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Marsha's Earthquake PBL

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					Written By: Marsha Daniel
Science: 7th & 8th Grade
Tolleston Middle School

                             IS THE MILLER SECTION OF GARY A SAFE LOCATION
                   FOR THE GARY COMMUNITY SCHOOL CORPORATION BUILD A NEW SCHOOL?

THE PROBLEM

Recently the Gary Community School Corporation and its Board was approached by a group of teachers, students, and
parents concerning the need for a new school for Emerson Visual & Performing Arts. They informed that Board that the
school was one-hundred years old and in need of major repair. The students and parents had the building assessed to see
if it the building was safe. The school board decided to close the school permanently on June 6. 2008.

The School Board and the community met to decide where the school should be built. At the next meeting the Board
proposed to relocate the school in a school presently located in Miller and then in one year build a new school in the Miller
Section of Gary. One of the parents reminded the board of the recent earthquake that occurred in Indiana on April 18, 2008.
He stated that it was the worst earthquake in Indiana’s history. The parent was very informative. He also informed the
board of a recent earthquake in China that destroyed 7,000 classrooms and over 10,000 children lost their lives. An expert
also reported that a larger earthquake would sure happen in Indiana. The parents were concerned that their children would
be in school at the time of this major natural disaster. They presented the board with a petition signed by over 500 parents,
requesting that the school not be built on ground composed of unconsolidated sediment (beach sand) as it is in Miller.

The Corporation had several community forums on where to build a new Visual and Performing Arts School.

A radical new proposal was suggested by the board to drill down to the underlying bedrock and build in Miller. The
Corporation is concerned with spending the money for this project because of funding being significantly reduced. The
board voiced that their engineers reported that the building that they would be building would be structurally sound and able
to withstand a major earthquake with a magnitude of at least “7”. The board also reassured the parents that such an
earthquake would not occur in Gary, Indiana, because Gary was not on a major fault zone.

The Board discussed all of the parents and students concerns. They stated the safety of the students is a major concern of
the corporation. They concluded by saying that the parents do have some legitimate concerns that would need further
study. They asked the students several questions regarding earthquakes in Indiana, they questioned them as to their
understanding of Indiana Geology (sediment), and their opinion as to what kind of structure would stand due to
earthquakes. The students were unable to answer these questions. The Supervisor of Grounds for the Corporation
suggested that the students be involved in providing the board with the necessary research in order for them to make a
decision. This would be an excellent learning experience. The students were asked to prepare a report, a presentation,
together with a proposal to be presented at the next board meeting for further action.


Written By: Marsha Daniel


THE TASK:
Over the next four weeks, you will complete the preliminary studies/research, making notes on notecards as you go. Use
your notecards to write down questions that come up as you go. Based on your findings prepare a report and a proposal to
the board stating the type of structure that you recommend that they build and where it should be built. Should the school
be built in Miller Beach on in another location where there is bedrock instead of loose sediment? Provide support for the
structure that would withstand a major earthquake. State and support your proposal on where to build the new school.
Written By: Marsha Daniel

PRELIMINARY WORK:
Over the next four weeks, you will study four topics. For each of the topics there will be one or more lessons/activities that
will prepare you to complete the entire task. As you complete the lessons, check off the lessons completed on your check-
off sheet. When your group has completed the lessons for your topics, please refer to the task (problem statement) on the
first page.

Topic One: Plate Tectonics
Activity: Snack Tectonics
          Step 1: Earth Structure and Plates
          Step 2: Plate Movement and Boundaries
          Step 3: Where Earthquake occurs (globally & IN)

Topic Two: Seismic Waves
Activity: Human Wave (demonstrating P & S waves)
          Step 1: Types of Energy released during an EQ
                  (Earthquake table-for demonstration)
                  (force, gravity, and friction)
          Step 2: Types of Seismic Waves
                  (primary, secondary, surface)
                  (reading a seismograph)
          Step 3: Locating the Epicenter
                  (Skill lab-pg.314)

Topic Three: Earthquake Hazards & Engineering
Activity: Day the Earth Shook, Explore Structural Engineering
         Step 1: What are Earthquake Hazards?
                 (UP Seis and Educational Site for Budding Seismologists)
         Step 2: Earthquake Intensity & Hazards
                 (Compare Richter & Mercalli Scale)
         Step 3: Lab Activity – Exploring Structural Engineering
         Step 4: USGS “Did You Feel It?

