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					                                                                                                                                                                        Volume 12
                                                                                                                                                                        Number 2
   Inflow/Infiltration                                                                                                                                                  Spring 1998

   A Growing Problem among America’s Sewered Communities




                                                                                                                                                                   Small Flows
          by Jeremy Canody                Over time, the presence of this          the system becomes overloaded            cracks in underground pipes
          Small Flows Editor              excess groundwater and                   and can cause street mains to burst,     caused by shifted joints due to
                                          stormwater runoff in wastewater          basements to flood, sewer back-          aging or tree roots that have pen-
   As many of the nation’s sewer          collection systems increases opera-      ups, and reduced treatment efficiency.   etrated it.
   systems begin to show signs of         tion and treatment costs, causes
   deterioration caused by aging,         surcharging and overflows, and           Inflow is unwanted and excessive         I/I is the combined volume of
   inadequate system design, poor         can present a significant health         stormwater that directly enters the      inflow and infiltration water found
   construction or location, and high     threat to humans.                        sewer system. This inflow can            in sewer systems.
   levels of precipitation, managing a                                             come from roof drains that directly
   safe and effective wastewater          Cracks and broken joints in sewer        flow into the sewer, catch basins of     Causes of I/I
   collection and treatment system is     lines also allow the inflow and          street gutters, commercial and           In general, levels of I/I vary de-
   becoming a significant challenge       infiltration (I/I) of untreated waste-   industrial discharges, and low           pending on location, age, and
   for small cities and towns across      water to pass by, spill, and/or di-      backyards drained through direct         structural integrity of a system. In
   the country.                           rectly enter into vital groundwater      connection to the sanitary sewer         the long run, identifying the causes
                                          and drinking water supplies.             pipe below the yard.                     of I/I as they happen or preventing
   Deterioration factors, such as those                                                                                     problems before they happen will
   mentioned above, allow excess          What is I/I?                             Infiltration is the unwanted             greatly reduce costs to the commu-
   stormwater and groundwater to          A sanitary sewer system is de-           groundwater and stormwater that          nity, the environment, and to indi-
   enter sewer systems causing them       signed to handle the steady flow         indirectly enters a sanitary sewer       vidual customers.
   to exceed their maximum flow           of wastewater coming from                system through foundation drains,
   capacities and preventing them         sources such as homes, commer-           defective joints, uncovered man-         Infiltration generally occurs as a
   from performing the task they          cial buildings, industries, schools,     holes, broken or cracked pipes and       result of poor soil conditions, poor
   were designed for—the safe col-        and hospitals. When hydraulic            manholes, or faulty sewer line           construction workmanship, or low
   lection and transportation of waste-   flows increase in a sanitary sewer       connections. For example, ground-
   water to a treatment plant.            system, due to heavy precipitation,      water can enter a system through         Continued on page 2



   Restaurants and Commercial Facilities Present Specific Problems
   for Onsite Sytems
            by Natalie Eddy               suspended solids) also have been         Puyallup, Washington. “Primarily,        Important Design Concerns
           NSFC Staff Writer              identified as major problems in          it’s the flow coming from the            Ted Walker, senior environmental
                                          treating restaurant wastewater in        kitchen or food processing area          health specialist for the Sonoma
   Editor’s Note: The following ar-       both septic tank systems and con-        that causes the high BOD, grease,        County, California, Permit Re-
   ticle is intended to provide a non-    ventional collection and treatment       and oil. In a typical residence, the     source Management Department,
   technical overview of how com-         systems.                                 kitchen may contribute only 10           agrees that treating restaurant and
   mercial businesses are attempting                                               percent of the total waste flow. In a    other commercial waste streams
   to control grease and oil before       The trouble arises when the grease       restaurant or supermarket, the food      can be a very tricky business.
   they become a problem for onsite       and oil reach the soil absorption        preparation area may constitute 40
   wastewater disposal systems. In        field or sewer lines, cooling and        to 90 percent of the waste flow,”        “They are the hardest systems to
   this case, the article discusses       solidifying to form a thin layer on      said Garrison.                           design and maintain for a variety
   how restaurants and other commer-      the soil distribution system and in                                               of reasons. You need to know
   cial facilities can prevent grease     the sewer lines.                         “This increase in biological load        exactly what factors you’re dealing
   from clogging an onsite system’s                                                and solids, coupled with higher          with when properly designing this
   leachfield by using grease traps.      It is a common problem, according        temperatures and higher flows, is        type of system,” he said.
   More detailed articles on commer-      to Carl Garrison, staff engineer of      more than most biological treatment
   cial waste and onsite treatment        NCS (Northwest Cascade-Stuth,            and disposal systems can handle.”   William Stuth, a developer of onsite
   will appear in upcoming issues.        Inc.) Wastewater Solutions in                                                wastewater pre-treatment systems,
                                                                                                                       outlines some design considerations
   Restaurants and other small com-                                                                                    in a 1992 paper he presented at the
   mercial businesses are popping                                                                                      University of Washington Wastewater
   up all over the country. While this                                                                                 Treatment Course and Exhibition.
   widespread boom may be good
   for the economy, it also can                                                                                             Some of those design concerns
   present problems for the environ-                                                                                        include:
   ment if proper steps are not taken
   to ensure reliable onsite wastewa-                                                                                       • Number of Days: Seating
   ter disposal.                                                                                                              capacity, and hours of business
                                                                                                                              operation. This helps deter-
   Most wastewater professionals                                                                                              mine the type of business done                         L   SMALL
                                                                                                                                                                                  NA
                                                                                                                                                                                                 FL




   today would agree that grease and                                                                                          at the restaurant and when the
                                                                                                                                                                              O




                                                                                                                                                                                                   OW
                                                                                                                                                                        NAT I




   oil—natural byproducts from                                                                                                peak flows occur.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     S




   cooking and food processing in
                                                                                                                                                                                                  E
                                                                                                                                                                         CL




                                                                                                                                                                              EA
                                                                                                                                                                                                 S




   restaurants, delis, grocery stores,                                                                                      • Flow Gallons Per Day (gpd):                           R IN GHOU
   and other small commercial facili-                                                                                         Includes average gpd, peak flow
   ties—are the most common prob-                                                                                             (within a two to four hour                Helping
                                          This watertight effluent filter tank has metal lids that allow for easy access
   lems in treating restaurant waste-                                                                                         period), and percentage of                America’s small
                                          to monitor and service 12 filters used to treat effluent coming from a com-
   water. High BOD (biochemical                                                                                                                                         communities meet
                                          mercial grease trap.
   oxygen demand) and TSS (total                                                                                            Continued on page 4                         their wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                        needs
SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                              1
                     Inflow/Infiltration
                     A Growing Problem among America’s Sewered Communities
                     Continued from page 1                 According to the U.S. Environ-
                                                           mental Protection Agency’s Office
                     quality building materials. Any of of Research and Development, the
                     these reasons can cause sewer lines effects of I/I can cause the following:
                     to crack or shift, causing unwanted
                     water to infiltrate a sanitary sewer • the utilization of sewer facility
                     system. Other causes of infiltration    capacity that would otherwise
                     include high groundwater levels;        be reserved for present sanitary
                     poor condition of pipes, joints, and    wastewater flows and future
                     connecting sewer lines; precipitation   growth;
                     and percolation of surface waters;    • the need for construction of
                     and water retention in the soil.        relief sewer facilities before
                                                             originally scheduled dates;
                     Although excessive stormwater         • backflooding of sewers into
                     flows tend to be the most common        streets and private properties;
                     cause of sewer inflow, they are not   • hydraulic overload of the treat-
                     the only cause.                         ment plant and the potential
                                                             “washout” of treatment processes;
                     Excessive base flows (flows from      • increased run time for pumps
                                                                                                   The public needs notification prior to smoke testing. As seen here, smoke
                     residential, commercial, and indus-     and pump stations;
I/I prevention

                                                                                                   will surface from structural openings including basements, gutters, and
                     trial sources that are supposed to    • additional costs for repair,          stormwater vents. Photo: West Virginia Rural Water Association
                     be collected by the sewer system)       replacement, recovery, energy,
                     are another contributing factor to      and supplies; and                     including treatment plant operators, Extremely critical to this fact-
                     unwanted wastewater inflows.          • environmental health effects.         sewer maintenance personnel,         finding process is the use of sewer
                     Commonly, the largest generators                                              community government officials,      maps—all sewer maps that have
                     of excessive base flows are a         The presence of any one or all of       local engineers, local contractors,  ever been on file in the community.
                     community’s residential areas.        these problems not only affects a       local industry, homeowners, and      Sewer maps can provide informa-
                                                           system’s collection and treatment       sewer industry representatives.      tion on new construction, additions
                     A sewer’s base flow can significantly facilities, it also affects the cus-                                         that have been made in the past,
                     increase if the community it serves tomers that use the system. In            For example, maintenance person- types of joints, buried manholes,
                     has homes with leaky fixtures,        addition to basement overflows          nel should be asked about the        the location of treatment plants and
                     faucets, and toilets, as well as      and yard flooding caused by I/I,        current condition of the sewer and pumping stations, types of bedding,
                     conventional fixtures such as six-    increased costs at the treatment        about any additions or changes that groundwater elevations, and over-
                     gallon-per-flush toilets and high-    facility will eventually mean higher    have been made to the sewer sys-     flow and bypass points. Essen-
                     volume shower heads.                  service charges to the customer.        tem in the past; local contractors   tially, many places that can be a
                                                                                                   should be asked about soil and       potential source of I/I can be found
                     A leaking toilet can add approxi-      Determining the Problem                groundwater conditions and instal- on these maps.
                     mately 750 additional gallons of       The only way to determine if an        lation practices that may contribute
                     wastewater to a collection system      I/I problem exists—besides the         to an I/I problem; homeowners        Finding the I/I Problem
                     each month. A leaking faucet can       obvious signs like basement flood-     should be asked about frequent       A sewer system evaluation survey
                     add an additional 300 gallons per      ing, sewer overflows, and treatment    basement flooding, ponding in        (SSES) is helpful in quantifying
                     month.                                 plant bypassing—is to perform a        their backyards, and if their roof   the total amount of I/I that can be
                                                            system-wide inventory. The             leaders are connected to the sewer reduced and the cost of such reduc-
                     Installing water-saving fixtures       correction of an I/I problem           system; and wastewater treatment     tion on a source-by-source basis.
                     and low-flush toilets (those that      requires a systematic approach,        plant operators should be asked if
                     use less than 3.5 gallons per flush)   and information must be collected,     treatment is bypassed during wet     In order to precisely detect a sani-
                     can drastically reduce the amount      identified, and assessed so that a     weather conditions or if heavy base tary sewer I/I problem satisfacto-
                     of unnecessary wastewater on a         plan of action to correct the prob-    flows are putting a strain on the    rily and economically, excessive
                     community-wide basis.                  lem can be developed.                  overall treatment process.           baseflow and I/I flows should be
                                                                                                                                        calculated separately to determine
                     For example, a community of            A community suspecting an I/I          The purpose of the interviews is to the individual costs associated with
                     10,000 will see a reduction of         problem must first define its prob-    gather as much information about     the removal and reduction of each.
                     315,000 gallons of wastewater a day    lem as clearly as possible before      that particular sewer system as
                     if it simply uses low-flush toilets.   taking action to correct it. Many      possible. As a result of the inter-  When estimating the location,
                     Therefore, it is both beneficial and   communities hire a consultant to       views, answers should be provided severity, and source of the I/I prob-
                     cost-effective for the community and   do this for them; however, a small     concerning the seriousness of the    lem, monitoring the flow over a
                     the public to conserve water.          community concerned about the          I/I problem, the locations of prob- period of time and in a variety of
                                                            high costs of hiring a consultant      lem areas, what can be done to       conditions will be helpful in deter-
                     Problems Caused by I/I                 may want to correct the problem        correct the problems, and how to     mining the actual relative contribu-
                     Some problems caused by I/I have       on its own. To do this, community      prevent future problems once the I/ tions of each I/I source.
                     already been mentioned (basement       leaders must ask questions. I/I        I problem is corrected.
                     flooding, surcharging, sewer over-     problems are corrected through                                              One of the more basic and less
                     flows, and bypasses); however, on      communication, compromise, and         Information also should be gath-     expensive methods for detecting an
                     a much larger scale, I/I is not only   the application of the appropriate     ered on local soils, rainfall        I/I problem is visually checking
                     a major deterrent to the successful    technology.                            amounts, base flow amounts, local manholes, as well as connections
                     performance of a sewer system,                                                industry water usage and dis-        and joints along the sewer lines.
                     but it can also adversely affect a     When asking questions, the person      charges, and areas commonly          This method can also be extremely
                     community’s environment and the        or people in charge should interview   flooding in the community.           dangerous if a person does not
                     overall quality of water resources.    those who are most familiar with                                            know what he is doing (see related
                                                            the community’s sewer system
                                                                                                                                          Continued on next page

