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POLICE OFFICER - South Portland

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					          Police Department




EXPANDING, HIRING & RETAINING



                   Committee Report
                      November 14, 2007
                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.     Committee Members …………………………………………………… p. 2

II.    Executive Summary ……………………………………………………. p. 3

III.   Overview ………………………………………………………………… p. 4

       a. Purpose of Assessment ………………………………………………. p. 4

       b. South Portland Police Department …………………………………… p. 6

       c. City of South Portland ……………………………………………….. p. 7

IV.    Discussion and Recommendations …………………………………….. p. 8

       a. Department Staffing ………………………………………………….. p. 8

       b. Hiring Process …………………………………………………………p. 10

       c. Lateral Entry ………………………………………………………….. p. 14

       d. Schedule ……………………………………………………………… p. 15

       e. Compensation ………………………………………………………… p. 17

V.     Conclusions ……………………………………………………………… p. 19

VI.    Appendix ………………………………………………………………… p. 20

       a. South Portland Police Organizational Chart …………………………. p. 21

       b. South Portland Police Officer Job Announcement …………………... p. 22

       c. City of South Portland Nighttime Population / Housing Units ………. p. 23

       d. City of South Portland Average Annual Daily Traffic Flow ………… p. 24

       e. Police Department Activity / Crime Statistics ……………………….. p. 25 - 30

       f. Department Staffing Statistics ……………………………………….. p. 31

       g. Competitive Wage / Benefit Survey – 2007 …………………………. p. 32

VII.   Bibliography …………………………………………………………….. p. 33




                                                                            Page 1 of 33
I.     COMMITTEE MEMBERS:

       Mayor Claude Morgan formed a multi-disciplined committee in 2007 to address
       concerns about the South Portland Police Department’s ability to attract, hire and
       retain police officers for the City of South Portland. The committee was composed of
       residents and non-residents:

       Claude Morgan, Mayor                            John Geddis, General Manager
       Committee Chairman                              The Maine Mall
       City of South Portland City Council             207.828.2063 ext. 221
       207.799.5259


       Linda Boudreau, Councilor                       Edward Palmer, General Manager
       City of South Portland City Council             Portland Marriott
       207.799.6138                                    207.871.8000


       James Gailey, Acting City Manager               David Niklaus, Interim Dean
       City of South Portland                          Administration & Finance, SMCC
       207.767.7606                                    207.781.5516


       Edward Googins, Chief of Police                 Wayne Ross, Resident
       City of South Portland Police Department        1 Franklin Terrace, South Portland
       207.799.5517 ext. 2                             207.799.5604


       Frank Clark, Lieutenant                         Robert Schwartz, Chairman
       City of South Portland Police Department        COSP Civil Service Commission
       207.799.9720 ext. 242                           207.767.2214




The committee wishes to extend its gratitude to Jennifer Scholz, City Clerk’s Office, for her
 support and assistance in documenting and providing minutes of the committee’s meetings.




                                                                                  Page 2 of 33
II.   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

      Recommendations: Hire three new sworn officers by 2010; resolve to offer
      competitive salary and benefits; streamline hiring process to identify and attract
      qualified candidates; change ordinance language to allow lateral entry and ability to
      start at higher pay steps; allow flexibility for scheduling options.


         Issues

                 20 percent of the force is now eligible for retirement—that number is
                  expected to hit 75 percent in 2012

                 SPPD is currently staffed by the same number of patrol cars that were on
                  the road during the 1970s

                 the City witnessed a 32-percent drop in traffic stops, including resulting
                  OUI arrests between 2000 and 2006

                 SPPD now tracks and registers up to 40 sex offenders

                 competition is heating up to attract and hire qualified candidates regionally
                  and nationwide

                 SPPD is one of the few agencies in Maine that does not offer lateral entry

                 compensation is a material factor in hiring and retaining police officers




                                                                                    Page 3 of 33
III.   OVERVIEW:

         PURPOSE OF ASSESSMENT:

         The City of South Portland faces a crisis in attracting, hiring and retaining police
         officers. The problem is simple: The demand for sworn officers is rising while
         the number of eligible applicants for the job is declining. The City is not alone.
         Other police agencies in Maine and the nation are facing similar shortages of
         qualified candidates. Many are now pursuing aggressive marketing campaigns to
         attract the required number of qualified candidates to fill their ranks.

         The police department’s ability to retain officers, once hired and trained, is also a
         prime concern. Since 1990, approximately 45 percent of the department’s
         officers have left for reasons other than retirement. Of the 38 hired since that
         time, only 21 are still employed by the department. Three were laid off in
         December 1991 and never re-hired. Six left to pursue law enforcement jobs with
         the State of Maine. Four left to take jobs at other municipal departments. Three
         resigned for other employment. And two were terminated during probation
         periods.

         The purpose of this report is to furnish the City Council with recommendations
         that will help increase the City’s ability to attract, hire, and retain the highest
         qualified officers—and expand the size of the force.

         The South Portland Police Department is a professional law enforcement agency.
         And this Committee makes special note that the market forces described in this
         report, while onerous to the department, in no way diminish the professionalism
         of our police force or—in any way—lower the high standards under which this
         department currently operates.