Topic Four: Geology of Northwest Indiana
Activity: 1. Shake, Rattle and Roll: Studying the Effects of an Earthquake
          2. Cupcake Core Sampling
           3. Fenwick Island, Maryland and Beyond: Who Owns the Sand. Can we build on sand?
         Step 1: Geology of Northwest Indiana
         Step 2: Sedimentary Rock
                 (Law of Superposition)
         Step 3: Relative Age of Rock



Student: Final Reflection Paper


Marsha Daniel Lesson 1
                                     TIMELINE OF LESSONS




             DATE                      TOPIC                           ACTIVITY                           RATION

MONDAY                   Plate Tectonics                   Overview of Plate Tectonic Power    Student Understan
                                                           Point Presentation                  Earthquakes

TUESDAY                  Plate Tectonics                   Activity: Snack Tectonics           Students Understa
                                                                                               Earthquakes

WEDNESDAY                Plate Tectonics                   Science Explorer Textbook (7)       Students Understa
                                                                                               Earthquakes
                                                              1. Earth’s Interior pg 262
                                                              2. Drifting Continents pg 274
                                                              3. The Theory of Plate
                                                                  Tectonics pg. 288
THURSDAY                 Plate Tectonics                   Technology The Jules Verne          Students Understa
                                                           Voyager website (Global)            movement activate

FRIDAY                   Plate Tectonics                   *Technology USGS                    Students Understa
                                                                                               the area but Earthq
                                                            Earthquake website for             occur
                                                            Northwest Indiana

                                                           *Review and Reinforce The

                                                            Theory of Plate Tectonic-

                                                            Understanding Main Idea

                                                            Workbook pg 42-46




Marsha Daniel Lesson 2

                                     TIMELINE OF LESSONS




           DATE              TOPIC                     ACTIVITY                         RATIONALE
MONDAY                   Seismic Waves   Overview of Earthquakes      Students Understand even
                                         and Seismic Waves Power      though they are not sitting
                                         Point Presentation.          on a fault zone they could
                                                                      still be effected by Waves
                                                                      Traveling.

TUESDAY                  Seismic Waves   Science Explorer Textbook    Students Understand even
                                         (7)                          though they are not sitting
                                                                      on a fault zone they could
                                         *Earthquakes and Seismic     still be effected by Waves
                                          Chap 9-Waves pg. 307-313    Traveling.

                                         *Monitoring EQ pg 317-321

WEDNESDAY                Seismic Waves   *Pass out handout on         Students Understand how
                                         Seismic                      waves locate Earthquakes

                                          Waves for Discussion
                                         before

                                          Activity.

                                         *Activity: Human Wave

                                          demonstrating the P and S

                                          wave.



THURSDAY                 Seismic Waves   Technology Seismic Reading   Students Understand
                                         Seismograph USGS             difference between travel
                                         Albuquerque Seismological    times of waves
                                         Laboratory

FRIDAY                   Seismic Waves                                Students Understand
                                                                      difference between travel
                                          Insert Data on pre-         times of waves
                                         constructed

                                         sheet to measure S & P
                                         wave.

                                         *Review & Reinforce




Marsha Daniel Lesson 3
                                   TIMELINE OF LESSONS



           DATE            TOPIC                       ACTIVITY                     RATIONALE

MONDAY            Earthquake Hazards &       Overview of Earthquake          Students Understand the
                  Engineering                Hazards & Engineering.          magnitude of Earthquakes,
                                             Power Point Presentation.       hazards and building
                                                                             engineering.

