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Optical Networking Recent Developments_ Issues_ and Trends by gjmpzlaezgx

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									    Computer Networking:
    Recent Developments,
      Trends, and Issues
                                 Raj Jain
 CTO and Co-founder and Adjunct Professor
 Nayna Networks, Inc.   Ohio-State University
 San Jose, CA 95134     Columbus, OH 43210-1277
                      These Slides are available at
          http:/www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/talks/spects04.htm
International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunications Systems (SPECTS2004)
              and Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC 2004), July 26, 2004, San Jose, CA
                                                                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

                                                  1
                                Future
Presidential
Astrologer
                                                              Joan Quigley




Intelligent people destined to succeed base their actions on reliable information.
• Book: What does Joan say?
  My seven years as white-house astrologer to Nancy and Ronald Regan.
• Software: inSync - web-based interactive software - www.joanquigley.net
                                                                        ©2004 Raj Jain

                                       2
                    Overview

   Impact of Networking
   Life Cycle of Networking Technologies
   Top 10 Developments of 2004
   Optical Networking Developments: Core, Metro,
    Access
   Networking Technologies: Failures vs Successes
   Wireless Networking: Issues
                                                ©2004 Raj Jain

                          3
Competitive Local Exchange Carriers ...


     Nut
     working
                                           NorthPoint



                       Vitts
                       Networks
                                  Viatel

               Verio                          Rythm



                 2000-2003                              ©2004 Raj Jain

                            4
Competitive Local Exchange Carriers vs
 Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers




    ILECs              CLECs
    Slow               Fast
    Steady             Aggressive
    Predictable

                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                  5
         Trend: Back to ILECs
1. CLECs to ILECs
   ILEC: Slow, steady, predictable.
   CLEC: Aggressive, Need to build up fast
   New networks with newest technology
   No legacy issues
2. Back to Voice
   CLECs wanted to start with data
   ILECs want to migrate to data
    Equipment that support voice circuits but allow
   packet based (hybrids) are more important than those
   that allow only packet based
                                                  ©2004 Raj Jain

                           6
   Life Cycles of Technologies


Number of
Problems
Solved


            Research Productization   Time




                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

                    7
   Hype Cycles of Technologies



Potential


                                            Time
      Research Hype Dis        Success or
                  illusionment Failure


                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

                       8
            Industry Growth



Number of
Companies



               New        Consoli- Stable       Time
               Entrants   dation Growth

                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

                      9
    Top 10 Developments of 2004
1. Large investments in Security
2. Wireless (WiFi) is spreading (Intel Centrino)
3. More Cell phones than POTS.
   Smart Cell phones w PDA, email, video, images  Mobility
4. Broadband Access is growing faster than cell phones
5. Fiber is creeping towards home
6. Ethernet extending from Enterprise to Access to Metro …
7. Wiring more expensive than equipment  Wireless Access
8. Multi-Protocol Label Switching for traffic engineering
9. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) is in the Mainstream
10. Multi-service IP: Voice, Video, and Data
                                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

                               10
Optical vs Electrical Switching
       OOO               OEO




             1999-2000
                               ©2004 Raj Jain

                 11
     Ethernet: 1G vs 10G Designs


         1G Ethernet                      10G Ethernet
   1000 / 800 / 622 Mbps      10.0/9.5 Gbps
    Single data rate            Both rates.
   LAN distances only         LAN and MAN distances
   No Full-duplex only        Full-duplex only
     Shared Mode                No Shared Mode
   Changes to CSMA/CD         No CSMA/CD protocol
                                 No distance limit due to MAC
                                 Ethernet End-to-End
                                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

                                12
Metro: Ethernet vs SONET


          SONET




         Ethernet




                       ©2004 Raj Jain

            13
SONET/SDH vs Ethernet




                        ©2004 Raj Jain

             14
SONET/SDH vs Ethernet: Remedies




                           ©2004 Raj Jain

               15
    Enterprise vs Carrier Ethernet
Enterprise                           Carrier
 Distance: up to 2km                 Up to 100 km
 Scale:
    Few K MAC addresses                Millions of MAC Addresses
    4096 VLANs                         Millions of VLANs
                                         Q-in-Q
   Protection: Spanning tree           Rapid spanning tree
                                         (Gives 1s, need 50ms)
   Path determined by                  Traffic engineered path
    spanning tree
   Simple service                      SLA. Rate Control.
   Priority  Aggregate QoS            Need per-flow QoS
   No performance/Error                Need performance/BER
    monitoring (OAM)
No 100 Mbps Ethernet switches with Q-in-Q, Rate control, Priority
                                                           ©2004 Raj Jain