         This committee considered a number of factors that relate         Over half of all
         to the short-term health of manpower within the                   small agencies
         department, as well as the long-term success of manning           and two-thirds
         the department in the future. Members were asked to                 of all large
         examine the facts found on the ground today as indicators         agencies report
         of future conditions.                                                a lack of
                                                                              qualified
         The facts speak for themselves:                                        police
                                                                             applicants
         Feet on the Ground

         Four patrol officers currently respond to emergency calls in South Portland—the
         same number of sworn officers available for response in 1970. Specifically, that
         means that four officers are responding, within any given period of time and on
         any given patrol shift, to either one major incident or two priority calls before




                                                                                   Page 4 of 33
                   relying on assistance from neighboring police departments. These numbers
                   reflect the highest professional standards for responding to emergency calls.

                   This so-called ―four-car patrol‖ has a direct impact on our neighbors. In 2005,
                   neighboring agencies responded to 189 requests for assistance in South Portland.
                   Officers from Scarborough and Cape Elizabeth are often the first to respond in
                   our community to fights, domestic violence, and even bank robberies taking place
                   just blocks away from the Public Safety Building. By contrast, South Portland
                   officers responded to approximately half that number of requests from
                   neighboring agencies.

                   Safety First

                   As the number of calls for service increases, so too does the gravity of those calls
                   In 2006, three South Portland police officers were involved in two separate
                   officer-involved shooting incidents. One officer suffered four gunshot wounds.
                   Clearly, criminal activity is increasingly more volatile in South Portland. And
                   officers feel the stress of an increased workload and low staffing levels.

                   Things to Come

                   At the moment, our officers are coping with this crisis in hiring and retaining, but
                   for how long? Ten sworn officers are now eligible for retirement—nearly 20
                   percent of the force. In 2012, that number is expected to hit 75 percent. This
                   anticipated turnover, coupled with a dramatic drop in the number of qualified
                   applicants1 and a reduction in the number of available annual training sessions at
                   the Maine Criminal Justice Academy2 begs the question: How will the City of
                   South Portland fill these positions over the next decade?




                      Officers serve for shorter periods
                      in smaller agencies than in larger
                                   agencies




1
    10 to 25 today, compared with 100 to 200 during the 1980s and 1990s.
2
    There are only two (2) 18-week Basic Law Enforcement Training programs offered per year.


                                                                                               Page 5 of 33
                    SOUTH PORTLAND POLICE DEPARTMENT:


                    The South Portland Police Department was formed in 1928,3 and is responsible
                    for providing around-the-clock police services to the City of South Portland. The
                    department is considered a progressive organization and enjoys an excellent
                    reputation within the State’s law enforcement community. The department’s
                    officers are well trained and well respected within the community.

                    As of January 2008, the department will have an authorized strength of fifty-two
                    (52) sworn personnel, from the Chief of Police to the most junior Patrol Officer.
                    The department is organized into two divisions: the Patrol and Community
                    Services Division and the Support and Investigative Division.

                    The Patrol and Community Service Division is composed of uniformed patrol
                    officers and is considered the backbone of the department, responsible for
                    providing 24/7 emergency services for the entire city. Lieutenants and sergeants
                    oversee patrol officers in this division. Officers are assigned to geographical
                    patrol areas, or ―beats,‖ in the city.4 There are four patrol officers available to
                    respond to emergency calls at any time of day.

                    The Support and Investigative Division contains the specialty assignment
                    positions that support the Patrol Division and department mission. This Division
                    is comprised of one sergeant, detectives, a drug investigator (assigned to the
                    Maine Drug Enforcement Agency), an Evidence Technician/Property Officer, a
                    Court Officer and a Youth Aid Officer. An organizational chart depicting the
                    department’s structure can be found in the Appendix.

                    For the past few years, the department has been responding to approximately
                    34,000 calls for service, which include anything from animal complaints, graffiti
                    and vandalism reports, and vehicle collisions, to domestic violence, sexual
                    assaults, robberies, and threats with a deadly weapon.


                                                                              Two-thirds of all departing
                                                                             officers in small agencies and
                                                                             about a third of those in large
                                                                            agencies leave after five or less
                                                                                     years of service




3
    History of the South Portland Police Department, Officer Everett Moulton,
4
    Including specialized assignments, such as the High School Resource Officer and the Maine Mall Officer.


                                                                                                        Page 6 of 33
                  CITY OF SOUTH PORTLAND:

                  The City of South Portland is the State’s fourth largest municipality. South
                  Portland covers approximately 13-square miles and is bordered by the
                  municipalities of Portland, Westbrook, Scarborough, and Cape Elizabeth. The
                  City’s geography is varied and includes significant coastline and a working
                  waterfront. It has two major commuter bridges connecting it with the City of
                  Portland, and also has several major thoroughfares running through it, including
                  portions of US Route 1, Interstate 95 (Maine Turnpike), Interstate 295, and Maine
                  Routes 9 and 77.

                  South Portland is home to a residential population of approximately 24,000.5 The
                  City’s daytime population, however, expands significantly due to an increasingly
                  large transient population, represented primarily by the business, industrial, retail,
                  and educational sectors of our workforce, all of which require varying levels of
                  police service. There are approximately 55,500 employees in the area of the
                  Maine Mall. Visitors to the West End range in population from 46,000 to
                  102,000 per day, resulting in the additional daily-traffic flow of between 65,000
                  and 71,000 vehicles.6 Additional traffic flow statistics are included in the
                  Appendix.