                 2                                                                                                                 SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Continued from previous page        Smoke Testing                              and building vents, dry traps, de-       Smaller communities that do not
                                       Smoke testing is an easy and rela-         fective toilet wax rings, or missing     own their own equipment gener-
   article on confined space safety    tively inexpensive way to locate I/I       sewer clean-out plugs. Smoke seen        ally opt to contract with a profes-
   beginning on page 6).               problems, particularly near the            coming from building sewer vents         sional. Depending on the type of
                                       surface. Some of the specific              probably indicates no problem.           sewer system, a contractor can
   When performing a visual manhole sources detected by smoke testing             Smoke observed from other                inspect approximately 700 to 2,000
   and pipeline inspection, timing is  include yard and area drain con-           sources, as well as vents, may           feet of sewer line per day. A pro-
   everything. Observations for infil- nections, ponding areas, roof lead-        indicate a potential source of I/I.      fessional may be more thorough
   tration should be made only during ers, faulty service connections,            Any location where smoke is seen         than community personnel and will
   periods of high groundwater, and    catch basins, and laterals. This test      should be recorded for further           often provide a video copy and log
   accurate inflow observations can    also helps to detect illegal storm         evaluation.                              describing his or her observations.
   only be made during times of        drain connections, which are con-
   heavy rainfall. Therefore, when     sidered to be major contributors of        Dye Testing                              Where To Go for Help
   checking for infiltration sources,  inflow problems.                           Dye testing is particularly helpful      Determining how to correct an I/I
   observations should not be made                                                when detecting storm drains and          problem will essentially depend on
   for at least 24 hours after a rain- The smoke test works by forcing            storm sewer sources, as well as          the frequency of I/I, type of I/I
   storm or when it has been dry for   smoke from a smoke bomb                    inflow sources from private prop-        problem, and the location of the
   at least 24 hours prior to making   through an isolated section of             erty. This type of test is beneficial    problem.
   the observations. This minimizes    sewer pipe using an air blower             in helping to verify findings that
   the direct influence of rainfall.   positioned over a manhole. The             other tests may have identified.         There are a variety of organiza-
                                       idea is that if there are defects                                                   tions available to assist communi-
   On the other hand, inflow inspec-   along the sewer lines or pipe con-         All that is needed to perform dye        ties in all phases of finding, assess-
   tions should be made when it is     nections the smoke will surface at         testing, otherwise known as dye          ing, and correcting an I/I problem.
   raining and at a time of day when   these points.                              water flooding, is a source of wa-       For example, communities wanting
   commercial, residential, and indus-                                            ter, sewer pipe plugs, and the dye.      to perform a smoke test to determine
   trial flows are at a minimum—       Smoke seen coming from building            Only biodegradable and environ-          if they have cracks or defective
   generally late at night or early in sewer vents usually indicates no           mentally friendly dye should be          joints in their sewer lines can con-
   the morning.                        problem. However, smoke coming             used and it should be brightly           tact their state Rural Water Asso-
                                       from other sources may indicate a          colored so that it is easily detected.   ciation (RWA) for advice on where
   A follow-up flow inspection         potential source of I/I. Any loca-                                                  to purchase or rent the equipment
   should then be administered when tion where smoke is seen should be            There are various procedures for         needed.
   flows are normal in order to detect recorded for further evaluation to         testing with dye, depending largely
   any inconsistencies.                determine if it is indeed a potential      on the source being tested.           RWAs, state Departments of Envi-
                                                                                                                        ronmental Protection (DEP), and
                                                                                  For example, to dye test a manhole other agencies that regulate pub-
                                                                                  for suspected defects, simply flood licly owned treatment works are
                                                                                  the area close to the manhole with good starting contacts for commu-
                                                                                  dyed water and then check for         nities that suspect an I/I problem
                                                                                  seepage along the inside of the       and want to do something about it.
                                                                                  manhole walls. Various other
                                                                                  methods are used when dye testing These organizations offer services
                                                                                  storm sewer sections, streams,        such as technical assistance, equip-
                                                                                  ditches, ponding areas, roof lead-    ment rentals, contractor referrals,
                                                                                  ers, and cellars.                     and literature. Some state agencies
                                                                                                                        assist with onsite inspections.
                                                                                  Television Inspection
                                                                                  Perhaps the best way to take the      To obtain contact information for
                                                                                  guesswork out of checking for I/I     your state, call National Small
                                                                                  problems in a sewer line is to do a Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC)
                                                                                  closed-circuit television inspection. Information Assistant Crystal
                                                                                                                        Stevens at (800) 624-8301 or (304)
                                                                                  This type of inspection is generally 293-4191, ext. 5550.
   When smoke testing, smoke emerging from the ground is usually a
                                                                                  the most accurate for locating pipe
   certain sign of an I/I problem below the surface. Photo courtesy of the West
                                                                                  or joint separations, root intrusion, For more information on finding,
   Virginia Rural Water Association.
                                                                                  protruding or defective lateral       correcting, and preventing I/I,
   This type of inspection involves        source of I/I. The test should only    connections, corrosion, improper      contact the NSFC and request Item
   several people, good communica-         be done during calm, dry weather       pipe alignment, and illegal storm     # WWBLGN31, Inflow/Infiltration:
   tion equipment, and adequate            conditions because rain, snow, and     water connections.                    A Guide for Decision Makers. This
   lighting. In addition, all workers      windy conditions could provide                                               publication is particularly helpful
   need to use safety equipment (hard      false conclusions.                     A growing number of communities for small communities dealing with
   hats, ventilators, gas detectors) and                                          of all sizes are purchasing their     I/I problems. The cost is $6.05 plus
   exercise safety precautions at all      Prior to smoke testing, advanced       own television equipment to locate shipping. Also request Item
   times.                                  notification must be given to the      I/I problems and to continue moni- #WWBKDM67, Sewer System
                                           public about the test and any ac-      toring their lines once the prob-     Infrastructure Analysis and Reha-
   After areas with I/I problems have      tions they should take prior to or     lems are corrected. However,          bilitation. This book is free. Ship-
   been detected through a visual          during testing.                        many communities rent television ping charges do apply.
   inspection, the next step of an                                                equipment while others contract
   SSES is to verify the findings          Smoke from the test could enter        with professionals to perform the
   using smoke testing, dye testing,       buildings and homes through de-        inspection for them.
   or television inspection equipment.     fective joints in the sewer system


SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                              3
    Restaurants and Commercial Facilities Present Specific Problems For Onsite Systems
    Continued from page 1                 Many Factors Play A Role               system. “The existing septic tanks     ties of a business. “Someone may
                                          Walker noted that in addition to       were under capacity and the grease     have a nice old house they decide
       graywater versus blackwater.       the technical design concerns, it is   traps, which were small, had been      to turn into a bed and breakfast inn
       These helpto determine the size    necessary to pay attention to other    full for years, with grease over-      or small winery and start serving
       of the system; peak flows (when    human-related factors.                 flowing and plugging the entire        guests. The current wastewater
       they occur and their duration)                                            existing leachfield,” he said.         system may be sufficient for that.
       can affect the system design/size. He said a common problem with                                                 But then they may want to hold
                                           onsite systems is the high turnover “We ended up replacing and               weddings on the weekends or add
    • BOD (five day test): This deter-
                                           in a facility from one type of busi- redesigning the septic tanks, grease wine tasting or process winery
       mines the organic loading rate
                                           ness to another.                      traps, and sump pump (alternating waste,” Walker added.
       placed on the system and the
                                                                                 dosing wastewater into three
       type of treatment necessary to
                                           “A system may be set up for a         separate pressure distribution         “At that point, the waste flows and
       remove the BOD.
                                           certain type of restaurant, like a    leachfields). We also designed an      wastewater strength can skyrocket.
    • Oil and grease: High amounts         small coffee shop, and then be sold effluent filter tank to slow the flow Essentially, a caterer comes in and
       of oil and grease can harm the      to a fast food chain,” said Walker. of the graywater coming from the         turns a residential kitchen into a
       system and need to be removed       “The difference in waste strength     laundry service, pot and pan sinks, commercial kitchen, and a house
       prior to treatment.                 and flow can be immense, and the      high temperature-high volume           becomes a moderate sized winery.”
                                           type of onsite system to handle the   dishwasher, floor sinks, floor
    • Temperature: Grease and              flow may need to be changed. It’s drains, and the maintenance sec-           Sometimes the answer to a system
       grease traps are sensitive to       difficult for regulatory agencies to tion mop and bucket sinks.”             problem can be a little more cryp-
       temperature. Above 57 degrees       get a hold on the problem because                                            tic. An example of how one small
       F grease will not solidify and      turnover in these types of businesses Walker noted that the new system factor can change the performance
       separate from the waste stream. may be so rapid.”                         was designed with three, 950 lineal of a system is illustrated in the
       In certain cases, some soaps                                              feet drainfields, low-flow toilets,    March/April 1991 issue of the
       may emulsify grease and oils,       He added that sometimes businesses low-flow washing machines, and            Journal of Environmental Health.
       causing them to carry passed the    become successful and grow and        aerators and flow restrictors on all
       grease traps.                       that increased peak flow is another water faucets. It also contained a       In an article titled “The Effect of
                                           factor that may require a business    ventilation tube on the grease trap Restaurant Wastes on a Small Sys-
    • TSS: High levels of solids can       to enlarge its onsite system.         to let hot air escape in order to cool tem,” author James W. Farr recounts
       clog a drainfield or sand filter or                                       the graywater and provide easy         an incident that occurred while he
       hinder disinfection and need to     “Restaurants that use commercial      access to the effluent filter chamber. was a sanitarian with a county health
       be removed prior to final treat     dishwashers can discharge a lot                                              department on Long Island.
       ment or disposal.                   of waste,” he said. “We had one       “As a result, the temperature of the
                                           business that started with a design graywater wastewater flow low-           He describes a small treatment
    Grease Traps Help Process              peak flow of 3,000 gpd. When we ered from 97 degrees Farenheight             system consisting of five septic
    The best way to avoid problems         tested the water flow later, we       to less than 57 degrees F through      tanks connected to a dosing chamber
    with grease and oil is to prevent      found that it was closer to 12,000    the new large grease trap and efflu- and sand filter bed.
    them from getting into the system, gallons per day (gpd). We had to          ent filter chamber,” Walker added.
    according to Walker.                   go back and completely redesign                                              The filtered sewage was collected
                                           the system for them.”                 “I am proud to say that the facility at the bottom of the bed with lines
    To help separate the grease and oil                                          is doing fine, the new septic system that carried the filtrate to a concrete
    in commercial waste, Walker said Adjusting to Change                         is working beautifully, and the        contact chamber. Here hypochlo-
    properly sized and maintained          Walker cited a convalescent hospi- staff operating it is well trained        rite was added with the use of a
    grease traps or grease interceptors    tal in a neighboring county as a      and manages the system very well.” small pump and the effluent was
    are necessary.                         good example of how facilities                                               gravity-fed to an open body of
                                           change over time. “The hospital       Education Prevents Problems water. The receiving water was an
    “Most of the restaurants and com- had exceeded its original wastewa- Because of all the factors involved active shell fishing area. The aver-
    mercial facilities in our county       ter flow production from when it      in designing systems and the           age flow of the plant was about
    have grease traps,” said Walker.       first opened in 1977 from 4,000       nature of the business world, the      3,000 gpd.
    “There is no such thing as too big a gallons per day to a measured flow wastewater industry is increasingly
    grease trap. We like to put our        of 12,586 gallons per day. It had     finding education and regulation       BOD and TSS removal for the
    grease traps outside the facility and increased from 26 to 50 beds,”         compliance to be important ele-        plant was historically excellent. On
    have the dishwasher, pots and pans Walker said.                              ments in meeting the demands for the average the plant had an efflu-
    sinks, floor drains, and floor sinks                                         proper restaurant onsite disposal.     ent BOD of 2.0 milligrams per liter
    all go into the grease trap or a       “The food service had doubled its                                            (mg/l) and TSS of 5.0 mg/l or less.
    series of grease traps, and then tie   production of full-service meals      Walker believes education and          However, in June 1987, a regular
    back into an effluent filter cham-     into a three-meal, two-snack per      attention to detail play large roles   monitoring of the plant picked up
    ber, then go into a drainfield.”       patient kitchen. And the hospital     in keeping systems functioning         unusually high coliform levels. A
                                           had installed a large, high-tem-      properly.                              special sampling was done. Levels
    “We have a very experienced con- perature rinse dishwasher with a                                                   of BOD and TSS had increased
    tractor who maintains a large fam- large garbage disposal unit to keep “Trouble can arise from inexperi-            significantly, and a build-up of
    ily camp in the Redwoods,” said        up with the kitchen needs. In         enced, uneducated business owners yellowish grease-like material
    Walker. “In the past, he has had       addition, staff had doubled and an or employees,” said Walker. “You appeared in the contact chamber.
    nothing but trouble, having to         onsite laundry facility had been      might have a 16-year-old kid not
    replace the system very often. The added.”                                   properly trained working at a fast     Further tests showed that better
    wastewater stayed hot, and the                                               food restaurant who dumps a            treatment was occurring directly
    grease never solidified.               Walker said his investigation re-     bucket of grease down the drain.       after the septic tanks than after the
                                           vealed a hazardous situation with     That could clog up the entire system.” filter, and that the filter was actu-
    He put in a series of grease traps     raw sewage surfacing on the                                                  ally adding BOD to the system.
    with vents allowing the steam and ground everywhere. Employees               Walker stressed that it is important
    heat to escape to help the grease      were flushing plastic gloves,         to keep track of the special activi-
    cool. That solved his problem.”        needles, and syringes into the                                               Continued on next page


