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   The Role of Community Colleges

   National Forum on Trade Policy
         December 10, 2004
     Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina
             Stephen Lease
   Part I: Arkansas
Workforce Development

      Workforce Changes
     In a Global Economy

(What changes have you seen in your
          Characteristics of the Old
           Economy and the New

       That Was Then                  This Is Now
Brawn/metal-bending           Brains/mind-bending
Mass production               Small lots
Standardization               Customization
Hierarchies                   Teams
Job security based on         Job security based on
  seniority                     skills
Narrow, job-specific skills   Broad skills/Adaptability
       Characteristics of the Old
     Economy and the New (cont’d)

       That Was Then               This Is Now
Limited competition         Global competition
Careers built with one      Careers built with one
  employer                    occupation
Benefits tied to employer   Portable benefits
Pay for time served         Pay for performance
Big, bureaucratic           Smaller, flexible
  organizations               organizations
       Characteristics of the Old
     Economy and the New (cont’d)

     That Was Then                 This Is Now
Televisions, newspapers   Internet, World Wide Web
Regulation                Deregulation
Government solutions      Public-private partnerships
Competitive standards     Competitive standards
  based on cost            based on quality, variety,
                           and timeliness
Homogeneous workforce     Diverse workforce
       Characteristics of the Old
     Economy and the New (cont’d)

    That Was Then           This Is Now
Finite education       Lifelong learning
Integrated companies   Core competencies
“Go It Alone”          Strategic alliances
Unlimited resources    Limited resources
Lecture/chalk-talk     Experiential learning
A Summary Definition of Workforce
    Development (What It Is)

At the postsecondary level, Workforce
Development is defined as education and/or
training beyond high school which leads to a
GED, certificate, two- to four-year degree;
and/or other short-term, customized training
designed to meet the needs of employers to
upgrade the skills of existing, emerging,
transitional, and entrepreneurial workforces.
  A Working Definition of Workforce
    Development (How It Works)

We Provide . . .
 Foundational skills that meet an established
  standard of cognitive skills that incorporate critical
  thinking, reading comprehension, and quantitative
 Pre-employment and Workplace Readiness skills
 Training in vocational, technical, and academic
  certificates and degrees
 Upgrade of workplace skills for existing employed
    Primary Mission of Post-Secondary
   Education in Workforce Development
           (Why It’s Important)

So we build “bridges” to . . .
 Offer opportunities for individuals to achieve
  personal educational goals
 Instill a sense of continuous improvement or lifelong
  learning to pursue higher education
 Enhance individual’s role in the workforce as a
  productive member
 Provide employers with a competent, highly skilled,
  trained and trainable workforce
(Who’s Taking Responsibility?)

 “Community Colleges Play the Pivotal
 Role in the U.S. Knowledge Supply
    National Alliance of Business with AACC and ACT
    “Work America”, Vol. 17 Issue 5, May 2000
 “The 1,600 Community Colleges are the
 workhorses for the new 21st Century
    Alan Greenspan, Chairman
    U.S. Federal Reserve, March 2000
          Bill Gates
         C.E.O. Microsoft

“America is leading the way in high
  technology and in the next seven years,
   it’s estimated that 80 percent of new
    jobs in this country will be in high tech.
     Community colleges have an important
      role to play in making certain we have
       skilled workers ready to help
        businesses take advantage of all the
        opportunities in the Digital Age.”
     Quote from Former President
      Bill Clinton:

The following statement was made by Bill Clinton when he was
President of the United States.

        “Community colleges are
        America at its best.”
    Quote from President Bush

The following statement was made by President George W. Bush
during the President’s 2004 State of the Union Address.

"I propose increasing our support for America's fine community
colleges, so they can train workers for the industries that are
creating the most new jobs. By all these actions, we will help
more and more Americans to join in the growing prosperity of
our country. Job training is important, and so is job creation. We
must continue to pursue an aggressive, pro-growth economic
What Has Been Seen
and Done in Arkansas
Arkansas’ Two-Year Colleges
% Adults Enrolled in College
% Adults With a B.S. Degree
Disappearing Workforce
 Higher Education Comparison with
 States of Similar Population-Fall 2003

  State /     Number of   Number of       Number of      Number of        Total
Population    Community   Students in      Colleges/     Students in    Number of
               Colleges   Community       Universities    Colleges/     Students
                           Colleges                      Universities

Arkansas             22          44,287             10         75,677     119,964

  Iowa               15          78,427              3         70,556     148,983

 Kansas              19          69,659              9         87,600     157,259

Mississippi          15          66,658              9         69,454     136,112
U.S. Employment Projections