                  In combination with the Maine Mall and surrounding retailers, South Portland is
                  home to one of New England’s largest shopping destinations. Major national and
                  international corporations, including Fairchild Semiconductor, National
                  Semiconductor, Anthem Blue Cross, Wright Express, and Portland Pipeline, have
                  facilities located in South Portland. It is home to a growing college population. It
                  is also home to the largest number of hotel rooms in Southern Maine. South
                  Portland’s jurisdiction includes the second busiest oil port on the eastern
                  seaboard, several tank farms, portions of the Portland International Jetport, and
                  the Rigby Rail Yard. Security concerns abound: Local, State, and federal
                  authorities consider many of these areas ―primary‖ homeland security targets.




5
    US Census Bureau Data, 2006
6
    Emergency Evacuation/Detour Plan, 2006


                                                                                             Page 7 of 33
IV.   DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

      STAFFING:

         Discussion:

         Effective January 2008, the South Portland Police Department is authorized by
         the City to hire and maintain 52 sworn officers. In practice, the department
         protects the City with fewer officers than that: Injury, illness, and retirement take
         a toll in the workforce.

         A brief history: In 1970 the number of sworn officers funded by the City was 48.
         In the 1980s, the City authorized the department to increase that number to 54.
         The City laid off three police officers to accommodate budget obligations in
         1991—making its authorized strength 51. Effective 2008, the department’s sworn
         strength will be 52. Forty-nine of those officers are municipally funded positions.
         A number are funded through a combination of state and federal grants, as well as
         private funding.


         Recommendation: Hire three new sworn officers by FY 2010


         Explanation: Hiring three new sworn officers will move the department towards a
         ―five-car‖ force, dramatically increasing the availability of officers to respond to
         new emergency calls.

         SPPD is currently staffed at a ―four-car patrol,‖ the same number of patrol cars on
         the road during the 1970s. Between May and November of 2005, for example,
         the department maintained only the minimum four-car patrol 34 percent of the
         time during dayshift (7AM to 3PM); 52 percent of the time during second shift
         (3PM to 11PM): and 75 percent during the late shift (11PM to 7AM).

                                            The committee wishes to acknowledge the
                                            number and variety of tasks officers are
           Only a fifth of those leaving
                                            expected to perform within any given shift.
             small agencies depart for
                                            And still officers find time to engage residents,
                    retirement
                                            face to face, in our community—advancing so-
                                            called ―community policing.‖         Community
                                            policing is considered ―best practice‖ and a
         demonstrable deterrent to crime. Members further acknowledge that the impact of
         this form of policing is difficult to track in numerical databases. And so these
         intangible services cannot be adequately quantified in this report. The
         department’s volume of calls for service, however, is easily accessed and
         indicates a 30-percent increase between 1997 and 2006 (see Appendix). Calls for



                                                                                   Page 8 of 33
  service represent the number of occasions an officer is dispatched to a call or
  becomes involved in an incident or enforcement action.

  The Committee also wishes to acknowledge that any increases in responsibility
  and procedure may reduce the availability of officers for officer-initiated
  activities, such as traffic stops and patrolling neighborhoods.

  In fact, officer-initiated activity declined as a result of this new workload between
  2000 and 2006. As a result, the City witnessed a 32-percent drop in the classic
  officer-initiated activity of traffic stops, including a resultant decline in OUI
  arrests:


                                Traffic Stops

7000          6324
6000
                       4739                        4847       4723
5000
                                                                          4277
4000
                                     3269
3000

2000

1000

  0

                      2000    2002     2003       2004    2005    2006




                                   OUI Arrests

250
                218
                                            200
200                          182                            181


150                                                                      141


100


50


 0

                         2002      2003     2004     2005     2006




                                                                                 Page 9 of 33
Today’s police officer must be able to meet new demands. The bar is being raised.
And officers are increasingly being held to higher standards. Statutory and
procedural changes reflect new ways in which the department does business now.
And many of these changes place more responsibility on the department and on
the officer.

Another symptom of the increased workload appears to be an increase in the time
it takes to respond to calls for service. The Committee compared data compiled
between 2002 and 2005. The following call types we examined.


       CALL TYPE                     2002           2005    (Avg. on-scene times)

       Alarms                        5’-49‖         9’-50‖
       Assault (w/ injury)           2’-23‖         8’-50‖
       Domestic Assaults             1’-53‖         7’-2‖
       Harassment Reports            2-54‖          22’-51‖




         Nearly half of all officers departing small agencies and about
         a quarter of those leaving large agencies go on to other law
                                 enforcement work




Many of these changes directly affect the amount of time required for an officer to
respond to each call. For example, an officer may now require between one-and-
a-half to two-and-a-half hours to complete an OUI arrest. Officers now
responding to a domestic complaint no longer merely mediate the situation or
separate the parties and move on. Maine’s homicides are statistically tied to
domestic violence. Therefore, officers spend increasing amounts of time
following up with victims and pursuing ―conditions‖ increasingly placed on the
defendants by the law courts.

Many arrests are now mandatory.

The State is also requiring new levels of compliance at the local level. The City
now complies with an array of laws that govern sex offender registration. And
those laws are constantly changing. In 2005, thirteen registered sex offenders
lived in our community. South Portland police now track and register up to 40
sex offenders. One detective is assigned the task of maintaining the sex offender
database, as well as completing background checks on all of those who must



                                                                        Page 10 of 33
                    register. These are mandatory requirements, deemed necessary to protect our
                    community.

                    Patrol officers no longer merely take reports in the field. Increasingly, they
                    follow up; they investigate. Which means that officers are rarely available to
                    patrol and provide a constant presence in our community.

