Individual Actions That Everyone Can Take: As the government and manufacturers throughout the world continue (and in some cases resist) to do their part when it comes to creating more eco- smart and friendly products the next step is for the consumers to begin making smarting choices during their shopping. The problem with many of these new eco-friendly products is they are often more expensive than the regular products and as the economy is not stable today it can be hard to afford the right products even if you wanted to. This can make for difficult decisions for many people but as the economy begins to even out the choice should be simple; save the earth through your small actions. When we refer to actions that are small this certainly does not mean they are insignificant. Small actions can be choosing to turn off your computer at night to save electricity and choosing to buy eco-friendly car insurance for your car. Many people are under the impression that these small actions are not enough to make an impact on global warming. The irony of this type of thinking is that when we all feel this way it is true. But on the other hand when we each make this global warming prevention conscious decisions throughout the day we are making a big difference altogether. As one of the largest and most influential countries in the world it is important to take note that how we begin to prevent global warming through individual gestures we are quite literally setting the example for the rest of the world. First and foremost we need to focus on conserving the energy we use throughout the day. By paying attention to the amount of energy we use in a day it is easy to see just how much has been wasted over the years. There are energy conserving light bulbs which can be purchased and the simple act of turning off lights, electronics and conserving your heat and air conditioning throughout the year in order to do your part. First it is important to consider fuel efficiency for driving. With more and more fuel efficient vehicles being produced today and even eco- friendly insurance for your vehicles this is a large step in the right direction. Of course you are not expected to rush out and buy a new vehicle to help with global warming prevention but for those of you interested in buying a new vehicle, think fuel efficiency. Combine this with driving less and you are really making an impact in the global warming prevention plan. Having looked at the ways to stop global warming with regards to transportation, you can now focus on disposing of household waste products like old bottles, newspapers, excess paper, tins, unwanted toys, food and other such items. As there are many different types of household waste items to look at you should separate the ones that you have and dispose of them in this manner. For instance you can make compost for your garden from food stuff like onion peelings, tea leaves, spoiled vegetables and fruit can be turned into compost. The items like tins, old bottles, papers and newspapers can be taken to recycling centers where they will be eventually taken for recycling. You can take your old clothes, toys and other goods to charity shops so that someone else will have the chance of using them. This way you can prevent the many garbage dumps from becoming too full. This is another way to stop global warming that seldom crosses our minds. Appliances can be the largest problem when it comes to conserving energy. The problem with older appliances is not only that we don‟t realize they are a problem but that they literally suck dry our energy throughout the day. Although many people believe it is still cheaper to keep their old appliances you will see a big difference in your electrical bill when you replace them with new and eco-friendly appliances. Aside from these larger actions there are dozens of different choices that can be made throughout the day in order to help with global warming prevention. - Reduce the size of your yard and therefore reducing the amount of lawn that needs to be cut - Recycle as much as possible - Eat locally produced foods - Choose clean energy options - Paint your home a light color if you live in a warmer climate and a dark color if you live in a cooler climate. This can contribute saving up to 5000 pounds of carbon dioxide per year. It is completely normal to find it hard to adapt to these types of lifestyle changes and this is why it becomes important to think of the big picture. By choosing to accommodate to these changes in your life, you are doing your part to prevent global warming and this should make you feel good inside. Although we may not be the ones who suffer the most from global warming we can choose to take action today in order to prevent any disasters in the future. Global warming is real and the more we begin to accept and understand what is going on around us the more likely we will be able to stop it. How Animals Affected by Global Warming: It is not a secret that we humans have been destroying the environment for years. It is now that some of us are trying to make all people aware of the affects that our lack of care has had on the environment and what will happen if we do not make changes now and try to stop the progress of global warming. Our focus, or drive, is the thought of what type of world are we leaving our children. We also need to be looking at how global warming is affecting our animals now and in the future if we do not stop and make the needed environmentally safe changes. There are numerous studies that are being conducted and have been conducted where watching animal behavior and traits to measure the status of the environment. These studies are showing that our Earth is changing in unnatural ways and it is disturbing. Think about the fact that right now as things stand, reindeer will no longer wander the places they currently do, they will disappear. Marmots no longer hibernate the same amount of time that they used to. Actually compared to thirty years ago, they are ending hibernation three weeks earlier. The Canadian red squirrel is breeding 18 days earlier. Studies are showing that the red fox is moving north and invading the territory of its Arctic cousin. Polar bears are not as healthy as they were 20 years ago and they are thinner. If we look at the sea and our creatures there we also see changes that should cause alarm. Coral reefs are expected to increase by up to a third in size. Elephant seal pups are thinner because their prey is migrating to cooler waters. Our turtles are changing behavior as well, the loggerhead is laying eggs 10 days earlier and the Hawkbill turtle hatchlings are having more females then males due to temperature changes. Birds are changing their diets to insects that do not consume leaves that have been treated with high amounts of pesticides. What does all of this mean? It means that global warming is going to cause many of our animal species to become endangered if not extinct. The melting ice, the warm seas, the spreading dessert are all threats to our animals. These changes, no matter how subtle have a dramatic influence on the lives of our wildlife. In the sea the disappearance of the tiny organisms that the larger creatures feed off of is causing the sea life to migrate northward. Keeping in mind that global warming plays a huge part in our weather and climate, the increased storminess destroys the breeding colonies of the albatross that already battle the possibility of being captured and killed by fishing boats. The rise in sea levels wipe out the nesting sites of the sea turtles, seals and wading birds are also on the list of species to be affected by their habitats being destroyed. Thought the very source of nature is change, and adaptation, the changes that are taking place in our environment due to global warming are just happening to fast. The speed is what makes it difficult for the animals to adapt effectively and this will cause us to loose a lot of our wildlife. Can you imagine a world with no reindeer? What about the day that the Sahara dessert covers all of Africa and makes migration impossible for birds? These are changes that we can see everyday and we need to start paying attention to them. The predicted elevation of sea level by an amazing three feet coupled with the disruptions to the Earth life support systems should be our wake up call. While you can look out your back window and see these changes taking place, the full effect will be seen by the year 2100 if the predictions of scientist come through and we do not change our ways. Think about is, 2100 is less then one hundred years away. You and I would probably not be here, but our grandchildren will and what will we have left for them? Help stop global warming, do your part to save the Earth, our children and our wildlife. They need us. Global Warming and Your Computer: We all love our computers and right now as you read this you know it is only because of your computer that you are. They give us the news, let us play games online and off, meet a dream partner, manage our investments, research vacations and homes, buy cars, bid for goods, watch home videos, create family photo albums, and so much more. Parting with you computer these days would be asking to part with your head. The Problem While we all love our computers and there isn't much debate to the wonders they give us in our everyday lives a problem exists and has existed for some time. The problem is pollution. Yup our handy little buddies are part of a global problem just as much as a solution. What is the extent of the pollution? Try 90 Billion pounds of carbon dioxide a year spewed into our atmosphere in America alone. Fuel Consuming Computer Okay, your computer doesn't necessarily run on carbon fuels however the electricity it uses to run daily does and the amount used has been piling up over the past few decades now as more people buy home PC units to enjoy the world of computing. Are we bad for this? My assumption is no, especially when you are probably finding this out right now. Can we help change this global warming trend that our computer's contribute to? The answer is yes. Saving the World One Computer at a Time So you are probably wondering what solution there may be to help reduce your contribution to this growing problem. There are many ways to help lessen the burden on our mother earth: * Turn Off Computer When Not in Use * Adjust Your Hibernate Mode to Idle at a Lesser Time * Install the Free Co2 Saver from Snap Onto Your Computer * Explore Alternative Energy for Your Home (Solar, Wind, etc.) * Try More Outdoor Activities without a Car Free Energy Saving Program Installs The Co2 Saver from Snap is a cool install application that is free of spyware that allows you to monitor your computer's usage and the impact it is making on the environment in relation to carbon dioxide. It is a real nifty little tool as it lets you see what you have saved as well as how much you have consumed. It automatically can adjust your computer to the most environmentally friendly settings in your contribution to battle global warming. Another cool install does about the same thing exact thing except it also shows you what natural resources you have saved and what you have consumed in relation to your computer's energy consumption. The program is offered by a company named UniBlue and is called Local Cooling. Both programs are entirely free, so it might be fun to see just how much of a dent you can put in the global warming trend. While global warming and pollution may seem like a trendy topic often associated with politics, hippie parades, or MTV the topic is nothing to ignore or just show concern for one day out of a year. The reality of life is that we all have just this one planet for many generations to come. This planet is what gives us life, food, air, and water. We cannot expect to enjoy the luxury of living if we do not protect our human habitat. Some Support And Some Deny: Global warming is discussed in two main types of books. Some authors downplay the issue and insist there is no problem. Others speak of the compelling evidence, dangerous consequences, and solutions. Reading books with more than one viewpoint on the subject gives a balanced perspective. Probably the most well-known book on global warming is Al Gore's book AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH: THE PLANETARY EMERGENCY OF GLOBAL WARMING AND WHAT WE CAN DO ABOUT IT. Gore's book shows reasons why people need to save the earth from the hazards of climatic change. It also implores world leaders to stand up and take heed of the warnings of an environment in crisis. An opposing viewpoint is presented in a book titled UNSTOPPABLE GLOBAL WARMING: EVERY 1500 YEARS. The book, written by Dennis T. Avery and S. Fred Singer, is an argument that global warming is a cyclical event that has happened gradually and systematically throughout history. Scientific data backs up their claims and demonstrates why no one, in the authors' opinions, should be concerned about global warming. However, compelling scientific facts do exist that support the claims of the dangers caused by climatic changes. A book called GLOBAL WARMING: THE COMPLETE BRIEFING tells facts and theories about the foundations of a hotter climate. In it, the future of the world and ways to help minimize the problem are outlined. Children can learn about the subject by reading a book called THIS IS MY PLANET: THE KIDS' GUIDE TO GLOBAL WARMING. Jan Thornhill, the author or the book, gives startling facts about the quickly occurring changes in our environment and tells how it is happening. Catering to the younger audience, though, she is careful to sprinkle the book with a lot of hope and ways for children to help improve the situation. THE DOWN TO EARTH GUIDE TO GLOBAL WARMING, by Laurie David and Cambria Gordon, is a book that uses humor to discuss a serious subject. It not only has facts about the genesis of extreme warming, but it is full of vivid pictures. It is another book aimed at elementary-age children, and it tells ways for kids to fight the problem in every area of their lives. A fun and interesting book is THE LIVE EARTH GLOBAL WARMING SURVIVAL HANDBOOK: 77 ESSENTIAL SKILLS TO STOP CLIMATE CHANGE. David de Rothschild, the author, constructed the book to be a tongue-in-cheek survival guide for a hotter planet. At the same time, it offers important information about ways to improve the environment. It is a companion book to the Live Earth Concerts that took place around the world during a 24- hour period in July of 2007. It is easy to find books about what is perhaps the most important environmental issue of the current century. Many are aimed at the children who are next to inherit the earth. Some focus heavily on scientific data. Others rely on humor to spread their message. Some are even a simple call to arms to anyone willing to help curb global warming. It is a subject worth studying, and there are plenty of books available to the earnest pupil. Introduction To Global Warming: Global warming simply means the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere beyond the permissible limits. The overabundance of carbon dioxide that is present in the atmosphere will capture the heat from the rays of the sun and form a blanket that is warming our planet Earth. By definition, Global Warming is the increase in average temperature that gradually warms the Earth's atmosphere. It is a phenomenon, which has been on the rise but in the last century, the increase in the levels have been alarming. It has been proven that our planet Earth is the only planet that we know of in our solar system capable of sustaining life. Humans and animals need oxygen and of course water to survive. Slowly but surely we are destroying not only the air we breathe, but also our water supply. Without water and oxygen, all life forms on Earth would perish. The average temperature of the atmosphere has risen by 0.74 - 0.18oC during the last century. According to the study by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it is observed that the increase in global average temperature has been caused due to an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. This has led to an unprecedented warming of the Earth's surface. We are polluting our water supply and causing our fish to die because humans are putting chemicals, litter, old tires, and garbage in our waterways. Our ozone layer protects us from the heat and radiation given off by our sun. The more factories and vehicles that are on the road, the more we are breaking down our ozone layer. Because of the damage we have already done to the ozone layer, we are already feeling the effects of the damage and are experiencing global warming. The earth's temperature is increasing and unless we protect our planet, we will continue to destroy it. Unfortunately there's only one Earth and if we destroy it, then we'll ultimately destroy ourselves. The major source for this rising global warming situation is the human beings living in this planet and it is up to us humans to concentrate on the features that will help to reduce the effect of global warming or will alleviate the occurrence of global warming on our planet. The combating of this dilemma called global warming can be carried out by concentrating on these few points: - Conserve energy - There are so many ways in which you can conserve energy like turning off appliances that are not in use; pooling of cars to go for office or function; using energy efficient lamps; not using appliances that release chlorofluorocarbons(CFC); planting more trees etc. - Cut on the work hours - This will help save energy and if this is practiced by all the working professionals all over the world, then millions of energy can be saved, which will lead to stopping global warming. - Recycled products - Use products that have fewer microns which will help in the increase of pollution that will lead to increase in the global warming. - Environment friendly fuels and vehicles - Although it may be a bit expensive, but will not contribute to polluting the environment. - Natural Energy - Usage of solar energy, wind power or water energy to generate electricity for homes and offices. While debates and conferences around the world are occurring to address this alarming global warming issue, another effective method to spread this save the planet message is none other than through songs. Such Go Green and Global Warming songs have since hit the music industries with a subtle approach. The Effects of Global Warming: When you hear about the effects of global warming it is important to understand that the effects we are experiencing today are moderate compared to what the future will see if we do not take preventative action. Over the next century researchers and environmental professionals are stating that the effects of global warming will continue on a constant inclined curve. Temperatures heating up a little bit each decade until the earth‟s temperatures reach the sweltering levels that we experienced in history. Scientists believe that the earth‟s temperatures will rise between 2-9 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050. The Arctic and the earth‟s northern latitudes will feel the most of the effects of global warming as they continue to escalate. As the Arctic packs and glaciers begin to melt from the increased temperatures the tundra and seas surrounding the areas will continue to absorb the warmth which was once reflected back into space. Climate models show that if temperatures throughout the rest of the world rise to 3 degrees Fahrenheit they will more than likely rise to at least 7 degrees Fahrenheit in the Arctic. From this the oceans throughout the world will become full with melting glaciers and ice from the Arctic likely to rise by at least 3ft. As the temperatures continue to rise this will force the ocean to evaporate quicker and therefore more rainfall will be experienced. The problem with this effect is that the rainfall may hit areas of the world which do not need it at all causing massive floods and monsoons. Subtropical areas like India are expected to be the target of this particular effect of global warming. On the other hand it is safe to say that droughts are going to be more of a problem than flooding. There are predictions that the future effects of global warming may have its benefits as well. In the northern part of the world such as Canada, the warmer temperatures will mean longer growing seasons and more rainfall. This of course then will put an end to any food shortage that may be occurring and provide a new sense of prosperity to countries throughout the world which have been struggling to survive. Many of the changes and effects listed above are already taking place today on a smaller scale of course. Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing as well but only slightly in comparison to what has been predicted for the future. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency and intensity of other extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows and species extinctions. As a further effect of global warming, diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. This is only the beginning of the effects global warming can have on our earth. As the greenhouse gases continue to increase and enter the atmosphere these effects are only going to increase in severity making it harder and harder to maintain our quality of life. Many people find it hard to believe that the effects of global warming can become as severe as scientists are predicting but the patterns support these theories. When you read studies comparing today‟s weather to weather 20years ago there are already signs proving the effects of global warming. Pay attention to the weather today and the severe weather being reported from all over the world and you will begin to see the effects within your own life as well. We can all do our part to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases within our atmosphere. No matter how small the act might be (saving electricity, conserving fuels, etc) every action makes a difference when we are all making these eco-smart decisions. There are no doubts that the effects of global warming are only going to persist and increase if we do not do something today. The fact is that even if greenhouse emission gases were completely eliminated today it will still take years to eliminate the threats of global warming. This is why it is so important to do what we can today! The Real Causes Of Global Warming: The two major greenhouse gases are the carbon dioxide that contributes to the greenhouse effect to a height of 60% and methane. While methane has only a weak life span in the atmosphere, the carbon dioxide there remains for more than a century. why we focus mostly on the reduction of the emission of carbon dioxide. When we use fossil energies, such as coal, the oil or the gas, we burn carbon, adding thus carbon dioxide into the atmosphere: about 20 billion tons per year in the world. The oceans and the forests and the plants; do away with about the half of this excess of carbon dioxide. However, this concentration does not stop growing: from 0.028% fifty years ago to 0.0365% today. An additional greenhouse gas is the methane (CH4), of which the concentration has doubled since the industrial revolution. The sources are the paddy fields, garbage dumps, bovine farms, and the exploitation of gas and coal. The nitrous oxide (N2O) is another greenhouse gas that comes from certain industries such as fertilizers. As we go about our daily lives we rarely reflect how our lifestyles influence the environment. While we may consider for a few instants that we need to be more environmentally conscious, there are very few of us who truly take the time which is due. The environmental science has made dramatic breakthrough in determining the causes of global warming. The comprehensive information about global warming requires our mindfulness as many of the causes of global warming are due to us and that the global environmental outlook is getting worse. How is this conceivable? The answers are all staring us in the face if we accept to look at them. The first place to look for some of the causes of global warming is in our food choices. Livestock farming contributes more to global warming than all other factors combined. While it takes on average 24 of gallons of water to create one pound vegetable, 5,200 gallons of water are needed to create one pound of beef, which strains extremely the water resources as we hear more and more in the news. Comparably, it takes two calories of fuel to produce one calorie of soybean, 54 calories of fuel are