                                16
Networking and Religion
                  I believe in God.


                  I believe in rings




  Both are based on a set of beliefs
                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

                  17
               RPR: Key Features
                        A            B



                        D            C

   Dual Ring topology
   Supports broadcast and multicast
   Packet based Continuous bandwidth granularity
   Max 256 nodes per ring
   MAN distances: Several hundred kilometers.
   Gbps speeds: Up to 10 Gbps
   Too many features and alternatives too soon (702 pages)

                                                              ©2004 Raj Jain

                                18
         Old House vs New House




   New needs:
    Solution 1: Fix the old house (cheaper initially)
    Solution 2: Buy a new house (pays off over a long run)
                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

                            19
    Networking: Failures vs Successes
   1980: Broadband (vs baseband) Ethernet
   1984: ISDN (vs Modems)
   1986: MAP/TOP (vs Ethernet)
   1988: Open System Interconnection (OSI) vs TCP/IP
   1991: Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB)
   1994: CMIP (vs SNMP)
   1995: FDDI (vs Ethernet)
   1996: 100BASE-VG or AnyLan (vs Ethernet)
   1997: ATM to Desktop (vs Ethernet)
   1998: Integrated Services (vs MPLS)
   1999: Token Rings (vs Ethernet)
                                                ©2004 Raj Jain

                           20
        Requirements for Success
   Low Cost: Low startup cost  Evolution
   High Performance
   Killer Applications
   Timely completion
   Manageability
   Interoperability
   Coexistence with legacy LANs
    Existing infrastructure is more important than new
    technology

                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                             21
   Laws of Networking Evolution
1. Existing infrastructure is more important then deploying new
   technology
     Ethernet vs ATM, IP vs ATM

     Exception: Killer technology, immediate savings

2. Modifying existing protocol is more acceptable than new
   protocols
     TCP vs XTP

     Exception: New applications (VOIP – SIP, MEGACO, …)

3. Traffic increases by a factor of X/year
   Total revenue remains constant (or decreases)
    Price/bps goes down by  X/year (X = 2 to 4)

                                                         ©2004 Raj Jain

                               22
                 Access Networks
   63.84 M DSL subscribers worldwide. 2003 growth rate of
    77.8% is more than the peak growth rate of cellular phones.
   All countries are racing to a leadership position in broadband
   Digital-Divide  30M subs@10Mbps, 10M@100Mbps in
    Japan by 2005
   Telecom epicenter has moved from NA+Europe to Asia Pacific




                                                           ©2004 Raj Jain

                                23
 Ethernet to the First Mile (EFM)

   CATV

Electrical &                   Video
SONET/SDH



  T1/E1                      Data
                     Voice


Internet




   VoIP


                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

                24
                EPON vs GPON


                        GPON
                                   EPON




   Low-cost optics and high volume  EPON is much cheaper.
    EPON being planned by US Community networks and by
    carriers in Japan, Korea, China
                                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

                              25
Bermuda Access Triangle
  Wireline                     Wireless




        Multi-service Operators (MSOs)


                                          ©2004 Raj Jain

                  26
                      Mobility
   1.35 Billion Mobile subscribers vs 1.2 Billion Fixed
    line subscribers at the end of 2003 [ITU]
   70% of internet users in Japan have mobile access
   Vehicular mobility up to 250 Km/h (IEEE 802.20)




                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                             27
                          Cantenna




   13,000 Free WiFi access nodes and growing
   12db to 12db can-to-can shot can carry an 11Mbps link well
    over ten miles
   Ref: http://www.netscum.com/~clapp/wireless.html      ©2004 Raj Jain

                                   28
                Wireless Issues
   Security (IEEE 802.11i)
   Higher Data rate (IEEE 802.11n, 100 Mbps, using
    Multiple-input multiple-output antennae)
   Longer distance (WiMAX, >1Mbps to 50 km)
   Seamless Networking  Handoff (IEEE 802.21)
   Mobility (IEEE 802.20)
   Automated RF management (Cell sites)
   Large scale networks (RFID, Sensors)


                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                           29
                Sensor Networks
   Person-to-person comm  Machine-to-Machine Comm
   A large number of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional, and
    small sensor nodes consisting of sensing, data processing, and
    communicating components
   Key Issues:                                  Internet
    1. Scalability
    2. Power consumption
    3. Fault tolerance                Task                 Sink
    4. Network topology              Manager
    5. Transmission media                    Sensor Field
    6. Cost
    7. Operating environment
    8. Hardware constraints
                                                          ©2004 Raj Jain

                                30
     Top Networking Research Topics
1.   Security
2.   Large scale wireless networks (RFID, Sensors)
3.   Mobility
4.   High-Speed wireless
5.   Network-based computing (Grid computing)
6.   Optical packet switching