                    The South Portland Police Department responds to more calls with fewer officers
                    compared to our neighbors.

                    The following information provides comparative data for workload and force
                    strength of neighboring and / or demographically comparative communities:

                    Department                Population       Calls for Service (2005) Sworn / Civilian Staff
                    Portland                  64,000           69,482                   167 / 62
                    Lewiston                  36,237           41,706                   84 / 13
                    Bangor                    31,956           Not Provided             76 / 19
                    Portsmouth, NH            20,674           41,514                   69 / 25
                    Burlington, MA            23,945           23,749                   62 / 5
                    Dedham, MA                23,736           13,343                   60 / 4
                    South Portland            23,784           34,865                   51 / 5
                    Auburn                    23,559           Not Provided             51 /5
                    Biddeford                 21,263           48,195                   49 / 19
                    Scarborough               17,230           20,282                   32 / 12



               HIRING PROCESS:

                    Discussion:

                    The hiring process of the City’s police and fire departments is controlled by
                    municipal ordinance,7 overseen and administered by the Civil Service
                    Commission. The Civil Service process is rooted in a rich and respected history:
                    Municipalities formed Commissions in the late 1800s to drive out political
                    influence in the hiring and promotion of officers.

                    Today, the Commission remains an integral part of the hiring and promotion
                    process in South Portland. Commissioners, who are appointed by Councilors for
                    a five-year term, advertise ―openings‖ in the Police and Fire departments. They
                    also ensure a fair and thorough hearing for promotions and disciplinary actions.

                    Candidates who wish to be considered for vacancies in the Police Department
                    must first submit applications to the Commission, which sets the deadline for
                    those applications. Applicants then complete the following:




7
    Chapter 19, Personnel Rules and Regulations, Code of Ordinances, City of South Portland.


                                                                                                    Page 11 of 33
                        1. A standardized, 100-question, multiple choice examination. This exam is
                           provided by an outside firm. A passing score (generally established by the
                           commission at 60% or 70%) is required for continuation in the process.

                        2. The Maine Criminal Justice Academy’s Physical Fitness evaluation. This
                           evaluation must be completed at the academy’s entrance standard (40th
                           percentile). This component is “pass or fail.” Applicants perform push-
                           ups, a one-minute sit-up test, and a 1.5 mile run. Each category is
                           adjusted for age and gender, based on national standards. Officers may
                           either complete the testing when it is offered by the Civil Service
                           Commission or they may show evidence of a successful completion of the
                           evaluation within the past six months.8 South Portland uses this
                           evaluation because it is required for entrance into the Maine Criminal
                           Justice Academy.

                        3. An oral interview, performed and scored by the Commission.

                        4. A background check to determine suitability for police employment.
                           Applicants may be disqualified for a variety of reasons, including illegal
                           use of narcotics, drugs, or excessive use of alcohol, a felony or certain
                           misdemeanor convictions, or a false statement during the application
                           process. Based upon this background investigation, the Police Chief may
                           request removal of a candidate.

                   The Commission then evaluates the applicants, ranks them in order of
                   performance, and creates a register of all eligible candidates.

                   The Commission then provides that register to the City Manager and a copy to the
                   Police Chief. The Chief may then choose from the top three applicants for the
                   first open position. Commissioners provide two additional applicants for each
                   additional vacancy. For example, Commissioners will provide the City Manager
                   and a copy to the Chief with five ranking applicants if the department wishes to
                   fill two positions; seven to fill three positions.

                   The Police Chief then convenes a panel from within his department to interview
                   the top candidates. The Chief will offer the position to a candidate if, and only if,
                   that candidate can successfully complete the following:

                                a.   MCJA ALERT examination
                                b.   Background Investigation
                                c.   Polygraph Evaluation
                                d.   Job Assessment Testing
                                e.   Medical evaluation / physical
                                f.   MCJA pre-academy physical fitness evaluation


8
    The evaluation is offered monthly at the Maine Criminal Justice Academy.


                                                                                            Page 12 of 33
An illustration: In an application process during the fall of 2007, twenty-three
candidates applied to be police officer in South Portland. Sixteen of these
applicants arrived to take the written exam. Twelve passed the test. Five of these
successfully passed the physical component. Background investigations
eliminated one candidate, leaving four finalists for consideration.

Successful candidates are enrolled at the Academy. From the time an applicant is
offered conditional employment—and has completed all the appropriate steps
required for full employment at the department—that applicant receives salary
and benefits. By finding meaningful employment for the candidate for the
weeks—even months—prior to a seat at the Academy, the department in essence
captures this candidate and begins the inculcation into department procedure and
protects the conditional employment status from outside offers.

New police officers must then complete a year-long ―working test‖ in the field.
Permanent appointments are made only at the successful completion of this
probationary period.



Recommendation:       Streamline hiring process to attract and hire qualified
candidates.


Explanation: Regionally—and nationwide—competition is heating up to attract
and hire qualified candidates. Eliminating obstacles in the hiring process is
crucial to identify and attract those candidates before competing agencies make
offers of employment. The Committee wishes to recognize the Commission for
its service to the City and thank members for moving quickly to streamline the
process—even before this committee reported to the City Council. The
Commission is now eliminating two full days of testing, conducting three phases
in a single day. The City is now able to accommodate applicants who travel long
distances to take South Portland’s entrance exam.

