Written By: Marsha Daniel Science: 7th & 8th Grade Tolleston Middle School IS THE MILLER SECTION OF GARY A SAFE LOCATION FOR THE GARY COMMUNITY SCHOOL CORPORATION BUILD A NEW SCHOOL? THE PROBLEM Recently the Gary Community School Corporation and its Board was approached by a group of teachers, students, and parents concerning the need for a new school for Emerson Visual & Performing Arts. They informed that Board that the school was one-hundred years old and in need of major repair. The students and parents had the building assessed to see if it the building was safe. The school board decided to close the school permanently on June 6. 2008. The School Board and the community met to decide where the school should be built. At the next meeting the Board proposed to relocate the school in a school presently located in Miller and then in one year build a new school in the Miller Section of Gary. One of the parents reminded the board of the recent earthquake that occurred in Indiana on April 18, 2008. He stated that it was the worst earthquake in Indiana’s history. The parent was very informative. He also informed the board of a recent earthquake in China that destroyed 7,000 classrooms and over 10,000 children lost their lives. An expert also reported that a larger earthquake would sure happen in Indiana. The parents were concerned that their children would be in school at the time of this major natural disaster. They presented the board with a petition signed by over 500 parents, requesting that the school not be built on ground composed of unconsolidated sediment (beach sand) as it is in Miller. The Corporation had several community forums on where to build a new Visual and Performing Arts School. A radical new proposal was suggested by the board to drill down to the underlying bedrock and build in Miller. The Corporation is concerned with spending the money for this project because of funding being significantly reduced. The board voiced that their engineers reported that the building that they would be building would be structurally sound and able to withstand a major earthquake with a magnitude of at least “7”. The board also reassured the parents that such an earthquake would not occur in Gary, Indiana, because Gary was not on a major fault zone. The Board discussed all of the parents and students concerns. They stated the safety of the students is a major concern of the corporation. They concluded by saying that the parents do have some legitimate concerns that would need further study. They asked the students several questions regarding earthquakes in Indiana, they questioned them as to their understanding of Indiana Geology (sediment), and their opinion as to what kind of structure would stand due to earthquakes. The students were unable to answer these questions. The Supervisor of Grounds for the Corporation suggested that the students be involved in providing the board with the necessary research in order for them to make a decision. This would be an excellent learning experience. The students were asked to prepare a report, a presentation, together with a proposal to be presented at the next board meeting for further action. Written By: Marsha Daniel THE TASK: Over the next four weeks, you will complete the preliminary studies/research, making notes on notecards as you go. Use your notecards to write down questions that come up as you go. Based on your findings prepare a report and a proposal to the board stating the type of structure that you recommend that they build and where it should be built. Should the school be built in Miller Beach on in another location where there is bedrock instead of loose sediment? Provide support for the structure that would withstand a major earthquake. State and support your proposal on where to build the new school. Written By: Marsha Daniel PRELIMINARY WORK: Over the next four weeks, you will study four topics. For each of the topics there will be one or more lessons/activities that will prepare you to complete the entire task. As you complete the lessons, check off the lessons completed on your check- off sheet. When your group has completed the lessons for your topics, please refer to the task (problem statement) on the first page. Topic One: Plate Tectonics Activity: Snack Tectonics Step 1: Earth Structure and Plates Step 2: Plate Movement and Boundaries Step 3: Where Earthquake occurs (globally & IN) Topic Two: Seismic Waves Activity: Human Wave (demonstrating P & S waves) Step 1: Types of Energy released during an EQ (Earthquake table-for demonstration) (force, gravity, and friction) Step 2: Types of Seismic Waves (primary, secondary, surface) (reading a seismograph) Step 3: Locating the Epicenter (Skill lab-pg.314) Topic Three: Earthquake Hazards & Engineering Activity: Day the Earth Shook, Explore Structural Engineering Step 1: What are Earthquake Hazards? (UP Seis and Educational Site for Budding