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					Designing Assessing           Taxonomy                               Hierarchic Structure
Educational Objective     Levels of Processes
Marzano, Kendall

       Self-System         Examining Importance        constructed response -
       (determining        (analyzing the extent to    How important is it to
       and analyzing       which one believes that     you?, Why do you think it
       one's motivation    learning specific           might be important?, Can
       to learn new        knowledge is important      you provide some reasons
       content)            and then examining one's    why it is important?, How
                           beliefs relative to that    logical is your thinking?
                           issue)
                           Examining Efficacy          constructed response -
                           (examining the extent to    Can you improve?, How
                           which individuals believe   well do you think you can
                           they can improve their      do?, How well can you
                           understanding or            learn?, How good are you
                           competence relative to a    at?, How logical is your
                           specific type of            thinking?
                           knowledge) Response
                           Examining                   constructed response -
                           (Identifying what           What are your feelings
                           emotions, if any, are       about?, What is the logic
                           associated with specific    underlying these feelings?,
                           knowledge, whether these    How reasonable is your
                           emotions interfere with     thinking?,
                           learning, and the logic
                           behind those
                           Examining Overall        constructed response -
                           Motivation (individual's How interested are you?,
                           motivation to initially  How motivated are you?,
                           learn or increase        How would you explain
                           competence in a given your level of interest?,
                           knowledge component, How reasonable is your
                           is a function of three   thinking? - graphic
       Metacognitive       facts: importance
                           Specifying Goals         organizer
                                                    establishing clear learning
       System                                       goals for specific types of
       (establishing                                knowledge
       clear goals and
       plans for
       accomplishing
       those goals)
                           Process Monitoring          how well a goal is being
Designing Assessing                     Taxonomy                                    Hierarchic Structure
Educational Objective               Levels of Processes
Marzano, Kendall

                                        Monitoring Clarity            free from indistinction and
                                        (disposition - ways in        ambiguity about
                                        which an individual is or     knowledge
                                        is not disposed to
                                        approach knowledge)
                                        Monitoring Accuracy           determining the extent to
                                        (disposition - ways in        which an individual is
                                        which an individual is or     correct in terms of
                                        is not disposed to            understanding specific
                                        approach knowledge)           knowledge (requires an
                                                                      individual to check their
                                                                      understanding by seeking
                                                                      out further information)
       Cognitive        Knowledge       Decision Making               constructed response -
       System           Utilization     (selecting among              decide, select the best
                        (requires the   alternatives that initially   among the following
                        use of          appear equal, does not        alternative, Which among
                        knowledge       involve obstacles to a        the following would be the
                        in specific     goal)                         best?, What is the best
                        situations)                                   way?, Which of these is
                                                                      most suitable? (decision-
                                                                      making matrix - specific
                                                                      graphic organizer)
                                        Problem Solving               constructed response -
                                        Experimenting                 constructed response -
                                        (generating and testing       generate and test, test the
                                        hypotheses for the            idea that, What would
                                        purpose of understanding      happen if?, How would you
                                        some physical or              test that?, How would you
                                        psychological                 determine if?, How can
                                        phenomenon - making           this be explained?, Based
                                        predictions, designing a      on the experiment?, What
                                        way to test the               can be predicted?
                                        predictions, evaluating
                                        the validity of the
                                        principles - scientific
                                        Investigating ( involves      constructed response -
Designing Assessing                    Taxonomy                                 Hierarchic Structure
Educational Objective              Levels of Processes
Marzano, Kendall