Of the 30 fastest growing occupations
in the U.S., 17 require an Associate
Degree or short-term skills training

 Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of
 Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections;
4 Purposes of Two-Year Colleges

   1. Transfer
   2. Technical degree (AAS) or certificate
   3. Developmental education
   4. Customized workforce training
Annual Report on
 Fall Enrollment


        Key Performance Indicators

   # of Students Completing Credit or Non-Credit Courses
   # of Students Completing Certificate (C of P or TC) or
   Job Placement of Students
   Starting Wage of Students in New Jobs
   Wages of Students 6 Months After Employment
   Customer Satisfaction (Businesses & Students)
              AATYC WorkForce
          Training Consortium Goals

   Provide whatever B&I needed customized instruction to existing,
    emerging (pre-employment skilled labor pools), transitional workers,
    and entrepreneurs anyplace in AR at anytime without delay (Just-
    In-Time response).
   Establish a trainee-to-business connection for
           Preferential hiring with educational guarantees
           Pre-employment internships/mentoring
           Common assessment tools for job skills
   Explore mobile training services (circuit riding) and business
    training services outsourcing by subscription.
   Create new workforce development partnerships with service
    provider agencies other than Higher Education to expand
    capabilities and improve quality.
                Benefits of
           Forming a Consortium

   Establish and promote an understandable matrix of
   Coordination of potential Distance Education
   Develop mutually beneficial inter-campus
    partnerships to improve/enhance services delivery
    for existing and new B&I customers and students
   Increase opportunities for new funding support
    sources to stabilize and grow programs and recruit
    qualified/credible staff/faculty
               Benefits (continued)

   Learn Best Practices for local program customization
   Improve service area B&I good will/involvement
   Enhance legislative credibility for long-term program
   Accelerate B&I practices/curricular content into
    existing and new certificate/degree courses and
    AATYC WorkForce Training Consortium
    Combined Results (1997-2003)

   10,316 business & industry training clients served
    (Average of 1,719 per year).
   On average, 75% of business & industry clients
    requested non-credit training.
   253,619 employees / students trained
    (Average of 42,270 per year).
   Four (4) million training contact hours provided.
   The WFTC colleges provide 75% of all public post-
    secondary skills training to Arkansas manufacturers
        duplicated counts
Part II: The Incumbent Workforce
National Governor’s Association

Center for Best Practices & Future
   Works, Inc. and the Lumina
“Pathways to Advancement Policy Academy”
       The Incumbent Workforce
    National Governor’s Association

   Fall, 2003 – 25 states applied
   8 Selected: HI, KS, ME, MA, MI, OH, PA, &
    AR (only Southern State)
   $50,000 over 2004-05
   3 Benchmarking Academy Sessions
   Criteria: Need for Improvements plus
    Commitment / Demonstrated Collaboration
                  Why did Arkansas
                Apply for the Academy?
   Compared to most states and the nation overall, the adult population in
    Arkansas has very low levels of educational attainment. Arkansas ranks
    near the bottom of all states in the attainment of post-secondary credentia
    among the adult population.
   Only 23% of adults in Arkansas have obtained an Associates Degree or
    higher. The national average is 48%.
   Arkansas ranks near the top of all states in terms of the number of adults
    without a high school degree or GED. 21% of the adult population lacks
    diploma or GED while the national average is 13%.
   Arkansas ranks low in terms of post-secondary enrollment, retention and
    completion. Arkansas is 50th in the percentage of population with a
    baccalaureate degree.
    Source: Population Reference Bureau, Analysis of Census 2001 Supplementary
    Survey PUMS for the Casey Foundation Working Poor Families Project.
           Why did Arkansas
    Apply for the Academy? (Cont’d)

   Nationally, the education and training needs of working adults (the
    incumbent workforce) are largely neglected or under-funded at the
    federal and state levels of government.
   The concentration of resources upon “traditional” (and easier to deal
    with/serve) students does nothing to promote the security of existing
    job holders, nor their employment opportunities or upward mobility
    which requires continuing education and skills training in a
    relentlessly competitive global economy.
   We want to learn more about the challenges working adults face in
    enrolling in and completing college training, and develop some
    specific practices and/or policies that address these
What Does Arkansas Hope to Accomplish
by Participating in the Academy?