Seismologists) Step 2: Earthquake Intensity & Hazards (Compare Richter & Mercalli Scale) Step 3: Lab Activity – Exploring Structural Engineering Step 4: USGS “Did You Feel It? Topic Four: Geology of Northwest Indiana Activity: 1. Shake, Rattle and Roll: Studying the Effects of an Earthquake 2. Cupcake Core Sampling 3. Fenwick Island, Maryland and Beyond: Who Owns the Sand. Can we build on sand? Step 1: Geology of Northwest Indiana Step 2: Sedimentary Rock (Law of Superposition) Step 3: Relative Age of Rock Student: Final Reflection Paper Marsha Daniel Lesson 1 TIMELINE OF LESSONS DATE TOPIC ACTIVITY RATION MONDAY Plate Tectonics Overview of Plate Tectonic Power Student Understan Point Presentation Earthquakes TUESDAY Plate Tectonics Activity: Snack Tectonics Students Understa Earthquakes WEDNESDAY Plate Tectonics Science Explorer Textbook (7) Students Understa Earthquakes 1. Earth’s Interior pg 262 2. Drifting Continents pg 274 3. The Theory of Plate Tectonics pg. 288 THURSDAY Plate Tectonics Technology The Jules Verne Students Understa Voyager website (Global) movement activate FRIDAY Plate Tectonics *Technology USGS Students Understa the area but Earthq Earthquake website for occur Northwest Indiana *Review and Reinforce The Theory of Plate Tectonic- Understanding Main Idea Workbook pg 42-46 Marsha Daniel Lesson 2 TIMELINE OF LESSONS DATE TOPIC ACTIVITY RATIONALE MONDAY Seismic Waves Overview of Earthquakes Students Understand even and Seismic Waves Power though they are not sitting Point Presentation. on a fault zone they could still be effected by Waves Traveling. TUESDAY Seismic Waves Science Explorer Textbook Students Understand even (7) though they are not sitting on a fault zone they could *Earthquakes and Seismic still be effected by Waves Chap 9-Waves pg. 307-313 Traveling. *Monitoring EQ pg 317-321 WEDNESDAY Seismic Waves *Pass out handout on Students Understand how Seismic waves locate Earthquakes Waves for Discussion before Activity. *Activity: Human Wave demonstrating the P and S wave. THURSDAY Seismic Waves Technology Seismic Reading Students Understand Seismograph USGS difference between travel Albuquerque Seismological times of waves Laboratory FRIDAY Seismic Waves Students Understand difference between travel Insert Data on pre- times of waves constructed sheet to measure S & P wave. *Review & Reinforce Marsha Daniel Lesson 3 TIMELINE OF LESSONS DATE TOPIC ACTIVITY RATIONALE MONDAY Earthquake Hazards & Overview of Earthquake Students Understand the Engineering Hazards & Engineering. magnitude of Earthquakes, Power Point Presentation. hazards and building engineering. TUESDAY Earthquake Hazards & Technology Integration. EQ Students Understand the Engineering hazard in the Heart of the magnitude of Earthquakes, Homeland. .Students will hazards and building print article for reading and engineering. class discussion. Is Northwest Indiana at risk of an Earthquake? WEDNESDAY Earthquake Hazards & Science Explorer Textbook: Students Understand the Engineering (7) magnitude of Earthquakes, hazards and building *Measuring Earthquakes engineering. Chap 9: pg 310-313 *Use handouts on overhead projector to view information on the Richter & Marcalli Magnitude Scale & Compare. THURSDAY Earthquake Hazards & Activity: Day the Earth Students Understand the Engineering Shook. To explore structural magnitude of Earthquakes, engineering through design hazards and building models made in class. engineering. FRIDAY Earthquake Hazards & Above activity for 2 class Student Understands the Engineering periods. magnitude of Earthquakes, hazards and building engineering. Marsha Daniel Lesson 4 TIMELINE OF LESSONS DATE TOPIC ACTIVITY RATIONALE MONDAY Geology of Northwest Overview of the Geology of Student Understanding the Indiana Northwest Indiana. Power substrate of Indiana and Point Presentation. what would happen if it is shaken by an Earthquake TUESDAY Geology of Northwest Technology Integration: Students Understand how Indiana *Indiana Geological Survey: and why bedrock geology fits in Indiana. Tectonic features of Indiana *Observe an animation showing the formation of an unconformity. WEDNESDAY Geology of Northwest Science Explorer Textbook Students understand how Indiana (7) sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks are Chap 11-Sedimentary Rocks formed. 