The department itself is also proactively taking steps
to streamline the process. Background investigations,
which once took months to complete are now being
trimmed down to one week. The department now               Nationwide, the average
conducts initial background checks on all applicants.        length of an officer's
In-depth background checks are completed only after        employment is 34 months
a conditional offer of employment is made.




                                                                      Page 13 of 33
               LATERAL ENTRY:

                    Discussion:

                    The hiring process must also allow for administrative flexibility. To that end, the
                    committee recognizes that a number of departments—indeed most police agencies
                    in the State of Maine—offer employment to seasoned officers through a process
                    known as lateral entry. This process allows police administrators and Civil
                    Service Commissioners the flexibility they need to offer employment to proven,
                    experienced officers, who, in turn, are able to transfer their skills to a position
                    comparable to their level of experience.

                    The committee examined two major components of lateral entry:

                    Process

                    Typically, departments will waive a limited number of tests and exercises for
                    certified police officers,9 so-called ―blue-pin‖ officers.

                    Compensation

                    Officers in one agency, hired by another through the process of lateral entry, may
                    enter the hiring police force at a higher pay grade.

                    Historically, when the pool of eligible applicants is plentiful, so too is the
                    agency’s battery of tests and requirements for sworn officers in transition.

                    Today, however, pension systems are portable across most municipalities in
                    Maine. And many departments now offer sworn officers competitive
                    compensation to attract employees with valuable skills and training.

                    The South Portland Police Department is one of the few competing agencies in
                    Maine that does not offer lateral entry. While the City’s Civil Service hiring
                    ordinance currently allows a seven-point advantage to blue-pin officers who
                    apply, the current hiring process generally treats all applicants equally—though
                    clearly there are times and circumstances when hiring an experienced officer over
                    an eligible, untrained applicant is advantageous.

                    The Civil Service Commission is aware of this committee’s work and we expect
                    Commissioners to propose changes in the process to allow lateral entry. The
                    South Portland Police Patrolmen’s Association (SPPPA), the bargaining unit for
                    the patrol officers, recently signed a Tentative Agreement with the City. That
                    agreement allows experienced officers entering the South Portland Police
                    Department the ability to start up to the ―five-year‖ pay step, dependent upon
                    experience.
9
    An officer who has graduated from and / or been certified by the Maine Criminal Justice Academy.


                                                                                                       Page 14 of 33
  Recommendation: Change ordinance language to allow lateral entry and ability
  to start at higher pay steps.


  Explanation: Lateral entry allows the City to capture the value and training of an
  experienced officer at minimal cost. It also allows the department an opportunity
  to fill vacancies immediately at a time when competition for any officer is fierce.


SCHEDULE:

  Discussion:

  South Portland police officers now work five eight-hour shifts, with two
  consecutive days off. Several communities in Maine now offer four ten-hour
  shifts. This committee considers scheduling an important factor in attracting,
  hiring, and retaining good officers. The department’s schedule is the result of
  collective bargaining agreements between the City of South Portland and the
  South Portland Police bargaining units.

  By the nature of the vocation, police officers expect to work or be available on
  nights, weekends and holidays. All department personnel currently work a ―5/8‖
  work week (five 8-hour work days), with two consecutive days off. Assignments
  are ―fixed,‖ determined by the seniority of each officer. Each officer submits a
  bid for the shifts they prefer. This is performed annually. Generally, senior
  officers bid for—and receive—day shifts. More junior officers work the evening
  and overnight shifts. Some of these junior officers have been assigned overnight
  shifts for years.

  The department’s Patrol and Community Services Division is broken into five
  patrol teams, lettered ―A‖ through ―E.‖ Patrol teams A and B are both assigned to
  the dayshift (7AM to 3PM), with separate days off to allow the best possible
  coverage. C Team covers the second shift (3PM to 11PM) five days a week. E
  Team covers the third shift (11PM to 7AM) five days a week. D Team is a
  ―swing‖ team, covering days off for C and E Teams. In other words, D Team
  works three ―second‖ shifts and two ―third‖ shifts before going on days off.

  Each patrol team also rotates through three sets of days off, which results in each
  team receiving weekends off every nine months. Most teams take off Monday /
  Tuesday, Thursday / Friday, or Saturday / Sunday. E Team rotates through
  Tuesday / Wednesday, Thursday / Friday or Saturday / Sunday. Days off remain
  constant for three months and rotate on the first Mondays of January, April, July
  and October.




                                                                         Page 15 of 33
The department’s Investigative and Support Service Division works a more
standard daytime schedule. All members are on call for duty on any day and at
any hour. Officers become eligible for specialty assignments after two years on
the force. Once assigned, officers are reassigned if: 1) they request a transfer, 2)
the position is been eliminated, 3) their job performance is unsatisfactory, or 4)
the Chief deems it in the ―best interest‖ of the department.

Departments in other municipalities offer schedules which differ dramatically
from our own. Some departments rotate shifts weekly, bi-monthly, or monthly.
Some assign shifts based on seniority. Others do not. Clearly, there is no
schedule that will work for all employees—or even all police departments. For
purposes of discussion, the committee considered a 4/10 schedule. Departments
that currently offer 4/10 schedules, such as Augusta, Cumberland, Gorham, and
Westbrook, were contacted and asked for feedback. Commanders at those
departments reported:

PROS:

1.      That the employees working the schedule were very happy.

2.      The schedule offered increased / better coverage. Due to six hours of
        overlap every day, there were not any gaps in coverage at shift changes
        and more officers were available on the street at key times of the day or
        night.

