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South Africa General

Al-Omari, G., ‘Comments on the South African Refugee Act 1994’, unpublished
   working draft (Oxford, 1996).
Ballard, R., ‘Preliminary Considerations on the Relationship between Refugees and
   the City of eThekwini’ in Forced Migrants in the New Johannesburg: Towards a
   Local Government Response, ed. L.B. Landau, (Johannesburg, 2005) 103–108.
Barutciski, M., ‘The Development of Refugee Law and Policy in South Africa: a
   Commentary on the 1997 Green Paper and 1998 White Paper/Draft Bill,’
   International Journal of Refugee Law 10, no. 4 (1998): 700–724.
Belvedere, F., National Refugee Baseline Survey: Final Report, Community Agency
   for Social Enquiry (CASE), Japan International Cooperation, and United
   Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Johannesburg, 2003).
Cawthra, G., Policing South Africa (Cape Town, 1993).
Centre for Applied Legal Studies, ‘Comments on the Draft Refugee Bill’,
   unpublished (Johannesburg, 1998).
Crush, J., Covert Operations: Clandestine Migration, Temporary Work and
   Immigration Policy in South Africa, SAMP Policy Series, no. 1 (Cape Town, 1997).
__________, ed., Beyond Control: Immigration and Human Rights in a Democratic
   South Africa (Cape Town, 1998).
__________, ‘The Discourse and Dimensions of Irregularity in Post-Apartheid South
   Africa’, International Migration 37, no. 1 (1999): 125–51.
Currie, I. and J. Klaaren, The Promotion of Access to Information Act: A
   Commentary (Johannesburg, 2002).
Currie, I. and J. De Waal, The Bill of Rights Handbook, 5th edn (Johannesburg,
   2005).
Danso, R. and D. McDonald, ‘Writing Xenophobia: Immigration and the Print
   Media in Post-apartheid South Africa’, Africa Today 48, no. 3 (2001): 115–37.
de la Hunt, L., ‘Comments on the Second Draft of the Refugees Bill’, unpublished
   paper presented at the Human Rights Commission’s Workshop on the Second
   Draft Refugees Bill (Johannesburg, 1996).
318                                       Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa



__________, ‘Refugees and Immigration Law in South Africa’, in Beyond Control:
   Immigration and Human Rights in a Democratic South Africa, ed. J. Crush
   (Cape Town, 1998).
__________, Tracking Progress: Initial Experiences with the Refugees Act, 130 of
   1998 (Pretoria, 2002).
__________, ‘Refugee Law in South Africa: Making the Road of the Refugee
   Longer?’, in World Refugee Survey 2002 ed. US Committee for Refugees
   (Washington, 2002).
Dolan, C. Report to Norwegian Refugee Council (Oslo, 1995).
__________, ‘Aliens Aboard: Mozambicans in the. New South Africa’, Indicator SA
   12, no. 3 (1995).
Handmaker, J. ‘Who Determines Policy? Promoting the Right of Asylum in South
   Africa’, International Journal of Refugee Law11, no. 2 (1999): 290–309.
__________, ‘No Easy Walk: Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa’, Africa
   Today 48, no. 3 (2001): 91–113.
__________ and J. Parsley, ‘Migration, Refugees and Racism in South Africa’,
   Refuge 20, no. 1 (2002): 40–51.
__________, L. De la Hunt and J. Klaaren, eds, Perspectives on Refugee Protection
   in South Africa (Pretoria, 2001).
Harber, A., ‘The Sun Bares its Rotten Teeth’, Moneyweb, 25 April (2006).
Harris, B., A Foreign Experience: Violence, Crime, and Xenophobia During South
   Africa’s Transition, Violence and Transition Series vol. 5 (Johannesburg, 2001).
Hathaway, J., ‘Towards the Reformulation of International Refugee Law: a Model
   for Collectivized Protection and Solution-oriented Protection’, Unpublished
   submission to the South African Green Paper Task Team on International
   Migration (Cape Town, 1997).
__________, ‘Temporary Protection: Challenge or Solution?’ in Perspectives on
   Refugee Protection in South Africa, ed. J. Handmaker, L. De la Hunt and J.
   Klaaren, Lawyers for Human Rights (Pretoria, 2001), 41–49.
Human Rights Watch, ‘Prohibited Persons’: Abuse of Undocumented Migrants,
   Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in South Africa (New York, 1998).
__________, ‘Comments – Draft Refugee Bill’, unpublished (London, 1998).
__________, ‘Submission to the White Paper Task Group on Refugee Policy’,
   unpublished (London, 1998).
__________, Unprotected Migrants: Zimbabweans in South Africa’s Limpopo
   Province (New York, 2006).
Hunter, N. and C. Skinner, ‘Foreigners Working on the Streets of Durban: Local
   Government Policy Challenges’, Urban Forum 14, no. 4 (2003): 309–19.
Innocenti, N.D., ‘A Magnet for the Rest of the Continent’, Financial Times, 13 April
   (2004): A5.
Jacobsen, K. and S.K. Bailey, ‘Micro-Credit and Banking for Refugees in
   Johannesburg’, in Forced Migrants in the New Johannesburg: Towards a Local
   Government Response, ed. L.B. Landau (Johannesburg, 2004).
Jenkins, F. and L. De la Hunt, Detaining Asylum Seekers: Perspectives on Reception
   Centres for Asylum seekers in South Africa (Pretoria, 2000).
Klaaren, J., ‘Immigration and the South African Constitution’, in Beyond Control:
   Immigration and Human Rights in a Democratic South Africa, ed. J. Crush
   (Cape Town, 1998).
Bibliography                                                                    319