                                                     ©2004 Raj Jain

                           31
    Recent Funding Opportunities
   $40M from NSF on networking research. Two focus areas:
      Programmable wireless networks

      Networking of sensor systems

   NIST SBIR:
      S/w Tools For IEEE 1451-Based Smart Sensor Networks

      Secure Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

   DOE $400M
      Massively parallel computing

      Lightweight operating systems for parallel computers

   DARPA:
      Internet Control Plane

      All-optical Packet Router $18M

                                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

                              32
Sewer Networking




                   ©2004 Raj Jain

       33
Fiber Access Thru Sewer Tubes (FAST)
   Right of ways is difficult in dense urban areas
   Sewer Network: Completely connected system of
    pipes connecting every home and office
   Municipal Governments find it easier and more
    profitable to let you use sewer than dig street
   Installed in Zurich, Omaha, Albuquerque,
    Indianapolis, Vienna, Ft Worth, Scottsdale, ...
   Corrosion resistant inner ducts containing up to 216
    fibers are mounted within sewer pipe using a robot
    called Sewer Access Module (SAM)
   Ref: http://www.citynettelecom.com, NFOEC 2001, pp. 331
                                                      ©2004 Raj Jain

                              34
             FAST Installation




1. Robots map the pipe
2. Install rings
3. Install ducts
4. Thread fibers
Fast Restoration: Broken sewer pipes replaced with
   minimal disruption
                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                          35
                       Summary

1. Hype Cycles of Technologies
    Recovering from the bottom
2. Core market stagnant. Metro and Access more important.
3. SONET vs Ethernet in Metro. Need carrier grade Ethernet.
4. Low cost is the key to success of a technology
5. FTTH is finally happening. EPON will lead.
6. Key issues in Wireless are Security and Mobility


                                                        ©2004 Raj Jain

                               36
    Networking Trends: References
   References on Networking Trends,
    http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/ref_trnd.htm
   References on Optical Networking,
    http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/opt_refs.htm
   References on Residential Broadband,
    http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/rbb_refs.htm
   References on Wireless Networking,
    http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/refs/wir_refs.htm



                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                             37
     ©2004 Raj Jain

38
           Impact of Networking
   Knowledge Economy
   Digitalization
   Virtualization
   Convergence
   Globalization
   Profusion of Information
   Immediacy
   Impact on Education
   Impact on Learning
   Electronic Commerce
                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                               39
                  Globalization
   Better communication
     Distance not important
   One language
   Media (network news, and even TV, Newspapers) are
    distributed world-wide
   Language boundaries are disappearing
   English is becoming the language of the Internet (and
    the world)



                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

                            40
                    Immediacy
   Computing power, bandwidth, number of
    hosts double every 12-18 months
      Logarithm growth charts are now more common
    than linear
   Similar to nuclear chain reactions
   Moore's Law: processor speeds double every 18
    months  1.48 per year
   Network capacity is increasing faster 1.78 per year
   High bandwidth  More bits per second
   Hundreds of telegrams per day  Fast pace of life
                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

                            41
               Impact on R&D
   Too much growth in one year
      Can't plan too much into long term
   Long term = 12 year or 102 years at most
   Products have life span of 1 year, 1 month, …
   Short product development cycles.
    Chrysler reduced new car design time
    from 6 years to 2.
   Distance between research and products has narrowed



                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                           42
            Impact on Learning
   A handheld device will have storage
    enough to carry a small library
   Computers have bigger memory than humans
      Knowing where to find the information is more
    important than the information
   Human memory is pointer cache
   To Succeed, welcome change, try new technology




                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                           43
               Information Glut
   Web  Information production and
    dissemination costs are almost zero
      Too much information
    = Needles in the haystack
   Thousands of hits on each search
   Need tools for summarizing the information
   Opportunities for artificial intelligence
   Need to express information so that both human and
    computers can understand

                                                  ©2004 Raj Jain

                            44
      Is Internet Traffic Growing?
   IP Traffic Growth will slow down from 200-300% per
    year to 60% by 2005
    - McKinsey & Co and JP Morgan, May 16, 2001
   98% of fiber is unlit - WSJ, New York Times, Forbes
   Carriers are using only avg 2.7% of their total lit fiber
    capacity - Michael Ching, Marril Lynch & Co. in Wall Street
    Journal
   Demand on 14 of 22 most used routes exceeds 70%
    -Telechoice, July 19, 2001
   Traffic grew by a factor of 4 between April 2000-
    April 2001 -Larry Roberts, August 15, 2001

                                                         ©2004 Raj Jain

                                 45
                       Total U.S. Internet Traffic
                                     20 Largest Tier 1 U.S. Internet Service Providers
                  60