                        Analysis     Matching (similarities       constructed response -
                        (examining and differences, can be        match, categorize,
                        knowledge    simple or complex)           compare, compare and
                        with the                                  contrast, differentiate,
                        intent of                                 discriminate, distinguish,
                        generating                                sort, create an analogy
                        new                                       (comparison between two
                        conclusions)                              things), create a metaphor
                                                                  (a word or phase that is
                                                                  applied to an object or
                                                                  action to which it is not
                                                                  literally applicable) - use
                                                                  types of graphic
                                                                  organizers
                                     Classifying (organizing      constructed response -
                                     knowledge into               classify, organize, sort,
                                     meaningful categories,       identify a broader
                                     superordinate and            category, identify
                                     subordinate categories)      categories, identify
                                                                  different types - use
                                     Analyzing Errors             specific types of graphic
                                                                  constructed response -
                                     (identifying factual or      analyze errors, identify
                                     logical errors in            problems, identify issues,
                                     knowledge or                 identify
                                     processing errors in the     misunderstandings,
                                     execution of                 assess, critique, diagnose,
                                     knowledge,                   evaluate, edit, revise
                                     reasonableness, logic,
                                     Generalizing (inferring      constructed response -
                                     new generalizations and      generalize what
                                     principles from              conclusions can be drawn,
                                     information that is known    what inference can be
                                     or stated, looking for       made, create a
                                     patterns or connections in   generalization, create a
                                     the information)             principle, create a rule,
                                                                  trace the development of,
                                                                  form conclusions - specific
                                                                  types of graphic
                                                                  organizers
Designing Assessing                     Taxonomy                                Hierarchic Structure
Educational Objective               Levels of Processes
Marzano, Kendall

                                     Specifying (generating      constructed response -
                                     new applications of a       make and defend, predict,
                                     known generalization or     judge, deduce, what would
                                     principle, making and       have to happen, develop
                                     defending predictions       an argument for, under
                                     about what might happen     what conditions
                                     or what will necessarily
                                     happen in a given
                                     situation
                                     Integrating (distilling     describe how or why,
                        Comprehen- knowledge down to its         describe the key parts of,
                        sion          key characteristics        describe the effects,
                        (identifying organized in a frugal       describe the relationship
                        critical or   manner)                    between, explain ways in
                        defining                                 which, make connections
                        attributes of                            between, paraphrase,
                        knowledge)                               summarize
                                      Symbolizing (creating a    constructed response - use
                                      symbolic analog of the     terms such as symbolize,
                                      knowledge that has been    depict, represent,
                                      produced via the process   illustrate, draw, show, use
                                      of integrating)            model, diagram, chart -
                                                                 graphic organizers,
                                                                 pictures, charts, graphs,
                                      Recall (requires           tables, and maps
                                                                 short constructed
                        Retrieval     recognition, and           response or fill in the
                        (transferring production of related      blank - exemplify, name,
                        what we       information)               list, label, state, describe,
                        know but                                 who, what, where, when
                        are not
                        currently
                        thinking
                        about to a
                        current state
                        of attention)
                                      Recognizing (determine     select from a list, identify
                                      whether information is     from a list, determinable if
                                      accurate, inaccurate, or   the following statements
                                      unknown)                   are true, forced choice
                                                                 (TF, multiple choice,
                                                                 matching, etc.)
Designing Assessing         Taxonomy                        Hierarchic Structure
Educational Objective   Levels of Processes
Marzano, Kendall

                         Executing            add, subtract, multiply,
                                              divide, apply,
                                              demonstrate, draft,
                                              complete, locate, make,
                                              solve, read, use, write
                                              (procedural knowledge)
Marzano, Kendall @2008              Designing and Assessing Educational Objectives

