The concept of the game is re-
as “the Brave,” “the Just,” “the       tury, when war rages across          ally amazing. Some of the most
Lewd” or “the Corrupt.”                Central America and the far-         noticeable elements are the
Captains are leaders of armies         away European powers have            beautiful graphics and amazing
that do not have a family mem-         begun to take an interest in         battles packed with cinematic
ber controlling them. If a cap-        the New World. Three distinct        moments, complemented with
tain is killed or assassinated in      groups-Mesoamericans, North          the epic, engrossing gameplay
battle troop morale decreases          Americans, and Europeans are         that lets you feel as though
and a new captain will instantly       colliding, each with separate        you’re managing a medieval
appear and take command of             interests. The most important        kingdom which makes it both
the army in question. If a cap-        campaign is the Spanish territo-     more interesting and challeng-
tain is victorious in a particularly   rial conquests and the battles       ing. On the other hand, the
one sided battle or has shown          with the Aztecs who rule a vast      gameplay has some draw-
excellent leadership, he may           territory but do not have a su-      backs. You will need a fairly
become ‘Man of the Hour’, and          perior army as the Spanish. On       powerful system in order to en-
comes with an option to adopt          the margins we also have the         joy it, since it requires a 1.8 GHz
him into the Royal Family. If ad-      Apachean and the Chichimec           processor, 512 MB RAM and
opted, he turns into a general         tribes who quickly have to find      128MB Graphic card. But it is a
and may gain attributes and            a way to resist the waves of         small price to pay, isn`t it?
retinue                                the Europeans coming from the        So, treat yourself and get the
In Medieval II each faction has        east. At the beginning of the        Medieval II: Total War and
a number of agents it may use          Britannia campaign in 1258, the      equipped with a shield prepare
to maintain order and influence        British Isles are in chaos. The      for new victories!
other factions. These include:         Kingdom of England exercises                          Ivan Petrushevski


                                                                                                                  57
                                                      Title of the original:


                                                      rudolph w. Giuliani
                                                      with Ken Kursor
                                                      leaDerShIP



