War of 1812 - Why War

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					War of 1812 - Why War?

   Britain, “hostile to the U.S. as an
    independent and NEUTRAL nation…”
   “U.S. commerce had been plundered in
    every sea…”
   “Britain is to blame for frontier warfare
    w/ Native Americans” As stated by James
    Madison in his war message to Congress
America’s Readiness for War:

   Military was WEAK! Small force of
    soldiers, led by inexperienced officers
   Had to depend on state militias
   Less than 20 oceangoing ships - had to
    hire privateers: armed ships owned
    by individuals to fight * these did capture 1300
    British ships!

   British blockaded the coast, stopping
    American shipping
Campaign “Canada”

   Canada was Britain’s last holding in
   Speaker of the House Henry Clay
    (Warhawk) “we can easily win a war
    in Canada”
   All 3 invasion plans of Canada FAILED!

             Invasion of Canada
              through Detroit: Wm
              Hull (Gov. of MI
              Terr.) led his troops
              across the Detroit
              River; had to retreat
              and surrender
              Detroit to the British!
Fort Michilimackinac in War
of 1812
                  Combined British
                   and Native
                   American forces
                   captured Ft.
                   Michilimackinac in
                   Northern Michigan
Fort Dearborn (present-day
                  Also capture by
                   British and Native
                   American forces
                  With these victories
                   the British had
                   control of much of
                   the Northwest
               Oliver Hazzard
Lake Erie       Perry and his fleet of
                10 small ships
                daringly attacked
                the British warships
                here: “we have met
                the enemy and
                they are ours” -
               British forced to
                leave Detroit, Perry
                becomes a hero -
                boosts America!!
Things Change - 1814

   Britain defeats Napoleon in Europe -
    could now send 1000’s of its best troops
    to U.S.
   Washington D.C. captured - President
    Madison forced to flee - but manage to
    take Dec. of Indep. And other important
    documents w/ them
   British set Washington D.C. on fire!
“Rockets Red Glare”
   British celebrate the
    burning of Wash.
   Move attack to
    Baltimore Harbor
   Troops at Ft.
    McHenry held off
    bombardment for
    25hrs, but forced to
    surrender to British
Francis Scott Key - Makes
                   Key, a Washington
                    D.C. lawyer,
                    watched the fierce
                    battle from the deck
                    of a prisoner of war
                    ship and scribbled a
                    few lines of poetry
                    on an envelope -
                    1931 adopted as the
                    National Anthem
Andrew Jackson - New Orleans

                 Leader of a
                  sharpshooting troop
                 “Old Hickory”
                  (toughest wood)
                 2000 British troops
                  killed or wounded -
                  Jackson’s 20 k or w
                 Greatest victory of
Battle of New Orleans -
   More than 2 weeks earlier, the U.S. and
    Britain signed a peace treaty in Ghent,
    Belgium - communications were slow,
    ya think?
    War Ends!
   1. Indian resistance in Northwest Territory
    weakened after Tecumseh’s death; the Indians
    would be driven out of Ohio Valley:
   2. National Pride in the U.S. surged: “2nd War of
    Independence-stood up to British (again), the
    U.S. had truly become a strong, Independent
   3.. Federalists felt war would ruin economy;
    badly damaged by their opposition to the
   Victory at N. Orleans forced them to give up their
    quest - Federalist loss - AGAIN!
Aftermath of the War

   Treaty of Ghent - Christmas Eve 1814:
   Ended the fighting but settled NOTHING
   No mention of American ships or
   Neither side gained or lost territory
War: Positive for Young
   Americans felt proud and self-
    confident at the end of the War of 1812
   The young nation gained a new
    respect from other nations in the world
   Americans felt a new sense of
    patriotism and a strong national
    identity - Americas 2nd war of

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