382-386. Science Explorer Textbook (8) Chap 7-The Relative Age of Rocks. THURSDAY Geology of Northwest Activity: Shake, Rattle and Student Understanding the Indiana Roll: Studying the Effects of substrate of Indiana and an Earthquake what would happen if it is shaken by an Earthquake FRIDAY Geology of Northwest Fenwick Island, Maryland Student Understanding the Indiana and Beyond: Who Owns the substrate of Indiana and Sand. Can we build on sand? what would happen if you build a school on sand. Agenda for Power Up for Science Assessment Workshops October 9 Session Compare and contrast evaluation and assessment Compare and contrast accountability, summative, and formative assessment Validity and reliability issues Make explicit learning goals for PBS unit Determine performance criteria Develop a scoring rubric October 23 Session Explain formative assessment in science classrooms Describe informal and formal formative assessment Present examples formative assessment strategies and how they’re used Identify intervals in PBS units where formative assessment is appropriate Brainstorm appropriate FA strategies for PBS units Workshop time for developing FA strategies November 6 Session Review formative assessment purposes and forms Present more formative assessment strategies Workshop time for embedding FA in PBS units POWER UP FOR SCIENCE PROBLEM-BASED SCIENCE ASSESSMENT PLAN Title of Unit: Earthquakes Problem Statement: Does the Gary Community School Corporation need to change the location of Emerson V.P.A. Task: Over the next four weeks, complete the preliminary studies/research, making notes as you go Use notecards about the various questions that come up as you go. Based on your findings prepare a report and a proposal to the board stating the type of structure that you recommend and where it should be built in Miller Beach or on bedrock. Provide support for the structure that would wi6thstand a major earthquake. State and support your proposal on where to build the new school. Topic Learning Goals Plate Tectonics Students should know that the solid outer layer of the earth is made of separate sections called plates. Should know that any place where plates meet is called a plate boundary. They should know how plates move and where the boundaries are found. Students should know terms. Seismic Waves Students will learn about the four types of seismic waves, their characteristics and effects. Students should be able to predict the level of damage each wave might cause. Students should know terms. Earthquake hazards Students will learn that magnitude, distance to epicenter, and rock types are the key factors that influence the amount of shaking going on. Students will compare two major earthquakes: Students will gather data and compare the 1906 San Francisco & 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. Students will make model building structures using different materials that withstand an earthquake of various magnitudes. Students should know terms. Geology of Indiana Students should understand substrate layer and how deep bedrock is. Understand level of sediment and what would happen if shaken by an earthquake. They should know that rock types influence the amount of shaking due to an earthquake. Students should determine the factors that cause liquefaction. Students should know terms. How learning goals will be made explicit to students? Learning goals will be made explicit to students as follows: 1. Introductory power point presentations for each lesson. 2. Discuss concepts and standards associated with lesson. 3. Use of textbook for reading and understanding. 4. Terminology provided to students for each lesson. 5. Use of activities to reinforce and support each lesson. 6. Use of computer technology 7. Computer simulations. 8. Online resources. 9. Use of compare and contrast (Venn Diagram) Creating a Rubric List the criteria for the performance task. Criteria should be as closely tied to learning goals as possible. Using various activities and research sources the students will research earthquakes, describe plate tectonics, and how different types of seismic waves effect earthquakes. Students will also research how magnitude, distance to the epicenter and rock type will determine the amount of shaking that occurs during an earthquake. Students must design a model building using different materials to be presented to educate the community and convince the school board how different types of sediment, as well as materials used for the building is important when making the decision as to where to build a new school. Students will work in groups to create the project. Students will be filling out notecards to record their information. Students will be required to present their research in the form of a proposal to the school board. The students must also explain their proposal based on their findings. Students my use posters or power points as a part of their presentation. What will count as evidence for exemplary performance? *All Proficient Criteria Met Will students be allowed to self-assess or peer assess before submitting their final task? Students will be able to peer assess before submitting their final task. How will a grade be determined? A grade will be determined based on formative assessments, summative assessment, and presentation to board. How will feedback be given to students about their performance? Feedback will be given to students after formative assessments, when they complete each task, and final grade will