4                                                                                                                 SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Continued from previous page             a pretty good track record. With
                                            our planning agency, permits are      Transmission lines
   The restaurant manager was con-          required to effectively manage and    coming from a com-
   tacted, and after some investiga-        control restaurants and commercial    mercial effluent filter
   tion, it was determined that he had      facilities.”                          use a sump pump to
   switched detergents in the kitchen.                                            distribute "grease
   The solution to the problem was          Walker said his department has        free" effluent to
   simple—switch back to a less             permits that require restaurant       each leachfield line
   alkaline soap.                           owners to monitor all waste flows.    equally.
                                            The department also requires envi-
   Regulations Keep Systems                 ronmental impact studies on large
   Working                                  projected operations.
   As an environmental health spe-
   cialist with the Sonoma County           He added that sand filter and mound
   health department, Walker is fa-         systems have to be watched very
   miliar with the problems involved        closely because the wastewater may
   in permitting restaurant systems.        need to be pretreated before going
                                            into the filters to avoid clogging.
   Approximately 35 percent of the
   475,000 county residents are            In Sonoma County, operational
   served by onsite systems. Included      permits must be secured by owners
   in that onsite treatment category       for all innovative systems, such as
   are approximately 300 to 350            mound systems or sand filters.
   restaurants and commercial facilities.  Operators are required to monitor
                                           their systems and report routinely
   “In Sonoma County, with educa-          to the county on their operation.    Sonoma County has a very high            inspected every other month, and
   tion and experience we have fixed “That gives us ultimate control,”          voluntary compliance response. He        every month for larger restaurants.
   most of our onsite problems. As         said Walker.                         added, “Everyone we have ever
   regulators and designers we are                                              written up has eventually complied       For information on treating restau-
   very heavy handed on our restau-        If owners do not comply with         and fixed their system.”                 rant waste or to obtain copies of
   rants. We have stricter controls        permit restrictions, a permit can be                                          articles listed in this story, contact
   over restaurants now than we did        revoked and the business shut down. The department also charges a fee         the National Small Flows Clearing-
   more than 10 years ago,” said                                                for operational permits to cover the     house at (800) 624-8301 or (304)
   Walker. “We want to know their          “The operational permit process of cost of running the program.               293-4191 and request "The Effect of
   hours of operation, exactly what        self-monitoring/reporting to the     Classes are offered to help innova-      Restaurant Waste on a Small Sys-
   goes down into the tank, peak flow county and occasional inspections tive system owners and the com-                  tem" Item #L002751 and "Treating
   amounts, the wastewater strength, etc.” from our agency have been very       munity learn about the proper way        Commerical High-Strength Waste"
                                           useful in educating the operator in to run their systems.                     Item #L003176. The costs are $0.15
   He added that even with “mom and properly maintaining his/her                                                         per page, plus shipping. You may
   pop” restaurants you have to take       wastewater system,” said Walker.                                              also contact Garrison at (206)
   the time to analyze what is in the                                           Walker said on average a restau-         848-2545 or Walker at (707) 527-
   waste stream. “You have to look at “If a problem is found, a notice is       rant should inspect its septic tanks     1695.
   both the flows and the strength of      sent directing correction, giving    twice a year for sludge on the
   the flows,” he added. “The prob-        the owner time to fix the problem. bottom. He recommends pumping
   lem is with all the various restau-     Then the permit is revoked if the    the tank every two years. In addi-
   rants, that takes time. But, we have problem goes unaddressed.”              tion, he said, grease traps should be

   Operator Pollution Prevention Training Module Is Available
   A training module designed to       “We want to make wastewater                “It’s a way for them to look at it     discussions of pretreatment issues,
   educate wastewater treatment plant  plant operators aware that there is        and say, ‘Gee, the folks up stream     waste reduction, and information
   operators about pretreatment and    no way to totally control or influ-        do prevent pollution. Maybe I can      about costs and benefits of different
   pollution prevention is available   ence internal processes until you          get control over my treatment end.’”   pollution prevention technologies.
   from the Michigan Department of     control what is coming in,” he
   Environmental Quality (MDEQ).       said. “We hope they will be advo-          Jackson said it is common for
                                                                                                                         Industrial waste topics discussed
                                       cates in their communities. We’re          industries to invest a lot of money
                                                                                                                         include auto repair, pulp and paper,
   The module focuses on Great         telling operators that if they con-        into their plant process but neglect
                                                                                                                         paint, dry cleaning and laundry
   Lakes pollutants but can be applied trol what’s coming into their sys-         to put much into expanding a treat-
                                                                                                                         plants, utilities, hospitals, and elec-
   across the board to any municipal   tems, they have some way to aid in         ment system.
                                                                                                                         troplating.
   or industrial wastewater treatment maintaining the water quality of
   plant, according to Robert Jackson, the area.”                                 “This is a teaching opportunity,”
                                                                                                                         The manual may be downloaded
   MDEQ chief of technical support.                                               said Jackson. “It’s a time for the
                                                                                                                         from the MDEQ home page at http://
                                       Jackson added that industrial treat-       operator to work with engineers
                                                                                                                         www.deq.state.mi.us/ead/potw. For
   MDEQ developed the materials        ment operators could benefit from          and process people to encourage
                                                                                                                         additional information, contact Jack-
   with a grant from the U.S. Envi-    the training module as well. “For          them to consider pollution preven-
                                                                                                                         son at (517) 373-2731 or in Michi-
   ronmental Protection Agency’s       example, an industrial operator            tion technology and the benefits of
                                                                                                                         gan call (800) 662-9278.
   Great Lakes National Program        could benefit from information in          industrial pretreatment.”
   Office. “Our intent was to provide the module about meeting the
   a basic understanding of pollution permit requirements that are neces-         Topics in the module include case
   prevention and how that informa-    sary to hook into a municipality’s         study discussions such as setting
   tion can be integrated into a com-  sewer system,” he said.                    up a pollution prevention program,
   prehensive program,” said Jackson.

SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                             5
             Staying Out of a Jam
             Confined Spaces Require Safety Measures
                  by Kathy Jesperson               hole. Several more unsuccessful         Cathy S. Dixon, communications         place inside the space, and possible
                NSFC Contributing Writer           attempts delayed the notification of    specialist for Operations Forum in     effects of the external environment.
                                                   the fire department for approxi-        the September 1994 article, “The
             In 19th century London, “doors        mately 20 minutes. The victim was       Ins and Outs of Confined Spaces.”    How does it affect workers?
             and windows of homes and facto-       eventually transported to a local                                            “Since deaths in confined spaces
             ries were sealed shut at sunset to    hospital, where he was pronounced       Dixon further stated that a facility often occur because the atmosphere
             protect occupants from entry of the dead on arrival.                          requiring employees to enter con-    is oxygen-deficient or toxic, con-
             feared ‘night air,’” wrote Mary                                               fined spaces must have a confined fined spaces should be tested prior
             Gayman in her article for Cleaner     Had these workers had proper train-     space safety program that includes: to entry and continually moni-
             magazine, “A Glimpse Into             ing, such as testing the atmosphere                                          tored,” said the NIOSH publica-
             London’s Early Sewers.”               and then ventilating the sewer vault,   • a written plan,                    tion. Two things make an atmo-
                                                   this fatal accident could have been     • documentation of confined          sphere flammable:
             “Entire families and crews of         avoided. When the atmosphere was           spaces,
             workers died of mysterious ‘as-       eventually tested, it was found to      • a permit system,                   • the amount of oxygen in the air,
             phyxiation’ during the night. Doc- contain 20 percent methane and six         • atmospheric monitoring,               and
             tors had no explanation for linger- percent oxygen.                           • warning signs,                     • a flammable gas, vapor, or dust
             ing illnesses and these sudden                                                • employee training,                    in the proper mixture.
             ‘miasmas’ occurring in the city.      But sewers are not the only places      • protective equipment, and
             Vivid descriptions of horrible        where toxic or explosive gases can      • an emergency response plan.        Different gases have different flam-
             deaths were routinely reported at     accumulate. NIOSH noted that                                                 mable ranges. If a source of
             commission hearings and in the        hydrogen sulfide and methane gases      What makes it dangerous?             ignition—such as a spark or electri-
             London tabloids,” Gayman wrote. can be generated in a septic tank.            OSHA noted that this permit sys-     cal tool—is introduced into a space
                                                   These gases are extremely danger-       tem is important to employees who containing a flammable atmo-
             “Most fatalities and injuries de-     ous—breathing hydrogen sulfide          work in confined spaces because      sphere, an explosion may result.
             scribed were consistent with as-      fumes can cause immediate death.        they risk exposure to serious haz-
             phyxiation by hydrogen sulfide,                                               ards. In some cases, confinement     An oxygen-enriched atmosphere
             oxygen deficiency, or methane         Because of this danger, never lean      poses entrapment hazards or keeps (above 21 percent) will cause
             explosions. These conditions re-      into or enter a septic tank, particu-   employees closer to other hazards, flammable materials, such as
             main common in sewers, septic         larly during pumping. Further,          such as asphyxiating atmospheres     clothing and hair, to burn violently
             tanks, and confined spaces today,” methane is explosive, so do not use        or moving machine parts. Failure     when ignited. Therefore, never use
             she continued.                        torches or anything flammable           to take proper precautions for       pure oxygen to ventilate a confined
                                                   near the opening of a septic tank.      permit space entry operations has    space. Ventilate with normal air.
             If your job takes you into places                                             resulted in an increasing number of
             such as a pipeline, pumping sta-      What is a confined space?               fatalities.                          On the other hand, an oxygen-
             tion, septic tank, sewage digester,   Because working in confined                                                  deficient atmosphere should not be
             sewer, storage tank, or similar type spaces can be hazardous to the           In addition, OSHA stated that        entered without a self-contained
             enclosure, you may work in a          health or life of the employees who     confined spaces, by their very       breathing apparatus SCBA. The
             confined space. And working in        must enter and work in them, the        nature and configuration, are dan- oxygen level in a confined space
             these areas can be dangerous or       Occupational Safety and Health          gerous to life and health. “Many     can decrease because of work
             even fatal if proper precautions are Administration (OSHA) released           confined spaces are poorly venti-    being done, such as welding, cut-
             not taken.                            its final rule regarding working in     lated—a condition that is favorable ting, or brazing. Certain chemical
                                                   confined spaces on April 15, 1993.      to the creation of an oxygen-defi-   reactions can also decrease the
safety




             "Confined spaces may be encoun- This rule (29 CFR 1910.146) in-               cient atmosphere and the accumu- oxygen level, including rusting or
             tered in virtually any occupation;    cludes a permit system to help          lation of toxic gases,” noted OSHA. fermentation.
             therefore their recognition is the    ensure that workers are able to
             first step in preventing fatalities,” work safely in such a situation.        “Furthermore, a confined space is      The oxygen level can also decrease
             noted a National Institute for Oc-                                            not designed for continuous em-        if it is displaced by another gas,
             cupational Safety and Health          OSHA defines a confined space as        ployee occupancy; hence, little        such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen.
             (NIOSH) publication, Preventing       “any space having limited means         consideration has been given to        Total displacement of oxygen by
             Occupational Fatalities in Con-       of egress, which is subject to the      the preservation of human life         another gas, such as carbon diox-
             fined Spaces by Ted Pettit, quality accumulation of toxic or flam-            within the confined space when         ide, will result in unconsciousness,
             assurance specialist for NIOSH.       mable contaminants or has an            employees need to enter it.”           followed by death.
                                                   oxygen deficient atmosphere.” A
             For example, on September 15,         confined space, such as a septic        “Confined spaces may be classi-        “Because these atmospheres can
             1986, a plumbing contractor in        tank, may have any one of the           fied into two categories: open-        bring on immediate death, never
             Georgia entered a manhole as part following characteristics:                  topped enclosures with depths that     trust your senses to determine if
             of his job when laying a sewer                                                restrict the natural movement of       the air in a confined space is safe,”
             line, noted a NIOSH January 1994 • limited openings for entry or exit,        air; and enclosures with extremely     warned NIOSH. “You cannot see
             publication Worker Deaths in          • unfavorable natural ventilation, or   limited openings for entry and         or smell many toxic gases and
             Confined Spaces by Pettit. The        • a design unsuitable for continuous    exit,” noted a NIOSH article, Pro-     vapors, nor can you determine the
             manhole was two feet in diameter         worker occupancy.                    fessional Safety: Workers/Rescuers     level of oxygen present.”
             and 15 feet deep. Upon reaching                                               Continue to Die in Confined
             the bottom of the sewer, he com-      “Confined space regulations re-         Spaces by Pettit.                      It is important to understand that
             plained of a strong odor and then     quire that facilities be audited to                                            some gases or vapors are heavier
             passed out.                           identify confined spaces that re-       The article also stated that the       than air and will settle to the bot-
                                                   quire permits, identify employee        hazards characteristic of any con-     tom of a confined space. By the
             Two other workers attempted to        training needs, control who enters      fined space are determined by the      same logic, some gases are lighter
             rescue him; however, both of them permitted spaces, and implement             materials being stored or used
             became dizzy and exited the man- emergency mechanisms,” noted                 inside the space, the process taking   Continued on next page


         6                                                                                                                 SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Continued from previous page             would have the ventilating hose
                                            run to the bottom to blow out all
   than air and will be found at the        harmful gases and vapors. The air
   top of a confined space. Therefore,      intake should be placed in an area
   it is important to test all areas with   that will draw in fresh air only.
   properly calibrated testing equip-
   ment to determine exactly what        Ventilation should be continuous
   gases are present.                    where possible because in many
                                         confined spaces, the hazardous
   Proper Testing Can Save Lives atmosphere will form again when
   If testing reveals oxygen-defi-       the flow of air is stopped.
   ciency, or the presence of toxic
   gases or vapors, the space must be Often the atmosphere or other
   ventilated and re-tested before       circumstances require that a con-       attempting to rescue other workers.
   workers enter. If ventilation is not fined space be inaccessible. Isola-      Rescuers must be trained in and
   possible and entry is necessary (in tion of a confined space means that       follow established emergency
   an emergency rescue, for example) it is removed from service by either:       procedures and use appropriate
   workers must wear a SCBA.                                                     equipment and techniques.
                                         • locking out electrical sources at
   Under certain conditions where          the switch,                           Rescues should be well planned
   flammable gases or vapors have        • blanking and bleeding pneumatic       and drills should be frequently
   displaced the oxygen level, but are     and hydraulic lines,                  conducted on emergency proce-
   too rich to burn, forced air ventila- • disconnecting belt and chain          dures. Unplanned rescue, such as
   tion may dilute them until they are     drives, and                           when someone rushes in to help a
   within the explosive range and        • securing mechanical moving            co-worker in trouble, can easily
   should be tested before workers         parts, such as latches, chains, or    result in a double fatality or mul-
   enter the area.                         other devices.                        tiple fatalities if there is more than
                                                                                 one would-be rescuer.
   Also, when inert gases, such as     Make a Rescue Plan
   carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or argon, In every situation where employees        To ensure that rescues run as
   are used in the confined space, the must work in confined spaces, a           smoothly as possible, employers
   space should be well ventilated and rescue plan is required. According        are responsible for the training of
   re-tested before a worker may enter.to NIOSH, a standby rescue person         rescue personnel. Each member
                                       should be assigned to remain out-         must be trained to:                      When working in manholes and other
   Ventilation by a blower or a fan    side the confined space and be in                                                  confined spaces, standby rescue
   may be necessary to remove harm- constant contact with the workers            • use protective equipment,              personnel should always be nearby
   ful gases and vapors from confined inside. This person should have no         • perform assigned rescue duties,        and maintain constant contact with
   spaces. Several methods can be      duties other than standby responsi-         including entering a confined          workers inside the confined spaces.
   used for ventilating a confined     bilities, which include knowing             space,
   space. The method and equipment who to notify in case of an emergency.        • participate in mock rescues, and       at (800) 321-OSHA. For more
   chosen are dependent upon the size                                            • perform basic first aid and car-       information about septic tank
   of the openings, the gases present, Standby personnel should never              diopulmonary resuscitation             maintenance and operation, call
   and the source of the air.          enter the confined space until help         (CPR)—at least one member              the National Small Flows Clear-
                                       arrives, and then with the proper           must be CPR-certified.                 inghouse at (800) 624-8301 or
   A common method of ventilation      equipment, such as respirators, life                                               (304) 293-4191 and order the Fall
   requires a large hose, one end      lines, or other equipment.                For more information about con-          1995 issue of Pipeline, Item#
   attached to a fan and the other                                               fined spaces, contact NIOSH at           SFPLNL03. There is a $0.20
   lowered into a manhole or open-     More than 36 percent of the work-         (800) 35-NIOSH. To report life-          charge, plus shipping and han-
   ing. For example, a manhole         ers who die in confined spaces are        threatening situations, call OSHA        dling charges.



   Free EPA Report Outlines Privatization of Wastewater Facilities
   A recent U.S. Environmental Pro-         levels are not expected to ad-       Five case studies of public-private      private sources must be repaid
   tection Agency (EPA) document            equately meet these needs.           partnership arrangements, with           by the wastewater users. Thus,
   outlines some of the issues and                                               contact names and phone numbers,         privatization is never a source of
   options involved in deciding         According to the report, an esti-        also are included.                       ‘free’ capital.”
   whether to privatize wastewater      mated $137 billion, of which
   treatment facilities.                $47 billion is for wastewater con-       The report emphasizes that “the          To order a free copy of the report,
                                        cerns, is needed to address all local    decision to privatize should be          contact the National Center for
   The July 1997 report, “Response to government water infrastructure            made by local governments and            Environmental Publications at
   Congress on Privatization of         requirements.                            reflect a balanced evaluation of         (800) 490-9198 or (513) 489-8190
   Wastewater Facilities,” was devel-                                            the financial, non-financial, and        and request document EPA 832/R-
   oped at the request of Congress to The 38-page report summarizes              other issues and needs of the com-       97-001a. You may also fax orders
   examine the use of public-private    the most common types of                 munity.”                                 to (513) 489-8695. The report may
   partnerships as a source of funds to privatization, their appeal, federal                                              also be viewed online from EPA’s
   meet current and future wastewater requirements, impediments to               It also points out that “any waste-      National Environmental Publica-
   infrastructure needs. Current and    privatization, and other factors         water capital funds obtained             tion Information Site at http://
   projected federal and state funding affecting the decision to privatize.      through either government or             www.epa.gov/cincl/.


SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                          7
    Florida Revises Codes to Include Performance-Based Treatment Systems
    On March 3, 1998, the Department       indicates that currently over 1.6        Bob Rubin and Bill
    of Health enacted revisions to         million onsite systems are in use        Stuth test effluent
    Chapter 64E-6 of Florida’s Admin-      statewide and an estimated 40,000        samples taken from an
    istrative Code for onsite sewage       to 70,000 new systems have been          aerobic treatment unit
    treatment and disposal systems         constructed yearly since 1980.           located at a private
    (OSDS). (Chapter 64-E was formerly     This growth in OSDS systems              residence in Big Pine
    known as Chapter 10D-6 prior to        caused officials to question the         Key, Florida. Aerobic
    Florida’s Department of Health         capability of prescriptive practices     units and other
    reorganization.) This revised code     to protect Florida’s groundwater,        alternative wastewater
    affects the OSDS practices for         the source of 87 percent of              treatment technologies
    single-family residences by setting    Florida’s public drinking water          are currently being
    standards for performance-based        supplies and 94 percent of its private   installed and
    treatment systems that are an alter-   supplies.                                monitored in Florida
    native to the systems subject to the                                            to be considered under
    current prescriptive standards.       To determine if OSDS systems              new performance-
                                          were polluting Florida’s ground-          based codes.
    The specific language of the rule     water, Florida’s HRS contracted
    was reviewed by a ten-member          the engineering firm of Ayres
    technical review and advisory         Associates, Inc. to evaluate OSDS
    panel including septic tank con-      systems. This project, begun in
    tractors, home builders, realtors,    1986 and completed in 1993, was
    soil scientists, homeowners, repre- divided into three major areas of
    sentatives from the county health     study: the impact of OSDS’s use
    departments, Florida’s engineering on groundwater, the capabilities of          than having site characteristics        of unsaturated soil treatment, but
    society, and Florida’s Environmental Florida’s soils to accept and treat        dictate whether an OSDS can be          prior to discharge to groundwater
    Health Association.                   wastewater, and the suitability of        used.                                   must fall within the following
                                          current OSDS design criteria and                                                  ranges:
    The revised OSDS code defines a       installation practices.                   One of the first places in Florida to
    performance-based treatment sys-                                                apply performance-based standards       •   CBOD5            <5 mg/l
    tem as “a specialized onsite sew-     Ayres’ initial research into OSDS         will likely be the Florida Keys. This   •   TSS              <5 mg/l
    age treatment and disposal system use found that approximately 74               is because soil conditions there        •   TN           15- 25 mg/l
    designed by a professional engi-      percent of Florida’s soils have           were found to be incapable of effec-    •   TP              <5 mg/1
    neer with a background in waste-      severe or very severe limitations         tively treating septic tank effluent.
    water engineering, registered in the for conventional OSDS designs              This means that many of the currently  Secondary wastewater treatment
    state of Florida, using appropriate   based on USDA Soil Conservation           installed prescriptive-based systems   standard The arithmetic mean of
    application of sound engineering      Service criteria. The most common         could be contaminating ground-         the CBOD5 or TSS values for the
    principles to achieve specified       limiting soil condition is seasonal       waters and have the potential to       effluent samples collected
    levels of CBOD5 (carbonaceous         wetness or shallow groundwater.           impact surface water quality.          (whether grab or composite tech-
    biochemical oxygen demand), TSS Slowly permeable soils, shallow                                                        nique is used) during an annual
    (total suspended solids), TN (total bedrock, and periodic flooding are          Site Evaluation Requirements period shall not exceed 20 mg/l.
    nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus)      other limiting conditions frequently      The conventional septic tank soil
    and FC (fecal coliform) found in      encountered.                              absorption system is the baseline      • CBOD5               20 mg/l
    domestic sewage waste, to a specific                                            system used for comparison.            • TSS                 20 mg/l
    and measurable established perfor- Ayres’ research concluded that               Secondary wastewater treatment         • FC              200/100 ml
    mance standard.” (Package sewage Florida should develop and imple-              standards are based on Standard 40 (This is Florida’s definition of
    treatment facilities and other treat- ment a performance based program          of the NSF International standards basic disinfection.)
    ment works regulated under Chapter for siting, design, construction, and        for aerobic systems. Advanced
    403, Florida Statutes are excluded    management of onsite wastewater           wastewater treatment standards are Advanced secondary wastewater
    from the revised OSDS code.)          treatment systems. This approach          based on Florida Statutes for dis-     treatment standard The arith-
                                          would require that the system             charge of publicly-owned treatment metic mean of the CBOD5 or TSS
    Conversely, prescriptive regula-      design fit the site to meet not only      works in sensitive areas. Advanced values for the effluent samples
    tions design onsite systems based     established public health but also        secondary wastewater treatment         collected (whether grab or com-
    on site conditions and anticipated    environmental goals.                      standards are intermediate between posite technique is used) during an
    use of the system. Evaluation of                                                secondary and advanced waste           annual period shall not exceed 10
    these systems is based on conform- Not only do performance-based                treatment standards. (For an easy- mg/l.
    ance to a design specification and    standards protect public health and       to-read listing of the text under this
    the system’s capability to keep       water quality, but they also enable       section, see the chart on the fol-     • CBOD5               10 mg/l
    wastewater below the ground sur-      OSDS systems to be built using            lowing page.)                          • TSS                 10 mg/l
    face and distant from water supply site constraints that under prescrip-                                               • TN                  20 mg/l
    wells and surface water.              tive code would be unacceptable.          Baseline system standard The           • TP                  10 mg/l
                                          For example, soils with a high            effluent concentrations from the       • FC               14/100 ml
    Prescriptive Practices Not            water table could be made suitable        treatment tank must fall within the (This is Florida’s definition of
    Suitable for Florida                  under performance-based treat-            following ranges:                      intermediate disinfection.)
    Because prescriptive standards        ment standards if the OSDS could
    were developed for scattered rural demonstrate reliable and consistent          •   CBOD5       120-240 mg/l            Advanced wastewater treatment
    homes, they did not address the       pathogen removal to a measurable,         •   TSS          65-176 mg/l            standard The arithmetic mean of
    consequences of onsite system use acceptable performance level before           •   TN           36- 45 mg/l            the CBOD5 or TSS values for the
    in high-density subdivisions. Yet,    release to the groundwater. This          •   TP            6- 10 mg/l            effluent samples collected
    unpublished data collected by         allows designers the flexibility to                                               (whether grab or composite tech-
    Florida’s Department of Health        create onsite systems capable of          The percolate concentrations from       nique is used) during an annual
    and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) overcoming site limitations rather            the baseline system after two feet
                                                                                                                            Continued on next page

8                                                                                                                    SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
                                                                                                                                                                          WINTER
                                                                                                                                                                        1991 & 1993
                                                                                                                                                                          REPRINTS

   Continued from previous page            standards requires inclusion of the     responsible for operating, monitor-       formance standards for a particular
                                           following information:                  ing, and maintaining the system.          site, the system will need to be re-
   period shall not exceed 5 mg/l.         • system design calculations,                                                     engineered. Reasons for noncom-
   • CBOD5                   5 mg/l        • system design plans and drawings         Performance-based treatment systems pliance include effluent samples
   • TSS                     5 mg/l           including a detailed installation       and the structures they serve must that fall outside the parameters of a
   • TN                      3 mg/l           drawing,                                be inspected by the Department of predetermined treatment standard
   • TP                       1mg/l        • contingency plan in the event of         Health at least once during the term over a predetermined period of
   • FC         below detectable limits       system failure,                         of the annual operating permit to      time. The cost to re-engineer the
   (This is Florida’s definition of        • certification of design,                 ensure the system is in compliance. system is assumed by either the
   high-level disinfection.)               • operation and maintenance                                                       engineer or the homeowner, de-
                                              manual prepared by the design           Monitoring the System                  pending on the homeowner’s con-
   Setbacks from any surface water or         engineer,                               Monitoring of the secondary treat- tract with the design engineer.
   wet retention or detention area are • copy of changes to the engineering           ment and advanced secondary
   based on the level of treatment by         specifications approved and             treatment systems is done through Will Wisconsin be next?
   the system (see chart below). Infil-       certified by the design engineer,       a minimum of two observation           Wisconsin began developing its
   trative surface area reductions will • changes to the operation and                ports in the drainfield. Monitoring code for performance based stan-
   be allowed for systems that are            maintenance manual approved             includes recording the depth of        dards in 1991 and submitted its
   performance-based designed. The            and certified by the design             effluent ponding in the drainfield     first draft for public hearing in
   baseline system will be used for           engineer, and                           in at least two places on a monthly 1995. Citizens opposed a provision
   comparison with a typical average       • cover letter to the county health        basis during the first six months,     that mandated nitrate removal to
   CBOD5 of 140 mg/l and TSS of               department stating that the             then quarterly after that.             10 mg/l in order to comply with
   105 mg/l. (See the maximum re-             applicant wishes to apply for a                                                Wisconsin’s 1984 groundwater
   duction in infiltrative surface area in    performance-based treatment             Monitoring requirements for an         law. Citizens successfully peti-
   the chart below.)                          system.                                 advanced wastewater treatment          tioned the legislature to eliminate
                                                                                      system are more restrictive. It first  this requirement from the code
    System Design                             The county health department            requires the system operator to sub- because it was not cost-effective.
    Designs for performance-based             has 15 days from receipt of a           mit monthly maintenance reports to
    treatment systems allow for the use completed application to approve the county health department starting The code was rewritten and the
    of alternative and innovative meth- or reject the new system. If the              one month after the system begins to revised draft was submitted for
    ods, materials, processes, and            design is rejected, the application operate. This report includes the          public hearing in August 1997 to
    techniques that reduce the total          is sent to the state health depart-     following information:                 opposition from environmental
    biological, chemical, hydraulic,          ment. The state health department                                              groups. According to Roman
    organic, nutrient, bacterial and          has 90 days to review the               • address of performance-based         Kaminski, program manager for
    viral discharge to the environment. application, including 30 days                   treatment system,                   private sewage systems in the
                                              to request additional information       • date and time of inspection,         Department of Commerce, envi-
    Once a design is chosen, it must be and 60 days to approve, approve               • sample collection time and date      ronmentalists are concerned that
    certified by a professional engineer with modifications, or reject the               and name of person who              this code will eliminate barriers to
    registered in Florida and then            request.                                   collected sample,                   land use development that exists
    submitted to the county health                                                    • results of all sampling,             under the prescriptive code and
    department. The health department Operating Permit                                • volume of effluent treated,          will promote urban sprawl. Con-
    has five days from receipt of the         The homeowner of a performance-            including total monthly and         versely, many landowners see this
    application to request additional         based treatment system must ob-            daily average,                      new code as allowing a wide vari-
    information. In addition to the site tain an annual operating permit              • maintenance performed,               ety of private sewage system op-
    evaluation report and the soil pro- from the county health department. • problems with system, and                       tions that would give them the
    file descriptions, application under The permit designates the perfor-               actions taken to resolve them.      opportunity to develop lots which
    the performance-based treatment           mance system maintenance entity                                                previously could not be developed.
                                                                                                   During the first six
  Florida Performance-based Site Requirements                                                      months of system opera- Additional concerns about perfor-
                                                                                                   tion, or after the system mance-based standards are raised
                     Baseline System Standards (all values are mg/l)                               has failed, the system is by the county code administrators
                                                                                                   monitored a minimum       who will be charged with adminis-
                    treatment      percolate          Secondary     Advanced      Advanced
                    tank           concentrations     Standards     Secondary     Wastewater
                                                                                                   of once every two         tering the new code’s day-to-day
                                                                    Standards     Standards        weeks. This includes      operation yet are unfamiliar with
                                                                                                   sampling for CBOD5,       the new code’s requirements. Ac-
          CBOD        120-240                   <5             20            10              5
                                                                                                   TSS, TN, TP, and FC.      cording to Mike Corry, administra-
             TSS       65-176                   <5             20            10              5     Results are sent to a     tor of the Safety and Building
               TN       36-45                15-25             —             20              3     laboratory for analysis   Division, the Department of Com-
               TP        6-10                   <5             —             10              1     and certification. This   merce is currently negotiating with
               FC           —                   —      200/100 ml     14/100 ml    < detectable    laboratory must be        the Department of Natural Re-
     Setbacks (all values are in feet)
                                                                                                   approved by the De-       sources and with the county code
                                                                                                   partment of Health or     administrators to answer these
 surface water or                               75            65            50             25      the Department of En-     concerns.
 wet retention or
 detention area                                                                                    vironmental Protection.
                                                                                                   After six months of       For more informationon on
 groundwater                                    15             15            10            10
 interceptor                                                                                       compliance with perfor- Florida's perfomance-based codes,
 drain                                                                                             mance standards, sam-     call Sherman at (850) 488-3943.
 dry retention
                                                                                                   pling and reporting are To find out more information on
 areas and                                      15             15            10            10      done quarterly.           the progress that Wisconsin is
 swales                                                                                                                      making, call Kaminski at (715)
                                                                                                   If the installed system   345-5334.
 percent                                 Baseline              25            30            40      is unable to comply
 reduction in
 drainfield size                                                                                   with the required per-

SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                              9
               Onsite Wastewater Funding Options Discussed
                        by Natalie Eddy                 Most often, these programs offer         systems or onsite disposal         funded through either grants from
finance                NSFC Staff Writer

               Editor’s Note: This story provides
               a sampling of funding sources for
                                                        low-interest loans or grants,
                                                        particularly for rural residents
                                                        meeting specific income guidelines
                                                        or health protection requirements.
                                                                                                 systems to reduce nonpoint
                                                                                                 source pollution caused by
                                                                                                 failing septic systems.
                                                                                                                                    the Rural Hardship Grant Program
                                                                                                                                    or Linked Deposit Loans from the
                                                                                                                                    state revolving loan fund adminis-
                                                                                                                                    tered by the appropriate county.
               individual homeowner onsite                                                     Contacts for these and other
               wastewater treatment systems and      CWSRF Supports Projects                   projects are included in the EPA     Section 504 Program
               is not meant to be a complete list-   Over the past decade, the CWSRF           booklet. (See the end of story for   Another option that works for
               ing of available resources.           has most commonly been used to            ordering information.)               income-eligible homeowners, aged
                                                     fund wastewater treatment                                                      62 or older, hoping to repair or
               Finding money to repair failing       projects, which include individual        CDBG, Other Programs                 replace their onsite system is the
               onsite wastewater systems or install homeowner loans. So far, states            Random calls to a few states not     U.S. Department of Agriculture’s
               new ones can be a difficult task for have issued a total of approximately       responding to the NSFC survey        (USDA) Rural Development
               homeowners today. Although there $17 billion in wastewater treatment            revealed some additional funding     Section 504 Program.
               is no magic answer, with a little     loans from their CWSRFs, accord-          programs for onsite systems.
               investigative work, there are several ing to the 1997 EPA booklet, The                                               David J. Adams, senior loan spe-
               resources that can be tapped for      Clean Water State Revolving Fund:         Often, whether homeowners can        cialist of the single-family housing
               low-interest loans, and even grants, How to Fund Nonpoint Source and            obtain funding depends on the        processing division at USDA, said
               by the industrious homeowner.         Estuary Enhancement Projects.             state, and even the county, in       the program provides loans and
                                                                                               which they live. Some states offer   grants to enable very low-income,
               A recent National Small Flows            The CWSRF succeeded the Con-           funding through Community De-        owner-occupant families in rural
               Clearinghouse (NSFC) contact             struction Grants Program, a direct     velopment Block Grants (CDBG),       areas to repair their homes, includ-
               questionnaire revealed that at least     grant program for funding waste-       although this program is typically   ing onsite wastewater treatment
               18 states offer some type of funding     water treatment projects.              used for community-wide projects.    systems.
               program to help homeowners re-                                                  Maryland is one state in which
               place systems or install new ones.       In addition to low-interest loans,     some counties use CDBG funds         The loan funds can be used for
                                                        the CWSRF also provides loan           for individual onsite repairs.       repairs to improve or modernize
               The NSFC study, conducted annually       guarantees, bond insurance, and                                             the property to remove health, sani-
               by sending questionnaires to each        refinancing of existing debt.          In addition, Maryland provides       tation, or safety hazards or repair or
               state’s onsite regulator, asks a                                                two state-funded low-interest loan   remodel dwellings to make them
               variety of wastewater-related ques-      The EPA booklet highlights 17          programs for low-income resi-        accessible and usable for house-
               tions, ranging from regulations to       states that have provided a total of   dents, according to Eileen Hagan,    hold members with disabilities.
               permit use. Results of the study are     $531 million in CWSRF assistance       director of the state’s Special      Adams estimated that 50 percent
               offered in the September 1997            to fund projects aimed at protect-     Loans Program. The first program,    of the applications request onsite
               document, A Guide to State-Level         ing surfacewater and groundwater.      the Maryland Housing Rehabilita-     wastewater or plumbing assistance.
               Onsite Regulations. (For ordering                                               tion Program (MHRP) allows
               information, see the story's end.)       Of those states, the following pro-    homeowners to do additional work     Section 504’s maximum loan
                                                        grams are aimed at helping indi-       on their home along with onsite      amount is $20,000 with the interest
               The questionnaire asked each state’s     vidual homeowners repair or re-        wastewater improvements.             rate currently standing at one per-
               onsite regulator if there are “any       place failing septic systems:                                               cent. Grants have a maximum
               funding programs or mechanisms                                                 This program assists homeowners       lifetime limit of $7,500. Adams
               (grants or loans) available to assist    • Delaware has a septic tank reha- who are in low- to moderate-in-          said there are more than 700 state
               homeowners replacing failing sys-          bilitation program to finance       come categories with the possibility and local offices of the USDA
               tems or installing new systems.”           rehabilitation of malfunctioning of being eligible for a deferred loan. Rural Development Program and
                                                          or failing septic systems.                                                he urges anyone interested in the
               Respondents in the following                                                   The second program, the Indoor        program to check the local telephone
               states indicated that they are aware     • Maine helps fund the replacement Plumbing Program, was estab-             book for the office nearest them.
               of such a program, and provided            of failed individual septic systems lished to help homeowners add or
               contact names: Connecticut, Dela-          to protect groundwater and public improve septic systems and indoor For additional information about
               ware, Kansas, Maine, Maryland,             health.                             plumbing. This program follows        the Section 504 program, contact
               Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missis-                                              the same guidelines as the MHRP       Adams at the Rural Housing Ser-
               sippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New           • Massachusetts provides loans to with the same income restrictions. vice, 1400 Independence Ave. SW,
               Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Okla-            replace failed individual septic                                          Washington, DC 20250.
               homa, Virginia, Washington, Wis-           systems to protect groundwater, Another example of an onsite
               consin, and Wyoming.                       private drinking water supplies,    repair program being funded           To order a free copy of The Clean
                                                          and public health.                  through the CDBG program is in        Water State Revolving Fund: How
               In addition, Alabama noted that                                                Clermont County, Ohio. Donna          to Fund Nonpoint Source and Estu-
               external grants are available occa-      • Pennsylvania runs an individual Hart, administrative assistant for        ary Enhancement Projects, call the
               sionally; however, there is no state       on-lot sewage disposal system       the county’s general health district, National Center for Environmental
               grant program in place. Not all            program, offering loans to          said the county offers grants of up Publications and Information at
               states responded to the questionnaire.     correct problems with on-lot        to $15,000 to people who meet         (513) 489-8190 and request docu-
                                                          disposal systems.                   low-income guidelines. Funding        ment EPA 909-K-97-001.
               Funding for the states that have                                               may be used to either repair or
               programs comes from a variety of         • Virginia is launching an onsite     replace a system or to connect to a To order A Guide to State-Level
               sources, including the Clean Water         wastewater treatment and disposal community sewer system.                 Onsite Regulations, call the NSFC
               State Revolving Fund (CWSRF), a            program, beginning with a pilot                                           at (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191
               loan program run by states and set         program providing loans to          Meanwhile, the Ohio EPA has           and request Item #WWBKRG01.
               up with “seed money” from the              repair or replace malfunctioning developed a program to help small, The cost is $12.50; shipping and
               U.S. Environmental Protection              or inadequate systems.              disadvantaged rural communities       handling charges will apply.
               Agency (EPA), and other federal,                                               address their wastewater needs. As
               state, and local sources.                • Washington uses CWSRF funds part of this program, on-lot and
                                                          to help repair or replace septic    small cluster system projects are

          10                                                                                                                   SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Aerobic Treatment Units
                                           N SFC Hotline
                                                                                             QA             &

   Editor’s Note: This column is           chamber. Some ATUs have pre-            remedy for failing septic systems       tive for difficult sites that require
   based on calls received over the        treatment chambers and/or screens       in many areas. Additionally, aer-       onsite wastewater treatment. They




                                                                                                                                                                       advice
   National Small Flows Clearing-          to reduce the amount of larger          ated effluent has been shown to         are most commonly used to replace
   house’s (NSFC) technical assis-         solids entering the aeration cham-      renovate clogged drainfields. Up-       failing systems, but they should
   tance hotline. The information was      ber. The aeration chamber contains      grading a septic tank to an ATU         also be considered for new con-
   compiled by Ed Winant, Ph.D., of        a mechanical stirrer or diffuser        can rejuvenate an existing              struction where their advantages
   the technical assistance staff. If      lines to add air to the wastewater.     drainfield and extend its life.         can be utilized.
   you have further questions con-         Above this chamber, usually at
   cerning ATUs, call (800) 624-8301       ground level, is an electric motor      There are, of course, some draw-        For more information on ATUs,
   or (304) 293-4191 and ask to            to run the stirrer, or an air com-      backs to ATUs. The basic unit is        contact the NSFC at (800) 624-
   speak with a technical assistant.       pressor to feed the diffuser lines.     more expensive to own and oper-         8301or (304) 293-4191 and request
                                                                                   ate than a septic tank, and requires    Item #SFPLNL04 Pipeline (Winter
   What is an aerobic treatment            After approximately a day’s reten-      more maintenance. The solids            1996) discusses ATUs. The cost is
   unit? How does it work?                 tion in the aeration chamber, the       must be pumped out every year,          $0.20, plus shipping.
   When should I use one in-               aerated wastewater passes to the        instead of every 3-5 years, and the
   stead of a septic tank?                 settling chamber where solids           electrical-mechanical parts must be     Also request Item #WWBKRG26,
   Aerobic treatment units (ATUs),         settle out and are stored. The efflu-   maintained. Most ATUs are sold          ATUs and Package Plants (Septem-
   also known as home aeration units,      ent leaves this chamber for disin-      with a two year service contract,       ber 1997) which is a cutomized
   provide wastewater treatment and        fection or further treatment, usu-      covering inspections and mainte-        search of the Manufacturers/Con-
   storage functions similar to a nor-     ally in a sand filter or soil trench.   nance. Manufacturers and regula-        sultants Database for makers of
   mal septic tank. The ATU, how-                                                  tors recommend that such a con-         aerobic treatment units and
   ever, has a mechanism to inject air     Aerated wastewater treatment is         tract be extended. ATUs are not         package plants. The cost is $12.25,
   into the tank. The oxygen in the air    more effective and produces a           the solution for every situation, but   plus shipping.
   turns the anaerobic environment         better quality effluent than anaero-    they do offer a reasonable alterna-
   aerobic. This allows aerobic bacte-     bic or septic treatment. The im-
   ria to treat the wastewater resulting   proved effluent quality allows          The aerobic
   in a cleaner effluent than that from    ATUs to be used on sites that are       environment in
   a septic tank.                          not suitable for conventional septic    an aerobic
                                           systems.                                treatment unit
                                                                                                                                       AERATOR
   Aerobic treatment reduces the                                                   (ATU) allows
   biochemical oxygen demand               In some cases, ATUs allow for           bacteria to treat
   (BOD), a measure of the strength        reduced areas for sand filters, or      wastewater result-
   of the waste, by 90 percent, com-       they can be used in soils that can      ing in a cleaner          IN                                                 OUT

   pared to the 50 percent typical for     not handle septic tank effluent,        effluent than con-
   a septic tank, and removes six          since they are less likely to cause     ventional septic                     AERATION
                                                                                                                      COMPAARTMENT
   times as many coliforms. Addi-          soil clogging. Certain states allow     tank procedures
   tionally, aerobic treatment nitrifies   direct discharge of disinfected                                                              MIXING
                                                                                                                                                     SETTLING
                                                                                                                                        ROTOR
   the effluent, converting ammonia        ATU effluent. That is, when the
   to nitrate.                             effluent is disinfected, with a chlo-                                                     SLUDGE RETURN
                                           rinator for example, it may be sent
   The basic ATU consists of an            directly to a surface water course
   aeration chamber and a settling         such as a stream. This is a typical