3.      Schedule allows for double staffing days, which facilitates scheduling of
        on-duty training, or allows additional staff for special details or
        selective/proactive enforcement.

4.      Overlapping shifts may reduce overtime exposure, as an open shift may
        only need to be filled for four or six hours, instead of eight or ten hours.

CONS:

1.      Schedule requires additional staff.

2.      Schedule may reduce communication with employees, due to additional
        weekly day off.

3.      Could increase overtime exposure.

South Portland police officers were asked if they would prefer a 4/10 schedule.
Twenty-six of the thirty-eight respondents indicated that they would be interested
in exploring this option. Although there are several options, the 4/10 scheduling
option that was discussed would require six patrol teams, each consisting of five
officers. For South Portland, this would require the promotion of a sixth Patrol



                                                                        Page 16 of 33
                 Sergeant and a minimum authorized strength of 54 sworn officers, which falls
                 within the Police Chief’s recommendation of 56 sworn officers.

                 The committee notes that South Portland officers have already considered several
                 other schedules, including so-called ―4/10s,‖10 ―4/2s,‖11 or even 12-hour shift
                 options.12

                                                                       Eighty-four percent of the agencies
                                                                      report an average length of stay less
                                                                                than three years

                 Recommendation: Allow flexibility for scheduling options.


                 Explanation: Allowing administrators the flexibility to explore new scheduling
                 options gives them the tools required to create a niche in this highly completive
                 market for sworn officers and qualified police candidates. Many officers prefer a
                 condensed schedule of four days on and three days off. Such a schedule allows
                 for longer spans of personal time. The flexibility to reorganize existing schedules
                 gives administrators a powerful tool to track and respond to changes in the
                 marketplace.


             COMPENSATION:


                 Discussion: Money is clearly at the heart of hiring and retaining a highly-
                 motivated police force. This committee, therefore, recognizes that compensation
                 is a material factor in any equation to build and maintain a dynamic and highly-
                 trained department. However, members wish to note that it is also one of many
                 factors that attract and retain good officers. Variety of duties, levels of direct
                 supervision and esprit de corp are all reasons some candidates choose respective
                 police forces when seeking employment.

                 The committee examined a number of compensation packages both statewide and
                 locally. Locally, our compensation package is below average. Many small
                 communities, which offer less training opportunities, as well as fewer varieties of
                 police calls and service, often pay more to attract new officers.

                 Committee members polled South Portland police officers to determine what ratio
                 of pay to benefits employees are interested in. The result is that pay is an
                 important component in attracting new recruits, while benefits for retirement play
                 a more important role in retaining officers and attracting candidates through the
                 lateral hiring process. Whereas, the majority of officers indicate that ―retirement‖

10
   Four,10-hour days followed by three days off
11
   Four 8 hour days followed by two days off
12
   A rotation of four 12-hour days followed by three days off then three 12-hour days followed by four days off


                                                                                                       Page 17 of 33
is the most important consideration in a compensation package, the committee
also notes that the majority of the police force is composed of senior officers. To
summarize: Young officers are often more interested in cash benefits; senior
officers look to the benefits of health and retirement.

The committee therefore recognizes that setting compensation requires a number
of considerations and factors. For example, the City Council must consider the
entire City budget when setting the tax rate; police unions bargain for changes in
salary and benefits every three years; and those communities from which we
derive salaries for comparative purposes in this report, may, in turn, be forced to
change those salaries and benefits to accommodate new demands in new budgets.
Therefore, the committee is recommending that the City Manager annually
examine and compare compensation packages of neighboring communities—and
the economic forces driving those municipalities year to year. The City Manager
should exercise judgment while comparing communities and should consider such
factors as population, geographical location, ratio of commercial to residential
property, and other demographic characteristics.


Recommendation: Resolve to offer competitive salary and benefits. The City
Manager should review salaries and benefit packages annually and compare these
results to salaries in other communities. The City Council may then consider
these results as a material factor in preparation for the annual budget. Results
may also be considered for the purposes of collective bargaining between the City
and Unions.


Explanation: Compensation is a material factor in hiring and retaining a highly-
trained, highly-motivated police force. The City Council should attempt to
examine a number of data when comparing salary and benefits of other
communities.

                       Common Barriers to Recruiting:

                      Recruitment by other criminal justice
                            agencies (80.6 percent)

                         Agency budget restrictions (72.6
                                   percent)

                            Agency size (37.9 percent)

                        Private Sector Competition (34.7
                                    percent)




                                                                       Page 18 of 33
V.   CONCLUSION:

       The committee finds that City of South Portland is, indeed, facing a crisis in
       attracting, hiring, retaining—and thus expanding the number of—police officers,
       and that steps can be taken to reduce this outflow and remain competitive in our
       staffing and retention.

       The first step is to hire three new officers by 2010. The Council authorized the
       hiring of two new officers in 2008. This will move the department towards a
       ―five-car‖ force, a dramatic increase in available officers to respond to new and
       diverse emergency calls. The committee believes that this orderly transition to a
       larger force is good policy, both necessary to maintain public safety—and is
       fiscally responsible.

       The committee also recommends that the City Council resolve to offer
       competitive salary and benefits within the department. Since compensation is
       clearly a material factor in hiring and retaining a highly-trained, highly-qualified
       police force, staying abreast of the competition is therefore key to maintaining an
       attractive program for junior and senior officers.