TUESDAY           Earthquake Hazards &       Technology Integration. EQ      Students Understand the
                  Engineering                hazard in the Heart of the      magnitude of Earthquakes,
                                             Homeland. .Students will        hazards and building
                                             print article for reading and   engineering.
                                             class discussion. Is
                                             Northwest Indiana at risk of
                                             an Earthquake?

WEDNESDAY         Earthquake Hazards &       Science Explorer Textbook:      Students Understand the
                  Engineering                (7)                             magnitude of Earthquakes,
                                                                             hazards and building
                                             *Measuring Earthquakes          engineering.
                                              Chap 9: pg 310-313

                                             *Use handouts on overhead

                                              projector to view
                                             information

                                              on the Richter & Marcalli

                                              Magnitude Scale &
                                             Compare.



THURSDAY          Earthquake Hazards &       Activity: Day the Earth         Students Understand the
                  Engineering                Shook. To explore structural    magnitude of Earthquakes,
                                             engineering through design      hazards and building
                                             models made in class.           engineering.

FRIDAY            Earthquake Hazards &       Above activity for 2 class      Student Understands the
                  Engineering                periods.                        magnitude of Earthquakes,
                                                                             hazards and building
                                                                             engineering.
Marsha Daniel Lesson 4

                                          TIMELINE OF LESSONS



           DATE                   TOPIC                      ACTIVITY                      RATIONALE

MONDAY                   Geology of Northwest      Overview of the Geology of      Student Understanding the
                         Indiana                   Northwest Indiana. Power        substrate of Indiana and
                                                   Point Presentation.             what would happen if it is
                                                                                   shaken by an Earthquake

TUESDAY                  Geology of Northwest      Technology Integration:         Students Understand how
                         Indiana                   *Indiana Geological Survey:     and why bedrock geology
                                                                                   fits in Indiana.
                                                   Tectonic features of Indiana
                                                   *Observe an animation

                                                    showing the formation of
                                                   an

                                                     unconformity.

WEDNESDAY                Geology of Northwest      Science Explorer Textbook       Students understand how
                         Indiana                   (7)                             sedimentary, igneous, and
                                                                                   metamorphic rocks are
                                                   Chap 11-Sedimentary Rocks       formed.
                                                   382-386.

                                                   Science Explorer Textbook
                                                   (8)

                                                   Chap 7-The Relative Age of
                                                   Rocks.

THURSDAY                 Geology of Northwest      Activity: Shake, Rattle and     Student Understanding the
                         Indiana                   Roll: Studying the Effects of   substrate of Indiana and
                                                   an Earthquake                   what would happen if it is
                                                                                   shaken by an Earthquake

FRIDAY                   Geology of Northwest      Fenwick Island, Maryland        Student Understanding the
                         Indiana                   and Beyond: Who Owns the        substrate of Indiana and
                                                   Sand. Can we build on sand?     what would happen if you
                                                                                   build a school on sand.
Agenda for Power Up for Science Assessment Workshops

October 9 Session
Compare and contrast evaluation and assessment
Compare and contrast accountability, summative, and formative assessment
Validity and reliability issues
Make explicit learning goals for PBS unit
Determine performance criteria
Develop a scoring rubric

October 23 Session
Explain formative assessment in science classrooms
Describe informal and formal formative assessment
Present examples formative assessment strategies and how they’re used
Identify intervals in PBS units where formative assessment is appropriate
Brainstorm appropriate FA strategies for PBS units
Workshop time for developing FA strategies

November 6 Session
Review formative assessment purposes and forms
Present more formative assessment strategies
Workshop time for embedding FA in PBS units
                                        POWER UP FOR SCIENCE
                                PROBLEM-BASED SCIENCE ASSESSMENT PLAN

Title of Unit: Earthquakes

Problem Statement: Does the Gary Community School Corporation need to change the location of
Emerson V.P.A.

