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rara was shot and killed on Charleswood Farm, reportedly when members ZIMDAY Tuesday 6 April 2004 of the Zimbabwe National Army opened fire on a group of farm workers. Another farm worker, John Kaitano, was shot in the leg. The shootings In this issue : were reported to the police. To date no-one has been arrested for these Mnangagwa the target - Business Day attacks. Amnesty International is calling on the Zimbabwe authorities to ensure that the police and army abide by the highest standards of profes- AI demands end to Charleswood persecution - AI sionalism and respect for human rights. Amnesty International has pre- Yet more aid sought - IRIN viously reported on the systematic human rights abuses taking place on Background: Mnangagwa, the Joshis, et al - HSF the farm of Roy Bennett. On 19 March 2003, Steven Tonera, a security guard working on Charleswood farm was killed following a brutal attack by members of the Zimbabwe National Army. Steven Tonera was accused of training Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) soldiers and burning a From Business Day (SA), 6 April bus during the 18-19 March nationwide mass stay-away called for by the Graft inquiry to probe Mnangagwa MDC. He was beaten and reportedly tortured with electric shocks on his fingers, toes and knees. More than 80 other workers on the farm were Harare Correspondent also assaulted and badly beaten with batons, including farm manager Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's heir apparent Emmerson Mnan- Norman Gardiner and his wife Isobel. On 26 and 27 March 2003, up to gagwa will once again come under the spotlight during an internal corrup- 100 workers were attacked and beaten by intelligence officers from the tion probe within the ruling Zanu PF. Mnangagwa, currently speaker of Central Intelligence Organization (CIO). To date no one has been ar- parliament and the ruling party's administration secretary, is expected to rested for these attacks. be the centre of attention in the investigation as he wielded huge influence over Zanu PF's business empire. This comes as the Mugabe succession From IRIN (UN), 5 April battle is steadily intensifying. The party's decisionmaking politburo last More funds needed to cope with worsening conditions week appointed a committee chaired by finance secretary David Kari- manzira to investigate its businesses amid allegations of entrenched graft. Johannesburg - In an effort to arrest worsening humanitarian conditions in The committee also included retired army commander, Gen Solomon Zimbabwe, the United Nations is seeking additional funds to support relief Mujuru, former finance minister Simba Makoni, Matabeleland North gov- efforts through to the end of the year. The request is a revision of the ernor Obert Mpofu and party deputy transport secretary Thoko Mathuthu. Consolidated Appeal launched last July focuses on strengthening social The composition of the committee has raised eyebrows within Zanu PF, service delivery, support the country's recovery and tackle HIV/AIDS. The with insiders saying it was targeted at Mnangagwa whom Mugabe now total US $95.4 million in funding requirements for 2003 to the end of 2004 apparently wants to eliminate from the succession struggle. includes US $31.1 million requested by local and international NGOs. So Mnangagwa has recently been beset by corruption allegations. Two far only US $10.5 million in contributions has been received since the weeks ago he was implicated in an illicit gold scam in which he allegedly initial appeal was launched last year. "The review and update specifically received Z$16m from an "unscrupulous" dealer who is currently in court focuses on strengthening the delivery of basic social services, HIV/AIDS for allegedly violating the Gold Trade Act. The state accused Mnangagwa and recovery to reverse the downward humanitarian trend in the country. of being part of a network of illegal gold dealers wreaking havoc in the The main objective in this regard is to prevent loss of life. This will be country through panning and trading activities. The charges were seen as achieved by striving to meet minimum standards in delivering public a major blow to Mnangagwa's chances of succeeding Mugabe, who is health, water and sanitation and reversing the effects of HIV/AIDS," UN expected to announce his exit his plans in December. Zanu PF spokes- Resident Humanitarian Coordinator, Victor Angelo, said in a foreword to man Nathan Shamuyarira has said Mugabe would announce his future the appeal. The country's weakening economy was seen as one of key plans at the party congress in December, which he described as "a defin- reasons for deteriorating social conditions. Inflation in Zimbabwe reached ing moment" for Zimbabwe. He said there would be "infighting" among more than 500 percent at the beginning of the year and over 60 percent of Zanu PF leaders after Mugabe's departure. Shamuyarira said Nkomo and the labour force is out of work. A rapidly declining economy has meant Mnangagwa were clear frontrunners in the succession race. Meanwhile, that public services were seriously underfunded and often did not meet the Herald newspaper, a government mouthpiece, reported on Saturday a minimum standards, the appeal noted. "The quality of and access to so- Zanu