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									  A Quick Introduction to
        Metadata
               Michael Day
UKOLN: The UK Office for Library and Information
         Networking, University of Bath

             http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/
                m.day@ukoln.ac.uk


                Running a Public Library Website
       A workshop organised by UKOLN in association with EARL
               University of Bath, 15-16 November 1999
    Presentation Outline
       • Some definitions
       • Metadata and the Web
             – RDF
       • Resource discovery
             – Dublin Core
             – Information Gateways
       • Other metadata implementations
             – Digital preservation




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    Metadata: definitions (1)
    Metadata = data about data

    “… the Internet-age term for structured data
    about data” - Joint NSF-EU Working Group
    on Metadata (1998)

    “… structured data about data that imposes
    order on a disordered information universe”
    - Carl Lagoze (Cornell University)


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    Metadata: definitions (2)
    “… machine understandable information
    about web resources or other things” - Tim
    Berners-Lee (World Wide Web Consortium)

    Roles:
      • Provides information about resources
      • Supports operations carried out on
        information objects



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    Metadata: uses
    Metadata can support many potential
    applications:
      • Resource discovery
      • Content ratings
      • E-commerce
      • Authentication
      • Data management
      • Intellectual property rights management
      • Digital preservation

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    Metadata and the Web
    Metadata - the missing architectural component
    from the initial implementation
    of the Web

                                                           Addressing
                                                              URL

                                                 Transport Data format
                                                   HTTP      HTML




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    RDF
    The Resource Description Framework:
      • Part of the W3C (World Wide Web
        Consortium) Metadata Activity
      • Developing a common syntax for
        expressing assertions about
        information on the web
              – RDF Syntax Working Group
              – RDF data model and RDF/XML syntax
              – RDF Schema Working Group

    http://www.w3.org/Metadata/

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    Resource discovery
    Main approaches:
             – Robot-based Web index services
               (AltaVista, Lycos, etc.)
             – Utilising human intelligence to identify and
               evaluate Internet resources.
                  – Links pages
                  – Information gateways
             – The library cataloguing method, creating
               bibliographic records for Internet
               resources in library catalogues (InterCat)



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    A metadata typology
    Simple                                                               Rich
       Band One           Band Two                    Band Three

     (full text         (simple            (more complex (part of larger
     indexes)           structured         structure,    semantic
                        generic            domain        framework)
                        formats)           specific)

     Proprietary        Proprietary        FGDC               TEI headers
     formats            formats            MARC               ICPSR
                        Dublin Core                           EAD
                        ROADS                                 CIMI
                        IAFA/Whois++
                        templates



    Adapted from: L. Dempsey and R. Heery, “Metadata: a current view of practice and

    issues”, Journal of Documentation, vol. 54, no.2, March 1998, pp. 145-172.
9    Running a Public Library Website, University of Bath, 15-16 November 1999
     The Dublin Core
     Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI):
        • An initiative to define a core set of
          metadata elements for resource
          discovery on the Internet
        • 7 DC workshops
                 – “ ... the broadest international,
                   interdisciplinary effort in resource
                   description on the Internet ... the leading
                   initiative for improving resource discovery
                   on the Web” - Stu Weibel (OCLC)

     http://purl.oclc.org/dc
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     DC elements
     15 Elements:
         •   Title                        •   Format
         •   Subject                      •   Identifier
         •   Description                  •   Source
         •   Creator                      •   Language
         •   Publisher                    •   Relation
         •   Contributor                  •   Coverage
         •   Date                         •   Rights
         •   Type

     Semantics defined in Internet RFC 2413 (1998);
     now superseded by DC version 1.1
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     DC qualifiers
     DC-4 Workshop (Canberra):
       • TYPE, SCHEME and LANGUAGE
     DC Data Model working group:
       • Element Qualifiers - refine the semantics of a
          DC element
       • Value Qualifiers - gives context to the
          element value by
               – indicating how to parse the value, e.g. an ISO
                 8601 date
               – indicating the use of controlled vocabularies, e.g.
                 LCSH, DDC or LCNAF
          • Value Components

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     DC syntax
     Guidelines and tools developed:
       • “Encoding DC Metadata in HTML”
         (Internet-Draft)
       • Data Model working group - “Guidance
         on expressing DC within the RDF”
         (working draft)
       • Creation tools - e.g., DC-dot:
     Some examples ...