Cognitive   Knowledge      Decision Making (selecting from among alternatives that         Constructed Response - decide and select
System      Utilization    initially appear to be equal, does not involve obstacles to a   the best among the following alternative;
            (requiring the goal)                                                           Which among the following would be the
            use of                                                                         best?, What is the best way?, Which of these
            knowledge in                                                                   is most suitable? (decision-making matrix -
            specific                                                                       specific graphic organizer)
            situations)
                           Problem Solving (accomplishing a goal for which obstacles Constructed Response - solve; How will I
                           or limiting conditions exist)                             overcome this obstacle?, How will I reach my
                                                                                     goal but still meet these conditions; adapt,
                                                                                     develop a strategy to, figure out a way to
                           Experimenting (generating and testing hypotheses for the        Constructed Response - generate and test;
                           purpose of understanding some physical or psychological         test the idea that - What would happen if?,
                           phenomenon - making predictions, designing a way to test        How would you test that?, How would you
                           the predictions, evaluating the validity of the principles -    determine if?, How can this be explained?;
                           scientific inquiry)                                             Based on the experiment - What can be
                                                                                           predicted?
                           Investigating ( involving examining a past, present, or         Constructed Response - investigate,
                           future situation, involves hypothesis generation and testing    research, find out about, take a position on;
                           but not gathered by direct observation but instead are          What are the differing features of?, How did
                           assertions and opinions made by others - investigative          this happen?, Why did this happen?, What
                           reporting)                                                      would have happened if?
            Analysis       Matching (finding similarities and differences, can be          Constructed Response - match, categorize,
            (examining     simple or complex)                                              compare, compare and contrast,
            knowledge                                                                      differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, sort,
            with the                                                                       create an analogy (comparison between two
            intent of                                                                      things), create a metaphor (a word or phase
            generating                                                                     that is applied to an object or action to which
            new                                                                            it is not literally applicable) - use types of
            conclusions)                                                                   graphic organizers
                           Classifying (organizing knowledge into meaningful               Constructed Response - classify, organize,
                           categories, superordinate and subordinate categories)           sort, identify a broader category, identify
                                                                                           categories, identify different types - use
                                                                                           specific types of graphic organizers
Marzano, Kendall @2008               Designing and Assessing Educational Objectives

                             Analyzing Errors (identifying factual or logical errors in   Constructed Response - analyze errors,
                             knowledge; or processing errors in the execution of          identify problems, identify issues, identify
                             knowledge, reasonableness, logic, or accuracy of             misunderstandings, assess, critique,
                             knowledge)                                                   diagnose, evaluate, edit, revise
                             Generalizing (inferring new generalizations and principles   Constructed Response - generalize what
                             from information that is known or stated, looking for        conclusions can be drawn, what inference
                             patterns or connections in the information)                  can be made, create a generalization, create
                                                                                          a principle, create a rule, trace the
                                                                                          development of, form conclusions - specific
                                                                                          types of graphic organizers
                          Specifying (generating new applications of a known              Constructed Response - make and defend,
                          generalization or principle, making and defending               predict, judge, deduce, what would have to
                          predictions about what might happen or what will                happen, develop an argument for, under
                          necessarily happen in a given situation                         what conditions
            Comprehen- Integrating (distilling knowledge down to its key                  Constructed Response - describe how or
            sion          characteristics organized in a frugal manner)                   why, describe the key parts of, describe the
            (identifying                                                                  effects, describe the relationship between,
            critical or                                                                   explain ways in which, make connections
            defining                                                                      between, paraphrase, summarize
            attributes of
            knowledge)
                             Symbolizing (creating a symbolic analog of the knowledge Constructed Response - use terms such as
                             that has been produced via the process of integrating)   symbolize, depict, represent, illustrate,
                                                                                      draw, show, use model, diagram, chart -
                                                                                      graphic organizers, pictures, charts, graphs,
                                                                                      tables, and maps
            Retrieval        Recall (requiring recognition, and production of related     Short constructed response or fill in the
            (transferring    information)                                                 blank - exemplify, name, list, label, state,
            what we know                                                                  describe, who, what, where, when
            but are not      Recognizing (determining                                     Select from a list, identify from a list,
            currently        whether information is                                       determine if the following statements are
            thinking about   accurate, inaccurate, or                                     true, forced choice (TF, multiple choice,
            to a current     unknown)                                                     matching, etc.)
            state of
            attention)
Marzano, Kendall @2008         Designing and Assessing Educational Objectives

                         Executing                               Add, subtract, multiply,
                                                                 divide, apply, demonstrate,
                                                                 draft, complete, locate,
                                                                 make, solve, read, use, write
                                                                 (procedural knowledge)

				
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posted:10/18/2011
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