                                                      Print: akademski pecat – Skopje, 2009



           he book “LEADERSHIP” by Rudolph              picture they receive when they see you         describing one of his toughest decisions
           Giuliani is also part of the program of      and hear you. They should see a person         when he was suffering from the most dif-
           the Government of the Republic of            who is stronger, but at the same time          ficult disease-prostate cancer, which he
           Macedonia for translating 500 pro-           more humane than themselves”.                  overcame and then continued with very
           fessional books, science books and           “Many signs of American humanity origi-        important advice how to be ready to pull
     text books studied at the top, the best            nated from the horror of the 9/11 attacks.     the trigger when the time is short, how
     and the most reputable universities in the         One of them was the newly discovered           to use the creative tension and especially
     USA and EU member countries.                       respect toward the police and the fire-        how to listen to people.
     Rudolph William Louis Giuliani is an               fighters who risked their lives every single     “Promise less, achieve more, promise
     American politician, former mayor of New           day. They did not distinguish whether the      only when you are positive and don’t
     York with two mandates, a famous lawyer            people in those buildings were black or        transform victory to defeat”, are the sub
     and a businessman. He experienced his              white, young or elderly, Muslims, Chris-       titles in part 7.
     greatest political fame during and after the       tians or Jews. Simply they entered and         Great leaders lead according to the ideas.
     terrorist attack of New York, on Septem-           participated in the biggest rescue mission     Ideology is the most important when you
     ber 11, 2001, unselfishly engaging himself in      in the history of America”.                    lead some huge organization. People who
     removing the horrible consequences from            The book is divided into three major parts     are working for you, the ones that address
     the air raid. In that period he was called the     with sixteen subparts in total out of which    you for a response, media, even your rivals,
     mayor of America and he was named man              fourteen are in chapter 2. The first and the   have the right to know how you see the
     of the year for 2001 by the prestigious            last –the sixteenth part, are completely       world. He is talking about these things in
     magazine “Time”.                                   dedicated to events before and after 9/11.     part 8 where the author emphasizes how
     LEADERSHIP is a wonderful book writ-               In the most important part of the sec-         to develop and share firm beliefs, how to
     ten by Rudolph Giuliani and Ken Kurson             ond part of the book, Giuliani narrates his    reexamine them and discuss them, to be
     as a co-author while he was working as a           own story how he came to a situation           direct and resistant to influences, to use
     mayor of New York, when he energetically           to become a leader and a manager and           the correct terminology and to stick to our
     started an arduous and high-risk venture           to handle the challenges imposed by the        words..
     for decreasing the crime and revitalizing          function he was performing-Mayor of New        “Be your own person, give an example,
     the city economy. Great part of the book           York, giving us examples, setting principles   defy the expectations, don’t let the critics
     was written before the 9/11 attacks. This          which he personally followed as a lead to      define your agenda”, are the sub titles in
     book was republished in 2007 during his            success. Thus, in the second part titled       part 9 that are about the content of this
     presidential campaign with the introduc-           “Everything has its schedule”, he elabo-       part in a more detailed way.
     tion of new content, including the differ-         rates on the principles how you should cre-    Part 10 is about loyalty as a necessary vir-
     ent actual problems which the USA was              ate an atmosphere, to start with modesty       tuosity with a message to defend all those
     facing. One of the key messages that Ru-           but successfully and how to use the small      who are attacked and not to let the oth-
     dolph Giuliani always stresses is “get pre-        things to their maximum”.                      ers abuse you because you are not paid
     pared mercilessly”.                                In the third part entitled “Get prepared       for that.
     The simplest definition of leadership              mercilessly”, the author points out the val-   We already indicated to the principle “Wed-
     against populism is the one given by Ru-           ue of the preparation as key to success in     dings as you wish, funerals obligatory”,
     dolph Giuliani: “Leadership means first            every field. He writes about the technique     which is a title of part 11 whereas part 12
     to understand what is right and then               which he used very often-visualizing the       is titled “Oppose the bullies”, of any kind.
     to explain that to people. Despite that            things in his own head and the importance      “Study. Read. Learn individually”, is the title
     it is necessary for the people to inform           of the necessity to prepare others.            of part 13, and part 14 is dedicated to the
     you what they think it is right and af-            In the fourth part entitled “Everybody is      fact how to organize yourself about some
     terwards tell them what they want to               responsible at all times”, he gives us his     intention.
     hear”. “Leadership doesn’t happen by               personal experiences in managing the de-       Part 15 is entitled “Bribe only those who
     itself. It can be taught, learned and              crease of the crime rate in the city and the   will stay bribed”.
     developed. There are many ways to                  management system with responsibility          We recommend this book as an unusual
     be a leader. Some people for example,              at complete efficiency, rounding up with       one and as a valuable experience and con-
     Franklin Roosevelt, inspire with aiming            the message “do what is possible, try          firmed lesson. Not only because it contains
     speeches. Others, like Jo DiMaggio led             with what is impossible!”                      original views, perceptions, estimates and
     by giving examples, Winston Churchill              Part 5 teaches us to be surrounded by          chronology of events during his mandate,
     and Douglas Macarthur were outstand-               great personalities, to analyze the advan-     especially during and after the terrorist at-
     ingly good orators. Ronald Reagan led              tages and disadvantages (including the         tack on September 11, 2001.
     through his own powerful and stable                personal), how to learn from great teams,      The book is a testimony and at the same
     character-people followed him because              how to motivate and how to summarize.          time a handbook, a good lesson on how
     they believed in him. Eventually you will          Making the right choice is the most im-        to react and what to do in order to lead
     know which techniques and approaches               portant part of leadership. Every other        successfully in regular, but also in the hard-
     work the best- the ones that you hope              element-from developing and exchang-           est conditions as well in one of the biggest
     to lead somehow will get you on the                ing ideas, to being surrounded with great      cities in the world and the financial center
     right track. Great deal of your capability         personalities is based on making good          in the USA-New York.
     to make people do what they are sup-               decisions. Therefore “Think, then make
     posed to do depends on what kind of                a decision”- continues Giuliani in part 6,                           MA Juliana Stojanova

58
                                                 STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL
MACEDONIAN ROOM
                                                                                     MACEDONIA’S
I am really grateful for the information                                             AMBASSADORS
regarding the Macedonian room in the
„Jane Sandanski “ barracks in Shtip. At the                              I have to say that I really liked that in this
same time I would like to ask you if there                               month’s issue you presented a different
are any other „Macedonian rooms“ in the                                  kind of peacekeeper – a woman that
other barracks in Macedonia?                                             took care of soldiers’ health during
                                                                         their mission in Bosnia. I am eager to
Blagica Sterjoska                                                        read about the experience of our other
                                                                         soldiers – keepers of the peace and
                                                                         security in the world.

                                                                         Mladen Isailovic




answer:                                                                  answer:

Dear Blagica, we hope that you were very                                 Dear Mladen,
surprised when you opened page 44.                                       The whole purpose of keeping a
                                                                         peacekeeper’s journal is to uncover some
Regards, editorial „Shtit“                                               part of our soldiers’ experience from the
                                                                         missions in Iraq, Bosnia, Afghanistan
                                                                         and ,fortunately in this issue, Lebanon.




OLYMPIANS, WELL DONE

Hi,
I am truly amazed by our Olympians’                                      Dear readers,
results. They are our pride! Furthermore,
I would like to point out that I am happy                                In our new magazine, we are implement-
with the fact that your magazine honored                                 ing a new kind of direct contact with
their results by putting them on the cover                               you - our respected audience. Taking in
page.                                                                    consideration that we value your opinion
                                                                         the most, we decided to dedicate this
Darko Eftimovski                                                         page to you. Please send us your propos-
                                                                         als, opinions and criticism to our e-mail:
                                                                         stit@morm.gov.mk




answer:

Darko, the skills and effort our professionals
showed, earned them the right to be on the
cover of this month’s issue.

Respectfully, editorial „Shtit“

								
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