     http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/dcdot/


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     DC in HTML (1)
     <html>
     <head>
     <title>Dorset Library Service</title>
     <link rel="schema.DC" href="http://purl.org/dc">
     <meta name="DC.Title" content="Dorset Library Service">
     <meta name="DC.Subject" content=”public libraries; Dorset County
     Council">
     <meta name="DC.Publisher" content="European Regional Internet
     Registry/RIPE NCC">
     <meta name="DC.Date" scheme="WTN8601" content="1999-08-05">
     <meta name="DC.Type" content="Text">
     <meta name="DC.Format" content="text/html">
     <meta name="DC.Format" content="3791 bytes">
     <meta name="DC.Identifier" content="http://www.dorset-
     cc.gov.uk/library.htm">
     </head>
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     DC in HTML (2)
     <html>
     <head>
     <title> Bath and North East Somerset Library and Archives</title>
     <link rel="schema.DC" href="http://purl.org/dc">
     <meta name="DC.Title" content="Bath and North East Somerset Library,
     and Archives">
     <meta name="DC.Subject" content=”public libraries; archives; Bath and
     North East Somerset">
     <meta name="DC.Publisher" content="Bath University">
     <meta name="DC.Date" scheme="WTN8601" content="1999-06-23">
     <meta name="DC.Type" content="Text">
     <meta name="DC.Format" content="text/html">
     <meta name="DC.Format" content="2719 bytes">
     <meta name="DC.Identifier"
     content="http://hosted.ukoln.ac.uk/libweb/bathnes/">
     </head>
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     DC in RDF/XML
     <?xml version="1.0"?>
     <rdf:RDF
        xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
        xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.0/">
        <rdf:Description about="http://www.earl.org.uk/index.html”>
           <dc:title>
              EARL, the Consortium for Public Library Networking
           </dc:title>
           <dc:creator>
              EARL Consortium
           </dc:creator>
           <dc:type>Text</dc:type>
           <dc:format>4699 bytes</dc:format>
           <dc:language>
              en
           </dc:language>
        </rdf:Description>
     </rdf:RDF>

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     In abbreviated syntax
     <rdf:RDF
       xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
       xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.0/">
       <rdf:Description about="http://www.earl.org.uk/index.html"
          dc:Title="EARL, the Consortium for Public Library Networking"
          dc:Creator="EARL Consortium info@earl.org.uk"
          dc:Subject="earl, public libraries, uk, networking, consortium"
          dc:Publisher="EARL Consortium info@earl.org.uk"
          dc:Date="1999-10-20"
          dc:Type="Text"
          >
          <dc:format>
           <rdf:Bag
             rdf:_1="text/html"
             rdf:_2="4699 bytes"
            />
          </dc:format>
       </rdf:Description>
     </rdf:RDF>
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     DC Implementations
        • DC creation tools
              – DC-dot
              – Nordic Metadata Project - Template
        • Metadata-aware indexing tools
              – DESIRE - Combine
        • Conversion tools
              – Metadata Cross-walks
              – Nordic Metadata Project - d2m
              – Project BIBLINK
        • Interoperability
              – AHDS Gateway
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     Information Gateways
     Roles of gateways:
       • Selection
              – Gateways select resources according to
                some pre-defined criteria (e.g. subject
                area, some measure of quality)
        • Creation of metadata
              – Gateways create simple resource
                descriptions that can be both searched
                and browsed




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     The eLib programme
     JISC funded:
        • Selected gateways (SOSIG, EEVL,
          OMNI, Biz/ed, History, etc.)
        • ROADS Resource Organisation and
          Discovery in Subject-based services
               – Developing Web-based tools for
                 information gateways
               – Cross-searching (Whois++)
               – Content creation rules (cataloguing
                 guidelines)
     http://www.ilrt.bris.ac.uk/roads/
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     The RDN
     Resource Discovery Network
       • Funded by JISC, ESRC and AHRB
       • Co-operative network:
              – Independent service providers (hubs)
              – Resource Discovery Network Centre
                (RDNC)
                   – Set service standards
                   – Collection management policy
                   – Develop strategic partnerships
              – Cross-searching across multiple hubs


26   Running a Public Library Website, University of Bath, 15-16 November 1999
     Digital preservation
     A variety of preservation strategies are
     available - all are dependent upon the
     creation, capture and storage of metadata
        • Recent initiatives include:
                   – Reference Model for an Open Archival
                     Information System (OAIS)
                   – Research Libraries Group (RLG) Working
                     Group on Preservation Issues of Metadata
                   – Cedars project - funded by JISC under eLib,
                     managed by Consortium of University
                     Research Libraries (CURL)
                   – Digital Services Project - National Library of
                     Australia

27   Running a Public Library Website, University of Bath, 15-16 November 1999
     UKOLN
     UKOLN is funded by the Library and
     Information Commission, the Joint
     Information Systems Committee (JISC) of
     the higher education funding councils, as
     well as by project funding from the JISC
     and the European Union. UKOLN also
     receives support from the University of
     Bath, where it is based.

     http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/




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