__________, ‘Preliminary Analysis of the Effect of the Draft Immigration Bill on the
   Refugees Act’, unpublished (Johannesburg, 2000).
__________, ‘Contested Citizenship in South Africa’ in The Post-Apartheid
   Constitutions: Perspectives on South Africa’s Basic Law, ed. P. Andrews and S.
   Ellmann (Johannesburg, 2001).
__________, ‘Preliminary Analysis of the Effect of the Draft Immigration Bill on the
   Refugees Act’, unpublished paper presented at the University of Western Cape
   workshop: ‘Forced Migrants in the New Millennium: Problems, Prospects, and
   Solutions’ (Cape Town, 2001).
Landau, L.B., ed., Forced Migrants in the New Johannesburg: Towards a Local
   Government Response (Johannesburg, 2004).
__________, ‘Urbanization, Nativism and the Rule of Law in South Africa’s
   “Forbidden” Cities’, Third World Quarterly 26, no. 7 (2005): 1115–134.
__________, ‘Immigration and the State of Exception: Security and Sovereignty in
   Refugee-Affected Africa.’ Millennium Journal of International Studies 34, no. 2
   (2005): 325–48.
Landau, L.B. and K. Jacobsen, Johannesburg in the 21st Century: Forced Migration,
   Survival, and the Socio-Politics of Urban Space, Partly published survey data
   collected in February-March (Johannesburg, 2003).
Landau, L.B. and K. Jacobsen, ‘Refugees in the New Johannesburg’, Forced
   Migration Review 19 (2004): 44–46.
Landau, L.B., A. Bhamjee, K. Ramjathan-Keogh, E. Ramokhele, T. Polzer and G.
   Singh, Crossing Borders, Accessing Rights, and Detention: Asylum and Refugee
   Protection in South Africa, Report prepared on behalf of the South African
   Human Rights Commission (Johannesburg, 2005).
Lawyers for Human Rights (LHR) and Wits Refugee Research Programme, ‘Asylum
   and Naturalisation: Policies and Practices’, unpublished workshop preparatory
   document (Pretoria, 1996).
Lawyers for Human Rights, ‘Asylum and Naturalisation: Policies and Practices’,
   unpublished Workshop Report, (Pretoria, 1996).
__________, ‘Workshop on the Third Draft Refugee Bill’, unpublished report
   (Pretoria, 1998).
__________, ‘Comments on the Draft Refugee White Paper (Notice 1122 of 1998,
   South Africa)’, unpublished (Pretoria, 1998).
Legal Resources Centre, ‘Comments by Legal Resources Centre’, unpublished (Cape
   Town, 1998).
Leggett, T., Rainbow Tenement: Crime and Policing in Inner Johannesburg,
   Monograph no. 78, Institute for Security Studies (Pretoria, 2003).
Machingambi, N., ‘Experiences of Refugees in Cape Town’ in Forced Migrants in
   the New Johannesburg: Towards a Local Government Response, ed. L.B.
   Landau (Johannesburg, 2004).
Minister of Home Affairs, ‘Speech on the occasion of Africa Refugee Day’,
   unpublished (Johannesburg, 2006).
National Consortium on Refugee Affairs (NCRA), ‘Summary of Concerns, Draft
   Refugee Bill 1998: Version Reviewed by the State Law Advisors’, unpublished
   (Pretoria, 1998).
__________, ‘Report on the Exercise to Clear the Backlog of Asylum Applications
   at Appeals Phase in South Africa’, unpublished (Pretoria, 2001).
__________, ‘Refugee Protection in South Africa’, unpublished (Pretoria, 2006).
320                                      Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa



Nkosi, N.G., ‘Influences of Xenophobia on Accessing Health Care for Refugees and
   Asylum Seekers in Johannesburg’, unpublished Master of Arts thesis in Forced
   Migration, University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, 2004).
Palmary, I., Refugees, Safety and Xenophobia in South African Cities: The Role of
   Local Government, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
   (Johannesburg, 2002).
__________, J. Rauch and G. Simpson, ‘Violent Crime in Johannesburg’, in ed. R.
   Tomlinson, R.A. Beauregard, L. Bremner and X. Mangcu, Emerging
   Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City (London, 2003).
Parliamentary Monitoring Group, Home Affairs Portfolio Committee, Social
   Services Select Committee: Joint Meeting, Immigration Bill: Public Hearings, 23
   April (Cape Town, 2002), Last accessed on 2 September 2006 at
   www.pmg.org.za
Peberdy, S., J. Crush and N. Msibi, Migrants in the City of Johannesburg: A Report
   for the City of Johannesburg (Johannesburg, 2004).
Pharoah, R., Getting to Grips with Trafficking: Reflections on Human Trafficking
   Research in South Africa, ISS Monograph, no. 123 (Pretoria, 2006).
Pursell, R., ‘Access to Health Care among Somali Forced Migrants in
   Johannesburg’, unpublished Master of Arts thesis in Forced Migration,
   University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, 2005).
Reitz, M., ‘Alien Issues’, Indicator South Africa 12 (1994): 7–11.
Rogerson, C.M., International Migration, Immigration Entrepreneurs and South
   Africa’s Small Enterprise Economy, Migration Policy Series, no. 3 (Cape Town,
   1997).
Smith, T.R., The Making of the 1998 Refugees Act: Consultation, Compromise, and
   Controversy, Wits Forced Migration Working Paper Series no. 5 (Johannesburg,
   2003).
South African Human Rights Commission, Comments – Draft Refugee Bill,
   unpublished (Johannesburg, 1998).
__________, Illegal?, Report on the Arrest and Detention of Persons in Terms of the
   Aliens Control Act (Johannesburg, 1999).
South African Law Reform Commission, Discussion Paper 111: Trafficking in
   Persons (Pretoria, 2006).
UNHCR, ‘Comments on the Draft White Paper’, unpublished (Pretoria, 1998).
__________, ‘Operational Modalities for the Clearing of the Backlog of Asylum
   Applications in South Africa’, unpublished (Pretoria, no date).
__________, ‘Project Description (on the Backlog Project, Second Phase)’,
   unpublished (Pretoria, no date).
__________, ‘RSD Project UNHCR General Coordinator: Terms of Reference’,
   unpublished (Pretoria, no date).
__________, ‘Refugee Status Determination Project Field Coordinator (Team
   Leader): Terms of Reference’, unpublished, Pretoria (no date).
__________, ‘Refugee Status Determination: Project Eligibility Officer (Case
   Worker): Terms of Reference’, unpublished (Pretoria, no date).
United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on
   Human Rights Practices 2001 (Washington, 2002).
US Committee for Refugees, Country Report: South Africa (New York, 2002).
Bibliography                                                                     321



van Beek, I., ‘Prima Facie Asylum Determination in South Africa: a Description of
   Policy and Practice’ in Perspectives on Refugee Protection in South Africa, ed. J.
   Handmaker, L. De la Hunt, and J. Klaaren (Pretoria, 2001).
van Garderen, J., ‘Introducing Reception Centres’, Botshabelo 2, no. 3 (1999).
__________, ‘New Identification Document: Red Cards for Refugees’, Botshabelo 4,
   no.1 (2001).
Woolman, S., T. Roux, J. Klaaren, M. Chaskalson and A. Stein, Constitutional Law
   of South Africa (Johannesburg, 2004).