Task: Over the next four weeks, complete the preliminary studies/research, making notes as you go Use
notecards about the various questions that come up as you go. Based on your findings prepare a report
and a proposal to the board stating the type of structure that you recommend and where it should be
built in Miller Beach or on bedrock. Provide support for the structure that would wi6thstand a major
earthquake. State and support your proposal on where to build the new school.

               Topic                                                  Learning Goals
Plate Tectonics                    Students should know that the solid outer layer of the earth is made of separate
                                   sections called plates. Should know that any place where plates meet is called a
                                   plate boundary. They should know how plates move and where the boundaries are
                                   found. Students should know terms.
Seismic Waves                      Students will learn about the four types of seismic waves, their characteristics and
                                   effects. Students should be able to predict the level of damage each wave might
                                   cause. Students should know terms.

Earthquake hazards                 Students will learn that magnitude, distance to epicenter, and rock types are the
                                   key factors that influence the amount of shaking going on.
                                   Students will compare two major earthquakes: Students will gather data and
                                   compare the 1906 San Francisco & 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquakes.
                                   Students will make model building structures using different materials that
                                   withstand an earthquake of various magnitudes. Students should know terms.
Geology of Indiana                 Students should understand substrate layer and how deep bedrock is. Understand
                                   level of sediment and what would happen if shaken by an earthquake. They should
                                   know that rock types influence the amount of shaking due to an earthquake.
                                   Students should determine the factors that cause liquefaction. Students should
                                   know terms.




How learning goals will be made explicit to students?

Learning goals will be made explicit to students as follows:
1.   Introductory power point presentations for each lesson.
2.   Discuss concepts and standards associated with lesson.
3.   Use of textbook for reading and understanding.
4.   Terminology provided to students for each lesson.
5.   Use of activities to reinforce and support each lesson.
6.   Use of computer technology
7.   Computer simulations.
8.   Online resources.
9.   Use of compare and contrast (Venn Diagram)
Creating a Rubric
List the criteria for the performance task. Criteria should be as closely tied to learning goals as possible.
Using various activities and research sources the students will research earthquakes, describe plate tectonics,
and how different types of seismic waves effect earthquakes. Students will also research how magnitude,
distance to the epicenter and rock type will determine the amount of shaking that occurs during an earthquake.
Students must design a model building using different materials to be presented to educate the community and
convince the school board how different types of sediment, as well as materials used for the building is
important when making the decision as to where to build a new school. Students will work in groups to create
the project. Students will be filling out notecards to record their information. Students will be required to
present their research in the form of a proposal to the school board. The students must also explain their
proposal based on their findings. Students my use posters or power points as a part of their presentation.

What will count as evidence for exemplary performance?
*All Proficient Criteria Met



Will students be allowed to self-assess or peer assess before submitting their final task?
Students will be able to peer assess before submitting their final task.


How will a grade be determined?
A grade will be determined based on formative assessments, summative assessment, and presentation to board.


How will feedback be given to students about their performance?
Feedback will be given to students after formative assessments, when they complete each task, and final grade
will also be used as feedback.



How will the summative assessment outcomes be used to direct future revisions/enhancements to your PBS
unit? Depending on the outcomes, I will use more enrichment exercises or use additional resources to reinforce
the content.

Reflect and critique your summative assessment plans.
Does the summative assessment task capture all of the important knowledge and skills you want the students to
learn? Yes




How will you know what or how much your students have learned?
My students will journal, during the lessons I will have each student journal what they have learned. Short
assessments will also be given. They will be oral and written. I plan to use games to also assess their
knowledge.
How will you monitor students’ learning progress during the unit?
By student’s journaling and being able to write in their own words what they have learned through prompts
given to them. Also by using a sit down test on the content up to a certain point. The test will be used to identify
weaknesses

Student___________________________ Class__________ Score______________

Analytic Rubric Framework: PBL Unit: Earthquakes
                         4                   3                                   2                       1
     Trait
Defining the        Student states the       Student used relevant     Student used some       Student show no
problem             problem clearly and      information and           relevant                attempt or does not
                    identifies underlying    adequately defines the    information but did     identify the problem.
                    issues. All relevant     problem.                  not define problem
                    information used to                                adequately.
                    solve the problem.