also be used as feedback. How will the summative assessment outcomes be used to direct future revisions/enhancements to your PBS unit? Depending on the outcomes, I will use more enrichment exercises or use additional resources to reinforce the content. Reflect and critique your summative assessment plans. Does the summative assessment task capture all of the important knowledge and skills you want the students to learn? Yes How will you know what or how much your students have learned? My students will journal, during the lessons I will have each student journal what they have learned. Short assessments will also be given. They will be oral and written. I plan to use games to also assess their knowledge. How will you monitor students’ learning progress during the unit? By student’s journaling and being able to write in their own words what they have learned through prompts given to them. Also by using a sit down test on the content up to a certain point. The test will be used to identify weaknesses Student___________________________ Class__________ Score______________ Analytic Rubric Framework: PBL Unit: Earthquakes 4 3 2 1 Trait Defining the Student states the Student used relevant Student used some Student show no problem problem clearly and information and relevant attempt or does not identifies underlying adequately defines the information but did identify the problem. issues. All relevant problem. not define problem information used to adequately. solve the problem. Developing a Student used a clear Student used an Attempted to solve Student does not Plan to Solve the and concise strategy adequate plan, content the problem. No develop a strategy to Problem to solve the problem. knowledge appropriate plan lead to an solve the problem. Content knowledge with minor errors. answer. Used no is used correctly. content. Collecting and Student collects Student collects Student collects Student collects no Analyzing information from adequate information inadequate viable information. Information multiple sources and and adequately information analyzes the explains answer, but necessary to information and leaves out details. perform answered the explanation. problem. Interpreting Student provides a Student provides an Student provides an Student does not Findings and logical interpretation adequate interpretation inadequate interpret the finding Solving the of the findings and of the findings and interpretation of the or reach a Problem clearly solves the solves the problem, findings and does conclusion. problem, offering but fails to provide not come to a alternative solutions. alternatives. logical solution to the problem. Communication Student uses Student uses language, Student uses little Student does not language, graphs, graphs, diagrams, or no language, use adequate diagrams, and/or and/or charts graphs, diagrams, language, graphs, charts appropriately. appropriately, but may and/or charts, but diagrams, and/or Solution is present in have some errors. contain several charts. There are a clear and concise Solution is presented errors, unclear, several errors, manner so the reader so reader can follow steps are missing or unclear, nearly all can follow the most of the steps in out of order. the steps are solution. the solution. missing, unclear. Holistic Rubric Framework Score Performance Description POWER UP FOR SCIENCE EMBEDDING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN PROBLEM-BASE LEARNING Teacher makes relevant Teacher Teacher instructional Elicits Students respond with recognizes and decisions Students’ conceptions at a given point in time responds with Current feedback Students Conceptions take action to progress toward learning goal(s) Instructional Strategies Useful for Formative Assessment Purposes background knowledge probe think-pair-share models and concept maps peer and self-assessment figure with writing prompt minute paper/exit card predict-observe-explain journal prompts KWL chart whole class (Socratic) questioning T-chart small group dialogue cognitive rehearsal graphic organizer Venn diagram word map flow chart RERUN (Recall, Explain, Results, Uncertainties, New things learned) Formative Assessment Considerations At what points during PBL does embedding formative assessment seem most reasonable/logical? Identify places in your unit where you can embed meaningful formative assessment strategies. I think that formative assessments should be given after the introduction and discussion of the content for each lesson and after each activity. What formative assessment strategies would be most useful at each point you identified above? Journal prompts, background knowledge probe, Venn diagrams, and peer assessment. How do you intend to provide students with feedback about their learning progress? After each formative assessment and during class depending on what we are doing, I will give immediate feedback to help guide them in the right direction and keep them focused on the task of the problem statement. How will you enhance or revise you unit in light of formative assessment outcomes? Depending on the outcomes of the formative assessments I will enhance or revise my unit for clarity or level of difficulty. Devise a plan to help students metacognitively reflect on the problem statement at the end of each topic. My plan to help students metacognitively reflect on the problem statement at the end of each topic is as follows: 1. Have each student purchase a binder for the unit, 2. Introduce the unit and the individual lessons. Provide each student with a copy of the problem statement that will remain in the front of the binder at all times for review. 