Global/Comparative Perspectives

Aleinikoff, T.A., D.A. Martin and H. Motomura, Immigration: Process and Policy,
   5th edn (St Paul, 1995).
Amnesty International, Refugees: Human Rights Have No Borders (London, 1997).
Bauman, Z., Globalization: The Human Consequences (New York, 1998).
BBC, ‘Special Television Coverage of Trafficking and Smuggling’, 21 March 2001.
Beyer, G.A., ‘Human Rights Monitoring and the Failure of Early Warning: A
   Practitioner’s View’, International Journal of Refugee Law 2 (1990): 56–82.
__________, ‘Monitoring Root Causes of Refugee Flows: Early Warning and the
   Need for Substance’, International Journal of Refugee Law Special Issue –
   September (1990): 71–82.
Dimitrichev, T.F., ‘Conceptual Approaches to Early Warning: Mechanisms and
   Methodologies – A View from the United Nations’, International Journal of
   Refugee Law 3 (1991): 264–71.
Dutch Refugee Council and Pharos, Asylum Seekers – Don’t Let Them Just Sit and
   Wait, a Social Indictment (Amsterdam, 1996).
FORUM, Democracy, Migrants and Police in the European Union: The 1996 IGC
   and Beyond (Utrecht, 1997).
Ghosh, J., Huddled Masses and Uncertain Shores: Insights into Irregular Migration
   (The Hague,1998).
__________, ed., Managing Migration: Time for a New International Regime?
   (Oxford, 2001).
Gibney, M.J., ‘Liberal Democratic States and Responsibilities to Refugees’,
   American Political Science Review 93, no.1 (1999): 169–81.
Global Commission for International Migration, Migration in an Interconnected
   World: New Directions for Action (Geneva, 2005).
Goodwin-Gill, G.S., International Law and the Movement of People between States
   (Oxford, 1978).
__________, The Refugee in International Law, 2nd edn (Oxford, 1996).
__________, ‘Crime in International Law: Obligations erga omnes and the Duty to
   Prosecute’, in The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian
   Brownlie, ed. Goodwin-Gill, G.S. and S. Talmon (Oxford, 1999).
Handmaker, J., ‘review of B. Ghosh Managing Migration, et al.’, International
   Journal of Refugee Law 13, no. 3 (2001): 483.
Harrell-Bond, B., ‘Camps: Literature Review’, Forced Migration Review 2, August
   (1998): 22–23.
322                                      Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa



Hathaway, J. and R.A. Neve, ‘Making International Law Relevant Again: a
   Proposal for Collectivized and Solution-oriented Protection’, Harvard Human
   Rights Journal 10 (1997): 115–51.
Human Rights Watch, ed., ‘NGO Background paper on the Refugee and Migration
   Interface’, presented to the UNHCR Global Consultations on International
   Protection (Geneva, 2001).
International Court of Justice, Applicability of the Obligation to Arbitrate under
   Section 21 of the United Nations Headquarters Agreement of 26 June 1947, ICJ
   Reports 12 (1988).
Jennings, R.Y., ‘Some International Law Aspects of the Refugee Question’, British
   Yearbook of International Law 20 (1939): 98–114.
Kälin, W., ‘Supervising the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges: Article 35
   and Beyond’, in Refugee Protection in International Law, ed. E. Feller, V. Türk
   and F. Nicholson (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 613–665.
Kourula, P, Broadening the Edges: Refugee Definition and International Protection
   Revisited (The Hague, 1997).
McDonald, A., ed., Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (Cambridge,
   2005).
Nieuwhof, A. and A. Mohamoud, Communicatie, Sleutel tot Participatie (The
   Hague, 2001).
Permanent Court of International Justice, Exchange of Greek and Turkish
   Populations (1925) PCIJ, Ser. B, no. 10.
Ragazzi, M., The Concept of International Obligations Erga Omnes (Oxford,
   1997).
Ramcharan, B.G., ‘Early Warning at the United Nations: The First Experiment’,
   International Journal of Refugee Law 1 (1989).
Ruhs, M. and H.J. Chang, ‘The Ethics of Labour Immigration Policy’, International
   Organization 58, no. 1 (2004): 69–102.
Ruiz, H.A., ‘Early Warning is Not Enough: the Failure to Prevent Starvation in
   Ethiopia, 1990’, International Journal of Refugee Law Special Issue – September
   (1990): 83–98.
Rusu, S., ‘Refugees, Information and Solutions: the Need for Informed Decision-
   Making’, Refugee Survey Quarterly 13 (1994): 4–10.
__________, ‘The Role of the Collector in Early Warning’, International Journal of
   Refugee Law Special Issue – September (1990).
Sassen, S., Globalisation and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People
   and Money (New York, 1998).
Sassoli, M. and A.A. Bouvier, How Does Law Protect in War?, 2nd edn. (Geneva,
   2006).
Spijkerboer, T., ‘Subsidiarity in Asylum Law: The Personal Scope of International
   Protection’, in Subsidiary protection of Refugees in the European Union:
   Complementing the Geneva Convention?, ed. D. Bouteillet-Paquet (Brussels,
   2002), 19–42.
UNHCR, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status
   under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of
   Refugees, 1979 (re-edited in Geneva, 1992).
__________, The State of the World’s Refugees: In Search of Solutions (Oxford,
   1995).
Bibliography                                                                   323



