nationalism by alicejenny


 Nationalism has emerged as a
powerful force in the post-Cold
                     War world.
`the contradictions of a
globalising world
   Globalisation                       Differences
   Internationalisation: the new       Identities
    institutions of the                 Loyalties
    international order                     Fragmentation through
       The International Criminal           Secession (Yugoslavia,
        Court                                Soviet Union
                                             Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia)
   Integration                             Unification through fusion (
       European Union                       germany, Korea…)
       ASEAN                               Ethnic conflict
       African Union                   Resistance to
                                        Access to the world market
                                         on their own terms
Nationalism as political

   nationalism as a political doctrine
    ―nationalism is the belief that the world‘s
    peoples are divided into nations, and that
    each of these nations has the right of self-
    determination, either as self-governing units
    within existing nation states or as nation-
    states of their own
   States in past justified by reference to their rulers,
    dynasties or religion…States now justified on the
    grounds that they represent their peoples: the nation-
    state; national self-determination: every nation has the
    right to decide on its own fate….
   Three trends: political community ( Rousseau, laid basis
    of modern democracy… JS Mill, representative
    government… 2. La Nation… liberty equality
    fraternity…having a shared common equal citizenship 3.
    Volk, history, tradition and culture…
   Out of this came the political doctrine we see as
    nationalism today – and . mazzini – the moral concept of
    the nation…
cultural ideal of nationalism
   while people have different identities, ―it is the
    nation that provides them with their primary
    form of belonging.‖ ( Michael Ignatieff)
       "Nationalism, being a cultural phenomenon, is not
        'in the blood'; it cannot be transmitted biologically
        from one person to another; it is an 'acquired
        character.'" Professor Hayes Essays on
        Nationalism (1928),
nationalism as a moral ideal
   ―nationalism is an ethic of heroic sacrifice,
    justifying the use of violence in the defense of
    one‘s nation against enemies, internal or
       For centuries men have died for their country in
        numerous wars. Nations regard them as heroes,
        fighting for the good of their homeland. These
        heroes are seen as exuding national pride and
        loyality. These men sacrificed their own lives for
        the good of the nation.
   three factors that made nationalism appealing
    for European intellectuals in the 18th and
    19th century
       1. the idea of democracy. As intellectuals
        "become more democratically inclined, they
        discover they can best and most conveniently
        operate the necessary machinery of democracy
        within linguistic frontiers, that is, within
Secular religion
   the search for a secular religion -
    intellectuals and middle classes, the age of
    reason and rejection of suprnatural religion
       Nationalism is promoted in song, literature, and in
        a way it becomes the new religion
       Recent times: Croke Park Feb 2007, the singing
        of the Irish and English national anthems…
   growth of statism: this explains the vogue of
    nationalism in modern times as the growth of
    a belief that the state, particularly the national
    state, can and should promote human
       the cloak of nationalism - is it merely a cover for
        the state when it uses its power to benefit some
        selected and privileged groups in society at the
        expense of the rest of the citizenry?
4 debates: Halliday in Baylis and Smith

   Justice versus order
       N provides a principle of legitimacy underpinning
        the modern national system
   History versus modernity
   Positive and negative
   Objects of primary loyalty
Positive versus negative
   Positive
       N provides a principle of legitimacy underpinning the
        modern national system
       A realization of democratic principles
       Psychological function
       One of the great sources of human creativity and diversity
   Negative
       Cause of conflict..xenophobia… chauvinism… militarism
       An obstacle to cooperation…
       As states break up viable economic and political units
       Creates a climate of intolerance and dictatorship
Bush March 26 2003
   Over the last week the world has witnessed the skill
    and honor and resolve of our military in the course
    of battle. We have seen the character of this new
    generation of American Armed Forces. We've seen
    their daring against ruthless enemies and their
    decency to an oppressed people. Millions of
    Americans are proud of our military, and so am I. I
    am honored to be the Commander-in-Chief.
    (Applause.) ….thank you for your service, your
    sacrifice, and your love of America.
Saddam Hussein
   Saddam Hussein: "I was born here in Iraq ... I am proud to have
    been born fearing God and I have taught my children the value of
    history and the value of human stands ... Whoever decides to
    forsake his nation from whoever requests is not true to the
    principles. We will die here. We will die in this country and we will
    maintain our honor -- the honor that is required…in front of our
    people. I believe that whoever ... offers Saddam asylum in his
    own country is in fact a person without morals."
Haiti, 1 March 2004
   Kofi Annan… he hopes the international
    community was ‗not going to put a Band-Aid
    on , and that we are not only going to help
    stabilise the current situation, but assist the
    Haitians over the long haul and really help
    them pick up the pieces and build a stable
    country‘ (FT, 27 Feb 2004)
Haiti – US – France…
   The United States is no stranger to Haiti.
       The marines ran the place from 1915 to 1934. Some argue that this exercise in nation-
        building failed because the Americans left too
       In the intensity of its underdevelopment, the country is all but unique in its region—a
        slice of Africa in the Americas. History has treated it harshly. Sugar made it France's
        richest colony.
       A slave revolt, inspired by the French revolution, created the world's first black republic
        two centuries ago. But newly independent Haiti never really recovered from the
        bloodletting of the independence struggle, and the fear this engendered elsewhere.
       France crippled it with reparations and the United States with a 60-year economic
   Unpromising though the task is, Haitians should be encouraged to build their
    own nation. That requires the rebels, their sympathisers and Mr Aristide's
    supporters to act responsibly. Whether or not they do, the United States and its
    friends would do well, for humanitarian and political reasons, to exercise a little
    bit of neighbourly responsibility
   (Economist, feb 24 2004)

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