   Quicker access to leading state programs, ideas, and professional
    dialogue that may accelerate Arkansas efforts to enhance the
    postsecondary and higher education accessibility and attainment
    of our working adults for socioeconomic development.
   Our own education about other states’ Executive and Legislative
    approaches and capabilities that may be adopted and modified for
    major public issue solution results in our own state environment.
   A “reality check” about the importance of, or return on investment
    in, providing working adults with postsecondary skills training and
    applied higher education occupational opportunities.
   A better understanding of the specific challenges facing working
    adults in enrollment and completion of either postsecondary
    credentialing or higher education programs.
What Does Arkansas Hope to Accomplish
by Participating in the Academy? (Cont’d)

   Implementation of some innovative practices and policies for
    facilitating greater numbers of working adult postsecondary
    enrollment and completion rates.
   Arkansas should develop an Executive and Legislative agenda of
    bi-partisan consensus for the 2005 Arkansas Regular Legislative
    Session to pursue long-term statutory enabling laws and “pilot”
    program funding initiatives.
   We should see marked differences in long-term educational
    attainment performance indicators that show the wisdom of
    investing in the education of Arkansas working adults, including
    baccalaureate attainment, high school GED attainment, and
    increased per capita income.
   We should see new numbers of working adult families encouraged
    to pursue more skills training and higher education as first-
    generation students.
     Adult Workforce Needs
National Governor’s Association

 Project Core Team Members:
  Ms. Lucretia Norris , Governor’s Office
  Mr. Mike Leach, Good Faith Fund (cbo)
  Dr. Linda Beene, ADHE
  Dr. Steve Franks, ADWE
  Ms. Sandra Winston, AWIB
  Dr. Ed Franklin, AATYC
  Dr. John Ahlen, ASTA
  Mr. Steve Lease, AATYC-WFTC
  Mr. Larry Walther, ADED
  Ms. Jessica Caldwell, ATEA
  Ms. Joni Jones, ADHS
  Mr. Artee Williams, AESD
Part III: The Emerging Workforce

    The Kuder Career Planning System
              (Kuder CPS)
Arkansas Colleges Using Kuder®

       University of Arkansas
       Fort Smith

Main Partners
 Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
 Arkansas Department of Education
 Arkansas Department of Higher Education
 Presidents and Chancellors of AATYC

       Associate Partners
          Arkansas Department of Economic Development
          Arkansas Workforce Investment Boar
          Arkansas Economic Developers
          State Chamber of Commerce / AIA
  Career Exploration
for Arkansas Students
Aggregate Results: Kuder® Career
Search with Person Match
December 2004

 (note: see
Aggregate Results: Kuder® Career
Search with Person Match
December 2004
Aggregate Results: Kuder® Skills
Assessment (6 Categories)
December 2004
Aggregate Results: Kuder® Skills
Assessment-16 (16 Federal Clusters)
December 2004
Aggregate Results: Kuder
Super’s Work Values Inventory®
December 2004
           “Pipeline Information”

   Senior High and Junior High/Middle Schools
   Community College Service Area
   County / Local Workforce Investment Board Areas
   Economic Development Region
   Entire State
Kuder CPS Project:
 Benefits For Two-Year Colleges

 • Target courses and programs to student
 • Increase retention rates using results to direct
   course placement and college major
 • Create articulation agreements to save limited
Kuder CPS Project:
  Benefits For Schools/Districts

  • Meet State requirements to provide career
    assessment and exploration plan.
  • Reduce “brain drain” by directing students to
    focus on a career goal.
  • Utilize aggregate data to support grant
    requests and curriculum planning.
Kuder CPS Project:
  Benefits for Communities

  • Assist volunteer, co-op, internship, or job
    shadowing placement.

  • Present a “real world” view of the skills and
    attitudes employers require.

  • Strengthen communication with those
    educating the workforce.

  • Keep Education talking to Business.
Kuder CPS Project:
 Benefits for Parents & Mentors

 • Increase involvement and confidence with
   clear assessment information and individual
 • Enhance career planning discussion between
   parents and students with 24-hour online
 • Offer guidance for next steps and continued
   involvement in the career planning process.
Kuder CPS Project:
  Benefits for Students

 • Focus exploration on careers relating to
   interests, skills, and work values.
 • Assist the selection of high school courses
   or a relevant college major.
 • Promote lifelong planning with a portfolio
   and links to state and local job resources
   and national career information.
        The Workforce Gap

Where 9th Graders             VS.   Where the Jobs Are**
 are headed*
28% will enter a 4-year             20% require a 4-year degree
32% will enter an associate         65% require an associate’s
   degree program or                     degree or advanced training
   advanced training
10% will lack the skills            15% require minimum skills
   needed for employment
                                    *1998-99 State Department of Education Special Survey. 1985-99
30% will drop out before                  State Department of Education Enrollment Data, and 1989-99
                                          High School Completer Data
   completing high school           **Carol D’Amico, Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the
                                          21st Century

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