__________, Refugee Protection and Migration Control: Perspectives from UNHCR
   and IOM (Geneva, 2001).
__________, Addressing Mixed Migratory Movements: A 10-Point Plan of Action
   (Geneva, 2006).
VON, Vrowen in Asielzoekkerscentra (Women in Asylum Seeker Centres) (Utrecht,
   1996).
WARIPNET and the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, ‘From Response to
   Solutions – Strengthening the protection of Refugees through Economic, Social
   and Cultural Rights’, unpublished discussion paper presented at the 51st meeting
   of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme (Geneva,
   2001).



Regional Perspectives

Adepoju, A., ‘Internal and International Migration Within Africa’, in Migration in
   South and Southern Africa, ed. P. Kok, D. Gelderblom, J.O. Oucho and J. van
   Zyl (Pretoria, 2006).
Allen, T. and H. Morsink, eds, When Refugees Go Home: African Experiences
   (Geneva, 1994).
Chitu, E., ‘Refugee Policies in Africa: the Case of Zambia’, unpublished paper
   presented at the 7th International Research and Advisory Panel Conference in
   South Africa (Midrand, 2001).
Crush, J., A. Jeeves and D. Yudelman, South Africa’s Labour Empire: A History of
   Black Migrancy to the Gold Mines (Boulder, 1992).
Crush, J., ‘The Dark Side of Democracy: Migration, Xenophobia and Human
   Rights in South Africa’, International Migration 38 (2000).
Crush, J.and C. Tshitereke, ‘Contesting Migrancy: the Foreign Labour Debate in
   Post-1994 South Africa’, Africa Today 48 (2001): 49–70.
__________ and V. Williams, Making up the Numbers: Measuring ‘Illegal
   Immigration’ to South Africa, Migration Policy Brief no. 3, Southern Africa
   Migration Project (Cape Town, 2001).
Klaaren, J. and B. Rutinwa, Towards the Harmonization of Immigration and
   Refugee Law in SADC, MIDSA Report no. 1, Queen’s University (Kingston,
   2004).
Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, African Exodus (New York, 1995).
Malauene, D., ‘The Impact of the Congolese Forced Migrants’ “Permanent Transit”
   Condition on their Relations with Mozambique and Its People’, unpublished
   Master of Arts thesis in Forced Migration, University of the Witwatersrand
   (Johannesburg, 2004).
Maluwa, T., ‘The Refugee Problem and the Quest for Peace and Security in
   Southern Africa’ International Journal of Refugee Law 7 (1995): 653–75.
Maphosa, F., The Impact of Remittances on Southern Zimbabwe’s Rural Political
   Economy, Wits Forced Migration Working Paper no. 14 (Johannesburg 2004),
   [http://migration.wits.ac.za/Maphosa.pdf].
Mbembe, A., On the Post Colony (Berkeley, 2002).
Murray, C., ‘Mozambican Refugees: South Africa’s Responsibility’, South African
   Journal of Human Rights 154 (1986): 2.
324                                      Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa



Rutinwa, B., ‘Asylum and Refugee Policies in Southern Africa: A Historical
  Perspective’, unpublished paper presented at a workshop on ‘Regional Integration,
  Migration, and Poverty’ of the Southern African Regional Poverty Network
  (Pretoria, 2002).
Wilson, K.B. with J. Nunes, ‘Repatriation to Mozambique’, in When Refugees Go
  Home: African Experiences, ed. T. Allen and H. Morsink (Geneva, 1994).