3. Give each student a pre-test before each lesson, an assessment during each lesson and at the end of the unit. 4. As we advance to the next lesson develop a connection between the new lesson and the one they have already learned. 5. During the lesson I will ask students in their own words what the lesson is about and apply it to their problem statement. 6. Students will be put in small groups to compare the similarities and differences between the problem they are working on and other problems that they have solved. They will be asked to explain why they said what they said. 7. After all the lessons are presented have the student’s put in their journal how they plan to solve the problem. 8. At strategic points during the lesson, I plan to review and test to see if the students have obtained mastery. 9. I plan to do enrichment activities for each lesson. 10. In the journal students will reflect on the problem and their solution to see if it makes sense. 11. After teacher feedback, students will write in their journals how they might solve the problem differently. 12. Allow student’s to do peer-assessments on each other. 13. The student that is being assessed will write in his/her journal whether or not they agree with their friend’s assessment. 14. My last step is to provide feedback. 4 3 2 1 Trait Defining the Student states the problem problem clearly and identifies underlying issues using objectives for plate tectonics. Embedding Formative Assessment in Problem-based Learning-Unit: Earthquakes Place in unit to embed Useful/Appropriate Formative How feedback will be given to How instructional plans will be formative assessment Strategy students revised based on outcomes Plate Tectonics Beginning: background knowledge *Pretest-discuss content that was Revise the activities and lessons probe missed. to have students engage in the After Intro: Venn Diagram (compare *Show correct Venn Diagram on problem-solving process and & contrast plates) overhead projector make the lecturing as brief as Journal prompt *Whole class: Teacher-student possible. End: RERUN conferences Beginning: background knowledge *Pretest-discuss content that was Encourage more peer-to-peer Seismic Waves probe missed. assessment and interaction. After Intro: Venn Diagram (compare *Show correct Venn Diagram on & seismic waves) overhead projector Create student initiative to Journal prompt *Whole class: Teacher-student learn, and support the learning End: RERUN conferences process. Beginning: background knowledge *Pretest-discuss content that was Earthquake Hazards & probe missed. Provide resource and tools to Engineering Small group dialogue *Whole class: Teacher-student support students’ learning using Journal prompt conferences the web, vides, or short lecture. End: RERUN *Use number code to provide students with comments. If students are still not understanding, I will develop a Geology of Northwest Indiana Beginning: background knowledge *Pretest-discuss content that was series of mini-lectures. probe missed. Predict-observe-explain *Whole class: Teacher-student Peer and self-assessment conferences Journal prompt *Use number code to provide student with comments. Marsha Daniel Power Up Assessment Session #3 Pre-reflection At the last session we learned about embedding assessment into PBL. I felt overwhelmed and not sure that I understood how to formulate an assessment or rubric. Power Up Assessment Session #3 Post-reflection After the presentation I was not as reluctant to continue. My understanding became much clearer. I was able to complete my assessment plan and answer some of the questions on creating a rubric and critiquing my summative assessment plan. I found this to be a lot of work, which required a lot of time outside of the two hours at IUN. I am almost finished. This was a challenge that I do not regret. There is nothing wrong with using your mind because it is a terrible thing to waste. Thanks for the challenge. I feel a sense of accomplishment. I appreciate you for doing such a great job on teaching on assessments. Overall this experience was a learning experience and something I will keep.
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