       Another important step is to streamline the hiring process to identify and attract
       qualified candidates. The process for hiring new officers is cumbersome and
       riddled with obstacles. Eliminating those obstacles and allowing for lateral entry
       within the hiring process will give the department both flexibility and speed to
       offer employment, two factors that an agency now requires in this competitive
       market for qualified candidates.

       Finally, the committee recommends giving administrators the tools they need to
       allow flexibility for scheduling options. Freeing up options for new scheduling is
       both cost effective and a creative method for exploring gaps in the current
       marketplace.




                                                                               Page 19 of 33
APPENDIX




           Page 20 of 33
                                              SOUTH PORTLAND POLICE DEPARTMENT
                                                                    ORGANIZATIONAL CHART


                                                                      CHIEF OF POLICE




                     Office of Professional Standards
                                Lieutenant




    Investigative & Support Services Division                                                               Patrol & Community Services Division
                                                                           Mechanic



                     Deputy Chief of Police
                                                                            Lieutenant         Lieutenant                            Lieutenant




Detective Sergeant             Dispatch                  Civilian           A/B Team         C Team Sergeant      D Team Sergeant          E Team Sergeant
                              Coordinator               Personnel           Sergeant




   Detectives               Communication         Admin. Secretary       A/B Team Officers   C Team Officers
     MDEA                                                                     SROs             Mall Officer        D Team Officers
  Court Officer            Lead Dispatchers             Records                ACO               SE Unit                                   E Team Officers
   Youth Aid                                                              Bomb K9 Team          K-9 Team              K9 Team
Evidence/Property             Dispatchers           Maintenance




                                                                                                                                                  Page 21 of 33
        South Portland Police Job Announcement


           CITY OF SOUTH PORTLAND

              POLICE OFFICER

Progressive department on the Southern Maine Coast
looking for qualified, motivated, career-oriented
individuals.      Position offers: competitive wages,
educational and fitness incentives, employee and family
medical health coverage, Maine State Retirement,
Deferred Compensation Plan and Social Security, annual
clothing allowance. Interested candidates must be at
least 20 years old on the date of the written examination
to be eligible to take the examination, hold a valid
operator’s license and be a high school graduate or
equivalent. Criminal Background Check, Polygraph
Examination, Job Performance Examination plus other
testing will be conducted.

          Applications may be obtained from:
                   City of South Portland
          Human Resource Office, Rm. 105
          25 Cottage Road, P. O. Box 9422
          South Portland, ME 04116-9422
                    or online at:
              www.southportland.org

Applications must be received by February 16, 2007 at
4:00 P.M. All applicants will take a written examination
on Tuesday, February 27, 2007 at 6:00 P.M. at the
Memorial Middle School, Wescott Rd., South Portland,
Maine.
             Chairman Robert Schwartz,
              Civil Service Commission
              Equal Opportunity Employer



                                                            Page 22 of 33
        Nighttime Population: City of South Portland

24000
                                                         23784
23800
23600
23400          23267                         23324
                                   23163
23200
23000
22800                    22712
22600
22400
22200
22000

                    1970    1980    1990     2000    2006




           Housing Units: City of South Portland

12000
                                                     10349
                                           9713
10000
                            8436
8000              7150

6000

4000

2000

   0

                         1970    1980   1990      2000


                                                                 Source: U.S. Census



                                                                        Page 23 of 33
                           Average Annual Daily Traffic Flow
                                                Source: PACTS




25,000




20,000




15,000                                                                                                          1980

                                                                                                                1990

                                                                                                                2000
10,000




 5,000




    0
         I-295NB off I-295SB off I-295NB on I-295SB off Maine Mall Running Hill Cummings Western Ave Gorham
         Ramp to US Ramp to US Ramp from      Ramp to    RD and      Rd and        Rd     and Maine   Road
              1           1      Westbrook Westbrook Philbrook Av Cummings                 Mall Rd andWestern
                                      St         St                    Rd                              Ave




                                                                                                         Page 24 of 33
  DEPARTMENT ACTIVITY / CRIME STATISTICS

                          SPPD Calls for Service

      40000
                                                 34588 34865 33625
      35000                       31193 31609
      30000               27947

      25000      23448

      20000

      15000

      10000

      5000

         0

                  1997     2000   2002    2003    2004   2005   2006




                          Mutual Aid Assistance
Calls for Service where Cape Elizabeth, Portland and/or Scarborough responded
200
                                                                189
                                   180
180


                                                  159
160


140



120
                    108

100


 80



 60


 40



 20


 0

                   2002            2003          2004       2005

                                                                       Page 25 of 33
                      Robbery 2002 – 2006

14                                               13           13
                 Weapon Violations 2002 - 2006
12   (Concealing/ Possessing firearms, dangerous knives, clubs, etc.)
          11

10                      9

 8
                                     6
 6

 4

 2

 0
           2002        2003        2004          2005      2006




                        Weapon Offenses:
     (Concealing/ Possessing firearms, dangerous knives, clubs, etc.)


30
                                                              27
25

20                      19

15                                   14
                                                 12
10

5
            1
0
          2002         2003         2004        2005        2006
                                                                        Page 26 of 33
               Sex Crimes 2002 - 2006
            (G.S.A., Unlawful Sexual Contact etc.)