Angola Repatriation

Allen, T. and H. Morsink, eds, When Refugees Go Home: African Experiences
   (Geneva, 1994).
Amnesty International, Angola: Arbitrary Detention/Fear for safety/Fear of
   torture/Incommunicado Detention, Report, AI Index: AFR 12/004/2002
   (London, 2002).
__________, Mass Forced Evictions in Luanda – a Call for a Human Rights-based
   Policy, Report, AI Index: AFR 12/007/2003 (London, 2003).
Birmingham, D., Frontline Nationalism in Angola and Mozambique (Trenton,
   1992).
Black, R. and K. Koser, eds, The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation
   and Reconstruction (Oxford, 1999).
Crisp, J., The Local Integration and Local Settlement of Refugees: A Conceptual
   and Historical Analysis, UNHCR Working Paper, no. 102 (Geneva, 2004).
Crush, J. and V. Williams, The New South Africans? Immigration Amnesties and
   Their Aftermath (Cape Town, 1999).
Dolan, C., ‘Repatriation from South Africa to Mozambique – Undermining Durable
   Solutions?’, in The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and
   Reconstruction, ed. R. Black and K. Koser (Oxford, 1999).
Geddo, B., ‘Durable Solutions to the Refugee Problem: UNHCR’s Regional Strategy
   for Southern Africa’, in Perspectives on Refugee Protection in South Africa, ed.
   J. Handmaker, L. De la Hunt and J. Klaaren (Pretoria, 2001).
Handmaker, J., ‘Returning Home: Learning Lessons from the Past, and Promoting
   Safety and Dignity in Repatriation and Return’, Africa Legal Aid Quarterly,
   July-September (1999).
__________ and J. Schneider, ‘The Status ‘Regularisation’ Programme for Former
   Mozambican Refugees in South Africa’, Working Paper for the Wits Research
   Unit on Law and Administration (Johannesburg, 2002).
Hansen, A. and D. Tavares, ‘From Repatriation to Reconstruction?’, in The End of
   the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction, ed. R. Black and
   K. Koser (Oxford 1999).
Hodges, T., Angola from Afro-Stalinism to Petro-Diamond Capitalism (Oxford,
   2001).
Human Rights Watch, Struggling through Peace: Return and Resettlement in
   Angola (New York, 2003).
Meijer, G. and D. Birmingham, ‘Angola from Past to Present’ in From Military Peace
   to Social Justice? The Angolan Peace Process, ed. G. Meijer (London, 2004).
Porto, J.G. and I. Parsons, Sustaining the Peace in Angola: an Overview of Current
   Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration, ISS Monograph no. 83
   (Pretoria, 2003).
Bibliography                                                                    325



Porto, J.G., R. Cornwell and H. Boshoff, Situation Report: Death of Savimbi
   Renews Hope for Peace in Angola (Pretoria, 2002).
Rogge, J. ‘Repatriation of Refugees’, in When Refugees Go Home: African
   Experiences, ed. T. Allen and H. Morsink (Geneva, 1994).
Sperl, S., Evaluation of UNHCR’s Policy on Refugees in Urban Areas: A Case Study
   Review of Cairo, EPAU/2001/07 (Geneva, 2001).
UNHCR, Policy on Refugees in Urban Areas, Inter-Office Memorandum no. 90/97
   (Geneva, 1997).
Vines, A., ‘Angola: 40 Years of War’, Track Two 9, no. 2 (Cape Town, 2000).