necessary to generate one calorie from beef. Deforestation, is another biggie, the livestock growth has created seven times more deforestation than the one caused by all other human activities. Water pollution, heath issues, lost of biodiversity, the release of toxins, antibiotics, GMO, pesticides, sewage, air pollution… are other factors that make livestock farming so detrimental to the environment. Researchers evaluate that 2.5 acres of land can meet the food requirement of twenty two vegetarians, but only two people eating meet, chicken, eggs or dairy products. Marc Reisner author of the Cadillac Desert, sums it up in these words “The West‟s water crisis and many other environmental problems as well can be summed up by one word: livestock”. Another area to look into is in our cities. Each time you drive, your car is emitting carbon monoxide. Multiply that pollution with the hundreds of millions of other vehicles and you can clearly see that driving a fuel engine vehicle does add to global warming. One more manner that we contribute towards the causes of global warming is by deforestation. The trees in the forests, jungles and rainforests are the lungs of the world. By cutting down a great amount of trees the restorative ability of these areas are lessened. Trees need carbon dioxide to live. When big tracts of trees are cut down in one place the balance is gone astray. The left over trees can‟t take in all of the carbon which is in the atmosphere. Due to this reality, the carbon rises in large quantity in the atmosphere. This is also why deforestation can be seen as one of the main causes of global warming. Aside from these factors, chemicals like methane and nitrous oxide are as well causes of global warming. These chemicals while in small amounts are not enough to cause deterioration to the atmosphere and environment. They can be considered as causes of global warming when they are used for an array of man needed activities. These activities include the raising of domestic animals such as cows. Other chemical contributing to the global warming are artificial fertilizers. When all of these events are taken independently you may believe they cannot cause global warming. There is however lots of scientific substantiation which supports this case. In order to impede the dreadful aftermath of global warming you should look at the different global warming causes and see what steps you can take to circumvent them. The more we appreciate these facts, the faster we can halt the escalation of global warming. We should not continue too long as nature will not wait for us to get our acts straightened out. The effects of global warming are warnings to us to adjust our ways of living. Political Lies And Global Warming: There's an old joke about how you can tell when a lawyer is lying - his lips move. Can the same thing be applied to politicians? Oops - most politicians ARE lawyers! Is the public's increasing apathy towards politics partly due to the perception that politicians can't be trusted to give it to us straight? Have many of us become so jaded that we assume it's normal for politicians to lie? Where does "spin" end and outright lying begin? Is silence on an important issue the same as lying about it? And why do politicians fail to discuss these issues with us in a frank and thorough manner? Global warming may be the number one issue on which politicians lie. The scientific facts of global warming and its predicted adverse impacts are accepted by the vast majority of climate scientists. Opponents of taking action on the issue are using a few scientists who still have doubts - or who find financial advantage in having doubts - to try to keep global warming in the "no clear evidence" category as long as they can. But there IS clear evidence of a long-term warming trend, and the consequences of continued inaction may indeed be globally catastrophic. Unfortunately, those who call global warming the "greatest hoax of all time" are not alone in the Global Warming Liars Club. Even those politicians who are courageous enough to fight for action on the issue are not telling us the whole truth. The Kyoto Protocol, whose implementation was rejected by the US Senate 94-0, would have required the US and other industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 5% below 1990 levels by 2012. Given the amount that emissions have grown since 1990, that may seem like a daunting challenge. But the problem is really much worse than that, and it causes all but the bravest politicians to lie. The Kyoto treaty, while a step in the right direction, is vastly insufficient to reverse the climate change trend. The global reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions probably needs to be more like 50% to have the desired effect, and it needs to happen sooner rather than later. Even tougher is the fact that developing countries claim the current problem has mostly been caused by industrialized nations and that their developing economies should not have to be constrained to their current low levels of fossil-fuel use. Given the seeming hopelessness of the challenge and the level of sacrifice that would appear to be required of the US to be part of a truly effective global solution, it's easy enough to understand why most politicians would rather hide from the issue in general or cast doubt on it, and why even the politicians who do publicly support action on global warming are loath to discuss the whole truth. But the potential effects of global warming, such as increased bad- weather events, coastal inundation, and - most seriously of all - disruption of global food production, are all likely parts of the future that will be faced by our children and successive generations if we don't fix the problem. The challenge to finding solutions is one of leadership - leadership that will devise programs to: 1) replace our CO2-producing cars and power plants with clean technologies; 2) reduce sources of methane (another leading greenhouse gas) by confronting the issue of large-scale animal farming operations; 3) eliminate chemicals that cause global warming and replace them with non-problematic alternatives; 4) devise innovative programs to reduce the loss of forests (which serve as "carbon sinks," thus keeping substantial amounts of CO2 from getting into the atmosphere). Politicians and technologists will be needed to devise and implement solutions to global warming, and we consumers will have to be supportive with our dollars and our votes. But to get there, politicians must lead, not lie. We saved the world from waves of Nazi stormtroopers, from hordes of Red Communists, and from the very ugly, unfriendly aliens in "Independence Day." Surely we can also save it from a few kazillion tiny greenhouse gas molecules! Dummies Guide To Global Warming: We have all heard the comments that changes in temperature could lead to drought, more disease and rising sea levels a million times.We have also heard the warnings of global warming for almost a decade. The push is on to promote green living to help save the environment and stop some of the effects of global warming. So the question that still bugs many of us are - what is really global warming and how does it affects us? Is it some false alarm by scientists and political leaders out to win the voters heart? Are those threats real or is this just hype to further political awareness? Let us find out - What is Global Warming - Global warming refers to the temperature of the earth near surface air. It allows the earth to be habitable, as it absorbs some of the heat from the sun. Effects of Global Warming - Greenhouse gases that have been released into the earth's atmosphere are contributing to the rise in the surface air temperature. What impact is this having on earth right now? Scientists show that the average temperature has risen in the last century. It is believed that most of that increase has come in the last couple of decades. With the increase steadily rising, scientists believe that it will continue to rise at an even faster pace for the future. Rise in Sea Levels - With the melting of the ice, we are seeing a rise in the sea levels. Currently, the rise is a small amount, but since the temperatures are soaring at a fairly rapid rate, the rise will become a problem in the future. The water level will be raised to a point where flooding will occur, which could make it difficult in pumping it out of the areas where people live. Precipitation is increasing as well. Storms and Hurricanes - The amount of rainfall and snowfall is increasing over time. Storms are not only becoming more abundant, but we are starting to see them increase in intensity as well. Hurricanes will probably occur more often, be stronger and reach farther inland. Floods - The warming temperatures are also causing more evaporation to occur. The more evaporating we see, the more chances for these storms to develop, which could ultimately result in the high category hurricanes, we are seeing today. The heavier rainfalls will occur, driving people from their flooded homes. Animal Extinction - The ecosystems are seeing hardships, too. Some species of animals are slowly moving northward for livable conditions, while other species are slowly dwindling in numbers and struggling to survive extinction. Arctic ice is slowly disappearing over time. The warmer temperatures caused by the global warming effects are melting the ice. Polar bears are feeling the effects of the melting ice as they find themselves stranded in the middle of the open sea. Ultimately, these polar bears are losing their life by drowning in the seas trying to find more ice patches to climb onto. Drought and Diseases - Changes in temperature could lead to drought, more disease and rising sea levels, which are likely to hit developing countries harder. There will be disappearance of some species and that vectors like the mosquitoes that cause malaria were getting more favourable habitats.Other than malaria, cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea were likely to become common as the low-lying areas were likely to get flooded after the melting of ice at the Arctic and Antarctica. Global warming is showing some slow effects right now, but they are believed to increase over time unless we start to do something to reverse it. By using some green living methods in our daily lives, we can slow down those disastrous effects to save the planet for our heirs. Christopher Monkton on Global Warming:: Global warming is going to wreak havoc with the world economy. That is the latest prediction based on the idea that our use of fossil fuels and our production and release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is responsible for an increase-to-come in temperatures. We've got to act now, we are being told. There is a strong consensus that we're in for some heavy heat and that industry is to blame for it. So energy use must be curtailed and polluters must be made to pay. UN General Secretary Kofi Annan says that there is "a frightening lack of leadership" regarding the steps to take to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He blasts the nay-sayers saying the science on climate change "is not science fiction." Those who try to sow doubt about it are "out of step, out of arguments and out of time," he is quoted as saying in this recent article. All very good, and fine, but there is a small problem: when looking at the science, the facts don't seem to add up. That is what Christopher Monckton says in a two-part article that appeared in the UK's Sunday Telegraph. His conclusion: The science of global warming is being manipulated, we are addressing the wrong problem, and our solutions won't do what their proponents say they will. Monckton adds that we are asking the developing nations that they should not follow the West's path to industrialization and relative prosperity because it's bad for the planet. Instead of pouring funds into development of valid energy alternatives, we are starting to trade carbon credits, but with regard to energy production, we keep things very much the same as they are. Over the past couple of weeks, an entertaining debate has been popping up across the Web. First, Christopher Monckton attacked the Stern Report in the Sunday Telegraph, including a downloadable, 40 page paper on global warming as a hoax. Monckton's paper was put under the microscope by many reputable sources and trashed by another UK paper, the Guardian. So how has Monckton responded? Mostly by admitting that his science was bad and so what his history. So now the point isn't that global warming isn't occurring, it's that what is being done about it is laughable. Well, at least someone is laughing. There is much debate here which is either being ignored or dismissed. Since the critique of the Mann Hughes Bradely 1998 1000 year temp reconstruction(MBH98) by McKintyre and McKitrick (2003), the global warming critics have been very defensive. The questions raised my M&M are minor questions of an unimportant aspect of the methodolgy, and one of cherry picking the data. The reliance on the North American Britslecone tree rings, which weighted their reconstruction on the warm side (the blade of the famous Hockey Stick) has been affirmed. The June 2006 NAS report was very polite in their critique, with questions dealing with "social networks" (ie peer review) that never did the correct type of due diligence, as well as the robustness of MBH98 being called into question. The Little Ice Age and Medevil Warm Period are now back in the lexicon. Mann to this day refuses to recognize either - he shrugs them off as nothing more than weak teleconnections. The MBH98 reconstruction as well as other multivariate temp reconstructions are important, as they are the only way the Global Warming critics can plead their case (we are living in the warmest period since the beginning of the Holocene Era). It disturbs me that a serious newspaper like the Telegraph was prepared to take Monckton's paper seriously. So far as I can find out, Monckton is a former journalist with no scientific background whatsoever. But presumably the Telegraph couldn't find a reputable scientist prepared to write something that fits their ideological rejection of global warming theory... Global Warming You Decide: Introduction Global warming is occurring, but is it totally driven by human activity, or is it driven by the sun. global warming is the theory that increased levels of carbon dioxide and certain other gases are causing an increase in the average temperature of the earth‟s atmosphere because of the so- called „greenhouse effect. Even assuming that global warming is in no way even partly our fault, it's hardly the worst consequence of not regulating emissions closely. Co2 On Earth, the major natural greenhouse gases are water vapor, which causes about 36–70% of the greenhouse effect (not including clouds); carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 9–26%; methane (CH4), which causes 4– 9%; and ozone, which causes 3–7%. CO2 is found in centuries-old ice in Antarctica, way before any industrialisation on Earth. Carbon emissions and, therefore, atmospheric CO2 levels have varied enormously over thousands of millennia and the earth is still here and extremely habitable. Scientists Scientists who try to inject common sense and alternative views are denied access to funding and media platforms and smeared and threatened in the most terrible way. Scientists have suggested that the main culprit is the sun getting hotter, not man-made. Gore became intrigued by the topic of global warming when he took a course at Harvard University with Professor Roger Revelle, one of the first scientists to measure carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The CO2 theory is further undermined by claims that billions of pounds is being provided by governments to fund greenhouse effect research, so thousands of scientists know their job depends on the theory continuing to be seen as fact. Temperature Global average air temperature near the Earth's surface rose 0. Two researchers at Duke University have estimated that the Sun may have contributed about 40–50% of the global surface temperature warming over the period 1900–2000, and about 25–35% between 1980 and 2000. In the last 10,000 years, the Earth's average temperature hasn't varied by more than 1. Regarding contemporary global mean temperature change, is it plausible, even likely, there has been a change of around a half-degree Centigrade since the Industrial Revolution. Gore As Vice President during the Clinton Administration, Gore pushed for the implementation of a carbon tax to modify incentives to reduce fossil fuel consumption causing fossil fuel to last longer and thereby decrease emission of greenhouse gases in the short term but not long term; it was partially implemented in 1993. "Al Gore might have won an Oscar for 'An Inconvenient Truth', but the film is very misleading and he has got the relationship between CO2 and climate change the wrong way round. When Al Gore goes on and on about what we must do to save the Earth, he knows -- and everybody involved with the Global Warming alarmist movement knows -- that none of their drastic proposals would have the slightest effect on Global Warming even if it worked they way their fantasies say it does. The real inconvenient truths are those that go unmentioned in AlGore's idiotic hoax of a movie: "An Inconvenient Truth. To assume that Al Gore, a politician, has better knowledge than scientists, is proof that stupid Americans don't care what a celebrity says, they will believe them no matter what. Debate There is ongoing political and public debate on a world scale regarding what, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to its expected consequences. While everyone concedes that the Earth is about a degree Celsius warmer than it was a century ago, the debate continues over the cause and consequences. Another point of debate is the degree to which newly-developed economies, like India and China, should be expected to constrain their emissions and change to renewable energies. Conclusion Global warming is a hot topic (no pun intended). Global Warming is the biggest power grab in the history of the world primarily driven by media control, however the comments made publicly by ?scientists? to the effect that: yes is regrettable that we have to lie and inflated the data by the purpose is moral? is disgustingly arrogant and those who do so should be jailed. Is The Sun Causing Global Warming?: Recently, a documentary aired on the UK's Channel 4, entitled 'The Great Global Warming Swindle', which challenged the prevailing political understanding that global warming is caused by man-made activity. The movie argues that it is in fact the sun that is responsible for the current changes in the Earth's temperature and the film is riddled with the testimony of many scientists and climate experts, furthering a growing dissent to the man-made theory. After all, that's all it is, a theory. As soon as people start to state that 'the debate is over', beware, because the fundamental basis of all sciences is that debate is never over, that questions must be asked and answered and issues raised in order for the science to be accurate. So what exactly are the arguments behind the Sun being the main cause of global warming? First off, it is very important to address the fact that Earth is not the only planet to be experiencing climate change in our solar system currently. In fact, many astronomers have announced that Pluto has been experiencing global warming, and suggested that it is a seasonal event, just like how Earth's seasons change as the various hemispheres alter their inclination to the Sun. We must remember that it is the Sun that determines our seasons, and thusly has a greater impact upon the climate than we could ever even try to achieve. In May of 2006, a report came forward revealing that a massive hurricane- like storm that occurred on Jupiter may be caused by climate change occurring on the planet, which is expected to raise its temperatures by 10 degrees. National Geographic News reported that a simultaneous rising in temperature on both Mars and Earth suggest that climate change is indeed a natural phenomenon as opposed to being man-made. The report further explains how NASA has reported that Mars' carbon dioxide ice caps have been melting for a few years now. Sound familiar? An astronomical observatory in Russia declared that, 'the Mars data is evidence that the current global warming on Earth is being caused by changes in the sun'. They further point out that both Mars and Earth have, throughout their histories, experienced periodic ice ages as climate changes in a continuous fashion. NASA has also been observing massive storms on Saturn, which indicate a climate change occurring on that planet as well. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has also been recording massive climate changes on Neptune's largest moon, Triton. Triton, whose surface was once made up of frozen nitrogen, is now turning into gas. The Associated Press has reported that satellites that measure the temperature of sunlight have been recording an increase in the sun's temperature, meaning that the sun itself is warming up. Even the London Telegraph reported in 2004 that global warming was due to the sun being hotter than it has ever been in the past 1,000 years. They cited this information from research conducted by German and Swiss scientists who claim that it is increasing radiation from the sun that is resulting in our current climate change. Olivier Chenet, a leading French scientist, who was among the first scientists to try to warn people of the dangers of global warming 20 years ago, now believes that 'increasing evidence indicates that most of the warming comes of natural phenomena'. Allegre said, "There is no basis for saying, as most do, that the "science is settled." He is convinced that global warming is a natural change and sees the threat of the 'great dangers' that it supposedly poses as being bloated and highly exaggerated. Also recently, the President of the Czech Republic, Vaclav Klaus said, when discussing the recent ruling by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), that global warming is man-made, '"Global warming is a false myth and every serious person and scientist says so". It is not fair to refer to the U.N. panel. IPCC is not a scientific institution: it's a political body, a sort of non-government organization of green flavor. It's neither a forum of neutral scientists nor a balanced group of scientists. These people are politicized scientists who arrive there with a one-sided opinion and a one-sided assignment. And if you are about to ask why no politicians here seem to be saying this, Klaus offered up an answer, "Other top-level politicians do not express their global warming doubts because a whip of political correctness strangles their voice". Rob Browne, the former editor of New Scientist, wrote an article in the UK Sunday Times, in which he stated, "When politicians and journalists declare that the science of global warming is settled, they show a regrettable ignorance about how science works." He further stated that, "Twenty years ago, climate research became politicised in favour of one particular hypothesis". And in reference to how the media is representing those who dissent from the man-made theory he stated, 'they often imagine that anyone who doubts the hypothesis of man-made global warming must be in the pay of the oil companies', which is exactly what I believed up until I did my research. He also wrote, "Enthusiasm for the global-warming scare also ensures that heatwaves make headlines, while contrary symptoms, such as this winter's billion-dollar loss of Californian crops to unusual frost, are relegated to the business pages". Global Warming Could Result In New York Flooding: Global warming - a gradual increase in planet-wide temperatures - is now well documented and accepted by scientists as fact. Recent research carried out by climate scientist at the University of Delhi voiced a "high level of confidence" that Earth is the hottest it has been in at least 100 years, and that it is likely to get much much hotter in the next 100 years. Their research indicates that the average global surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.5-1.0 degrees Fahrenheit over the last century. This is the largest increase in surface temperature in the last 1,000 years and the scientists are predicting an increase of a further 10.0-15.0 degrees Fahrenheit over this century. This warming is largely attributed to the increase of greenhouse gases (primarily