30
                  27

25   23                                               23

20
                               16
15
                                            11
10

5

0
     2002        2003         2004        2005       2006




                                                            Page 27 of 33
                    Value of Property Stolen
1,200,000

1,000,000                                             953,718
                                          840,501
                               778,463
 800,000
                                                                   686,587

 600,000         519,489

 400,000

 200,000

       0
                   2002          2003         2004         2005      2006



                          Aggravated Assaults


30                        28
                                                                   26
25
                                                      21
20                                       18
            15
15

10


5

0
            2002          2003       2004            2005         2006




                                                                         Page 28 of 33
          All Other Criminal Offense Reports
1,800

                                                           1,642
1,600                                           1,557
                                 1,490


1,400    1,371
                  1,319


1,200



1,000



 800



 600



 400



 200



   0

         2002     2003       2004           2005          2006




                  Arrests / Summonses

  2050
                                 1988
  2000
  1950     1917                             1919
  1900
  1850
                                                          1801
  1800
  1750             1730

  1700
  1650
  1600

                  2002    2003    2004   2005      2006




                                                                   Page 29 of 33
             Assaults on South Portland Police Officers
14
              12
12
                                                     10
10
                                                                   8
8
                                       6
6

4
                          2
2

0
             2002       2003          2004          2005     2006

         South Portland Police Officer Uses of Physical Force


140
                                      119
120                                                 115      113

100

 80
               61
 60                      54

 40

 20

     0

                       2002    2003   2004   2005     2006




                                                                       Page 30 of 33
      Sworn South Portland Police Personnel


56

                      55



54




                                                52
52

                               51      51



50




     48       48
48




46




44

     1975    1985   1990     1995    2000     2006




                                                 Page 31 of 33
                                           COMPETITIVE WAGE / BENEFIT SURVEY (2007)
Police Departments (Benefit Survey) –
2007                                                      (Sorted by Starting Pay – Highest to Lowest)

                        Starting                                                                           Latera
Department              Pay              3-5 Years        10 Years        20 Years          Retirement        l     Fam Health     Dental
                                                                                                                                  Employer
                                                                                                                    Employee %       %
                        $43,326.4        $48,630.4        $52,395.2       $58,094.4
York County SO          0                0                0               0                 50% + ICMA      Yes     $45to100/wk    100%       20yr/50%
                        $41,466.8        $46,376.7
Gorham                  8                2                n/a             n/a               50% + ICMA      Yes        10%        town rate   pension on horizon
                        $40,310.4        $45,094.4        $48,068.8       $51,022.4
Biddeford               0                0                0               0                 2/3 pension     Yes        20%         100%       Health @ retirement
                        $39,540.0        $44,448.0        $45,320.0       $47,062.0
Saco                    0                0                0               0                 50% + ICMA      Yes        10%          $325
                        $38,576.7        $42,937.4        $47,338.7       $53,250.0
Scarborough             2                4                2               8                 ICMA            Yes     see 1 below     50%
                        $38,477.9        $45,788.6        $47,217.0
Cape Elizabeth          2                0                4               n/a               ICMA            Yes        20%
Maine State             $36,050.0        $42,966.0        $46,618.0
Police                  0                0                0               n/a               50% + Health    No         40%         100%       Health @ retirement
                        $35,724.0        $40,560.0        $44,044.0       $47,736.0
Yarmouth                0                0                0               0                 50% + ICMA      Yes        12%         100%
                        $35,604.0        $42,466.0        $44,040.0
Wells                   0                0                0               n/a               2/3 + ICMA      Yes      $20/week       0%
                        $32,998.0        $39,652.6        $42,073.7       $42,352.0
Westbrook               0                0                2               0                 50%(20year)     Yes        15%         100%
                                                                                            50%(25year)      “
                                                                                            ICMA             “
                        $31,740.8        $40,310.4        $42,161.6       $43,929.6
South Portland          0                0                0               0                 50% + ICMA      No         18%           0
                        $31,532.8        $38,708.8        $40,622.4
Bath                    0                0                0               n/a               2/3 pension                15%           0
                        $31,429.3        $36,435.3
Topsham                 2                6                n/a             n/a               2/3 pension     Yes        15%          85%
                        $31,044.0        $39,104.0        $41,912.0       $44,356.0
Portland                0                0                0               0                 50% + ICMA      Yes        30%           0

1 SPD will pay 100% of single plan, plus 50% of difference between single and family plan



                                                                                                                                                     Page 32 of 33
National Law Enforcement Benefit Stats (2004-2005) Compared to SPPD:
                                           National Averages      SPPD
Starting Officer Pay:                      $36,048                $31,741
Top Officer Pay:                           $51,048                $43,930
Employer Family Health %:                  83.58%                 82%
Retiree Health Insurance %:                86%                    0
                                                                  4% to 8%
Employer Retirement Contribution:          11.89%                 (MSRS/457)
Employee Retirement Contribution:          5.54%                  6.5% to 18% (MSRS/457)




                                                                                           Page 33 of 33
                                   BIBLIOGRAPHY


"Innovations in Police Recruitment and Hiring: Hiring in the Spirit of Service" Ellen
Scrivner, Ph.D., U.S. Dept. of Justice, 2001


"Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies: Readings on the Determinants of Police
Strength, Hiring and Retention of Officers, and the Federal Cops Program" Christopher
S. Koper, Edward R. Maguire, and Gretchen Moore, Urban Institute, 2001


"Police Personnel Challenges After September 11: Anticipating Expanded Duties and a
Changing Labor Pool" Barbara Raymond, Laura J. Hickman, Laura Miller, Jennifer S.
Wong, Rand Corporation, 2005




                                                                              Page 34 of 33

				
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