                                           3.0/yr Average Growth Rate
                  50


                  40
PetaBytes/month




                                            Total U.S. Internet Traffic
                  30


                  20


                  10
                                                                                                                      ISPs
                   0
                   Jan 00   Apr 00     Jul 00     Oct 00    Jan 01        Apr 01      Jul 01      Oct 01     Jan 02
                                                                                   Source: Roberts et al., 2002
                                                                                                             ©2004 Raj Jain

                                                            46
                Core Networks
   Higher Speed/l: 10 Gbps to 40 Gbps to 160 Gbps
   Longer Distances/Regens: 600 km to 6000 km
   More Wavelengths: 16 l’s to 160 l’s




                                                ©2004 Raj Jain

                           47
     Trend: Ethernet Everywhere
   Ethernet in Enterprise Backbone
      Ethernet vs ATM (Past)

   Ethernet in Metro: Ethernet vs SONET
      10 G Ethernet

      Survivability, Restoration  Ring Topology

   Ethernet in Access: EFM
   Ethernet in homes: Power over Ethernet



                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                            48
    Trend: LAN - WAN Convergence
      E   E   E          S        S
                                      E                  E
                              S     S
   Past: Shared media in LANs. Point to point in WANs.
   Future: No media sharing by multiple stations
      Point-to-point links in LAN and WAN

      No distance limitations due to MAC. Only Phy.

      Datalink protocols limited to frame formats

   10 GbE over 40 km without repeaters
   Ethernet End-to-end.
   Ethernet carrier access service:$1000/mo 100Mbps

                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                             49
                Power over Ethernet
   IEEE 802.3af group approved 30 January 2000
    Power over MDI (Media Dependent Interface)
   Applications: Web Cams, PDAs, Intercoms, Ethernet
    Telephones, Wireless LAN Access points, Fire
    Alarms, Remote Monitoring, Remote entry
   Power over TP to a single Ethernet device:
    10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T (TBD)
   Interoperate with legacy RJ-45 Ethernet devices
   Standard Expected: November 2002
   Ref:
    http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/power_study/public/nov99/802.3af_PAR.pdf

                                                                          ©2004 Raj Jain

                                        50
       Recent Networking Trends
   Hottest Technologies: Storage, IP, Ethernet, Wireless,
    Optical
   Hottest Applications: Peer-to-peer (no money to be
    made by carriers), Storage, VOIP
   Changing Traffic Mix: 80/20 to 20/80 LAN:WAN
    Ratio (because of IP addressing and distance
    independent billing)
   Enterprise Market > Access > Metro > Core
   Financial Markets: No CLECs
   Advances in Optical technologies: 40G, Long Haul,
    More wavelengths
                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                             51
       Networking Trends (Cont)
   Glut of Fiber in long haul but shortage in
    Metro/Access
   Emergence of Ethernet Metro
   Bandwidth prices are dropping (in the long haul)
    2c/min
   Emphasis on Security
   Emphasis on Mobility




                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

                            52
       Trend: Everything over IP
   Data over IP  IP needs Traffic engineering
   Voice over IP  Quality of Service, Signaling, virtual
    circuits (MPLS)
   Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is the center
    of action.
    Attendance at ITU is down.




                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                             53
Competitive Local Exchange Carriers vs
 Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers




    ILECs              CLECs
    Slow               Fast
    Steady             Aggressive
    Predictable

                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                  54
          Resilient Packet Rings




   Dual Counter-rotating rings help protect against
    failure
   Allows TDM traffic like T1, T3, SONET over RPR
   Will Ethernet with RPR be cheaper than SONET?
                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                           55
                   10GBASE-CX4
   For data center applications (Not for horizontal wiring):
      Switch-to-switch links, Switch-to-server links
      External backplanes for stackables

   Twinax cable with 8 pairs
   Based on Infiniband 4X copper PHY. IB4X connectors.
   10G to 15m (std). Some vendors can do 25-30m.
   Standard: Dec 2003. Passed Sponsor Ballot.
   IEEE 802.3ak, http://www.ieee802.org/3/ak




                                                                ©2004 Raj Jain

                                  56
                   10GBASE-T
   New PHY for data center and horizontal wiring
   Compatible with existing 802.3ae MAC, XGMII, XAUI
   Standard: Start: Nov 2003 Finish: Jul 2005
   100 m on Cat-7 and 55+ m on Cat-6
   Some startups working on Cat-5e
   Cost 0.6 of optical PHY. Greater reach than CX4
   10-level coded PAM signaling with 3 bits/symbol
    833 MBaud/pair  450 MHz bandwidth w FEXT cancellation
    (1GBASE-T uses 5-level PAM with 2 bits/symbol, 125
    MBaud/pair, 80 MHz w/o FEXT)
   Full-duplex only. 1000BASE-T line code and FEC designed
    for half-duplex.
   IEEE 802.3an, http://www.ieee802.org/3/an/index.html
                                                     ©2004 Raj Jain