carbon dioxide and methane) in the Earth's upper atmosphere caused by human burning of fossil fuels, industrial, farming, and deforestation activities. Average global temperatures may increase by 10.0-15.0 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the 21st century. Although the numbers sound small, they can trigger significant changes in climate. (The difference between global temperatures during an Ice Age and an ice-free period is only about 5 degrees Fahrenheit.) Besides resulting in more hot days, many scientists believe an increase in temperatures may lead to changes in precipitation and weather patterns. Warmer ocean water may result in more intense and frequent tropical storms and hurricanes. Sea levels are also expected to increase by 0.76 - 1.58 meters in the next century, mainly from melting glaciers and expanding seawater, and this could cause flooding in key cities around the world such as New York. Global warming may also affect wildlife and species that cannot survive in warmer environments may become extinct. Finally, human health is also at stake, as global warming may result in the spreading of certain diseases such as malaria, the flooding of major cities, a greater risk of heat stroke for individuals, and poor air quality. Climate change is very likely having an impact now on our planet and its life, according to the latest installment of the repor by the Delhi scientists. And the future problems caused by rising seas, growing deserts, and more frequent droughts all look set to affect the developing world more than rich countries, they add. The increase in greenhouse gases caused by human activity is often cited as one of the major causes of global warming. These greenhouse gases reabsorb heat reflected from the Earth's surface, thus trapping the heat in our atmosphere. This natural process is essential for life on Earth because it plays an important role in regulating the Earth's temperature. However, over the last several hundred years, humans have been artificially increasing the concentration of these gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane in the Earth's atmosphere. These gases build up and prevent additional thermal radiation from leaving the Earth, thereby trapping excess heat. Some uncertainty remains about the role of natural variations in causing climate change. Solar variability certainly plays a minor role, but it looks like only a quarter of the recent variations can be attributed to the Sun. During the initial discovery period of global warming, the magnitude of the influence of increased activity on the Sun was not well determined. Solar irradiance changes have been measured reliably by satellites for only 30 years. These precise observations show changes of a few tenths of a percent that depend on the level of activity in the 11-year solar cycle. Changes over longer periods must be inferred from other sources. Estimates of earlier variations are important for calibrating the climate models. While a component of recent global warming may have been caused by the increased solar activity of the last solar cycle, that component was very small compared to the effects of additional greenhouse gases. According to a Franklin Institute for Space Studies (FISS) press release, "...the solar increases do not have the ability to cause large global temperature increases...greenhouse gases are indeed playing the dominant role..." The Sun is once again less bright as we approach solar minimum, yet global warming continues. Global Warming Events: Global warming is a phenomenon that is way beyond and over the level of awareness of the man on the street, but whose impact is felt by him wherever he is.in every nook around the world, in our very residences, in every geographical location in fact. Everyone is starting to feel its impact in our daily lives. Already there are indications of the sad plight of the earth's climate in some areas of the US that are blessed with very good climate. There is ample evidence of the effects of a changing climate in California, for example. Records show that in the half century that passed, temperatures in winter and spring have been warmer. There has also been a recorded drop in the level of spring snow in low elevation to mid-elevation mountains. Blooms show up a couple of weeks earlier, while snowpacks are also melting earlier by 1 to 4 weeks. This is very much related to the worldwide increase of average temperatures by 1 degree Fahrenheit over the last 100 years. It is important to note that the US is the biggest contributor to air pollution that traps heat (CO2 emissions from cars, trucks and industrial plants) and causes global warming. Such kind of activities is projected to be the gauge at how much warmer the state's climate will become as it is also a scientifically projected that California temperatures will rise by 4.7 10.5 degrees Fahrenheit in this century. If state laws and Washington declarations prevail, emissions could be cut and consequently contain the temperature rise to around 3 to 5.6 degrees Fahrenheit. In addition to warmer climate, continued abuse and misuse of the environment can cause corollary incidents of widespread wildfires, as well as reduced production and quality of agricultural harvest. San Joaquin Valley, according to climatologists, may also bear the brunt of global warming. There are existing problems, like water shortage, that can be aggravated by climactic change. At present, South of Fresno for instance, gets only 8 inches of rain annually; the residents depend on the melting of Sierra Nevada's snowpack to compensate. But this will be where the main problem would lie with warmer temperatures, the Sierras may not be able to hold that much water anymore. This spells disaster for California's $32 billion agriculture industry. San Joaquin Valley produces nearly 50% of the US supply of fruits and vegetables, San Joaquin County ranking 5th in the countries total agriculture production. This is a painful eye-opener; global warming hurts not only the physical environment, but also society and the economy. Worst of all realizations is: mildly put, it was initiated by human activities and it is perpetrated by human indifference. San Joaquin Valley may, for the most part of the year, be dry. Not the case for the area north of the valley. Higher sea levels (another dangerous consequence of global warming) would pose a danger for the Delta areas like Stockton and Sacramento. They stand the risk of being flooded, especially Stockton which is at sea level. Seawater seeping inland would destroy agriculture that thrives on fresh water. Another consequence that is not as highly felt as the effect of global warming on water and land resources, is the effect of warmer temperatures on the quality of air. San Joaquin Valley will suffer from poorer air quality; as it is, it is shoulder to shoulder with LA and Houston in not so healthy air quality. These are no laughing matters. Foreseeing the dismal developments, state leaders are starting to legislate to address global warming concerns by cutting greenhouse gas emissions. Last year saw California as the very first state to implement a law limit emissions of these dangerous gasses. Concerned agencies are also actively advocate awareness of global warming and encourage helpful measures. The University of the Pacific continually conducts campaigns for the cause. Recycling is highly recommended anything from bottles, to cans, to paper. So is lesser driving and the use of fluorescent bulbs over incandescent ones. These are very simple solutions which can be easily done by everyone, but are usually overlooked and disregarded. If only everyone would stand up to the challenge now! Essential Overview Guide: Global Warming is a buzzword right now. The experts finally agree: it is happening. But, what does that really mean, and how will it affect our lives? A Closer Look At Global Warming. Global Warming is just what its name implies: a warming of the earth's atmosphere. But, it's more than warmer weather. The earth's climate regulates everything worldwide: the oceans, the storms, the temperatures, the rain forests, even the deserts. Right now the earth's climate is rising unnaturally, thanks to the over- consumption of oil, gas and coal. The pollution made from burning these fossil fuels has left incredibly large amounts of carbon dioxide trapped in the earth's atmosphere. This build-up of "'house gasses" has thrown off the way nature is designed to control and regulate global temperatures. As the amount of these gasses increase, so do the earth's temperatures. What's A Few Degrees Matter? It may not seem like a big deal, but as temperatures rise (even by a degree or two), all over the world, places like Antarctica and the North Sea begin to experience melting of their ice caps and glaciers. As this polar ice melts, tides will slowly rise worldwide; eventually flooding places like London, Bangkok and New Orleans permanently. Places people now live and work will be lost to the seas forever. But, that's not all. Some of the world's best farmland is located in many of the low-lying lands in danger of this global flooding. As the seas rise, these fertile soils will be swallowed by ocean water. In many places throughout the world, people will lose their only source of growing food. Another important industry that will be at risk is the world's fishing industry. As ocean waters rise, fish will leave areas where the people depend on them for earning a living, looking for colder waters. Many breeds will die when unable to adapt to the temperature changes. In addition to food shortages, higher world temperatures will also cause an increase in many diseases only before seen in third-world nations in mass. Diseases such as malaria and TB may become commonplace in even the most industrialized countries as higher temperatures accelerate the breeding of the bacteria that causes these diseases. It's More Than Warmer Temperatures. The dangers of a warming climate continue to accelerate as the temperature rises. Not just about warmer temperatures, global warming greatly affects weather patterns all over the world. As temperatures rise (even as little as one degree), storms become more violent and more unpredictable. Hurricanes have already begun to hit land with more force than years past. The trend will only worsen. The size of the world's desserts will increase as land becomes drier. In places where it does rain, the storms will be heavier, and flooding commonplace. When a cold snap hits in the winter, it will be more severe, with larger snowfalls, than before. All of this sounds bad and getting worse, but what can we do, right now, to lesson the effects global warming is having on our earth, and out lives. Here are a few things everyone can do right now that will help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released (and trapped), into our atmosphere every day: -Drive Sparingly. Walk when possible. Take public transportation, or car pool. -Conserve energy. Turn the lights, computers, appliances and TV's off when not in use. Buy only energy efficient appliances. Buy and use manual appliances, tools and toys whenever possible. -Recycle everything. That doesn't mean just your paper and plastic. Donate used clothes, and other working household items to someone else to use instead of purchasing a new one to cut down on dangerous gasses released from landfills. -Plant a tree. It helps cut down the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, and supplies the earth wit new stores of oxygen. Get the Facts About Global Warming: Global warming and the climate change is something we all contribute to in a negative way but can all begin to contribute to in a positive way. An understanding of what global warming is and why it is happening is the first step towards making a positive difference in the world today. Yes it is happening and the earth is already starting to show serious signs of global warming. Average temperatures have climbed 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit around the world since 1880; a great deal of this increase has been within the past few decades. This is not the only evidence that the earth is changing but it is solid evidence that cannot be ignored any longer. The Arctic are feeling the affects the most as their temperatures have risen to be twice their average over the past few decades. With glaciers melting and their climate increasingly getting warmer many of those living in Alaska and other Arctic areas are not sure what to do. Glaciers throughout the rest of the world are rapidly melting as well. For example, Montana's Glacier National Park now has only 27 glaciers, versus 150 in 1910. Just watching the news today should be enough to show you that the earth is changing by watching the extreme and severe weather occurring throughout the entire world. Now that you can see the effects global warming is having on our earth today let‟s focus on the causes of global warming. Over 2,000 scientists conducted research to discover the causes of global warming and found that humans are responsible for all or at least most of the global warming conditions. The actions and choices we make throughout each and every day and year make a difference in the world and environment we live in. Until recently, we have been taking this for granted and now the time is crucial to rectify this situation. Actions such as industrialization, deforestation, and pollution have greatly increased atmospheric concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. All of which are greenhouse gases that help trap heat near Earth's surface, causing global warming. Basically, humans are pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere faster and at a higher rate than plants and the oceans can absorb it. It is important to understand that these types of gases persist in the atmosphere for years. This means that even if all the gas emissions were to completely stop today this would not end global warming immediately as we would like to hope. As you can imagine the longer our planet suffers from these gases and emissions the more severe the results are going to be. Many people are wondering today what is going to happen and experts are reporting nothing less than large scale food and water shortages as well as large scale devastation to the wildlife throughout the world. Studies have also shown that the average sea level from around the world has risen by 4.8-8.8 inches during the last century. What many people do not realize is that a great deal of the world‟s population is coastal and it will only take a few more inches to 1 foot to wipe out a great deal of the earth‟s population. The sea levels are incredibly delicate just like the climate systems we are trying to alter. The sea level could rise between 7-23 inches as the northern parts of the world continue to melt and flood. Even a slight rise of 4inches is enough to flood many of the southern islands by the end of this century. As we are seeing severe weather today, this is only going to increase as the effects of global warming continue to escalate. We can expect hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires and heat waves everyone and anywhere in the world. As you may have guessed as the average global temperatures continue to increase so does the average amount of participation we receive. Precipitation has generally increased over land north of 30°N from 1900- 2005, but has mostly declined over the tropics since the 1970s. This type of information and comparison can be used with the severity and duration of storm systems as well. Following the Atlantic hurricane season of 2005, which set a record with 27 named storms, a great deal of attention has focused on the relationship between hurricanes and climate change. Sadly, humans are not the only ones facing this catastrophe. Scientists state that over 1,000,000 species face extinction in the years to come and for humans this means a large scale depletion of the food chain. As the earth continues to change, so does the wildlife habitats and this is enough to cause extinction of millions of animals throughout the world. Everything on earth is part of a delicate balance and when one factor is slightly altered one way or the other it is going to affect every other factor involved in the cycle. Global warming is no different than this. As the temperatures continue to rise we experience more precipitation which contributes to the higher sea levels and puts the coastal communities further at risk. The melting of the polar ice is another contributor to the sea level increase and all should be accounted for. There are dozens of important global warming facts that everyone should be aware of in order to properly educate yourself on what is happening to our world as we speak. Unfortunately there is no off switch for this type of crisis and even when we do limit the greenhouse gases responsible for much of this problem it will take decades to slow the effects down. In order to avoid this type of fate in our future it is important that we all learn how to deal with global warming in our own lives by making eco- smart decisions in everything we do. There are more and more ways to start living and caring for the earth and the environment. Often it can be more expensive to make this environmentally friendly choices but it is worth it in the long run. Even if we are not the ones who suffer the ultimate fate of global warming we are the ones who can prevent it. Learning facts about global warming is the only way to fully understand what we can all do. Global Warming Skeptics: In the global warming debate, there are essentially two broad camps. One believes that the science is settled, that global warming is serious and man-made, and that urgent action must be taken to mitigate or prevent a future calamity. The other believes that the science is far from settled, that precious little is known about global warming or its likely effects, and that prudence dictates more research and caution before intervening massively in the economy. The "science is settled" camp, much the larger of the two, includes many eminent scientists with impressive credentials. But just who are the global warming skeptics who question the studies from the great majority of climate scientists and what are their motives? Many in the "science is settled" camp claim that the skeptics are untrustworthy -- that they are either cranks or otherwise at the periphery of their profession, or that they are in the pockets of Exxon or other corporate interests. The skeptics are increasingly being called Deniers, a term used by analogy to the Holocaust, to convey the catastrophe that could befall mankind if action is not taken. Increasingly, too, the press is taking up the Denier theme, convincing the public that the global-warming debate is over. Many critics became involved in the global-warming debate after the publication of research by Michael Mann. You may not have heard of Mann or read Mann's study but you have often heard its famous conclusion: that the temperature increases that we have been experiencing are "likely to have been the largest of any century during the past 1,000 years" and that the "1990s was the warmest decade and 1998 the warmest year" of the millennium. You may have also heard of Mann's hockey-stick shaped graph, which showed relatively stable temperatures over most of the last millennium (the hockey stick's long handle), followed by a sharp increase (the hockey stick's blade) this century. Mann's findings were arguably the single most influential study in swaying the public debate, and in 2001 they became the official view of the International Panel for Climate Change, the UN body that is organizing the worldwide effort to combat global warming. But Mann's work also had its critics, who published peer-reviewed critiques of their own. Many critics found that Mann made a basic error that may be easily overlooked by someone not trained in statistical methodology, and that here was no evidence that Dr. Mann or any of the other authors in paleoclimate studies have had significant interactions with mainstream statisticians. Instead, Mann and his small group of climate scientists were working on their own, largely in isolation, and without the academic scrutiny needed to ferret out false assumptions. Worse, the problem also applied more generally, to the broader climate- change and meteorological community, which also relied on statistical techniques in their studies. I]f statistical methods are being used, the critics argue, then statisticians ought to be funded partners engaged in the research to insure as best we possibly can that the best quality science is being done, adding that there are a host of fundamental statistical questions that beg answers in understanding climate dynamics. In other words, the critics believe that much of the climate science that has been done should be taken with a grain of salt - although the studies may have been peer reviewed, the reviewers were often unqualified in statistics. Past studies, they believe, should be reassessed by competent statisticians and in future, the climate science world should do better at incorporating statistical know-how. One place to start is with the American Meteorological Society, which has a committee on probability and statistics. As an example of the statistical barrenness of the climate-change world, the critics cite the American Meteorological Association's 2006 Conference on Probability and Statistics in the Atmospheric Sciences, where only eight presenters out of 62 were members of the American Statistical Association. While the critic's advice - to use trained statisticians in studies reliant on statistics - may seem too obvious to need stating, the "science is settled" camp resists it. Mann's hockey-stick graph may be wrong, many experts now acknowledge, but they assert that he nevertheless came to the right conclusion. To which the critics, and doubtless others who want more rigourous science, shake their heads in disbelief. They are baffled by the claim that the incorrect method doesn't matter because the answer is correct anyway. With bad science, only true believers can assert that they nevertheless obtained the right answer. The Important Differences Between "Climate Change" and "Global Warming": Many people in the media (and elsewhere) use the terms "climate change" and "global warming" interchangeably, as if they were the same thing. But there are differences between the meanings of the two terms. Getting a better handle on the definitions of and differences between "global warming" and "climate change" will help us understand why the threat caused by continued warming of the planet is so serious. Planet Earth's current warming trend is based largely on natural warming and cooling cycles that have been happening for eons; as well as human- caused additions to greenhouse gases, which are boosting the atmosphere's ability to trap heat in the biosphere. Minor factors like an overall increase in the sun's solar intensity play a smaller role. While greenhouse gases are an essential component of a livable planet - they're what keep Earth from being a lifeless ball of ice - humans are causing greenhouse gas levels to increase so quickly that it's causing the average global temperature to rise much faster than it would naturally. This warming is predicted to lead to a variety of negative effects, including: 1) Melting (and possible disappearance) of glaciers and mountain snow caps that feed the world's rivers and supply a large portion of the fresh water used for drinking and irrigation. 2) A rise in sea levels due to the melting of the land-based ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, with many islands and coastal areas ending up more exposed to storm damage or even underwater. 3) Increasingly costly "bad weather" events such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and severe storms. 4) Lowered agricultural productivity due to less favorable weather conditions, less available irrigation water, increased heat stress to plants, and an increase in pest activity due to warmer temperatures. 5) Increases in vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria and Lyme Disease. 6) Large numbers of extinctions of higher-level species due to their inability to adapt to rapidly changing climate and habitat conditions. The first two of these effects are mostly related to increasing average temperatures. Items 3-6 are related to heat too, but also playing a role are non-temperature factors - i.e. "climate-change factors." Climate change is about much more than how warm or cool our temperatures are. Whereas "global warming" refers to increasing global temperatures, "climate change" refers to regional conditions. Climate is defined by a number of factors, including: 1) Average regional temperature as well as day/night temperature patterns and seasonal temperature patterns. 