Developing a        Student used a clear     Student used an           Attempted to solve      Student does not
Plan to Solve the   and concise strategy     adequate plan, content    the problem. No         develop a strategy to
Problem             to solve the problem.    knowledge appropriate     plan lead to an         solve the problem.
                    Content knowledge        with minor errors.        answer. Used no
                    is used correctly.                                 content.

Collecting and      Student collects         Student collects          Student collects        Student collects no
Analyzing           information from         adequate information      inadequate              viable information.
Information         multiple sources and     and adequately            information
                    analyzes the             explains answer, but      necessary to
                    information and          leaves out details.       perform
                    answered the                                       explanation.
                    problem.
Interpreting        Student provides a       Student provides an       Student provides an     Student does not
Findings and        logical interpretation   adequate interpretation   inadequate              interpret the finding
Solving the         of the findings and      of the findings and       interpretation of the   or reach a
Problem             clearly solves the       solves the problem,       findings and does       conclusion.
                    problem, offering        but fails to provide      not come to a
                    alternative solutions.   alternatives.             logical solution to
                                                                       the problem.
Communication       Student uses             Student uses language,    Student uses little     Student does not
                    language, graphs,        graphs, diagrams,         or no language,         use adequate
                    diagrams, and/or         and/or charts             graphs, diagrams,       language, graphs,
                    charts appropriately.    appropriately, but may    and/or charts, but      diagrams, and/or
                    Solution is present in   have some errors.         contain several         charts. There are
                    a clear and concise      Solution is presented     errors, unclear,        several errors,
                    manner so the reader     so reader can follow      steps are missing or    unclear, nearly all
                    can follow the           most of the steps in      out of order.           the steps are
                    solution.                the solution.                                     missing, unclear.
Holistic Rubric Framework
Score          Performance Description
                                     POWER UP FOR SCIENCE
                     EMBEDDING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN PROBLEM-BASE LEARNING


                                                                                    Teacher
                                                                                    makes
                                                                                    relevant
  Teacher                                                   Teacher                 instructional
  Elicits                Students respond with
                                                            recognizes and          decisions
  Students’              conceptions at a given
                         point in time                      responds with
  Current                                                   feedback                Students
  Conceptions                                                                       take action
                                                                                    to progress
                                                                                    toward
                                                                                    learning
                                                                                    goal(s)


Instructional Strategies Useful for Formative Assessment Purposes
background knowledge probe          think-pair-share
models and concept maps             peer and self-assessment
figure with writing prompt          minute paper/exit card
predict-observe-explain             journal prompts
KWL chart                           whole class (Socratic) questioning
T-chart                             small group dialogue
cognitive rehearsal                 graphic organizer
Venn diagram                        word map
flow chart                          RERUN (Recall, Explain, Results, Uncertainties, New things learned)

Formative Assessment Considerations
At what points during PBL does embedding formative assessment seem most reasonable/logical? Identify
places in your unit where you can embed meaningful formative assessment strategies.

I think that formative assessments should be given after the introduction and discussion of the content for each
lesson and after each activity.

What formative assessment strategies would be most useful at each point you identified above?
Journal prompts, background knowledge probe, Venn diagrams, and peer assessment.

How do you intend to provide students with feedback about their learning progress?
After each formative assessment and during class depending on what we are doing, I will give immediate
feedback to help guide them in the right direction and keep them focused on the task of the problem statement.
How will you enhance or revise you unit in light of formative assessment outcomes?
Depending on the outcomes of the formative assessments I will enhance or revise my unit for clarity or level of
difficulty.

Devise a plan to help students metacognitively reflect on the problem statement at the end of each topic.