                             57
         10 GbE over Dark Fiber


                  10GbE

                                   Metro    10GbE
                                  Optical
                                  Network
                    10GbE




   Need only LAN PMD up to 40 km.
    No SONET/SDH overhead. No protection.
                                                ©2004 Raj Jain

                             58
        10 GbE over SONET/SDH

                         SONET/SDH ADM
                 10GbE


                              Metro              10GbE
                            SONET/SDH
                 10GbE         Net


   Using WAN PMD.
    Legacy SONET/SDH. Protection via rings.
    ELTE = Ethernet Line Terminating Equipment
                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

                              59
          Metro Ethernet Market
                                              10GbE
                  10GbE


                              Carrier
                              Network
                                              10GbE
                  10GbE




   10G Prices > 10x1G  Only a small fraction of total revenue.
    Prices decreasing fast 300% Growth in 10G Q4’03.
   10km XFP for $500
   Growth in 1G ports > Growth rate of 100M ports (instat.com)
                                                          ©2004 Raj Jain

                                60
          Metro Ethernet Services
   User-to-network Interface (UNI) = RJ45
   Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC) = Flows
   Ethernet Line Service (ELS) = Point-to-point
   Ethernet LAN Service (E-LAN) = multipoint-to-multipoint


         CE        P                      P        CE
                   E                      E

            CE         P                  P        CE
                       E                  E
         CE        P                      P        CE
                   E                      E
                                                        ©2004 Raj Jain

                               61
        Why Modems are
         Low Speed?
   Telephone line bandwidth = 3.3 kHz
   V.34 Modem = 28.8 kbps  10 bits/Hz
   Better coding techniques. DSP techniques.
   Cat 3 UTP can carry higher bandwidth
   Phone companies put 3.3 kHz filters at central office
     Allows FDM
                           Phone
    Modem        Filter    Network Filter         Modem

                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

                             62
                            DSL
   Digital Subscriber Line = ISDN
   64×2 + 16 + overhead
    = 160 kbps up to 18,000 ft
   DSL requires two modems (both ends of line)
   Symmetric rates  transmission and reception on same wire
     Echo cancellation
   ISDN uses 0 to 80 kHz  Can't use POTS simultaneously



      DSL          DSL       Phone        DSL         DSL
                             Network
                                                         ©2004 Raj Jain

                               63
                               QAM
   Quadrature Amplitude and Phase Modulation
   I = In phase, Q=Quadrature signal
   Symbols occupy entire available bandwidth
        Q                Q                    Q
                     01      11

                     I                   I            I
    0            1        00   10

        Binary             QAM-4             QAM-16

                     Up             Down
                                                  Frequency
                                                      ©2004 Raj Jain

                                    64
     Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT)
 Multicarrier modulation
 Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) to partition
  bandwidth into subchannels or tones
  E.g., 256/32 tones 4.3125 kHz apart = 1104/138 kHz Down/up
 Each tone is QAM modulated. 4kBaud symbols=250us frame
  Each tone carries 2 to 15 bits (Rate adaptive)
 Measure SNR of each subchannel
  Avoid severely degraded channels
  Lower data rate on degraded channels
 Built-in Reed-Solomon FEC with interleaving and Trellis
  coding
 Bits per
 subchannel
                                             Frequency
                                                      ©2004 Raj Jain

                             65
                     DMT vs QAM
   First line-code war: ANSI T1E1.4 ADSL Olympics in 1993




   Final Decision: ANSI T1E1.4 June 2003: DMT Std, QAM in TRQ
                                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

                                    66
Copper Broadband Systems I




                        ©2004 Raj Jain

            67
Copper Broadband Systems II




                         ©2004 Raj Jain

             68
                          ADSL
   Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
   Asymmetric  upstream << Downstream
   Symmetric  Significant decrease in rate
   Originally, 6 Mbps downstream, 640 kbps upstream
    Now up to 25 Mbps downstream
   Up to 7500 m
   Using existing twisted pair lines
   No interference with phone service (0-3 kHz)
     Your phone isn't busy while netsurfing
   ANSI T1.413 Standard
   Quickest alternative for Telcos. Low cost winner.