2) Humidity. 3) Precipitation (average amounts and seasonal patterns). 4) Average amount of sunshine and level of cloudiness. 5) Air pressure and winds. 6) Storm events (type, average number per year, and seasonal patterns). To a great extent, this is what we think of as "weather." Indeed, weather patterns are predicted to change in response to global warming: 1) Some areas will become drier, some will become wetter. 2) Many areas will experience an increase in severe weather events like killer heat waves, hurricanes, flood-level rains, and hail storms. It's tempting to think that all of these changes to the world's climate regions will average out over time and geography and things will be fine. In fact, colder climates like Canada may even see improved agricultural yields as their seasonal temperatures rise. But overall, humanity has made a huge investment in "things as they are now, where they are now." Gone are the days of millennia ago when an unfavorable change in climate might cause a village to pack up their relatively few belongings and move to a better area. We have massive societal and industrial infrastructure in place, and it cannot be easily moved. Climate-change effects will generally not be geographically escapable in the timeframe over which they happen, at least not for the majority of humans and species. ecent Developments in Global Warming: Traces history of issues of Greenhouse effect and Global warming There is one subject that is certain to raise a passionate argument in a party these days and that is “Global Warming”. Everybody has an opinion about it. And why not? After all if the international action plans for reduction of carbon emissions have to succeed, every individual needs to be involved and committed to it! It is generally believed that the earth was covered with ice about 15000 years ago. About 7000 years ago the earth began to warm up and the ice age came to an end. Then again from the 14th century to the 19th century large parts of the earth experienced harsh, cold conditions. This period was known as “the little ice age”. In 1824 Fourier proposed the theory that solar radiations are trapped by the atmosphere and reflected back to the earth causing the earth to warm up and that the earth was slowly getting warm. Arrhenius termed it the greenhouse effect in the late 19th century. In the 1950s, Callendar supported the theory of the greenhouse effect. From late 20th century there was a much greater attention being paid to environmental issues and serious scientific activities started for devising ways to measure global temperatures and to devise better mathematical models to analyze earth‟s climate. By the end of the 20th century there was a large body of scientific opinion that believed that increased carbon dioxide emissions, caused by ever increasing use of fossil fuels, were responsible for global warming. In 1994, the United Nations Panel on Climate Change asserted that global warming was still a threat and nations needed to take action to negate the effects of global warming. Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement to fight global warming, was born in 1997. This protocol called for countries to reduce their emission of greenhouse gases. After eight years of hard bargaining, and acrimonious debates Kyoto treaty was finally ratified by 141 countries. Noteworthy among the countries that did not ratify it were the USA and Australia – both the largest producers of greenhouse gases. The treaty aims to limit and cut back emission of greenhouse gases to control global warming. It sets limits for emission from 35 developed countries; developing countries are exempted from emission limits to allow them time to catch up. Under the treaty, various countries have committed to reduce the emissions to below their 1990 levels by 2012. Most of the countries are struggling to limit the greenhouse emissions to the levels they had committed to; many are finding it quite tough when it comes to pushing for action while balancing domestic political pressures and pressure from oil & gas industry. It is, however, heartening to note that there are already significant success stories coming up where individual companies have shown the leadership and achieved remarkable success in attaining, and in some cases over attaining, their targets of reduction of carbon emission. In USA public opinion is seen to be far more decisive and assertive than the Federal government and many states are going ahead enacting legislations to limit carbon emission while federal government twiddles thumbs. The Kyoto Protocol provides targets for reduction of emissions up to 2012. The recent G8 meeting has already come up with a plan of action and new emission reduction limits for the year 2050. The developed nations have shown their impatience with the dithering attitude of the US government in no uncertain terms. Warming Of The Arctic: Science Daily has published The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than previously known, at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and increasing greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to make it warmer still, according to the findings of a 300-strong team of international scientists. At the rate global warming is going, the Arctic is predicted to lose half of its summer ice as the century closes when temperature is projected to rise by another 4 to 7 degrees Celsius by year 2100. This melting is to include a sizeable section of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Major global impacts will be continued rise in sea-level and intensifying global warming, as per the final report of the ACIA or the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. The exercise was ordered by the Arctic Council, an executive body composed of the 8 eArctic nations, 6 indigenous POs or Peoples Organizations, and the IASC or the International Arctic Science Committee. The latter is a worldwide organization appointed by 18 national science institutes. The assessment's report was first broadcast in detail at a symposium in Reykjavik, Iceland in November 9 to 12, 2004. ACIA's data were based on an average estimate of emissions of CO2 and other gases that aggravate the greenhouse effect in the years to come. The report also integrates results from 5 major climate simulations done by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or IPCC. As Robert Corell, ACIA Chair mused, people in the Arctic are feelng the impacts of global warming as the Arctic is now seeing the fastest and extremely serious climate change. These are predicted to increase even more as the years roll by. Here are some of the findings: In the past 50 years, winter temperatures in Alaska, Western Canada and Eastern Russia have registered an increase of as much as 3 to 4 degrees Celsius. And in the next century, temperatures are projected to increase by 4 7 degrees Celsius or 7 13 degrees Fahrenheit. As mentioned earlier, summer sea ice in the Arctic is seen to drop by 50% at the turn of the century. There is even a prediction of its almost complete disappearance which can kill ice living seals. This will prove too much for the indigenous peoples of the region. who depend on these animals for food. Global warming increases melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, increasing the rates at which sea levels rise. In the long run, Greenland will hold enough melted ice that sea level could rise to as much as 7 meters or 23 feet. The coastal towns around the Arctic now face the risk of erosion and flooding because of this. The possibility of the extinction of some species of seals and polar bears is very evident. Health and food security of the natives are also areas that can be affected. This poses a challenge on the other tribe's culture. The Assessment has reported that many of the projected physical, ecological, social and economic changes have already commenced. A major goal of the ACIA is to determine variability of ultra violet radiation and its impact on society. For the study, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, hosted the ACIA Secretariat at was hosted at the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Funding for the Secretariat was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Potential Of Hydrogen Based Energy: This article illustrates the potential of hydrogen based energy systems. We want to show you that if the world chooses to follow the hydrogen road then all the basic technology is available now, we are not waiting for research breakthroughs. The cost of changing to a hydrogen-powered world will not be excessive, especially if the external costs of pollution and ill health associated with fossil fuels are taken into account as credits towards the cost of using hydrogen as a clean fuel with no external costs. Only when hydrogen enters a market at small volumes is there going to be a cost problem and we will just have to find ways around these temporary obstacles. The following sections will show you how to calculate the cost of changing to hydrogen. See for yourself, if you think our input figures are wrong then you can substitute your own and see if a hydrogen powered world is feasible. We would be very pleased to have some feedback on this because it is difficult to get well documented information on costs. If global warming is partly or wholly due to atmospheric CO2 produced by the use of fossil fuels, then the hydrogen energy system described here is one way of producing more energy for the world without adding more CO2 to the atmosphere that would make global warming worse. Global warming will have adverse effects on climate and will lead to rising sea levels flooding towns, cities and farmland. We cannot realistically expect to reduce the total world use of energy because only a quarter of the world's population are using approximately three quarters of the world's current energy production. This a quarter of the world's population are unlikely to make the reductions in use required to accommodate increases in energy use by the three quarters of the world's population currently needing more energy supplies. Some people advocate cutting back the consumption of resources and energy generally as the way to a sustainable future. But the dynamics (i.e. increasingly capitalist ) and realities of the world's population and economies are such that a peaceful global reduction in consumption is not possible. What is needed is environmentally sustainable growth of world production to meet human needs. This will require an increasing supply of clean pollution-free energy and the recycling of the Earth's material resources which will also involve using more energy. A hydrogen based system offers totally clean energy supplies with no pollution. The system is based on renewable sources of electricity and uses hydrogen as an energy carrier/fuel that is able to replace all existing uses of fossil fuels. The hydrogen energy system could meet all the world's energy needs forever. It is more likely that the argument over what to do about global warming is going to be won by people who say what can be done and not by people who say what cannot be done. The hydrogen energy system offers a way out of our energy supply impasse. The hydrogen energy system is a simple concept, it is based on current technology and would not be particularly expensive. Water, which comes from the atmosphere as rain, is converted into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis using clean renewable electricity. The hydrogen, which is an energy carrier and fuel, is then transported to where energy is needed and at the point of use the hydrogen combines with atmospheric oxygen to form water which returns to the atmosphere as water vapour. The exchange of water and oxygen via the atmosphere is always in balance and there is no pollution. Could "The Day After Tomorrow" Really Happen?: Will global warming really cause disaster to strike Earth in the manner depicted in the movie graphic of storm "The Day After Tomorrow"? Could we have killer tornados attacking in roving gangs, murderous ice balls the size of sour grapefruits falling from the sky, waves of cold air that descend in minutes to freeze the doodads off metal statues and any nearby humans? Well, we'll answer that in a minute, but first, some humor! A FEW AUDIENCE COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE MOVIE "THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW": AL: "I was not impressed by a plot based on 'the weatherman gets it wrong again'..." SUSAN: "This movie has RUINED 'Survivor' for me. Getting kicked off an island now seems totally lame compared to getting kicked off a continent..." ROCKO: "There wasn't enough action. Seeing cities destroyed by Mother Nature is simply no substitute for car chases and explosions..." OK, back to the question at hand. The quick take on this issue is that the short-term calamities that picture of New York City frozen over - from The Day After Tomorrow befall earth in "The Day After Tomorrow" couldn't happen. Though it is true that global warming is causing ice caps to melt, which may eventually disrupt the ocean-current conveyor belt that keeps places like Western Europe warm, which could cause colder conditions in some places, such effects would happen over decades or centuries, not weeks. (If you want more info on thermohaline circulation and global warming, MSNBC has a nice non-technical summary of this issue.) But wait, wait, wait - we DO have some disasters for you! Just because the plot of "The Day After Tomorrow" is mainly Hollywood fiction does not mean that there aren't serious potential problems associated with global warming. Here are the REAL problems we should worry about: 1) Rising sea levels will submerge many near-sea-level island and coastal properties. 2) Increasingly wild weather patterns will cause damage to property, businesses, and agriculture. 3) There will be better living conditions and expanded territories for disease-carrying pests, resulting in increases in and spread of diseases like malaria, dengue fever, Lyme disease, and West Nile virus. The effect will occur globally, including Western nations. 4) There will be major impacts to agricultural productivity due to increased droughts and flooding, changes in rainfall patterns and amounts, and the increased temperatures themselves. A recent government study estimates a 10 percent decline in yields of rice, wheat and corn for every 1.8 degree F increase in average temperature. A recent Pentagon-sponsored report recognized the possibility of catastrophic disruption of the picture of New York City underwater - from The Day After Tomorrow world's food supply due to global warming and predicted that such a situation could be serious enough to cause wars over food and other resources. We at Grinning Planet also find it a bit discomforting that the world's grain reserves are now at their lowest levels in 30 years. "The Day After Tomorrow" is great entertainment - lots of eye-popping special effects, lots of big stuff getting messed up in a big way, and all of it against the backdrop of human drama and suspense. That's fine for entertainment - as far as it goes - but don't let the flaws of a movie plot fool you into thinking that there aren't real problems with global warming. We can all contribute to Global Warming Solutions. Here are a few ways: 1) Live closer to work. Don't buy a house any larger than necessary. Buy energy-efficient light bulbs and appliances. Turn things off! 2) Keep your yard covered in native plants and trees, not grass. 3) Commute by mass transit. Carpool. Drive a high-mileage vehicle. Combine trips. Walk and bike. 4) Vote to elect officials that will fight for solutions to global warming. A Critical Look At Al Gore's Documentary: For those who saw Al Gore's documentary, it was very convincing of its hypothesis that global warming is a man-made phenomenon that has the potential to kill us all and end humanity. After all, the film was filled with graphs and charts, so it must be true. Let's just get something straight here, Al Gore is not a climatologist, meteorologist, astronomer, or scientist of any kind; he is a politician. And as we all know, politicians always tell the truth. However, as Al Gore's popularity grows and with his recent winning of an Academy Award for his movie, the issue has spiraled into a massive push for quick action and stifled debate, forcing many scientists to speak out and challenge the political status quo. A group of scientists recently stated that the research behind Al Gore's film and in fact, the concept of greenhouse gases causing global warming, is 'a sham'. They claim that in fact, there is very little evidence to prove that theory, and that the evidence actually points to an increase in solar activity being the cause of climate change. In Gore's movie, he presented evidence that was found in the research done on ice core samples from Antarctica, which he claimed is proof for the theory of CO2 being the cause of rising temperatures. However, this group of scientists state that 'warmer periods of the Earth's history came around 800 years before rises in carbon dioxide levels', meaning that a rise in Carbon Dioxide follows a rise in temperature, rather than increasing temperature following rising CO2 emissions. And not only that, but it follows behind the rise in temperature by about 800 years. The group also mentions that, 'after the Second World War, there was a huge surge in carbon dioxide emissions, yet global temperatures fell for four decades after 1940.' They also claim that the report given by the UN, which said it was backed by over 2,000 of the worlds leading scientists, was a 'sham' given that this list included the names of scientists who disagreed with its findings. Michael Spencer, one of the first Canadian doctors in climatology, recently wrote an article addressing the issue of why no one seems to be listening to scientists who claim that global warming is NOT man-made. He starts by writing, "Believe it or not, Global Warming is not due to human contribution of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). This in fact is the greatest deception in the history of science". He continues, "We are wasting time, energy and trillions of dollars while creating unnecessary fear and consternation over an issue with no scientific justification." Then he mentions how Environment Canada is spending billions upon billions of dollars on 'propaganda' which defends an 'indefensible scientific position while at the same time closing weather stations and failing to meet legislated pollution targets.' Then Dr. Spencer brings up a very interesting point that everyone should take into consideration, citing that 30 years ago, in the 1970s everyone was talking about 'global cooling' and how it was the defining issue of our lives, our species, that our very survival depended on what we did it about it. Interesting, sounds like every Canadian politician. Spencer continues to explain that climate change is occurring, but that it is because it is always occurring, it is a natural change that is a result of the changes in the Sun's temperature. He explains that we are currently leaving what was known as a Little Ice Age and that the history of Earth is riddles with changes in the climate. That's what climate does and is always doing, changing. Dr. Spencer claims that 'there is nothing unusual going on,' and that he 'was as opposed to the threats of impending doom global cooling engendered as he was to the threats made about Global Warming.' Dr. Michael Spencer later wrote, in commenting on the problems that arise for scientists who speak out, that, "Sadly, my experience is that universities are the most dogmatic and oppressive places in our society. This becomes progressively worse as they receive more and more funding from governments that demand a particular viewpoint." He also mentions how he 'was accused by Canadian environmentalists of being paid by oil companies.' He concludes in referencing others who have and continue to speak out against the prevailing myth of man-made global warming, such as author Michael Crichton, who's book, 'State of Fear', explains the inaccurate science behind the man-made myth. Another prominent name is that of Richard Taylor, an atmospheric physicist and a professor of meteorology at Harard, who often speaks out against the man-made theory, yet no one seems to be listening to him. Consequences And Remedies: What is global Warming?: Global warming is the process of a gradual increase in the earths atmospheric and ground temperatures throughout the entire planet. Studies have shown that global temperature has risen by 1 degree Fahrenheit over the last century. Day-to-day activities by humans since the beginning of the industrial era have resulted in the increased emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere, causing a trend of warming at a distressing pace. Causes of global warming Carbon emissions - Carbon dioxide traps the heat of the sun on the globe, much like a veritable balloon filled with warm air. On an average day, humans add to the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide in several ways, from power plants to vehicles. Air pollution from industrial plants is increasing at an alarming level despite steps taken to enforce environmentally friendly practices. Deforestation - Following carbon emissions by humans, deforestation is the next most important cause of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Millions of acres of tropical rain forests are lost each year causing climate change. Temperate forests which serve to absorb billions of tons of carbon are also being cut down at a tremendous rate. The dire consequences Weather patterns - Apart from the wildfires caused by scorching hot and dry weather which burns millions of acres of land worldwide, the main cause for concern is drought, which also increases the risk of wildfires. Drought causes crops to fail, causing starvation and diseases in less developed countries where agriculture is the main source of food and income. Conversely, warm temperatures can also cause heavier rainfall and floods. More energy in the climatic system causes hurricanes and tsunamis. Balance of ecology is disturbed. Health - Smog in certain parts of the world is causing allergies and asthmatic conditions to worsen. The poor air quality also results in weakened respiratory system. Droughts and other eco disruptions lead to the rapid spread of infectious diseases and food and waterborne illnesses such as malaria, cholera and dengue fever. Wildlife - With ecosystems unable to adapt to the pace of climatic changes, several species are reaching near extinction. From decreasing numbers of polar bears to the danger of extinction of penguins in the Antarctic, this threat has roots in the vast reductions of their natural habitats. What measures you can take? Stop pollution! - Cutting down pollution from car emissions and power plants will decrease the rate of global warming to a great extent. Varied technologies for use of alternative energy have already been developed. And, more technology is being developed regularly. We need to continue to make use of current alternative energy resources like wind power and solar power, and we can adopt new technologies as they are developed. Changes to the legal system - With public support on the rise, laws must be imposed worldwide to cap emissions of carbon dioxide and other green house gasses from industrial and power plants. Tighter standards for appliances such as air conditioners and heat pumps will also strengthen the efforts to reduce emissions. Make it YOUR problem. - Energy conservation should be addressed in a right way. Reduce your energy bills by opting for little changes such as fluorescent lights and environmentally friendly refrigerators. Make an effort in every little way you can to sustain the planet for future generations. Let us embrace sustainable development. 10 Simple Ways To Lower Your Carbon Emissions: Today the global warming situation has been getting a ton of media coverage. Many scientists from all over the world have agreed that the planet has been getting warmer due to many environmental factors. This article will show you a few ways in which you can lower your impact on the environment. 1) Replace Regular Light bulbs. Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb. These light bulbs use significantly less energy than a regular bulb. This simple switch will save a couple thousand pounds of carbon dioxide a year. Think about this, if every household in the United States replaced one regular light bulb with an energy saving model, we could reduce global warming pollution by more than a couple billion pounds over the life of the bulbs. You will be doing your share to cut back on heat trapping pollution and save money on your electric bills. 2) Install a manual programmable thermostat. Programmable thermostats will automatically lower the heat or air conditioning at night and raise them again in the morning. They can save you $100 a year on your energy bill. A great tips is to move your thermostat down 2° in winter and up 2° in summer 3) Clean The Air Conditioner. Clean and replace filters on your furnace and air conditioner. Cleaning a dirty air filter can save about 400 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. 4) Choose energy efficient appliances when making new purchases. Look for the Energy Star label on new appliances to choose the most energy efficient products available. These particular products will help you to save energy on your bill and also help keep the environment clean. One great point in if each household in the United States replaced its existing appliances with the most energy efficient models available, we would save billions of dollars in energy costs and eliminate a great deal of heat trapping gases. 5) Stop leaving appliances on standby. Use the on and off function on the machine by itself. A television that has been switched on for many hours a day will use significantly more of its energy in standby mode. In standby mode, the item is still on and burning energy. Another way to reduce your global warming impact is to unplug the extra refrigerator or freezer you rarely use. This can reduce the typical carbon dioxide emitted by a family by nearly ten percent. 6) Wrap your water heater in insulation material. You will save approximately one thousand pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple action. You can save a lot more per year by setting the thermostat one degree higher than normal during the winter. 7) Move your refrigerator and freezer to another location. Placing them next to the boiler will consume much more energy than if they were standing on their own. If you put them in a hot cellar room with a high temperature, energy use is almost doubled and causes an extra amount of carbon dioxide emissions. 8) Defrost old refrigerators and freezers continuously. An even better option is to replace them with newer models. These will have automatic defrost cycles and are generally up to two times more energy efficient than their previous models. Not only will you have a cleaner appliance, but the newer models will tend to use less energy. 9) Replace single glazed windows with double glazed ones. This requires a bit of money, but will reduce the energy lost through old windows and pay off in the long term. If you go for the best the market has to offer, you can even save more than half of the energy lost. 10) Cover your pots while cooking food. Doing this will not only save the energy used to cook the food, but can also keep the area cleaner. It has been shown that you can save over 70% of the energy used on the stove doing this. Keep in mind that global warming is based on many different factors. The sun has been getting hotter for the past hundred years and our neighboring planets are experiencing this too. If everyone did their part to lower their impact on global warming, we would all be better off. God luck and keep the environment clean. Will Your Future Be As Bright As You Expect It To Be?: From a spiritual perspective, planetary changes which will have an impact on many are imminent because of the poor ecological state of the planet. Most people expect change to happen, perhaps in their lifetime, but most do not expect it to be so soon. It will not be long, however, before planetary change will be upon us; humanity is running out of time. Change has already begun through weather changes, but most of humanity has not noticed this yet. Climate change has begun to impact already and will begin to worsen within the next few years. Around 2011 most people will begin to see that the consequences of climate change will be far more severe than currently understood. At present the general consensus is there could be minor consequenses resulting from the damaged environment. The truth is it will be far worse than most expected it to be. Because the planet is under enormous stresses, which are continuously increasing, it will soon no longer be able to support its population. Scarcity of resources, overfarming, lack of clean air, not enough clean drinking water and drought are some of the issues that will all play a much greater role in the near future. The kind of future we will have will depend on everyone of us. It will depend on how all of humanity will start to contribute in creating lifestyles that will support the ecology and all the life forms living on the planet. Humanity has created serious ecological devastation by creating lifestyles it likes and is benefiting from. The lifestyles of many people are improving faster than before, however, this will eventually result in a lack of some precious resources. When this resource scarcity will begin to happen, most people will no longer be able to have sustainable lifestyles. The planet cannot cope with the enormity of the ecological devastation that is taking place on every continent. This ecological devastation is not coming to a halt, instead it is still increasing and making it worse for the planet to support its population. It is important to understand that everyone plays a role in the overall process of life. Each person's decision can ultimately affect the future. These decisions, all combined, can have a very good result on what the future will be like for humanity. So please bear in mind the future is not predetermined, but is dependent on the choices we, as a collective group of human beings, make in the NOW moment. The future is not always how we see it. This is true for many aspects of living and is in particular true for global warming, as global warming has many implications that most people have not yet fully understood. While more and more people are becoming aware of climate change and other environmental problems associated with global warming, not all are fully understanding how far-reaching its effects will be. These effects are such that most people will not believe or accept what we have to say about this future, as most people do not wish to make necessary changes. Most of humanity is aware that the planet is not functioning well, however, they do not understand that this is creating a major problem for the future survival of humanity. From a spiritual perspective every person holds the key to a much improved future, should they wish to make the necessary changes to reduce their impact on the environment and help create a more sustainable future. Accelerated Global Warming And Atmospheric CO2 Emission: Up to now it has been generally assumed that global warming will be a linear process. However evidence from the geological past linked with climate modelling that takes into account the global warming that is already locked into the system indicates that there may not be a linear response to rising CO2 levels. There is a danger that at some point we will cross a threshhold when global warming accelerates. By continuing to increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere we are getting closer to that point. From the analysis of the bubbles of air trapped in ice cores taken from the Greenland icecap that are up to 500,000 years old it has been shown that the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and the CO2 content has followed a regular 100,000 year cycle of change with the CO2 content and temperature closely linked and following the same graph line. Within this regular cycle there are some recently discovered very short periods of approximately only a few hundred years duration when temperatures rise dramatically by 8 degrees centigrade above the slower rises of up to 7 degrees centigrade. This gives a total range of 15 degrees centigrade from peak to trough. These records show natural processes at work before the impact of man's activities. We are currently in the lower temperature part of the cycle. During the period covered by the ice core research the CO2 content of the atmosphere has varied between 170 and 280 ppm. (parts per million). From 1850 to today with the added input from the burning of fossil fuels the CO2 content has risen to 350 ppm. So we are now well outside of the historic range of values and CO2 levels are going to continue to rise for a long time yet and temperatures will follow. Recent research has shown that the Amazon rain forest is not a stable mature forest with growth and decay in balance but is in fact an expanding forest that is being fertilised by the excess atmospheric CO2. The trees are getting bigger and there is a net take up of 5000 kg of carbon per hectare per year (1 hectare = 100 x 100 metres). The total area of forest is 400 million hectares so the whole forest could be absorbing 2 billion tons of carbon per year. Research in the savanah lands to the east of the Amazon Basin has established that the crucial factor determining the development of the rain forest is the length of the dry season. The savanah to the east of the Amazon Basin and the eastern Amazon rain forest both receive about the same amount of rainfall, 1500 mm per year. However in the savanah the dry season lasts 6 months but in the rainforest the dry season only lasts 4 months. As a result of the longer dry season the savanah catches fire an average of twice in ten years whereas the rainforest with the shorter dry season does not dry out and remains damp enough to prevent fire. In the savanah the fires destroy most of the vegetation and this prevents the savanah developing into a rainforest. If the dry season in the rainforest was extended to 6 months by climate change effects then the rainforest would dry out and burn and could not then re-establish itself. If the rainforest burnt this would release the CO2 currently being absorbed year by year. So the forest would change from being a buffer which for a hundred years has absorbed our excess CO2 into a major source of CO2 releasing tens of years build up of CO2 in a matter of weeks. It is accepted by all, including climate change sceptics, that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will lead to increased global warming and many computer models have been constructed giving a rise in average atmospheric temperature of between 2 and 6 degrees centigrade by the end of the century i.e. by 2100. But only now are models being constructed that incorporate a feed-back into the model of the effects of changes in world climate due to the changes in temperature that are predicted by the model as the model programme runs. One of the most important effects of climate change is the release of carbon dioxide from natural processes as atmospheric temperature rises. Because of the "above normal" level of CO2 already in the atmosphere we are already committed to a certain amount of global warming because the excess CO2 will remain effective for many years. In addition the continued burning of fossil fuels will continue to add to the atmospheric burden of CO2. This warming will inevitably cause some climate change. The area of the world most vulnerable to the effects of global warming induced climate change is the Amazon basin. The climate change models show that rising sea temperatures in the Pacific Ocean result in less rainfall and a longer dry season in the Amazon Basin. As described above this could lead to a reversal of the Amazon basin acting as a CO2 sink and it becoming a major source of CO2 returning the billions of tons of carbon to the atmosphere that have been stored there. If the Amazon rainforest burns and releases billions of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere in a short period then this will be a further boost to global warming that will result in significantly higher end of century temperatures. The climate change model with climate change induced feedbacks indicates that on present trends the date for the change from CO2 sink to source for the Amazon rainforest is about 2050. So we have not got much time to get CO2 under control before that might happen. The Amazon rainforest is at present still acting as a buffer and is protecting us from the full effect of the global warming that would be created if all the CO2 we produce remained in the atmosphere. If temperatures rise too high then there could be another natural phenomenon which would lead to the release of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a very powerful greenhouse gas Current research based on the analysis of ancient sediments from Vladivostock and fossil evidence from Wyoming indicates that runaway methane global warming events have occurred in the past and the conditions prevailing on Earth now are suitable for it to happen again. Can Nuclear Energy Save You From Global Warming?: Just imagine a world with abundant energy, enabling you to live the good life forever... Isn't that what most of us crave? Nuclear energy is magic isn't it? Nuclear energy has no greenhouse gas emissions. The latest technology has made it safe and we can bury nuclear waste without worrying about radiation. Business as usual without doing any harm. Perfect! Well, is it? Nuclear energy is magical thing. It's hard to understand how it works and it's easy to get bamboozled by claims made by the nuclear magicians – scientists – as well as by opponents. Take veteran environmentalist Dr James Lovelock, of GAIA fame who says only nuclear energy can save us from global warming. Or Dr Helen Caldicott who says it's too dangerous and we do not need it. And governments ... Well, depends on who you talk to. Your life is full already without figuring out what is valid and what's not. Right? Easier to just leave it to "Them." But stop! Find out the facts on nuclear energy and nuclear radiation hazards. Then make up your mind – and next time there is an election you vote with some knowledge under your belt. There is plenty of information out there to help you make up your mind and I'll give you a leg-up. So, here is an easy framework. Imagine experiencing a certain "knowing"about this important issue on your way to the ballot box, or in talking with your friends. Given that global warming is a real threat, and global energy demand is ballooning, then the nuclear energy debate is essentially about four Big Issues. 1) Can nuclear energy deliver on a low-emission or even non-emission basis? 2) Is nuclear energy for electrical power purposes safe? 3) Can it be delivered at a reasonable cost? 4) How does it compare with other low-emission alternate energy sources? Here is an overview only of those issues. But don't just take my word for it. Find out more yourself! Emissions * Yes, nuclear energy is emission-free if you just measure the exhausts from a reactor's chimney. * In one study, nuclear energy came close to wind power in low emissions over its lifetime. * There is no air pollution, with big nuclear energy user France having the cleanest air in Europe. * No, it is not emission-free and is a greenhouse gas emitter, when measuring mining of uranium and transporting it, building and decommissioning nuclear power plants. Safe? * Chernobyl still stands the only disastrous accident with a nuclear power plant, and the antiquated structure and action taken after the “melt-down” bears much blame. * Any safeguards are only as good as the people that manage them, and any further accident will be one too many. * Modern nuclear power plant structures are much safer. * A terrorist attack, using radioactive material in a dirty bomb cannot be excluded. * A terrorist attack using an airplane could be disastrous, even though deactivating a modern nuclear plant can be done in 5 seconds. * A higher-than-normal incidence of childhood leukemia has been reported near powerplants in the UK, France and Germany. * So-called Generation IV nuclear reactors, including “fast breeders” are said to be cleaner (low radiation level waste), cheaper and safer but the first will not be ready before 2010, some not until 2030. Cost * Economics of nuclear energy is a wobbly concept, depending on the assumptions about other energy sources and their end costs. * Nuclear reactors currently have very high start-up and close-down costs compared to other low-emission, and renewable energy sources. * Costs are more than just counting money. Comparison to low-emission energy sources * You'll find many studies with different results. * One must take into account the urgent threat presented by global warming, that of radioactive energy, and appraise the benefits of energy- wise living and currently available renewable energy sources. The magical attraction of nuclear energy remains: throw enough money at it and all our problems will seem to go away. But the future is most likely one of a diversified use of renewable energy with some nuclear energy. It's a question of where to put the emphasis. Nuclear energy sources removes people even further from tangible "natural" processes. More of the same kind of thinking that caused our global warming problems in the first place. Why not emphasize responsible energy use, and the use of the Great Big Nuclear Reactor In The Sky to drive wind, tidal and solar energy. And to try and live in harmonious relationship with each other and our environments. But you just have to make up your own mind. My children's future and yours depend on you. Only your personal attitude – the greatest energy source we know – can help you live with global warming. And we are going to have to live with it for a long, long time. Starting A Runaway Global Warming Process: Accelerated global warming could lead to a runaway methane global warming effect due to the release of methane currently trapped in unstable methane hydrate deposits in the arctic that could be destabilised by accelerated global warming effects. Core samples taken from old ocean sediment layers have been used to trace back in time the climate changes that have occurred over the past tens of millions of years. By analysing the incidence of different fossil shell remains of sea creatures occurring in these sediments it is possible to track the changes in the sea water temperatures and levels of atmospheric CO2 occurring at the time the shells were formed and deposited. These shells contain carbon from the CO2 in the atmosphere which was dissolved in the sea water in which the creatures lived just as takes place today. From these records it appears that there have been short periods of only a few hundred years in the geological past when rapid increases of the Earth's temperature have occurred superimposed on top of the rise and fall of average temperatures over the longer term. For these short periods temperature rises of up to 8 degrees centigrade appear to have occurred on top of existing long term rises of 5 to 7 degrees to give temperatures up to 15 degrees centigrade warmer than today. Temperatures then fell back to the long term trend, the whole rise and fall only lasting a few hundred years. The most likely cause of this rapid global warming over such a short period is the release of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is 60 times more powerful than CO2 as a greenhouse gas but only remains in the atmosphere for about ten years and so looses it's greenhouse effect quickly compared to CO2 which remains in the atmosphere for 100 years. CO2 would not be available in sufficient quantities to achieve the rapid warming and if CO2 was the cause then the raised temperatures would last a lot longer. Methane hydrates occur extensively today all over the world. They consist of methane stored within unstable water bound deposits that if disturbed release the methane. They occur in major river deltas such as the Amazon delta and in old delta areas such as the Gulf of Mexico. Major rivers carry millions of tons of silt containing vegetable matter that continues to decay after the silt is deposited in the river delta. This anaerobic decay produces methane which gets trapped in the silt as methane hydrates until the conditions of water temperature and pressure change which can release the methane in vast quantities very quickly. Another form is a frozen slush/ice methane hydrate where the methane is trapped in an ice/water mixture which releases the methane when it warms up or the pressure on the ice is reduced. Frozen methane hydrates can contain 170 times their own volume of methane. These frozen hydrates occur in the seabed deposits of the Arctic Ocean. Methane can also be trapped by permafrost layers which over-lay lower unfrozen layers of vegetable material that is decaying and producing methane which remains trapped by the frozen permafrost on top. If the permafrost layer were to melt then the methane in the layers below would escape into the atmosphere. Given the vast areas of permafrost in northern latitudes there is a significant potential for methane to be trapped that would be released if the permafrost melted as a result of global warming. The theory for these rapid rises and falls of temperature, based on the geological records from 55 million years ago, is that gradual global warming due to some natural cause had resulted in temperatures 5 to 7 degrees centigrade higher than average (i.e. higher than today's temperatures). At this point methane trapped in methane hydrate deposits started to be released into the atmosphere and accelerated the rate of warming. This would result in further warming releasing more methane. As the atmosphere warmed different types of methane deposits would start to be released and so a cycle of methane release leading to increased warming leading to more methane release from other areas of methane deposits elsewhere in the world would become established as global warming effected different areas of the world. There is an intriguing photograph of what appears to be a methane plume coming up out of the Arctic ice sheet which indicates that the phenomenon described above can occur. There have also been incidences of oil drilling inadvertently triggering large releases of methane from hydrate deposits. One theory to explain the loss of ships in the so called Bermuda triangle is that they have been engulfed in a sudden methane release which reduces the buoyancy of the sea water so that the ship sinks. So, does methane pose a threat today? Let us review the situation. We know there are extensive methane hydrate and permafrost deposits all around the world. We have evidence that we are at the beginning of a period of global warming that is probably being made worse by the continuing build up of CO2 in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel burning. Recent computer modelling incorporating the feed back effects of global warming that has already occurred suggests that by about 2050 we may start to loose the beneficial effects of the Amazon rain forest as a carbon sink. This could lead to temperature rises of 5 to 8 degrees centigrade by 2100. This would be uncharted territory and no one really knows at present how the world's environmental systems would change but we now have the evidence from the geological past. On the basis of this evidence global warming can lead to methane releases which once started would escalate. This would be the worst possible thing to happen because once started there would be no way of stopping a runaway methane global warming event. We CAN reduce our CO2 emissions from fossil fuels but we COULD NOT reduce methane emissions once they started, huge natural forces would take over and change our world. This would probably result in the melting of the Antarctic icecap which would raise sea levels by 50 metres and would completely change the climates of the world. So what should we do? We should be careful and not risk starting the sequence events described above. To do this we must reduce total CO2 emissions from now onwards and take measures to protect carbon sinks such as the Amazon rainforest. If we all carry on burning so much fossil fuel as we do now we will be running the risk of starting an unstoppable runaway methane global warming event within the foreseeable future. Only major absolute reductions in CO2 emissions NOW will avoid this risk. A Ghastly Proposal: This business about global warming is actually