campaign was under way to tarnish the name of Information Minis- cial services, in particular health and education, has further deteriorated ter Jonathan Moyo. The report said sources within government were cir- due to funding and capacity constraints, resulting in critical shortages of culating news that the minister had fathered an illegitimate child, who is health workers and teachers, as well as a lack of medical and learning now 22 years old. supplies. Water and sanitation systems' capacity and quality, both in rural and urban areas, are also increasingly inadequate," the appeal said. From Amnesty International, 5 April There was also concern that the 2004 harvest would be insufficient to Attacks on farm workers and their children must end now ensure national food security - with an estimated five million Zimbab- weans dependent on food aid and other social safety schemes over the Workers on the farm of opposition MP for Chimanimani, Roy Bennett, coming months. "In consultation with the UN Humanitarian Coordinator, including children as young as 8 years old, are being targeted in a series the government will consider making a separate appeal for general food of violent attacks by state agents and ruling party supporters. Since the aid once additional information on the performance of the current crop is beginning of 2004, men, women and children have been assaulted, two available," the appeal said. HIV/AIDS continued to be an overriding con- women have been raped and one man has been killed. Despite repeated cern for the humanitarian community. Recent estimates indicated that appeals by Amnesty International the Zimbabwean government has failed some 25 percent of Zimbabwe's sexually active population was infected to act in the majority of cases. "The Zimbabwean authorities should take with HIV. "Death and sickness are crippling the society, and profoundly immediate steps to end the attacks on workers on Charleswood Farm and undermining recovery prospects. The magnitude of this tragedy is deplet- conduct thorough, impartial and transparent investigations into all allega- ing households as well as local and national public service capacity," the tions of human rights violations on the farm and bring those responsible appeal noted. Another area of concern was the living conditions in new for these abuses to justice," Amnesty International urged. On Friday 2 resettlement areas, particularly with respect to former farm workers. For- April 2004, seventeen children from Roy Bennett's Charleswood Farm, mer farm workers find themselves without access to income, land or so- ranging in age from eight to 17 years were stopped by soldiers on their cial services, while at the same time, new settlers were arriving and com- way home from a football game. After being forced to assault each other peting for increasing scarce resources, the appeal noted. The UN has they were then beaten by the soldiers. The incident was reported to the requested authorisation to conduct a humanitarian assessment in these police. To date no arrests are known to have been made. On 27 March areas in order to determine vulnerability and subsequently planning for 2004, four police officers reportedly forced their way into the home of a the delivery of needed humanitarian assistance. One of the main priorities woman on Charleswood Farm, handcuffed and beat her. Later, three of of humanitarian agencies until year end was improving the targeting of the men left and the remaining officer raped her. The following morning food distribution to the most vulnerable. Activities will include the provision the woman reported the rape at the local police station and identified the of basic food rations, supplementary feeding for children under-five, and policeman who had raped her. Although police at the station arrested the therapeutic feeding. Targeted food aid programmes are also expected to police officer accused of rape, no action appears to have been taken bring much-needed relief to the urban population. The latest assessment against the three other officers involved in the attack. estimated that almost 2.5 million people in high-density urban areas were On 6 February 2004, three women and two men working on Charleswood vulnerable, due to food insecurity and lack of access to basic services. Farm were abducted by "war veterans" who severely beat the five work- ers and set dogs loose on them. One of the women, Violet Ngwenya, was later taken to another room and repeatedly raped. All five were released the following day, and reported the attack to the local police. To date no one has been arrested for these attacks. Two days later, Shemi Chimba- From The Helen Suzman Foundation (SA), September 2000 director of Oporto Investments, Galant Distribution, Galhold Investments, Inside Zimbabwe Inc Treasure Holdings and National Blankets. Mnangagwa is also chairman of You cannot appreciate why Mugabe and his henchmen are clinging so Fibrolite, a joint venture with a Portuguese businessman, Armando Go- tenaciously to power until you know how much they have to lose dinko. Fibrolite exports over US$1 million of asbestos a year. The interac- tion between Mnangagwa's political, financial and intelligence roles - CIO Although corruption within the Zimbabwean government is notorious, operatives still call him "the son of God" because