                                                        ©2004 Raj Jain

                               69
             Why Asymmetric?
   Unshielded twisted pair  Crosstalk
   Downstream signals are all same
    amplitude  Not affected
   Upstream signals start at different distances 
    Different amplitudes  Weak signals are highly
    affected
   Solutions:
     1. Use asymmetric rates
     2. Use lower frequencies for upstream
       (Cross talk increases with frequencies)
                                                  ©2004 Raj Jain

                            70
          Optical Wireless Access
   Also known as “Free Space Optics (FSO)”
   Optical transceiver
      Laser diode transmitter (780 nm, 1550 nm)

      Photo detector (PIN diode, APD)

   Wireless  Fast rooftop deployment, No spectrum licenses
   Optical link requires line of site  Alignment critical
   Very high bandwidth (OC-3, OC-12, OC-48, 1GbE)




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          Optical Wireless (Cont)
   Immunity from interference
   Easy installation
     Unlimited bandwidth, Easy Upgrade
   Transportable upon service termination or move
   Affected by weather (fog, rain, sun)
      Need lower speed Microwave backup
   Depends on location
      San Diego, CA (coastal fog)

      Sacramento, CA (radiant fog)

      Tucson, AZ (almost no fog)


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              Passive Optical Network (PON)
   A single fiber is used to support multiple customers
   No active equipment in the path  Highly reliable
   OLT assigned time slots upstream.
   Optical Line Terminal (OLT) in central office
   Optical Network Terminal (ONT) on customer premises
    Optical Network Unit (ONU) at intermediate points w xDSL




                                                  Passive
                                                  Splitter
       Central Office        Optical
       Aggregator            Network                           Customer
       (OLT)                 Unit (ONU)                        Premise
                                                               Equipment (CPE)
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                  Types of PONs
   APON: Initial name for ATM based PON spec.
    Designed by Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group
   BPON: Broadband PON standard specified in ITU G.983.1
    thru G.893.7 = APON renamed
      155 or 622 Mbps downstream, 155 upstream

   EPON: Ethernet based PON draft being designed by IEEE
    802.3ah.
      1000 Mbps down and 1000 Mbps up.

   GPON: Gigabit PON standard specified in ITU G.984.1 and
    G.984.2
      1244 and 2488 Mbps Down, 155/622/1244/2488 up


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                EPON vs GPON


                        GPON
                                   EPON




   Low-cost optics and high volume  EPON is much cheaper.
    EPON being planned by US Community networks and by
    carriers in Japan, Korea, China
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                      WiMAX
   A vendor organization for ensuring interoperability
   A WiMAX certified product will work with other
    WiMAX certified products
   Plugfests planed from Dec 2004 on wards
   WiMAX certified products will be available Q1’05




                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

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IEEE 802.11 vs 802.16




                        ©2004 Raj Jain

          77
                   802.16 Flavors
   802.16 (December 2001):
      Fixed broadband wireless interface

      10-66 GHz  Line of sight only  Point-to-point

   802.16c (December 2002):
      WiMAX system Profiles added

   802.16a (January 2003):
      Extensions for 2-11 GHz non line of sight

      Point-to-multipoint applications

   802.16REVd (Q3 2004):
      Add WiMAX system profiles

   802.16e (2005):
      Vehicular speed mobility in 2-6 GHz licensed bands

      Enables roaming
                                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

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IEEE 802.16 Flavors




                      ©2004 Raj Jain

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    Broadband Wireless Access (BWA)
   IEEE 802.16 Broadband wireless Access WG
   Delivers >1 Mbps per user
   Up to 50 km
   Data rate vs Distance trade off using adaptive
    modulation. 64QAM to QPSK
   Offers non-line of site operation
   1.5 to 20 MHz channels
   Hundreds of simultaneous sessions per channel
   Both Licensed and unlicensed spectrum
   QoS for voice, video, and T1/E1
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Comparison of MBWA Stds




                      ©2004 Raj Jain

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            RPR Features (Cont)
       A        B           A        B



       D        C           D        C

   Both rings are used (unlike SONET/SDH)
   Normal transmission on the shortest path
   Destination stripping  Spatial reuse
    Multicast packets are source stripped
   Several Classes of traffic: A0, A1, B-CIR, B-EIR, C

                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

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    10 GbE: Key Design Decisions
   P802.3ae  Update to 802.3
     Compatible with 802.3 frame format, services, management
   10 Gbps vs. 9.5 Gbps. Both rates.
   LAN and MAN distances
   Full-duplex only  No Shared Mode
    Only switch based networks. No Hubs.
   Same min and max frame size as 10/100/1000 Mbps
     Point-to-point  No CSMA/CD protocol
   10.000 Gbps at MAC interface
     Flow Control between MAC and PHY
   Clock jitter: 20 or 100 ppm for 10GbE
    Incompatible with 4.6 ppm for SONET