starting to look like a nightmare for humanity. It's becoming more a ghastly proposal, not an "inconvenient truth." Global warming is occurring at even a more accelerated pace than what was originally predicted, many who are expert sources on this issue posit. Most are still a bit skeptical of the Global Warming issue. It's commonplace for the press- listening and reading public to be cynical and even critical today. It's not only that opposing views of any issue are part of the mainstream "Op-Ed" consciousness; it's just good business and idea salesmanship to keep everything murky, dusty and convoluted. The news - especially science news - is so hazy and muddled with political and religious sources traditionally centered in spin, connotation, even stigma that trying to believe in anything today is very hard. In a society that cannot decide if a little white wine each day can cure cancer or lead to alcoholism, finding a Gregorian "middle ground" is tough. And because science is always based in theory, it's even more confusing to sort out good theory from bad; and just the way scientific theory is designed and argued, nothing is really set in stone and is not fact, per se, rather, scientific theory is just what its name implies -- it is theory. Considering much of the fingerprint and harbinger evidences surrounding global warming, however; this theory becomes more denotatively arguable and convincing with each new day. Most people stay convicted to their beliefs even long after their beliefs have been denigrated or sometimes even proven totally false. In the case of global warming, ever increasing scientific theory is an ongoing constant, though, and this leads to a very unsettling future forecast for Mother Earth, the human race and really, most types of species that reside here. Validation surrounding the global warming theory is so stacked it's alarming. One such truth: The rapid buildup of killer carbon dioxide in large lakes like Nyos in Africa (which saw an explosion kill about 1,700 people) creates stern consternation by those who are even slightly to the side of "green." If it happened to Lake Nyos, what's in store for Lake Superior, Erie, Huron or the "thousand lakes of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri or Finland? What's in it for Loch Ness in Scotland? How's about the Mississippi and Nile rivers? Can we include about every body of water here if our waters continue heating? Carbon dioxide buildup in large lakes is not the stuff impossible fictions are made of - this is a stark reality - and global warming is the root of the problem, scientists argue. Just to reiterate and try to ring the alarm a bit louder: It's an enigma why people aren't up in arms about this - and if the implications behind global warming are true, it might indeed be the biggest crisis humankind has ever faced. Scientists say the dinosaurs went extinct due to climate changes brought on by a comet hitting the earth 65 million years ago. The estimated 6- mile-wide comet slammed into the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula region "leaving a hole 112 miles wide. It wiped out the dinosaurs and more than 75 percent of the species on the planet, throwing up a cloud of dust that blocked the sun for months, killing off plants at the base of the food chain and causing ecosystems to collapse worldwide; it was a global environmental catastrophe". Are we going to go extinct because of our factories' creation of plastic ornaments on lawns? Is the Earth heading for a quick demise because SUVs and trucks are two of the planets biggest polluters? Tables, chairs and houses are taking the place of rain forests; and through the rapid buildup of developing nations' industrial revolutions, our world has been kidnapped - and there's little that can be done to stop global warming - many who are very familiar with this issue contend. Even the most drastic actions - which entail a global greening in very strict, drastic and complete uniformity - may not be enough to fend off the inevitable greenhouse effect that is predicted. As things continue to unfold concerning global warming, however, a lot of us are seeing that all this fretting over the world's environment isn't a political trick or a smoke and mirrors routine. No. Our atmosphere is becoming more like a microwave and we're rotating around on the big dish inside. I'd really like to see proof to the contrary but everything coming out lately points to making valid the global warming theory. To be honest, I'm getting quite upset over the spicy forecasting that's being done these days. With the threat of the equatorial waters getting about as hot as a chili pepper over time, what's there to even plan in the mid-century we're living within? The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has found that this warming is due to anthropogenic factors (mankind is cooking things up here). The Intergovernmental Panel's Fourth Assessment Report, completed in 2007, found that even if temperatures stabilize, the world is expected to heat up during most of this millennium. The sea level has risen 4 to 10 inches (10-25 cm) on a global scale over the past 100 years. "With additional warming, sea level is projected to rise from half a foot to 3 feet (15-92 cm) more during the next 100 years. On average, 50 to 100 feet (15-30 meters) of beach are lost for every foot (0.3 meters) of sea-level rise. Local land subsidence (sinking) and/or uplift due to geologic forces and coastal development will also affect the rate of coastal land loss. There seems to be a lack of real, viable solutions for keeping Mother Earth blue and green and not gray and black. How Warm Is Too Warm?: One of the more startling stories recently was an article on the climate in Alaska, where the average temperature has risen seven degrees in the last 30 years and mosquitoes have shown up in normally frigid Barrow, the northernmost town in North America. Large portions of Alaska are melting and other strange things are happening. Just a few hours' drive from Anchorage, a four-million-acre spruce forest has been killed by beetles, a development that is both astonishing and depressing. It is believed to be the largest loss of trees to insects ever recorded in North America. "Government scientists," wrote the author, "tied the event to rising temperatures, which allow the beetles to reproduce at twice their normal rate." Meanwhile, enormous wildfires have been raging in bone-dry regions of the West and Southwest. Fires whipped by high winds in the mountains of eastern Arizona have driven thousands of residents from their homes. One local official, John Stewart, said: "The forest is burning like you're pouring gasoline on it. And the wind is like taking a blow torch to it." In Colorado, which is enduring its worst drought in decades, residents have been trying to cope with at least five major fires, including the largest in the state's history. Investigators believe it was deliberately set by a U.S. Forest Service worker. The long drought and continuing hot weather provided the conditions that enabled this apparent act of arson to explode into an unprecedented conflagration. Big fires are becoming the rule. By late last week authorities reported that in the first six months of this year, nearly two million acres have burned or are currently burning in the United States, which is almost twice the average of the last 10 years. Strange, indeed. Mosquitoes in northernmost Alaska. Much of the West and Southwest ablaze. Extended droughts. Extreme heat waves. Can you say global warming? The year 2003 was, globally, the second hottest on record. The hottest was 1998. Now imagine that just a few more years go by and the world becomes hotter still, which will almost certainly be the case. What then? Do you think, maybe, we should be paying more attention to this? What is missing in most conversations in the U.S. about global warming is a sense of urgency. A Bush administration report earlier this month acknowledged that human activity - the burning of fossil fuels that send heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere - was the primary cause of the recent warming of the planet, and that the warming will result in some extremely serious consequences in the U.S. President Bush (who has distanced himself from his own administration's report) wants to rely mostly on voluntary - not mandatory - efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Under the president's strategy, it's estimated that emissions will actually increase over the next decade. We're speeding toward a wall and the president is not only refusing to step on the brake, he's accelerating. Ten years is too long to wait to do something real about this problem. Dr. David Armstrong, a professor of geosciences who is an expert on climate change, has studied the imminent threat that planetary warming poses to the world's coral reefs. These are ecosystems so abundant in animal and plant life that they are sometimes called the rain forests of the oceans. Dr. Armstrong noted that one of the essential questions of the global warming debate is, "How warm is too warm?" When you consider that the increased warming is already threatening to decimate the world's coral reefs, and that we're already seeing the melting of the tundra in Alaska, and that alpine ecosystems are already being squeezed off the tops of mountains, it's not too difficult to reach the conclusion that "too warm," in Dr. Armstrong's words, "isn't awfully far from where we already are." Closing our eyes and pumping another decade's worth of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere at the current very dangerous rate would not seem to be a very bright idea. The gases remain in the atmosphere for centuries, and in some cases millenniums, which means the damage cannot quickly be undone. What a miserable legacy for this generation to leave to its children and grandchildren. Man Made Global Warming: About the only truth pertaining to Man Made Global Warming is that there are many people across the world making tons of money by perpetrating a junk science hoax. Just as in the previous Nuclear Winter scare of the 80s, there is no basis for the fears that are being manipulated by those who are profiteering from this absurd science. Worse yet is that if one calls a Global Warming Alarmist (GWA) out on their claims then they will get the patented answer of, the debate is over. I think not. One has to have a debate before the issues can be resolved. Yet the GWAs will not debate their evidence because they have none. If there is evidence anywhere to prove Man Made Global Warming as fact it has yet to be supported by reputable men of science. Therefore, the best recourse for these GWA profiteers is to claim that a debate which proved their claims has actually occurred. That brings to mind the following famous quote: "Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it." - Adolph Hitler I will attempt to prove the absurdity of blaming man for the acceleration of Global Warming by first providing some basic botany facts and then a couple of visualizations which anyone can do at home. Bear in mind, these examples are for visualizing how small man actually is on this planet. Through normal Photosynthesis, algae and cyanobacterium in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on earth. The remainder of Earth's overabundant oxygen is produced by plants like trees, shrubbery, grasses, flowers, et al. In fact just three average sized trees can provide one person with enough oxygen for their entire life. Now imagine how many trees there are on Earth. For the first graphic experiment one needs to agree that there are 300 million people living in the United States. Now what we will do is to multiply that number by three feet in length per every man, woman and child. The three feet is what we will say is the average width of each of the 300 million people, from shoulder to shoulder. That leaves us with a line of 300 million people stretching shoulder to shoulder for 900 million feet in length. The entire 50 United States has 12,383 miles of coastline and 7,458 miles of International Boundaries with Mexico and Canada. Which means the little thin outline on a map of the continental USA, complete with an insert of Hawaii and Alaska stretches 19,841 miles in length. Multiply these miles by 5,280 feet and the length of the USA outline stretches out to 104.8 million feet. Now all we have to do is to figure out how many times we can run our line of 900 million "people feet" around the boundaries and coasts of the United States map. Through dividing the 900 million in people feet by the 104.8 million in USA outline we will get a total of 8.6 rows of people stretching around the entire USA map and inserts. Now if each person is averaged out at being two feet in depth then our rows would become 17.2 feet deep by 104.8 million feet long. At that thickness this line would not even be visible from low earth orbit! Now look at the entire United States. One can see nothing but green and blue with a few sprinkles of beige for deserts. All of this green and blue and a small portion of beige produce oxygen. That is the entire oxygen producing ground cover of the United States. The CO2 emitting lines of people are not even visible at all. So how can one say that man is affecting the land? For the second graphic experiment all we need to do is multiply 300 million people by six square feet (their footprint). That is an allocation of three feet by two feet for every single person in the USA. This results in approximately 1.8 billion square feet of people. Divide this by the total square feet of a square mile (27.9 million) and you will get an area of 64.6 square miles. That is actually a smaller area than Reno, Nevada! Which compared to a USA map would be like throwing a golf ball out onto a football field. The grass of the field would produce oxygen while the golf ball would represent the 300 million people producing CO2. Still think man can affect the earth? To account for emissions from factories, transportation and animals, let us get crazy and just toss a volley ball out onto the football field instead of the golf ball. Even then, there is plenty of green on the field producing an overabundance of life sustaining oxygen. How GPS Tracking Will Save Lives When Disaster Strikes!: If you watch the History channel and watch the top 10 disasters that will befall the world, the number one prediction that is actual happening today is Global Warming. We begin this article with a brief explanation of Global Warming and it's impact on life on earth and then move on to the worlds first and only command and control system that will help first responders help save lives when disaster strikes. Global warming is the increase in the earth's average temperature due to the buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities. Global climate changes were due to many factors, including massive volcanic eruptions, which increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; changes in the intensity of energy emitted by the Sun; and variations in Earth's position relative to the Sun, both in its orbit and in the inclination of its spin axis. Global Warming: Early Warning Signs Illustrates observed consequences, as indicated by periods of unusually warm weather, coastal flooding, and changes in glaciers and polar regions. If there is coastal flooding in coming years due to melting ice caps, it won't happen suddenly and give you a tidal wave effect. Scientists all over the world are making predictions about the ill effects of Global warming and connecting some of the events that have taken place in the pat few decades as an alarm of global warming. They also report of extreme weather events, long-term droughts, and rising sea levels. Warmer temperatures will alter weather patterns, making it likely that there will be more intense droughts and more intense rain events. Most scientists also agree extreme weather events like Hurricane Katrina or Los Angeles' July record 119-degree Fahrenheit temperature are directly attributed to global warming. Moreover, extreme weather events, including heat waves, droughts and floods, are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity, causing loss of lives and property and throwing agriculture into turmoil. And the science tells us that human activity has made enormous impacts to our planet that affect our well-being and even our survival as a species. Many are agreed that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet. Scientists have linked even this amount of warming to numerous changes taking place around the world, including melting mountain glaciers and polar ice, rising sea level, more intense and longer droughts, more intense storms, more frequent heat waves, and changes in the life cycles of many plants and animals. Glaciers are melting, plants and animals are being forced from their habitat, and the number of severe storms and droughts is increasing. In the next few years we will see great disasters happening right before our eyes in every corner of the world as man made gases continue to be spewed into the atmosphere causing death and pestilence. Mankind however will not be extinct. People will survive only if there are systems in place that will aid the successful rescue and evacuation of people on a global scale. A company called Ordia Solutions that had just released a Mobile Tactical Collaboration System (MCTS) interoperability / communication solution for law enforcement, fire/EMS, and search and rescue agencies. The MTCS is the first of a new generation of intuitive, easy-to-use browser-based solutions that addresses improved interoperability for first responders. The MTCS can be securely hosted inside an agency's firewall and can be delivered to desktop PCs and laptops, and requires no client installation. Ordia Solutions MTCS is built around the concept of shared workspaces. Multiple authorized user's can simultaneously browse to a shared workspace to access the same dynamic operating picture. Each user sees identical data displayed on the map, including incident reports, infrastructure, operations, photographs, drawings, and streamed videos. Any change to the operating picture by a user with editing access is immediately reflected on every other user's display. Unlike traditional collaboration tools, MTCS facilitates seamless scaling of the user base during multi-agency operations. Because the system is entirely web browser-based, new task force members can be integrated quickly and begin collaborating by simply sharing a secure hyperlink. The MTSC system use GPS Tracking called AdvanTraq GPS through a collaboration with GLC Enterprises, Inc. This uses an advanced tracking solutions for personnel, vehicle, K9, and cargo that operate as standalone solutions or integrated with and traceable through a Mobile Tactical Collaboration System workspace. Applications range from tactical operations and border/perimeter security to coordinating multi- jurisdictional and multidisciplinary critical incident response. The MTCS system allows for real time GPS Tracking with shared workspaces to allow first responders to save lives during the upcoming disasters caused by Global Warming. The system is currently in trials with many governmental agencies including the FBI! All trials to date have exceeded expectations and will be deployed throughout the world in the coming months. The bad news is that the impacts from Global Warming cannot be stopped! It's already a runaway train. Massive disasters and death will continue to take the toll on the human race. How rescue personnel and first responders respond to the upcoming disasters will no doubt determine how many people can be saved now and in the future. What Can Be Done About Global Warming: Global warming is not a myth it is a reality and will certainly effect every person on this planet.We have the power to stop global warming and reverse the damage it has caue the planet if we do something right now. I cannot believe that people are not paying attention to the events that are unfolding all around us. Sure signs that are life threatening and changing.Take for instance the hurricane Katrina and Louisiana. You would think that after that horrific event that people would open their eyes and say to themselves,hey this is not a safe place to live but no,nobody sees it that way.A few later here comes another hurricane that appears to be quite dangerous. The people of Louisiana are ordered to evacuate however some people stay knowing good and well what could happen to them.So what do we do knowing that this is not a safe place to rebuild,we rebuild it and wait for the next catastrophic event to come and cause massive destruction so we can say hey ,that won't happen again. The people of the world need to open their eyes and take control while we still can. That means doing away with oil and fossil fuels and turning towards technology that we could use that is not damaging to the earth and its residents.Technology that is in existence and ready to be used. How do we stop big business from ruining the world. It would not be easy in fact it would be a war. A private war among the rich,it would deal a heavy blow to the world economy and then it would straighten itself out. Greed is the drive behind big oil companies,When the government sees fit they will place heavy taxes on these companies instead of giving them huge tax breaks.Much like they have done to the tobacco companies. Everybody knows that smoking can kill you so what do we do,place heavy taxes on the industry.The same thing goes for oil. People believe that oil and is the only way an engine can run.Some people know that this is not true. Take for instance the Toyota Prius. This was not a very popular vehicle a few years ago and now it is the most sought after vehicle in America. It runs on gas and eletricity. Gas and electricity,what a concept.I know that the vehicle can run on just electricity so why don't we build that car and use it. We know that Hydrogen will run a vehicle as well thats why Honda has built the FCX Clarity which happens to run its engine on hydrogen and electricity.Hydrogen comes from water,the most abundant element on the planet.Hydrogen cost alot of money to produce,so they say.I know for a fact that hydrogen can be produced very inexpensivly and on a massive scale. They would have you believe that hydrogen is expensive so that they may charge the consumer for it and keep their profits up. Every vehicle on this planet can run on hydrogen. This is a fact,if we have one hydrogen car we can have billions. Hydrogen can be produced inside of a vehicle and used as it is made,this is called Hydrogen On Demand. With a system like the Supplemental Hydrogen Fuel System that creates hydrogen from the vehicles alternator. This is hydrogen that is produced from a Hydrogen Fuel Cell. Water is placed in a container with the fuel cell and then electricity is run through the water and causes a reaction with the fuel cell which is made of steel. This reaction releases the hydrogen from the water and it can then be used as fuel.Hydrogen is 3 times more powerful than gasoline and when it is burned the only byproduct is water. Instead of gasious fumes you only have water vapor.Doesnt that sound like the answer to our dependence on fossil fuels. Imagine a world full of vehicles that ran on water or hydrogen. This would certainly help put an end to global warming. This same concept which is already in use today can be applied to the creation of electricity. A power plant that runs on water-hydrogen. Your monthly electric bill would never cost you an arm and a leg again. In fact electricity would be practically free. Free,doesnt that sound awesome. Well in the future that is going to be the way it is and there is no stopping it. Prince Albert Leads Monaco To Better Environment: Just a year after Prince Albert of Monaco began a campaign to increase awareness of the impact of global warming among his fellow world leaders, Monaco itself has dramatically improved its own record on the environment among a group of 40 monitored nations from second worst emitting greenhouses gasses to best. Commenting on the news, a local Monaco travel guide say that the improvement in the principality's environmental record comes more as a relief than a surprise. 