My plan to help students metacognitively reflect on the problem statement at the end of each topic is as follows:
  1. Have each student purchase a binder for the unit,
  2. Introduce the unit and the individual lessons. Provide each student with a copy of the problem statement
      that will remain in the front of the binder at all times for review.
  3. Give each student a pre-test before each lesson, an assessment during each lesson and at the end of the
      unit.
  4. As we advance to the next lesson develop a connection between the new lesson and the one they have
      already learned.
  5. During the lesson I will ask students in their own words what the lesson is about and apply it to their
      problem statement.
  6. Students will be put in small groups to compare the similarities and differences between the problem
      they are working on and other problems that they have solved. They will be asked to explain why they
      said what they said.
  7. After all the lessons are presented have the student’s put in their journal how they plan to solve the
      problem.
  8. At strategic points during the lesson, I plan to review and test to see if the students have obtained
      mastery.
  9. I plan to do enrichment activities for each lesson.
  10. In the journal students will reflect on the problem and their solution to see if it makes sense.
  11. After teacher feedback, students will write in their journals how they might solve the problem
      differently.
  12. Allow student’s to do peer-assessments on each other.
  13. The student that is being assessed will write in his/her journal whether or not they agree with their
      friend’s assessment.
  14. My last step is to provide feedback.
                         4               3   2   1
      Trait
Defining the   Student states the
problem        problem clearly and
               identifies underlying
               issues using objectives
               for plate tectonics.
Embedding Formative Assessment in Problem-based Learning-Unit: Earthquakes

     Place in unit to embed       Useful/Appropriate Formative          How feedback will be given to    How instructional plans will be
      formative assessment                   Strategy                              students                revised based on outcomes
Plate Tectonics                Beginning: background knowledge      *Pretest-discuss content that was   Revise the activities and lessons
                               probe                                  missed.                           to have students engage in the
                               After Intro: Venn Diagram (compare    *Show correct Venn Diagram on      problem-solving process and
                               & contrast plates)                     overhead projector                make the lecturing as brief as
                               Journal prompt                       *Whole class: Teacher-student       possible.
                               End: RERUN                             conferences
                               Beginning: background knowledge      *Pretest-discuss content that was   Encourage more peer-to-peer
Seismic Waves                  probe                                  missed.                           assessment and interaction.
                               After Intro: Venn Diagram (compare    *Show correct Venn Diagram on
                               & seismic waves)                       overhead projector                Create student initiative to
                               Journal prompt                       *Whole class: Teacher-student       learn, and support the learning
                               End: RERUN                             conferences                       process.
                               Beginning: background knowledge      *Pretest-discuss content that was
Earthquake Hazards &           probe                                  missed.                           Provide resource and tools to
Engineering                    Small group dialogue                 *Whole class: Teacher-student       support students’ learning using
                               Journal prompt                         conferences                       the web, vides, or short lecture.
                               End: RERUN                           *Use number code to provide
                                                                      students with comments.           If students are still not
                                                                                                        understanding, I will develop a
Geology of Northwest Indiana   Beginning: background knowledge      *Pretest-discuss content that was   series of mini-lectures.
                               probe                                 missed.
                               Predict-observe-explain              *Whole class: Teacher-student
                               Peer and self-assessment              conferences
                               Journal prompt                       *Use number code to provide
                                                                     student with comments.
Marsha Daniel

Power Up Assessment Session #3 Pre-reflection
At the last session we learned about embedding assessment into PBL. I felt overwhelmed and
not sure that I understood how to formulate an assessment or rubric.


Power Up Assessment Session #3 Post-reflection
After the presentation I was not as reluctant to continue. My understanding became much
clearer. I was able to complete my assessment plan and answer some of the questions on
creating a rubric and critiquing my summative assessment plan. I found this to be a lot of work,
which required a lot of time outside of the two hours at IUN. I am almost finished. This was a
challenge that I do not regret. There is nothing wrong with using your mind because it is a
terrible thing to waste. Thanks for the challenge. I feel a sense of accomplishment. I appreciate
you for doing such a great job on teaching on assessments. Overall this experience was a
learning experience and something I will keep.

				
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