   Wastewater Treatment Courses Offered by University
   The Water Environment Federa-           Water Treatment Class C                 Wastewater Facility Manage-             operation and control of thickeners,
   tion collaborates with the Univer-      Teaches basic plant operation proce-    ment Skill Training Package             and types of dewatering methods.
   sity of Florida Independent Study       dures and controls. Prepares students   Teaches basic management theo-
   Program to offer a variety of envi-     to take the water treatment state       ries and applications, including        Wastewater Stabilization
   ronmental management correspon-         certification exam at the “C” level.    planning, organizing, budgeting,        Ponds Skills Training Package
   dence courses. These courses offer                                              and safety.                             Discusses types and processes of
   both introductory and advanced          Activated Sludge Skills Training                                                ponds, pond operation and perfor-
   training for wastewater treatment       Package                          Anaerobic Digestion Skills                     mance, pond maintenance and
   plant operators and managers.           Teaches operator and trouble-    Training Package                               laboratory control, and retention
                                           shooting skills needed in activated     Teaches the basic functions and         pond operation.
   Wastewater Treatment Plant              sludge wastewater treatment plants.     processes of anaerobic digestion
   Operation, Class C                                                              systems.                                For more information, contact
   Teaches skills to operate, maintain, Pumps-Operation and                                                                Laurel Brown at the University of
   and supervise “C” level wastewa-     Maintenance Skills Training                Wastewater Treatment: Sludge            Florida at (352) 392-1711 or (800)
   ter treatment plants.                Package                                    Conditioning, Thickening, and           327-4218; fax: (352) 392-6950; e-
                                        An introductory course that de-            Dewatering Skills Training              mail: learn@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu.
   Wastewater Treatment Plant           scribes various types of motors,           Package                                 Visit the University’s Division of
   Operation, Class D                   motor controls, and couplings.             Discusses quality and quantity of
                                                                                                                           Continuing Education Web site at:
   An introduction to wastewater        Teaches operating principles, com-         sludge produced by different treat-
                                                                                                                           http://www.doce.ufl.edu.
   treatment with an emphasis on        ponents, and maintenance of cen-           ment processes: connection among
                                                                                                                           /indstudy.
   extended aeration-type activated     trifugal, positive displacement, and       treatment processes, methods used
   sludge plants.                       air lift pumps.                            to chemically condition sludge,


SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                                11
                 Allbee, Hudiburgh Accept New U.S. EPA Positions
                 Gary W. Hudiburgh, Jr. has re-         mits Division and Municipal Sup-      help to expedite projects through     programs that will help border
                 placed Steve Allbee as Chief of the    port Division since 1989. He began    the development phase, assist the     communities, especially small
                 Grants Assistance Branch in the        working for the Permits Division      NADBank in establishing funding       communities, successfully con-
                 Municipal Support Division, Of-        as an attorney in 1980.               partnerships, and facilitate the      struct and maintain water and
                 fice of Wastewater Management at                                             development of training and tech-     wastewater infrastructure.
                 the U.S. Environmental Protection      Allbee has accepted the position of   nical assistance
                 Agency (EPA).                          EPA Small Community Branch
                                                        Chief to assist Mexico border
                 Prior to accepting his position,       agencies. He will assist the Border
                 Hudiburgh was chief of the             Environment Cooperation Com-
                 NPDES Program Branch in the            mission and the North American
                 Permits Division, Office of Waste-     Development Bank (NADBank) in
                 water Management.                      the development of environmental
                                                        infrastructure projects along the
                 From 1995 to 1996, he was a tech-      U.S. and Mexico border.
                 nical advisor to the Navajo Nation
                 Environmental Protection Agency        These binational organizations
                 and helped in the development of       were established under side agree-
                 an NPDES program submission.           ments that were signed along with
                                                        the North American Free Trade         Environmental Services Program Director John Mori, Gary Hudiburgh,
                 Hudiburgh has served in various        Agreement in November 1993.           and National Small Flows Clearinghouse's EPA project officer Steve Hogye
                 management positions in the Per-       In his new position, Allbee will      discuss NSFC's role as a leader in small community wastewater issues.


                 Wastewater Information Available on the World Wide Web
                 Editor’s Note: There is an ample       site also contains the Washington     database’s information. All of the    Greater Vancouver Regional
                 supply of wastewater-related sites     State regulations for cross connec-   6000 publications on this site in-    District (GVRD)
                 on the World Wide Web. The fol-        tion control.                         clude full images and text.           Wastewatewater System
resources


                 lowing sites are only a sample of                                                                                  http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/go/work/
                 information that is available. At      Constructed Wetlands Page             Surf Your Watershed                   drain.html
                 the time of publication, these sites   http://www.usouthal.edu/usa/          http://www.epa.gov/surf/              This site includes an overview and
                 were current, but due to the           civileng/wetlands.htm                 Users can locate their own water-     frequently asked questions about
                 dynamic nature of the Web, they        The University of South Alabama       shed, browse The Index of Water-      GVRD’s wastewater system, as
                 may have changed, moved, or            Department of Civil Engineering’s     shed Indicators, EPA’s first na-      well as provides a system map and
                 disappeared.                           site offers information on con-       tional picture of watershed health,   a guide to wastewater treatment
                                                        structed wetlands, including where    and look through listings of groups   and information on new urban
                 Water and Wastes Digest                such systems can be used, benefits    working to protect and restore        watershed management planning
                 http://www.wwdigest.com                of installing constructed wetlands,   watersheds around the country.        for the Brunette Drainage Basin.
                 An online digest, this site contains   and size and design requirements,
                 a searchable archive of previous       complete with pictures of the sys-    Cooperative Research Centre for       Rural Water Research and Edu-
                 articles, a product and suppliers      tems. Also available are perfor-      Water Quality and Treatment           cation Foundation (RWREF)
                 guide, and a showcase that pro-        mance data from existing con-         http://www.med.monash.edu.au/         http://www.rwref.org/
                 vides information on new water         structed wetland systems.             epidemiology/crc/index.html           Users can browse listings and
                 and wastewater-related products.                                             To achieve the goal of helping the    descriptions of current research
                                                        CEUs on the World Wide Web            Australian water industry produce     initiatives and programs that the
                 Septic Systems                         http://lbcc.cc.or.us/watertech/       high quality water at an affordable   Foundation is undertaking or read
                 http://h2osparc.wq.ncsu.edu/estu-      process.html/                         price, this Web site provides areas   short abstracts of the 10 research
                 ary/rec/septic.html                    Linn-Benton Community College         for education and training informa-   projects that have been completed
                 An introduction to onsite wastewa-     offers online courses covering        tion, Australian drinking water       at this site. The RWREF also con-
                 ter disposal systems, including        biological treatment process con-     guidelines, a listing of publica-     tains large listing of related links,
                 information on management of           trol, which are designed for the      tions, and a calendar of events.      as well as a list of board members
                 such systems, is provided for the      operator with a basic background                                            and how to contact them.
                 viewer. Basic descriptions are         in secondary biological treatment     British Columbia Operators
                 provided for denitrification, aquac-   process and some hands-on experi-     Digest
                 ulture, mound systems, and other       ence.                                 http://www.bulkley.net/~dgare/
                 wastewater-related topics.                                                   index.html
                                                        The National Environmental            The Digest is a newsletter pub-
                 City of Vancouver Department           Publication Information Site          lished by the Environmental Op-
                 of Public Works Cross Connec-          (NEPI)                                erators Certification Program Soci-
                 tion Control and Backflow              http://www.epa.gov/cinc1/             ety and provides information for
                 Homepage                               This U.S. Environmental Protec-       more than 1,000 certified operators
                 http://www.ci.vancouver.wa.us/         tion Agency sponsored Website         of water and wastewater systems
                 vanpw/backflow/backfl~1.htm            offers over 6000 EPA publications     throughout British Columbia and
                 Viewers can find definitions of        that can be searched and viewed       the Yukon. The site also offers a
                 cross connection and backflow, as      using commercial Web browsers.        calendar of seminars and courses,
                 well as a listing of certified         Users do not have to purchase or      water and wastewater links, and
                 backflow testers available for         download any additional software      profiles of British Columbia waste-
                 testing on a commercial basis. This    or licenses to search this            water plants.




            12                                                                                                                SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
  Spring Special—All NSFC Products Half Off June 22–23