'Prince Albert has made the environment and global warming an issue not just to be discussed in Monaco, but to be thought about and acted upon as well. If the results showed no improvement it wouldn't reflect well perhaps when Prince Albert talks to fellow world leaders about the issue of global warming and pushing it up the agenda if Monaco wasn't trying - and succeeding - in getting her own house in order first'. Since coming to the throne a year ago Prince Albert has taken the initiative on the environment and one of the first acts he took was to sign Monaco up to the Kyoto Protocol. Previous to the signing Monaco was one of the few countries in the world not to sign. And in a move to publicise what he sees as the dangers of global warming he went to the North Pole in April. 'The environment seems to be the number one issue for Prince Albert', add the guide, 'in addition to the acts he took when he first came to power, earlier this year he established a foundation to promote new ideas to protect the environment'. In another recent development Monaco, at Prince Albert's behest, has decided for the first time to calculate her GDP so she can play a more active role at the United Nations, which will include calculating how much to pay to meet the UN's request for 0.7 per cent of developed countries GDP for third world development. Tax Haven Previously Monaco has best been known as Europe's number one tax haven, and for the Monaco Grand Prix, held each May around the streets of Monte Carlo. Often referred to as the 'Playground of Europe' any concerns over Monaco changing style are misplaced insist the local travel guide. 'Monaco will continue to attract the wealthy due to her to income tax policy', they say, 'And as well as the Monaco Grand Prix there is also the annual Yacht Show each September. Prince Albert knows that these events along with being a tax haven are the geese that lay the golden eggs and without them there wouldn't be a lot of point in calculating the GDP to send to the United Nations as it would account for very little. By promoting and encouraging events like the Monaco Grand Prix it allows him to play a serious and active part on the world stage'. Real estate in Monaco ranks among the highest priced in the world, with one bedroom apartments ranging from nearly a million Euros to two million, and three bedroom apartments often over three million Euros. UK investors buying Monaco property has increased significantly in the last couple of years, and demand from them has helped push property price inflation to nearly ten per cent a year. For the future it is expected that prices will continue to rise for the short and medium term, but with interest rates expected to rise in the UK it is not certain whether the supply of British buyers will continue at the same pace as recent years. Looking for Balance in the Climate Change Debate: What are the facts about climate change or global warming, and more especially the human impact on these trends? In reviewing the available scientific information, it soon becomes clear that there are very few facts. There are plenty of opinions and a number of very sophisticated computer models, but very few specific facts to make the case. Current conventional wisdom, supported by an almost total media sign on, has man responsible for projected global warming that will devastate the planet at some point in the future. Any differing opinions from the scientific community, and there are plenty, are ignored. Why is this? Just as politics has become totally polarized with little or no common ground, so the climate change debate seems to have no area of sensible discussion of opposing positions. It would appear that scientific opinions that support man-made global warming are accepted based on opinions, projections and computer modeling, while ongoing facts about the actual performance of the earth‟s eco-system are dismissed out of hand. So why do we accept these computer projections as gospel when, after decades of study with specific performance data to work with, we are still unable to accurately predict the future performance of the El Nino effect off the coast of California. Incomplete and erroneous information compounds the difficulty in getting a true picture: * When the news was released that Arctic ice was at a 30 year low in 2007, the same source also reported that Antarctic ice was at a record high. Only the news about the Arctic ice made the majority on the media reports. * There is significant scientific research that suggests the sun‟s activity has a far greater effect on the overall temperature of the earth than CO2, but this is largely ignored in the climate models. Current solar monitoring indicates that solar activity has decreased in recent years and this could result in a DROP of around 1.5 degrees C by 2020. It is also a fact that colder temperatures result in many more deaths than warmer temperatures. Many scientists consider the potential of the future cooling of the earth to be more of a concern than warming, and there is ongoing debate as to whether increasing CO2 causes warming; or warming causes increased CO2! Unfortunately these positions, and many others like them, are not included in any balanced presentation of future trends. * The computer models predicted that the earth could experience a significant rise in sea levels, which was then heavily publicized and circulated as a major case to support the concerns about global warming. However, a noted expert on sea level changes and coastal evolution has questioned the models and exposed that they had been “manipulated” to create the trend increase. An “adjustment” admitted by the authors of the model. This information was not widely reported and the potentially misleading rising sea level projection is still used as a major component of the global warming scenario. So how should we respond to the threat of climate change? Whether signing up to the worse case scenarios or remaining skeptical of the media and political hype, there is no reason not to respond sensibly to the many opportunities available to live a more energy efficient and sustainable lifestyle. Individually we can all reduce our energy consumption by effective use of more efficient lighting and appliances, reduce water usage by capturing rain water in rain barrels to irrigate the garden, utilize energy saving showerheads and shorter showers and reduce waste to landfills by composting garden and kitchen waste and following local recycling guidelines. Solar and wind power are becoming more efficient, financially viable and readily available as their science develops and government programs offer greater incentives to bring these clean, renewable sources of power into the mainstream of American life. What we should not do, is make major policy decisions for our country and the rest of the world based on half of the available information. All sides need to be heard and a prudent response developed. Why should we listen to an ex politician, with an individual carbon footprint bigger than some small towns, lecturing us on saving the planet? Letting politics and incomplete information drive our decisions can only result in wasteful spending and ultimately the wrong result. Global Warming Gives a Serious Warning: Global warming and climate change are already upon us. Global warming is a large issue with intensely intimate consequences at the personal and community level. What we need to recognize is that choices at the local and community level CAN make differences. Most of the choices we make about how we choose to live are economic and political choices. These are choices about forms of consumption (humans have always been consumers). They are political choices in terms of energy production and transportation choice. Global Warming is only the most recent case of man inducted troubles for the earth. Rachel Carson's campaign against DDT caused malaria to re- emerge in Africa, killing hundreds of thousands of human beings. Greenhouse gases play an important role but are only a contributing factor. It should not come as a surprise that our entire solar system has been warming for the last quarter century, or that the most accurate weather forecasts come from algorithms that concentrate on solar fluctuations and cosmic rays. Greenhouse gases are an air pollution problem, and all air pollution problems of the past have cost significantly less to fix than projected, while declining faster than expected. This gives cause to hope that greenhouse gases can be controlled reasonably cheaply and without wrenching sacrifices to the global economy. However, recent evidence suggests that changes like the melting of glaciers and of polar icecaps are occurring much faster than expected. A positive feedback loop caused by man man and naturally occurring cyclical trends may have already been established and climate change will progress on an accelerated course no matter what we now do to arrest it. Greenhouses use a Co2 "poison" level of 1000pmm which is great for plant growth and has not hurt anyone yet, even those who spend a long period of time in such an environment. But the problem is not in inhaling the gas. It is that they cause temperature increases. Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise. Temperatures are, in fact, rising. Climate prediction relies on other, longer ranging factors. For instance, we might not know if it will be below freezing on a specific December day in New England, but we know from our understanding of the region's climate that the temperatures during the month will generally be low. Climate change due to human influence, a phenomenon that many commentators seem unwilling or unable to accept, is the result of unsustainable activities. Since the late-19th century, the industrialized world has been using fossil fuels, both coal and petroleum, to produce our comfortable, energy-intensive lifestyle. Over the next 20 to 50 years climate change, whether caused by natural or human factors, or a combination of both, will likely have a serious impact on huge numbers of the earth's population. Scientists emphasize that most of the damage to coral is inflicted by global warming through coral bleaching, the result of higher water temperatures heating the coral. The warming waters stress the coral, which then expels the microscopic plants or algae that give the coral color and nourishes it. Scientists have shown that cave formations could help settle the contentious debate on whether hurricanes are strengthening in intensity due to global warming. Measuring oxygen isotope variation in stalagmites in Actun Tunichil Muknal cave in central Belize, a team of researchers have identified evidence of rainfall from 11 tropical cyclones over a 23 year period (1978-2001). Scientists believe CO2 levels will rise another 30% during the next 50 years. Scientists are increasingly worried about emissions from developing countries. China is expected to pass the United States this year or next to become the world's largest emitter of global warming gases. Scientists have concluded that human activities are contributing to global warming by adding large amounts of heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere. Our fossil fuel use is the main source of these gases. Scientists made their discovery by comparing the SeaWiFS record of the rise and fall of global ocean plant life to different measures of recent global climate change. The climate records included several factors that directly affect ocean conditions, such as changes in sea surface temperature and surface winds. Climate change due to human influence, a phenomenon that many commentators seem unwilling or unable to accept, is the result of unsustainable activities. Since the late-19th century, the industrialized world has been using fossil fuels, both coal and petroleum, to produce our comfortable, energy-intensive lifestyle. It is difficult to break away from the use of fossil fuels as so many of the earth's population depend upon them for energy and economic development. There are plenty of troubling signs that trouble is on the way. For example, ice breaks away from the Perito Moreno Glacier in Patagonia, Argentina, where the melting rate of ice fields has doubled in recent years. Glaciers around the world are retreating, a sign, scientists say, of global warming. Ice core records show that whenever CO2 has increased in the earth's past, so has temperature. The recent increase in atmospheric CO2 is 200 times as great as any previous change seen in the ice cores. All the signs are there for dramatic changes to occur with the earth's weather over the next few years. In fact, judging from recent drought, hurricane and tornado activity the leading edge of this activity may be upon us. The speed at which climate change is now occurring is surprising the scientists. It may be that it is already too late to escape disaster. Sea Temperature Surprise For Monaco: Global warming and rising tea temperatures aren't playing to the script that environment campaigner Prince Albert of Monaco might have expected, according to recently released figures. Since becoming Soverign of Monaco, Prince Albert has let it be known that the environment is a major concern of his, and early on in his reign made a visit to the North Pole to highlight global warming, and he has established a foundation to study among other things, ironically sea temperatures. Rising sea temperatures is seen as a major contributor to the ice caps melting, and is seen as a controversial part of the green campaign on climate change as some scientists argue that sea temperatures would take hundreds of years to rise as a direct result of human activity. Quite what Prince Albert will make of the findings on his own doorstep isn't known yet. The Mediterranean waters off Monaco caused concern four years ago in 2003 when the water temperature reached 28 degrees centigrade - 82 degrees farenheit - but this year saw temperatures cool considerably to 23 centigrade in July and 24 in August. Two other warm years apart from 2003 were 2001 and 2006. Commenting on the findings, a local Monaco travel guide states 'There doesn't appear to be a consistent rise over the years in the water temperatures, and they vary year by year, sometimes rising, sometimes falling - which would appear fairly natural rather than anything that could be seen as particularly alarming with a need for action. Should temperatures rise consistently for a few years in succession perhaps that would indicate something really is going on in the Mediterranean around Monaco.' An example of Monaco taking the environment seriously is the annual Monaco Yacht Show. To attain carbon neutral status last year, the organisers sponsored various projects in Europe and further afield to offset carbon emissions generated by the show. The show paid for wind turbines In New Zealand, generating enough electricity for 45,000 homes and in Brittany France paid for a heath to be planted with chesnut and oak trees to protect water catchments and provide a recreational area, while in the USA paid for a methane capture system, reducing the amounts being emitted by some 95 per cent. The leadership for the move to a greener State has come from Sovereign Prince Albert, who has been successfully campaigning among world leaders since his inauguration two years ago to move the environment up the political agenda, and it has brought the issue to the fore at home. Prince Albert signed the country up for the Kyoto Protocol shortly after becoming Sovereign, and a few months later left behind the comfort and glamour of his palace and Casino Square for the wilds of Antartica to see for himself the damage being caused to the glaciers because of global warming. Upon his return he established the foundation with his own money to study the impact of rising sea levels, and since then has been active in the attempts to publicise the need to cut CO2 emissions in the industrialised world. In recent months he has met both Prince Charles and ex President Chirac of France to discuss global warming. Close to the Fontvieille harbour where the yacht show takes place, a new island is to be built, and the bidders have been told that a successful application must be environmentally friendly, and some proposals indicate that the island will be a floating one to avoid any disruption or damage to marine life. Prince Albert has been active at the UN too, and is involved with a campaign to plant a billion new trees which is being welcomed by environmentalists. But like the sea temperatures, that hasn't been without controversy either, with a warning by some that in certain regions it could do more harm than good. While the campaign claims that each tree uses up 26 pounds of co2 emissions and in return produces enough oxygen for a family of four, planting the right trees is important to help the world improve her ecological and environment balance. Global Warming And You: It seems everyday we're bombarded with even more information regarding global warming. Scientists give us finding after finding; this ice shelf is melting, that drought is longer and more severe than even before, plus it seems wherever you are in the world politicians add their personal opinions, whether genuine or not. Early summer, late winter. Here in London we've been basking in beautiful near summer weather for the past few weeks, a full 3 months early. Yet now tonight we have snow forecast over the next couple of days. No matter what we think is happening, nature is confused. Trees and flowers in full blossom thinking it to be mid to late April will now lose their colour to late frosts and snow. Is it true; are we to blame for Earth's atmosphere warming to artificially high levels? I was recently inspired by the new movie, An Inconvenient Truth. Based on US Senator Al Gore's illuminating and extraordinary slide show dealing with the onset of global warming dating back to the industrial revolution, the movie contains all the latest factual information, plus strategies of what we as individuals can do to alleviate the situation. It most worryingly shows how the human production of CO2 and other harmful greenhouse gasses have dramatically increased in the latter half of the 20th century. Tackling such a serious subject head on, I also found famously heavy and some-might-say-boring Al Gore to be light, informative, funny and a very human person indeed. I don't usually make movie recommendations during my newsletters and articles, however on this occasion I would recommend and encourage you to seek out 'An Inconvenient Truth'. Have a look at the official website (link below) and take an extra step forward today. What would it take for you to become inspired? Being inspired to make positive changes for our planet and future generations surely is the biggest legacy any of us can leave, isn't it? I'm currently coaching with Tom, a young man in The Netherlands who's re- training in order to move into environmental research to reduce and reverse global warming, and even though much of the technical side of what he does is completely over my head, his focus and dedication is totally inspirational to me. The spectrum of what we can all do is huge. And just to bring this back into the area of life coaching & personal development, it's the area known as 'contribution'. Of course, there is also a debate doubting the present scientific data. Some suggest the Earth warms and cools as part of its greater long-term cycle, and that what is happening now is simply a part of that. It's mentioned the oceans produce far more CO2 than any human factory ever could, that cows produce more methane than a human ever could, and that most of the predictions published by scientists throughout the past 20-30 years have proved either inaccurate or just plain wrong. Personally I lean on the side of global warming being a reality, and one I can effect. I believe we have an obligation to future generations to safeguard their world whether we have irrefutable evidence or not. If we took no action, believing scientists to be wrong, and they turned out to right, by that time we might have inflicted irreversible harm on the world they inherit. So, what some actions we can take that will tell future generations that even if the scientists are right or wrong we took care of their planet anyway? Here are a few handy hints I've picked up along the way, which as well as helping reduce global warming will also cut down your fuel bills and make you more healthy! 1. Leave the car at home more often, especially for short trips. Use public transport, walk to the shops instead of driving. As well as saving money on gas (petrol), carrying the bags and walking will be great for your body. 2. As light bulbs blow in the house, replace with low emission bulbs and also switch lighting and other appliances off in rooms or areas not in use. Think TV, DVD, music system, think big savings on your fuel bill each year! 3. Take a shower instead of a bath. Showers use only around a 5th water compared to taking a bath. 4. Recycle household waste. I know some countries and cities view this with different levels of urgency. Even here in London some councils are more proactive than others. I just moved from a lackluster one to a really good one, and now have separate bins for garden and vegetable waste, one for cardboard, plastic and glass bottle, papers and books, etc, and everything else goes in the regular black bag destined for a landfill. What I've noticed however, is since I've been doing this the size of the black bag is smaller and smaller as I feel better and better. 