                                                         ©2004 Raj Jain

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        Sparse and Dense WDM


   10Mbps Ethernet (10Base-F) uses 850 nm
   100 Mbps Ethernet (100Base-FX) + FDDI use 1310 nm
   Some telecommunication lines use 1550 nm
   WDM: 850nm + 1310nm or 1310nm + 1550nm
   Dense  Closely spaced  0.1 - 2 nm separation
   Coarse = 2 to 25 nm = 4 to 12 l’s
   Wide = Different Wavebands
                                              ©2004 Raj Jain

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                  SONET/SDH
   SONET=Synchronous optical network
   Standard for digital optical transmission
   Developed originally by Bellcore to allow mid-span
    meet between carriers: MCI and AT&T.
    Standardized by ANSI and then by ITU
         Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
   You can lease a SDH connection from carriers
                        Carriers

     City A                              City B
                                                  ©2004 Raj Jain

                            85
                   SDH Functions
        E      S   S   E
    Ethernet
              S      S SDH
   Protection: Allows redundant Line or paths
   Fast Restoration: 50ms using rings
   Sophisticated OAM&P
   Ideal for Voice: No queues. Guaranteed delay
   Fixed Payload Rates: 51M, 155M, 622M, 2.4G, 9.5G
    Rates do not match data rates of 10M, 100M, 1G, 10G
   Static rates not suitable for bursty traffic
   One Payload per Stream
   High Cost
                                                 ©2004 Raj Jain

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                      Summary




   High Speed Access to Home: VDSL is here.
   1 to 50 Mbps downstream, 1.5 - 50 Mbps upstream
   Broadband Wireless 802.16 devices coming soon
   Fiber to the home is finally happing.

                                                ©2004 Raj Jain

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High Technology
 More vacation




                  ©2004 Raj Jain

          88
           Wireless Generations
   1G: Analog Cellular Phones. Needs a modem.
    9.6 kbps max.
   2G: Digital Cellular Phones. No modem required.
    19.3 kbps max.
   2.5G: GPRS. 144kbps. Data only.
   3G: Future high-speed data access with Voice.
    64 kbps to 2 Mbps.
   4G: Interoperation among phones/Bluetooth/satellites



                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

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       Broadband Wireless Access
       Non Line of Sight
       Point to Multipoint
                                      Point to Point
                                      Backhaul




                                                Telco Core


   802.16 (WiMAX) delivers >1 Mbps per user, Up to 50 km
                                                       ©2004 Raj Jain

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          Wireless Standards
                 Wide Area Network (WAN)
802.16e       802.20                802.21    3GPP, EDGE
Nomadic    Mobile Wireless         Handoff      (GSM)

            Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

    802.16/WiMAX                       ETSI
  Fixed Wireless MAN         HiperMAN and HiperACCESS

               Local Area Network (LAN)
            802.11/WiFi              ETSI
            Wireless LAN           HiperLAN

              Personal Area Network (PAN)
                 802.15              ETSI
                Bluetooth          HiperPAN


                                                           ©2004 Raj Jain

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Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)
   IEEE 802.20 working group
   Optimized for IP data transport
   Licensed band below 3.5 GHz
   >1 Mbps data rate
   Vehicular mobility up to 250 Km/h
   Designed for green field wireless data providers
   Incumbent cellular providers with voice services may
    prefer 3G


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                         Handoff
   IEEE 802.21 Working group (formed Nov 03)
   Handoff between 802.3, 802.11, 802.15, 802.16, …
   Example Scenario:
      Docked Laptop with 802.3, 802.11, and 802.16e

      Laptop undocks and switches to 802.11

      User moves outside the building, laptop switches to 802.16e

                                          L3 Network

         AP           AP           AP           AP           AP
        802.x        802.y        802.x        802.y        802.y
                                                       Potential
                                     802.x   802.y
                                                       Links
                                     Mobile Device
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                         10 Issues
   Voice over IP (VOIP) vs POTS
   MPLS vs ATM
   DWDM in the core
   Security, privacy, worms, viruses, spam
   Mobility
   Handoff
   Routing (speed & scaling)
   Optics (hype & reality)
   Multicast (reality & hype)
   Quality of Service (technology & need)
   Subnetwork control (dreams and needs)
   Security (network and society)
   Directions in Internet Services, Management and Applications Jain
                                                          ©2004 Raj

   Internet Threats, Truths, Myths and Other Factors
                                  94
     Key Networking Technologies
   Security
   Fixed Wireless
   Broadband Access
   Mobile Access
   Multi-Service Infrastructure: Voice, Video, Data, over IP
   Virtual Private Networks
   Traffic Engineering using MPLS
   QoS Managed IP Network
   Content Delivery Networking
   High Availability & Resilience
   IP Network OSS