of his close ties to Mu- journalists have persistently failed to find proof of corruption in the case of gabe - was revealed in 1995. Godinko's son, Luis, the owner of the Mi- President Robert Mugabe himself. The only time that anything really juicy rage nightclub, was arrested for the abduction and rape of a 17-year-old emerged was during the US Senate hearings into the collapse of the Abu girl. When the immigration authorities sought to cancel Luis's residence Dhabi-based Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in 1992. permit Mnangagwa got the CIO to swear that Luis was one of their key According to the published testimony of BCCI officials the bank had se- operatives and a vital source of information, so that the charges were cured preferential banking rights in Zimbabwe by bribing Mugabe and dropped in the national interest. The principal immigration officer, Elias Vice-President Joshua Nkomo in 1980-81. One official, Nazir Chinoy, Mbedze, did not have such a high opinion of Luis, calling him "a danger- described how the bank's emissary, Aluauddin Sheikh, "carried a bag with ous guy" and "a graduate in crime" - Luis was at the time appealing him . . . he went off to see President Mugabe and when they talked they against a conviction for bribing a police officer. wanted me out of the room". Chinoy and other officials said the bag had Mnangagwa has also played a key role in the expansion of Zanu PF's been full of cash and that Sheikh left it with Mugabe. Another official, financial interests into the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In May Akbar Bilgrami, testified that "We paid Mugabe and Nkomo. I was at the 1999 he admitted that he had introduced a Chinese arms company, two Park Lane branch [in London]. BCCI was approached to look after the transport companies, a banking group and a power company to Laurent expenses of the delegates [at the Lancaster gate talks on Zimbabwean Kabila and that they had all established businesses there. One of Zidco's independence], which were paid. In addition, we paid £500,000 pounds subsidiaries, the First Bank Corporation, then set up in Kinshasa. In addi- from the Park Lane branch. Someone from Mr Naqvi's office came to Park tion two other business associates of Mnangagwa went into business Lane and picked up the money. I don't think that Ian Smith was getting ferrying arms and supplies between Zimbabwe and the DRC, Billy Rau- paid by us." BCCI did indeed acquire special banking rights in Zimbabwe tenbach's Wheels of Africa company and the head of the Zimbabwean that it retained until the bank's collapse. army, General Vitalis Zvinavashe, with his company, Zvinavashe Trans- To understand how politics and money work in Zimbabwe one has to port. Mnangagwa then helped to broker an arms deal for Kabila of 21,000 begin with the fact that Zanu PF is more than just a political party. It owns AK-47s and US$53 million of heavy arms, all from China. Mnangagwa two companies, the M & S Syndicate, set up even before independence in also works closely with John Bredenkamp, who boasts of being the big- 1980, and Zidco Holdings (of which M & S holds 55 per cent of the gest single supplier of arms to the Congo. In late 1998 Zimbabwean shares), set up straight afterwards. Through these two companies the forces in the DRC suffered heavy casualties and lost several helicopter party has a vast range of interests, including Treger Holdings, producers gunships. Mugabe sent Mnangagwa and Sekeramayi to the DRC to as- of building materials, hardware etc; Ottawa, a property management sess the situation - thus provoking the near resignation of the defence company; Catercraft, which runs the catering at Harare airport and also minister, Moven Mahachi, who found that they actually had far greater supplies all domestic and international flights out of Harare; and Zidlee control over the army than he did. For the army top brass report directly to Enterprises, which controls the duty free shops at Beit Bridge, Harare City Mnangagwa, who is so heavily involved that he actually sustained a hand and Harare Airport, also supplying diplomats with a range of goods. Zidlee wound at the war front. Mugabe has instructed him to oversee his Congo is believed to be particularly useful to Zanu PF high-ups who want to military operations, giving him unparalleled military clout - which he has move foreign exchange in or out of the country. In effect Zidco allowed the used to help Billy Rautenbach gain a long list of mining concessions in the party to take a share in a whole range of enterprises set up in Zimbabwe. Congo. This also allowed key members of the political elite access to its profits, The press reported that Rautenbach has rewarded various Congolese though how much goes to whom is not a public fact. Attempts at Zanu PF and Zimbabwean politicians with large ex gratia payments for favours congresses to get the party's treasurer, Emmerson Mnangagwa, to di- received, though this did not prevent the DRC's minister of mines from vulge the accounts of Zidco and M & S have always failed; though he did cancelling all deals with him in March 1999 and effectively throwing him reveal in 1992 that Zanu PF's assets were then worth Z$486 million. out of the DRC. No such accidents happen to Mnangagwa. When Roger The key to Zidco is the Joshi