5. Become more eco savvy. Check items that have less, or more easily recyclable packaging. This gives supermarket shopping a whole new twist, which for those of us who seem to spend hours in the places each week, helps pass the time and make the experience a whole lot more interesting. And finally It has been suggested that intention is everything. In the case of global warming, whichever side of the debate you're on, your intention is still so important, and asking the question, what condition do you want to leave the planet in for the future, does make a difference, not least to you. California Global Warming Solutions Act: The main goal of this article is to present an initial introduction to the Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program and California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) program and legislation. Changes are pending in 2009 AB 32 with legal compliance reporting for refrigerant gases as early as 2010. The California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32), first passed in 2006 with additional early actions taking effect in2010, is a broad and comprehensive directive with the goal of reducing greenhouse gasses (GHGs) by approximately 25% by the year 2020. This goal is derived from the increase of greenhouse gasses in California since 1990. The intent of the legislation to reduce greenhouse gasses to their 1990 levels, thereby reversing 16 years of pollution in less than 14 years. As part of the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) the Air Resources Board (ARB) has approved an early action measure to reduce high-global warming potential (GWP) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by establishing new legislation and defining requirements related to improved monitoring of AC or HVAC systems, enforcement of regulations, reporting of refrigerant usage, and recovery, recycling, or destruction of high-GWP refrigerant gases. The greenhouse gasses (GHGs) as defined by the California's AB 32 are identical to those gasses already identified in the Kyoto Protocol and are already being regulated, monitored, and managed by many other countries around the World. In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the most widely known GHG, the following gasses are also defined as GHGs with high global warming potential (GWP) carbon equivalent emissions by the AB 32 legislation: * Methane (CH4): a byproduct of waste decomposition, and natural geological phenomena; the majority of methane is derived from natural gas drilling. * Nitrous Oxide (N2O): a pollutant created by industrial processes, motor vehicle exhaust, and industrial air pollutants reacting with the atmosphere; like methane, nitrous oxide can also be a product of waste decomposition in nature and agriculture. * Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6): a gas used for various electrical applications, including gas insulated switchgear. Sulfur Hexafluoride is also used for experimental applications. * Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): a collection of commonly used refrigerant and aerosol gasses with a wide variety of other commercial applications. CFCs and HCFCs are considered Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs), as defined in title VI of the US Clean Air Act (Section 608). The California EPA's Air Resources Board (CARB) has developed a complex and highly detailed system of greenhouse gas management for refrigerant gasses, known as the Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program, and stricter standards for New Commercial Refrigeration Systems . According to CARB this strategy includes careful monitoring of potential refrigerant gas leaks, improved record keeping and certification of personnel as well as specifications for PFC and HCFC recovery equipment. The proposed Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program, which integrates two AB 32 early action measures, addresses the detailed monitoring and management of the PFCs and HCFCs noted above and includes tracking requirements for new and existing commercial and industrial refrigeration systems. Likely to be implemented by January, 2010, is the monitoring and management of high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants in large systems in the range of 2,000 pounds of refrigerant gas. CARB is charged with the monitoring GHGs and high GWP gasses, as well and the eventual development and enforcement of specific and quantitative new regulations covering carbon related emissions which refrigerant management with the tracking, reporting, cylinder management, and gas recovery for stationary refrigerant and air conditioning (AC) systems all becoming key integral parts. The CARB proposal could also involve fines for mismanagement of refrigerant record keeping, intentional venting of systems, and the inability to regularly submit the required refrigerant usage reports. The CARB enforces Section 608 of the US Clean Air Act in specific and quantifiable terms in cooperation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as the existing national and state refrigerant regulations are applied to leaks, emissions, venting, and the recovery processes. The overall intent of CARB's strategy is to monitor and reduce the introduction of man-made GHGs and high GWP gasses into the atmosphere, as called for in the California Global Warming Solutions ACT (AB 32) in effect since 2006 with tighter controls, monitoring, and overall regulations becoming enforceable by early 2010. Refrigerant management and reporting is a key consideration from a business strategic perspective related to asset management, from the effects such high GWP gases have on the environment, and from the relationship between refrigerants, greenhouse gases, and carbon equivalent emission. As organizations with AC or HVAC systems containing refrigerant gas of 50 pounds or more will soon find out, the effective monitoring, management of data, and systematic reporting of refrigerant usage will be key to business success in our emerging carbon economy. What Is The Great Ocean Conveyor: Firstly what is the connection between The Great Ocean Conveyor and a water to gas fuel conversion system for cars which improves mpg, reduces carbon gas emissions, thereby helping the environment by reducing global warming? Puzzled, read on. Question: what is "The Great Ocean Conveyor"? Is it a conveyor system in a food distribution centre, or perhaps a fish, or evem a ships name, or what? It is none of the above, as some of you in the know will be aware of, the Great Ocean Conveyor is however planet Earth's most important component. The Conveyor is simply a current of water which flows through the oceans of the world in a continuous flow and may take a 1000 years to complete its cycle. The current when heading south through the Atlantic is cold and runs deep continuing through the southern oceans just north of Antartica and south of Australia before heading northward through the Pacific. As it continues to the northern parts of the Pacific the current warms up and rises to nearer the surface it then turns southwards and heads west past Indonesia, through the Indian Ocean to round the Cape and head back up the Atlantic. When it reaches east of Greenland, and already cooling, the Conveyor meets the melting ice cap waters, it is these cold waters which keep the Conveyor operating. If there is no ice cap because of global warming, and the ice cap is now fast disappearing, then there will be no cold water to form the lower circulating channel southwards of the Conveyor. The consequences of a breakdown of the Conveyor are horrendous, the worst case scenario would be another ICE AGE which could happen within 2-3years of the Conveyor malfunctioning. A lesser harrowing scenario would be a "little ice age" lasting perhaps a couple of centuries which would lead to extremely harsh winters, draught, desertification and crop failure. A simple geographical comparism of the latitude of Alaska and the permafrost locked regions of northern Canada and central Siberia show them to be similar to most of Europe and Scandinavia, yet Europe's climate is more similar to that of North America (whose eastern seaboard would be seriously affected too). Why so? Simple, the Gulf Stream which is a part of the Conveyor and which brings that warmer climate to Scandinavia and Europe, would not exist and thus we would be consigned to those other much, much colder climatic conditions. Do not imagine that these flows can be altered by man as the statistics are stupendous. With a flow rate of only 10cm per second there is a moving mass of water equivalent to 100 Amazon rivers, with an average 30million cu ft of water entering the system every second. If this flow is upset the results will be felt within as short a period as 2-3years. When you consider the minute limitations of man's control over nature you realize that it is nature that is in charge of planet Earth and quite simply we have to comply with nature and not the other way around. Our carbon gas emissions from factories and motors cannot be sustained and for our existence MUST be reduced, yet what do we do? We go out and cut down the very forests that can absorb 25% of all carbon dioxide produced and which has a profound effect on global warming. As individuals we can cast our votes for politicians to hopefully change their policies to be more eco-friendly but do not hold your breath there; or we can take positive action ourselves with our cars and not emit as much as 3.5 tons of CO2 per individual car per annum by installing a water to gas fuel conversion system which dramatically reduces carbon gas emissions thus reducing global warming and helping to save the environment. Desertification, What Is It?: If you're interested in environmental or green issues, you probably know all about things like sustainable design and energy conservation. You have a decent understanding of the effects man's actions can have on the planet, including issues like deforestation and global warming. But you may not know about one very important effect of the deforestation currently spreading all over the globe: desertification. Desertification is one of the first truly visible consequences of the effects of man's disregard for the health of the planet; many consider it to be a sign of what our children and our children's children will soon come to face. But what is it? Desertification is the name given to the process which turns a normal, healthy ecosystem into a desert-- a desert that wouldn't have appeared if nature were allowed to take her natural course. The term doesn't include the natural deserts that have existed for thousands of years. Natural deserts develop over time due to a low amount of rainfall or a difficult climate, making a particular swath of land unable to support animal or vegetable life easily. The "artificial" deserts included in the term desertification are unintentionally created by man. Desertification is the result of one or several man-caused events, including acid rain (which results from manmade pollution), the overgrazing of cattle, intentional and unintentional manmade fires, and, of course, the cutting of trees for the production of paper products and for wood. What Happens During Desertification In some areas, only one of the above factors might come into play to encourage desertification. In other areas, you may see a combination of all four. When a piece of land has been sufficiently affected by man in order for the desertification process to start, the land slowly transforms from a rich habitat into an unnatural and often completely uninhabitable desert. In an unnatural desert, different species of animal life living in the area begin to die. The local plants disappear gradually-- or sometimes all at once. When the vegetation begins to die off, the desertification process begins to speed up. With the loss of plant life comes the loss of oxygen and other valuable resources that feed an area-- and the whole planet. With desertification, a whole ecosystem can die-- and remove from the planet all of the much-needed natural resources that ecosystem used to provide. And it's a problem that doesn't simply affect some animal in plant life in one small area; desertification also affects man in several key ways. And one of the most important is flooding. Trees do more than create oxygen and feed ecosystems; their roots also anchor the soil into place, keeping it firmly where it belongs. But when trees and their roots begin to die, catastrophic flooding and mudslides become much more common. These floods kill people and damage ecosystems in the here and now; this isn't something that we can let future generations worry about, because it is affecting mankind every day. If that's not enough, the lower levels of oxygen brought about by the process of desertification also speed up the progression of global warming. Desertification isn't a simple problem, and because it's caused by many factors no one solution will fix it. But there are things that the environmentally conscious among us can do to help prevent future desertification. One is using and encouraging the use of less paper in day-to-day life. Recycle paper and do what you can to live paper-free in your home and office. Another is working to pass legislation that will control the amount of wood that can be taken from any one area, or the amount of cattle that can graze in an area. Huge issues like global warming require huge --and difficult-- solutions. But desertification, though complex, takes place locally, and on a smaller scale than something like global warming. And while this makes desertification receive less attention than it deserves, it also means that your efforts can make a difference in your area. Can We Strain Carbon Dioxide Out of the Air?: While worries about the stock market, the auto industry, and just about everything to do with the economy are making the front pages of every daily newspaper, worries about global warming have never left the front of our minds. According to most scientists, the Earth is getting warmer, and the environment is already suffering for it. And those same scientists mostly agree that the problem has been created by the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. While reducing carbon emissions and conserving energy are considered by most to be hugely important steps in reducing or reversing global warming, scientists and researchers have also been considering other ideas. And one new idea that you may not have heard of is CO2 capture plants. Carbon Capture and Storage This new idea, called Carbon Capture and Storage (or CCS for short) is a new project that has been widely supported by Britain's Gordon Brown. Europe's plan? To build ten or so carbon capture plants around the European Union by 2015. These plants will be built next to energy production plants (such as coal burning power stations) and will capture and store CO2 as it's created by the burning of coal. These specialized power stations will cost anywhere from two to three times as much as traditional coal-burning plants. Funding the project will cost the European Union a fortune, requiring subsidies of up to ten billion euros. And most are in agreement that the extra cost is well worth it. What CSS Does Like any new technology, there are positives and negatives to Carbon Capture and Storage. While using these plants alongside traditional coal power plants may hugely reduce European carbon emissions, some environmentalists worry about storage issues with CCS. The general plan of the EU is to capture carbon emissions, compacting the carbon dioxide, and permanently storing it in unused sites-- almost like another kind of waste (like landfills). While the idea of permanently storing CO2 may seem to be less progressive than simply reducing carbon emissions, CCS technology may be an approachable, practical solution for a world which is not yet ready to give up on fossil fuels. Though different parts of the world use different fuels to create most of their power, the EU will be getting about 60% of their power from coal burning by 2030, and this energy source is widely used throughout Asia and in much of the Americas, as well. With coal use spreading, the installation of Carbon Capture and Storage plants will help to hugely reduce the amount of damage these power stations can do to the environment. According to researchers, the ten to twelve plants being planned in the European Union alone may reduce carbon emissions by 400 million tons per year by the year 2030. This reduction in CO2 makes up about a fifth of the entire CO2 reduction planned in the EU during the next couple of decades. Making CCS technology a large step towards a very important goal. For now, funding is under discussion, and not all European leaders are in agreement about how to implement CCS. But while the fate of Carbon Capture and Storage in the European Union is still undecided, the fact that this technology is being implemented is like a ray of hope to Europe and the rest of the world. This sort of practical solution may be just what the world needs during the transition to a greener lifestyle. Hopefully, we will eventually be able to meet our energy needs without polluting our atmosphere at all. In the meantime, Carbon Capture and Storage isn't a bad start. Global Warming: 4 Tips To Help Slow it Down: Global Warming is happening, and it's up to us to stop it. Every time we step into our car to run an errand, or buy take out for supper, we are adding to the affects our world's over consumption of fossil fuels is having on the environment. Global Warming isn't just about adding a few degrees to the world's overall temperature. It's about melting ice caps that will slowly erode some of the world's most fertile farmlands, making growing the food the world consumes harder and harder. It's about people displaced in places like London, New York and Bangkok, because of rising ocean waters that will flood most low-lying homelands across the globe. And it's about the spread of what were once inoculate diseases to the western world, like malaria and TB, as insects which thrive on higher temperatures continue to breed and spread diseases at a faster rate. Global warming affects everyone. And it'll take a little work from everyone across the globe to get it under control. It's no longer "their" problem. It's ours. Here are 4 things we can all do help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released (and trapped), into our atmosphere every minute of every day: Conserve Electricity. There are dozens of ways every person on earth can conserve electricity every day - without interfering with the way we live our lives: -Turn off lights, appliances, TV's and computers when not in use. One computer monitor left on overnight uses enough energy to print more than 5,000 copies. -Buy only energy efficient appliances. -Wash clothes in cold water whenever possible. -Wrap your water heater and keep the temperature at 130 degrees or lower. -Install a programmable thermostat. -Turn off the AC and open the doors and windows. -Replace traditional light bulbs with newer, long lasting and energy efficient varieties. Save Water. Everyday precious fresh water resources are lost to laziness and neglect. Help save the world's water supplies by: -Put a plastic bottle full of water inside your toilet tank. Toilets use between 3-5 gallons of water with every flush. By eliminating some room in the tank with the bottle, you'll save up to 1 gallon of water every time it's flushed. -Fix leaky pipes and drippy faucets right away. -Wash only full loads of laundry. -Collect and use rain water to water plants, feed animals and wash outdoor furniture and cars. Recycle and Reuse. It can take 5 years for a cardboard milk container to biodegrade in a landfill. Try these recycling tips to help save the earth: -Fill those community-recycling buckets. Check with your municipality to see what types of items they offer recycling pickup for, and then kick all of your newspaper, magazines, junk mail and assorted paper products out to the curb. Don't forget about your household plastics, aluminum and cardboard. -Stop buying disposal utensils, plates, napkins and cups. Use washable items and save a ton of landfill space, as well as money. -Reuse food containers such as mayonnaise jars, coffee cans, even those cute little plastic baby food containers. They're great for storing leftovers and other small items. Go Green. Get back into nature by: -Plant a backyard garden or a few trees at the neighborhood park. -Switch to all-natural cleaning supplies. -Start a compost pile in your backyard or with a group of neighbors. Buy organic. -Eat only fresh fruits and vegetables. It'll save on packaging waste. Do Melting Ice Caps Really Point To Global Warming: Global climate change is having a direct impact on the Earth's sea level and a group of scientists led by two geophysicists is providing the sea level 'fingerprints' of polar ice sheet melting to prove it. Rates of sea level change over the last century vary widely from one geographic location to another even after these rates have been corrected for known effects. The question has always been, why? What is causing these significant variations? Frank Housego, a geophysics professor, is lead author of a paper that claims to have discovered the answer. And it is an answer that has an important impact on the debate over global climate change. Housego and his colleagues argue that scientists have not widely appreciated that melting from the Antarctic, for example, will have a distinctly different pattern or fingerprint in how it affects sea level than melting from Greenland or small mountain glaciers. It is these patterns that are causing the variation in the global sea level rise. "We calculated these fingerprints using computer models and then showed that the observed record of sea level change displays the fingerprints," says Housego. "Sea level is rising, and based on our work and the analysis of sea level data, not only can we assess the total amount melting from the ice caps, but we can also tell where that meltwater is coming from." Housego conducted this research with Tom Kane, a post-doctoral fellow and second author on the paper, Robert Dyson of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Gary Rink of the University of Durham. "In the past, people have been puzzled by the significant variations in sea levels in different parts of the world," says Housego. "Like throwing water in a bathtub, many scientists assumed that if polar ice melting were contributing to sea level rise, it would present itself evenly and uniformly across the Earth's oceans." And that assumption, he says, is simply wrong. Housegouses Greenland as an example. It was assumed that if the ice caps on Greenland were melting, all coastal locations would flood evenly. "In fact," he continues, "if the entire Greenland ice cap melted, then places relatively close by, like Britain and Newfoundland, would actually see sea levels fall. The reason is fairly simple: despite its small size, the Greenland ice sheet exerts a strong gravitational pull on the seas. As the polar sheet melts, it will exert less pull, resulting in lower - not higher - sea levels around Greenland. Of course, sea levels will rise on average, and as the meltwater moves away from Greenland it will create problems for countries in the Southern Hemisphere. In the same way, melting from the Antarctic will raise sea levels in the Northern Hemisphere, but not in places like Australia." To look for evidence of their ideas, the scientists re-examined the data from tide gauges that measure sea levels. The results startled even them. They found that they could fit nearly all the geographic variations in sea level that they saw in these tide gauges using the distinct sea level patterns they predicted for the melting of polar ice sheets. It is estimated that sea levels are rising, on average, by about 1.8 millimetres per year. "We've really strengthened the link between today's sea level changes and ice melting and we've found a way of unraveling the details of this link. By doing that, we've also strengthened extrapolations being made for the future effect of climate warming. And these extrapolations show continued acceleration of sea level rise late into the present century, leading to more flooding of coastal communities," says Housego. This study was funded by McGill University's Premier's Research Excellence Award program, the Canadian Institute for Scientific Research and the NCSR of Canada. How we are all members of one big family: If people worldwide thought of themselves as Earth Club members, they would more likely keep the Earth clean and respect their fellow members. When 6 billion people fill the planet and environmental degradation and climate change threats us, we must adopt the perspective of one Earth, one home and one family as the way to live in harmony and peace, and collaborate to solve the big problems facing humanity. Humanity needs to choose a new vision of who we are â€“ Earth Humans â€“ and how we should behave to benefit the Earth and society. How important is the Earth as a reality and symbol in the current struggle of humans to make it with global warming, and terrorism and war? Earth is the common, central value around which we can rally, the root of our existence, the actual reality of our lives. No truth we seek, or any value we live by can exist without the Earth. To make this concept an assumption of our thinking and behavior would lead humanity in the direction of respect for the Earth and for humanity, including world peace. Our understanding of the Earth and our relation to it and responsibility for it is changing rapidly these days. The perspective floating blue, green and white in dark space and we living on it is compelling when we focus on ecology and humanity. The Earth is not a private club; it is a universal club. Being born allows you to receive a membership card; It is the most beautiful club that we know of in the universe. If people thought of themselves as Earth Club members, they would more likely keep the Earth clean and respect their fellow members. For too long people have taken the Earth for granted, judging by the way we have exploited it, and the dangerous consequences of global warming. We would not amount to much as a species if the Earth failed us. The body of the Earth consists of the mountains, seas, rivers, plants, and animals. It includes the atmosphere that surrounds it, the clouds that float above, and the rain that quenches the land. Human beings are, of course, part of the Earth, born and raised by the generosity and the bounty of the Earth. We human beings can think rationally, and have the capability of creating an environment to suit our needs and wants. But we cannot exist outside of the Earth, at least for the foreseeable future. More humility and gratitude would suit Earthâ€™s citizens. Seekers of world peace would be wise to look to the Earth as the core concept to break old, negative habits and form ones that will assure that human beings as we know them will survive. When Earth becomes our collective source of life values, then we will realize that the boundaries that we have set for ourselves are unnecessary, that the endless competition and conflicts driving our society. Our fast paced competitive lives have taken away our environmental instincts, and replaced them with primitive survival instincts. We have to work hard to break our â€˜negativeâ€™ habits. Earth is one big nation, the boundaries we have made are unnecessary. Our political and religious prejudices are holding us back and making us neglect more important issues like environmental pollution and global warming. If we must concentrate on a cause, let that cause be our planet. We only have one planet and there is no way we can carve out a new planet from another. The day earth becomes the centre of our attention, we will realise that political and geographic boundaries are inconsequential. Remember our planet is bigger than our everyday political and religious concerns.