                                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

                                 95
            Photonic Sensing




Brittle Stars use optical crystals for photonic sensing.
              - USA Today, August 24, 2001
                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

                           96
     Traffic vs Capacity Growth



Expensive Bandwidth               Cheap Bandwidth
 Sharing                          No sharing
 Multicast                        Unicast
 Virtual Private Networks         Private Networks
 Need QoS
                                   QoS less of an issue
 Applies to Access
                                   Possible in Enterprise
  Networks
                                    Networks
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                  Networking Age
   Stone age to Networking Age
   Networking is the plumbing of information age
   Computing, software engineering, storage, data mining all rely
    on networking
   Number of hosts increasing
   Access Bandwidth is still a problem
   On-line Information >> Off-line Info
     Papers, books, class notes
   Location independence  Globalization
   High data rate  Short product life cycles
   Long term = 12 year or 102 years at most
   Distance between research and products has narrowed

                                                            ©2004 Raj Jain

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Internet Growth




                  ©2004 Raj Jain

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                Telecom Trends




   More revenue in applications than transport
   Carriers have: xSP (Network SP, Internet SP,
    Application SP, Management SP, Content SP)
   Converged networks: All-IP, All-Ethernet, All-Optical
                                                   ©2004 Raj Jain

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          EPON vs GPON
Ethernet is cheaper         ATM has QoS




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      Glut-sters vs Gap-sters
Traffic is not growing         Not enough capacity




                                               ©2004 Raj Jain

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Optical vs Electrical Switching



         OOO
                 OEO




                            ©2004 Raj Jain

               103
Optical Communication…History




     Fireflies use pulse-width modulation.

                                             ©2004 Raj Jain

                      104
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

                                                Bit
                                                rate l
     7l× 200 Gbps (NTT’97)
    19l× 160 Gbps (NTT’99)
                                                       Distance
   160l× 20 Gbps (NEC’00)
   128l× 40 Gbps to 300 km (Alcatel’00)
     1l×1200 Gbps to 70 km using TDM (NTT’00)
    64l× 40 Gbps to 4000 km (Lucent’02)
   Theoretically 1022 Wavelengths on one fiber (Lucent’99)
   Potential: 58 THz = 50 Tbps on 10,000 l’s
   Ref: Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) 200x.
                                                         ©2004 Raj Jain

                               105
    Attenuation and Dispersion




   Pulses become shorter and wider as they travel
    through the fiber
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                          106
              Four-Wave Mixing




                                       w1-D,    w1, w2, w2+D
                                               D= w2 - w1

   If two signals travel in the same phase for a long time,
    new signals are generated.
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            Core Optical Networks
   Higher Speed: 10 Gbps to 40 Gbps1
   Longer Distances: 600 km to 6000 km
   More Wavelengths: 16 l’s to 160 l’s
   All-optical Switching: Optical-Optical-Optical (OOO) vs
    Optical-Electro-Optical (OEO)




   1May  25, 2004: MCI 40 Gbps between two IP routers in San Francisco and
    San Jose, http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/040525/dctu050_1.html
                                                                    ©2004 Raj Jain

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              Impact of Networking
   Death of Time and Space  Globalization
   High data rate  Short product life cycles
   Long term = 12 year or 102 years at most
   Distance between research and products has narrowed
   3-6 years PhD research  Topic out-of-date by graduation
   New Opportunities/Challenges for educators (globalization)
      Glocal classroom (Global curriculum + Local environment)
   New challenges for learners (Immediacy)
   A handheld device has enough storage to carry a small library
   Computers have bigger memory than humans
      Knowing where to find the information is more important
    than the information
   Web  Information production and dissemination costs = zero
      Too much (mis) information = Needles in the haystack
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        Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
   DSL data rate decreases with distance. Max 5.5kms.
     Rural areas not reachable directly by copper  FTTN
   Global Competition  National initiatives:
      According to SCTE (2004) there will be 14.4M FTTH
       subscribers worldwide by 2008 from 800,000 in 2004
      Japan (clear leader; 530,000 homes with fiber out of 600,000
       as of July, 03) (source: FTTH Council 10-03)
      Korea, Canada, Sweden, China, Holland, Germany, UK,
       France, Australia, US beginning to move in the direction
   Fiber prices have come down drastically ($200 to
    $500/Subscriber) to similar levels as DSL
   Over 800 Communities in USA are investigating FTTH
   US FCC ruling of removing restrictions from RBOCs FTTH
                                                                 04.
    Verizon and Bellsouth announced to pass 1M homes each inRaj Jain
                                                            ©2004

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