Detention and Reception Centres

Department of Home Affairs, Strategic Plan 2005/06–2009/10 (Pretoria, 2005).
Trechsel, S., ‘Liberty and Security of Persons’, in The European System for the
   Protection of Human Rights, ed. R. St. J. MacDonald et al. (Dordrecht, 1993).
UNHCR, ‘Discussion Document on the Proposed Reception Centres for Asylum-
   seekers in South Africa’, unpublished (Pretoria, 1999).
__________, Guidelines on Applicable Criteria and Standards Relating to the
   Detention of Asylum-seekers (Geneva, 1999).
United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Report of Working Group on
   Arbitrary Detention: Visit to South Africa 4–19 September 2005, Geneva, 2005.
   Ref: E/CN.4/2006/7/Add.3.



Refugee Children

Amnesty International, Most Vulnerable of All: The Treatment of Unaccompanied
   Refugee Children in the UK (London, 1999).
Bhabha, J. and W. Young, ‘Not Adults in Miniature: Unaccompanied Child Asylum
   Seekers and the New US Guidelines, International Journal of Refugee Law 11,
   no. 11 (1999): 84–125.
Handmaker, J., ‘Displaced Children and Children in Exile’, Submission to the South
   African Law Commission, unpublished (Pretoria, 1998).
Handmaker, J. and N. Brancken, ‘Refugee Children’ in Manual on Children and the
   Law, ed. Ann Skelton, Lawyers for Human Rights (Pretoria, 1999).
Human Rights Watch, A Modern Form of Slavery (New York, 1993).
__________, Slipping Through the Cracks: Unaccompanied Children Detained by
   the US Immigration and Naturalization Service (New York, 1997).
IOM, Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation in Southern
   Africa (Pretoria, 2003).
Klaaren, J., ‘Recent Citizenship in South Africa’, unpublished (Johannesburg, 1998).
Russell, S., ‘Unaccompanied Refugee Children in the United Kingdom’,
   International Journal of Refugee Law 11, no. 11 (1999): 126–54.
Skelton, A., ‘Viva Children Viva: Criminal Capacity of Children in Armed Conflict’,
   unpublished (Pretoria, 1999).
South African Human Rights Commission, Illegal? Report on the Arrest and
   Detention of Persons in Terms of the Aliens Control Act (Johannesburg, 1999).
326                                      Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa



Stone L. and S. Winterstein, A Right or a Privilege: Access to Basic Education for
   Asylum Seeker and Refugee Children in South Africa, Pretoria (Pretoria, 2003).
Terre des Hommes, Kinderprostitutie in Nederland (The Hague, 1999).
Report of the expert of the Secretary-General, Ms. Graca Machel, submitted pursuant
   to General Assembly resolution 48/157, Report of the Study on the Impact of
   Armed Conflict on Children UN GA A/51/306, 1996, last accessed on 25 March
   2007 at: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/docs/51/plenary/a51-306.htm.
UNHCR, ‘Guidelines on Policies and Procedures in Dealing with Unaccompanied
   Minors Seeking Asylum’ (Geneva, 1997).
U.S. Department of Justice INS, Guidelines for Children’s Asylum Claims,
   Washington (Washington, 1998).



Refugee Women

Bunch, C., ‘Women’s Rights as Human Rights: Towards a Revision of Human
   Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly (1990), 489–90.
Ceneda, S. and C. Palmer, ‘Lip Service’ or Implementation? The Home Office
   Gender Guidance and Women’s Asylum Claims in the UK, Asylum Aid (London,
   2006).
Crawley, H. and Lester, T. ‘Comparative Analysis of Gender-related persecution in
   National Asylum Legislation and Practice in Europe’, UNHCR (Geneva, 2004).
Goldberg, P., ‘Asylum Law and Gender-Based Persecution Claims’, Immigration
   Briefings (1994): 94–99.
Heise, L, ‘Crimes of Gender’, World Watch, March/April (1989).
Makiya, K., ‘Rape in the Service of the State: Power and Patriarchy in Iraq’, The
   Nation (1993).
Markard, N., ‘Gendered Violence in “New Wars” – Challenges to the Refugee
   Convention’, in, Women and Immigration Law: New Variations on Classical
   Feminist Themes, ed. S.K. Van Walsum and T. Spijkerboer (New York, 2005).
Minister of Employment and Immigration, New Refugee Status Advisory
   Guidelines on Refugee Definition and Assessment of Credibility (Pretoria, 1982).
O’Hare, U.A., ‘Realizing Human Rights for Women’, Human Rights Quarterly 21
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