family. The Joshis are part of the Asian di- Boka's United Merchant Bank went bust in 1998, it was found to have lent aspora scattered across east and southern Africa, a community that, Mnangagwa large sums. Despite that he seems to have some difficulty in thanks to the chronic insecurity it has had to face in recent years, now paying his rates: in June 1999 Harare city council revealed that Mnan- frequently has a footing in Britain too. The Joshis, a family of Malawian gagwa was Z$410,231 in arrears on his rate payments. Zimbabwe's in- Asians with a house in Romford, Essex, have played a key role under the volvement in the DRC goes back much further than the current war. When Mugabe regime. Jayan Joshi, who was based in Britain in the 1970s, Zimbabwean troops were pulled out of Mozambique in 1988, South Afri- extended considerable assistance to Zanu activists sent on scholarships can businessmen - to Harare's fury - were quick to scoop up the most to Britain from the guerrilla camps in Mozambique. After independence lucrative deals there in the wake of the civil war. Mugabe vowed this Mugabe invited Jayan and his brother Manoo to run Zidco. Through their would not happen twice. In 1996 Mugabe gave Kabila US$5 million to offices Rambhai Patel, a Kenyan Asian who now lives near Chislehurst in finance his rebellion against Mobutu. Just before Kinshasa fell to Kabila, Kent, put up the equity capital for Zidco, of which he still owns 45 per Zimbabwe Defence Industries (owned by the government) concluded a cent. Patel, now in his 80s, is a legend in the Asian community, having US$53m deal to supply Kabila with everything from food to uniforms and greatly increased the fortune his merchant father left him. He is famous mortar bombs. ZDI was then used to spearhead Zimbabwe's economic not just for his wealth and business acumen but as an eminence grise. He penetration of the DRC. The company is extremely secretive but in 1993, is the owner of Unicorn Export-Import, based in London, which owns his the last year when it gave out such information, its directors included share of Zidco. In 1984 he visited Zimbabwe and cemented his relation- Zvinavashe and another Mugabe intimate, Perence Shiri, the former head ship with Mugabe by making a $50,000 contribution to Zanu-PF funds. of the terrifying 5 Brigade. The Joshis retain strong personal links to the Mugabes - Jayan's daughter Gradually the efforts of Shiri, Zvinavashe and Mnangagwa have led to the Heena, for example, is a close friend of the president's wife, Grace, and network of Zimbabwe's military interests in the DRC. Zvinavashe and his sits on the board of Grace's pet charity, the Children's Rehabilitation brother are also directors of Osleg (Operation Sovereign legitimacy) Trust. Having played a key part in the contract for the new Harare interna- which, following the Chinese model, is seen as the economic wing of the tional airport Heena now has a leading role in Oryx Diamonds. Zimbabwean armed forces. Osleg wanted, above all, to get its hands on Zidco's directors are the two Joshi brothers, and Emmerson Mnangagwa the mining concessions that Kabila had promised. The first such venture and Sidney Sekeramayi - the two men who have controlled the Central was with Comiex-Congo, producing a new joint company, Cosleg. There Intelligence Organisation ever since independence. Both are extremely followed a joint venture with the Omani-owned Oryx Natural Resources to close to Mugabe. The president has tried to push Mnangagwa forward as form Oryx-Zimcon. In January 2000 Oryx Natural Resources bought Petra his possible successor but the former minister of justice is too unpopular diamonds and rechristened it Oryx Diamonds - in which Zidco holds for that to succeed. Despite his defeat in the June election, Mugabe has 237,000 shares. Despite the rows which have enveloped Oryx Diamonds made Mnangagwa speaker of parliament with a brief to keep the Move- since - its flotation on the London stock exchange was blocked and its ment for Democratic Change under control. Sekeramayi, clung on to his director, Moses Anafu, forced to resign from the Commonwealth Observer seat in the June election by just 63 votes, a result which the MDC is chal- Group sent to monitor Zimbabwe's election in June - all these interests lenging in the courts. Mugabe has abolished his ministry of security ab- are intact. All the indications are that Zimbabwe's political and military olished and moved him into the presidential office instead, thus increasing elites continue to draw large profits from their incursion into the DRC. It is the president's personal control over the CIO. Thus Mnangagwa and Se- just as well for Zidco has fallen on evil days within Zimbabwe - as any keramayi not only know, both literally and figuratively, where all the politi- enterprise must given the parlous state of the economy. Jayan Joshi now cal bodies are buried but are also privy to all the party's financial secrets - spends much of his days playing solitaire on his computer for, thanks to which they control. Mnangagwa was chairman of M & S for many years the disastrous policies of his long-time associate, Robert Mugabe, there is and a director of Woolworth Trading until the end of 1990. He is also a precious little else for him to do.
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