                                                                                                                                                               NSFC products insert
  Spring is a time for new beginnings,      of other products already in the You may pay by MasterCard,            Watershed Management
  and to help you with a fresh start, the   NSFC’s products database.        VISA, Discover, check, or money       Technology
  National Small Flows Clearinghouse                                         order. Some restrictions apply to     This booklet defines a watershed,
  (NSFC) is offering 50 percent off       Products Are Cataloged             international orders, and actual      shows how it works, provides
  the regular price of all products       The NSFC maintains an inventory shipping and handling charges            examples of successful watershed
  for orders placed by phone, fax,        of more than 250 educational prod- apply to all orders.                  management projects, and lists
  or e-mail on June 22 and 23.            ucts about wastewater treatment                                          additional resources for watershed
                                          technologies and issues for small  Most orders are filled within         information.
  “This is how we support Earth           communities—those with popula- 48 hours; however, please allow
  Day—by offering everyone a              tions of fewer than 10,000 people. two to four weeks for delivery.       The cost for this 204-page booklet is
  discount on everything in our           Among the categories of products                                         $5.90. Ask for Item #WWBLGN57.
  inventory,” says Jeanne Allen,          offered are                        Saving Water on Earth Day             (1997)
  NSFC senior information assistant.        • case studies,                  You can use the following materials
                                            • computer searches,             to educate your community about       Watershed Protection: Catalog
  The NSFC is a nonprofit organiza-         • computer software,             managing one of the earth’s most      of Federal Programs
  tion and many of its products are         • design manuals/modules,        precious resources—water.             This 115-page book is a directory of
  free. Where there is a price, this cost   • finance and management,                                              federal programs that contribute to
  has been calculated to cover the          • general information,           Pipeline: Basic Wastewater            and participate in watershed man-
  expense of assembling or obtaining        • NSFC newsletters,              Characteristics                       agement. This directory provides an
  the product and is passed on to           • operation and maintenance,     This issue of Pipeline answers some   overview of both comprehensive
  the customer on a cost-recovery           • public education,              basic questions about wastewater      and support programs, giving
  basis only.                               • regulations,                   characteristics and their potential   detailed information on the compre-
                                            • research,                      impact on public health and the       hensive programs and descriptions
  If an item that the NSFC wants to         • technology packages,           environment. Some methods for         of the support programs. A contact
  offer as a product was not created        • fact sheets, and               testing and treating wastewater       has been provided for each entry
  by the NSFC, the clearinghouse            • videotapes.                    also are discussed.                   so that the reader may seek further
  always secures permission to dis-                                                                                information on programs.
  tribute it before either purchasing
  large quantities or reproducing                                                                                  This book is free. Ask for Item
  it. Either way, it’s offered to                                                                                  #FMBKGN02. (1993)
  customers at cost.
                                                                                                                   Xeriscape Landscaping:
  Seeking New Products                                                                                             Preventing Pollution and
  The search for new products is                                                                                   Using Resources Efficiently
  a constant process, and part of it                                                                               Xeriscape landscaping is defined as
  involves NSFC staff who look for                                                                                 “quality landscaping that conserves
  information on potential products                                                                                water and protects the environment.”
  at the public events they attend.                                                                                This 16-page booklet describes
  While representing the NSFC at                                                                                   xeriscaping and its many benefits,
  conferences, for instance, they will                                                                             cites some successful examples,
  tour exhibits and talk to various                                                                                and provides a short bibliography
  program representatives, collecting                                                                              and contact/reference list. County
  material and literature on each                                                                                  extension services and garden/
  product they believe might interest                                                                              nursery centers can provide specific
  NSFC customers.                                                                                                  information about applying
                                       Vernon Deal, ESTD Resource Center supervisor (left) and Jeanne              xeriscaping in local areas.
  “We also have materials sent to us Allen, NSFC senior information assistant (right), look over a new
  by the EPA [U.S. Environmental       product while product distribution staff member Holly Wade fills            This booklet is free. Ask for Item
  Protection Agency] for review as     a customer’s order.                                                         #GNBLPE01. (1993)
  possible products,” says Vernon
  Deal, Environmental Services and A complete list of the products          The cost for this newsletter is 20     Groundwater Protection
  Training Division Resource Center available from the NSFC can be          cents. Ask for Item #SFPLNL11,         This two-page brochure discusses
  supervisor, who conducts searches found within the center pages of        Fall 1997 issue.                       groundwater contamination from
  for potential new products. The      this newsletter. The NSFC’s Prod-                                           septic systems and how to prevent
  nature of calls received on the      ucts Guide provides abstracts of     Guidelines for Water Reuse             it, and also can be found online at
  technical assistance hotline is also each of the products and may be      This manual covers key issues          the NSFC’s Web site.
  a driving force that can determine   downloaded via the NSFC’s Web        needed to evaluate water reclama-
  the types of products Deal looks     site at http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu.     tion and reuse opportunities, how      This brochure is free. Ask for Item
  for. “We keep an eye out in the      You also may call the NSFC for       to assess costs and benefits, and      #WWBRPE21. (1990)
  technical service area for product   additional product information.      how to implement a water reuse
                                                                            system. It devotes chapters to each    Artificial Marshland Treatment
  areas that can serve our customers’
                                                                            of the technical, financial, legal,    Systems
  needs,” he says.                     To take advantage of this special                                                                                                    SMALL
                                                                            institutional, and public involve-     This 28-minute videotape is a case                   L
                                       spring offer, place your order by                                                                                             NA
                                                                                                                                                                                    FL




                                                                                                                   study of artificial marshland for
                                                                                                                                                                 O




                                       calling (800) 624-8301 or (304)      ment considerations that a reuse
                                                                                                                                                                                      OW




  Every potential product goes
                                                                                                                                                           NAT I




                                                                                                                   wastewater treatment in Union,
  through a thorough review process 293-4191, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern planner might examine, as well as
                                                                                                                                                                                        S




                                                                                                                   Mississippi. The town replaced its
  by the NSFC’s technical assistance Time. Orders also may be faxed to a chapter on reuse applications in
                                                                                                                   mechanical wastewater treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                     E
                                                                                                                                                            CL




                                       (304) 293-3161 or sent via e-mail    other countries.                                                                     EA
                                                                                                                                                                                    S




  specialists, who consider, among                                                                                                                                     R IN GHOU
                                                                                                                   facility with an artificial marshland
  other factors, whether the product   to nsfc_orders@estd.wvu.edu and
                                                                            The cost for this 259-page manual      treatment system due to higher
  is relevant to wastewater and small will be accepted until midnight
                                                                            is $30.00. Ask for Item                construction and operation and          West Virginia University
  communities and up-to-date with      Tuesday, June 23.                                                                                                   Morgantown, WV
                                                                            #WWBKDM72. (1992)                      maintenance costs associated with
  current technology. It must be easy                                                                                                                      (800) 624-8301
  to read or use and not a duplication                                                                                                                     (304) 293-4191
                                                                                                                   Continued on page 2

NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998                                               1
NSFC Products Provide Aerobic Treatment Information
In this issue of Small Flows, the          There are several books offered              handling equipment. This product            This 79-page report provides the
National Small Flows Clearing-             that deal with this subject. A               is offered free of charge.                  theory, component descriptions,
house (NSFC) technical assistants          148-page book issued by the U.S.                                                         operation and maintenance require-
answer a question about aerobic            Environmental Protection Agency              Another EPA-produced book,                  ments, and performance data of the
treatment units (ATUs), noting that        (EPA), Retrofitting POTWs for                Assessment of Single-Stage Trick-           vertical loop reactor (VLR). The
aerated wastewater treatment               Phosphorus Removal in the                    ling Filter Nitrification (Item             VLR is an aerobic treatment process
results in a higher quality effluent       Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin                #WWBKDM64), is a 92-page                    similar to an oxidation ditch;
than anaerobic or septic treatment         (Item #WWBKDM71) assesses                    report evaluating the use of single-        instead of circulating the waste-
and is more effective. (See Q&A            the technology, economics, and               stage trickling filters for nitrification   water in a horizontal loop, the
on page 11.)                               efficiency of phosphorus removal             of municipal wastewater. This is a          VLR circulates wastewater in a
                                           processes. Included are pure oxy-            biological process application in           vertical loop around a horizontal
For those who want to delve                gen activated sludge systems and             which carbon oxidation and nitrifi-         divider baffle. There is no charge
deeper into this subject, the NSFC         extended aeration and oxygen ditch           cation are accomplished within the          for this product.
offers a variety of educational            activated sludge systems. There is           same unit without separation of the
products about aerobic wastewater          no charge for this product.                  biomass used to accomplish these            “Sand Filters” (Item #WWBLCM08)
treatment. Please note that postage                                                     operations. Multiple-stage systems          is a 76-page NSFC computer search
charges apply to all orders.        In-Vessel Composting of Munici-                     were also included in the study,            containing abstracts of more than
                                    pal Wastewater Sludge (Item                         with performance data measured              120 articles about sand filters as an
The Winter 1996 Pipeline focuses #WWBKDM80) is a 191-page                               after the first stage so they could         alternative wastewater treatment
on “Home Aerobic Wastewater         summary report issued by the EPA                    be compared to single-stage sys-            system, often used in combination
Treatment: An Alternative to Sep- that presents the results of eight                    tems. This product is offered free          with either aerobic treatment units
tic Systems” (Item #SFPLNL04).      case studies of facilities that have                of charge.                                  or septic tanks. The cost is $16.55.
It discusses why aerobic systems    attempted to mitigate the odor,
may be a better option than septic  labor, and materials-handling                       A photocopy of the EPA document, For a complete NSFC product
systems for many households, how problems associated with open-air                      Technical Evaluation of the Vertical listing and ordering instructions,
aerobic treatment works, and offers composting. The facilities contain                  Loop Reactor Process Technology see pages 3–6 of this insert.
guidelines on aerobic system main- the materials within a vessel and                    (Item #WWBKRE13), is available.
tenance. The cost is 20 cents.      use conveyors and other materials-


NSFC Offers New Issue of The Small Flows Journal
The National Small Flows Clearing-         were constructed with varying                The previous issue of the journal           Subscriptions to The Small Flows
house (NSFC) has recently pub-             length-width ratios. The filters             (Item #SFJRNL03) included a case            Journal are free for U.S. residents.
lished the fourth issue of The Small       were subjected to various stress             study of an innovative wastewater           International subscriptions are
           Flows Journal, a peer-          tests, and the parameters of bio-            system designed for a small resi-           $3.50 per year. The Small Flows
            reviewed technical             chemical oxygen demand, total                dential development in California           Journal is also available online at
             journal devoted to            suspended and volatile solids,               and a follow-up to a study pub-             the NSFC’s Web site at http://
              small community              ammonium and sulfide effluent                lished in the previous issue on the         www.nsfc.wvu.edu.
               wastewater issues.          levels, and biofilm accumulation             performance of shallow intermit-
                                           on the gravel were measured over             tent sand filters.                          To subscribe or to request a copy
                This new issue (Item       a two-year period.                                                                       of the current or previous journal
                 #SFJRNL04) features                                                    Past issues also have included              issues, contact the NSFC at (800)
                  two studies. The         The second paper in this issue               articles on a new strategy for man-         624-8301 or (304) 293-4191, or
                   first one looks at      assesses the impact of the disposal          aging onsite system maintenance             write to NSFC, West Virginia
                    the effects of         of unused household cleaning                 by offering special homeowner               University, P.O. Box 6064,
                    length-width ratio     products on microbial wastewater             insurance for onsite systems                Morgantown, WV 26506-6064.
   and stress on rock-plant filter         treatment processes. The authors             (Item #SFJRNL02), case studies
operation. Rock-plant filters use a        evaluate the microbial toxicity              and research on toxic source                For information on submitting a
bed of rock or gravel in conjunction       tests used to evaluate the effects           reduction strategies and pollution          manuscript for The Small Flows
with various semi-aquatic plants.          of cleaning products on residential          prevention for small communities,           Journal, contact Cathie Falvey,
Combined with septic tanks, these          wastewater treatment systems and             a small community system using              editor, at the telephone number
filters replace traditional soil absorp-   look at the data from four case stud-        pressure sewers and a septic sys-           or address listed above.
tion fields. In this study, three          ies using worst-case scenarios—              tem, and scum control in septic
rock-plant filter beds sized to serve      single-residence septic tanks.               tanks (Item #SFJRNL01).
a typical three-bedroom house


Spring Special—All NSFC Products Half Off June 22–23
Continued from page 1                      the importance of water conservation         The cost of this videotape is $12.00.       property values. It highlights such
                                           and illustrates practical ways to save       Ask for Item #WWVTPE33. (1996)              items as the importance of filter
mechanical treatment systems. The          water. Discussions of residential                                                        strips, septic system maintenance,
new system is meeting the advanced         water use show a typical value of            Keeping Our Shores/Protect-                 best management practices for
wastewater treatment standards.            260 gallons per day per four-mem-            ing Minnesota Waters:                       recreation, and the importance of
                                           ber family. The video also shows             Shoreland Best Management                   working together as a community
The cost for this videotape is $10.00.     how to install low-flow fixtures in          Practices                                   to solve problems and protect the
Ask for Item #WWVTPE29. (1992)             a new bathroom, how to retrofit              This 15-minute videotape, along             surrounding environment.
                                           existing bathroom fixtures, and              with its packet of 18 fact sheets,
Water Conservation—Manag-                  how water use affects the effi-              focuses on practices that can be            The cost of this videotape is $20.00.
ing Our Precious Liquid Asset                                                           easily adopted in shoreland areas
                                           ciency of a septic system.                                                               Ask for Item #WWVTPE34.
This 22-minute videotape highlights                                                     to protect both water quality and           (1996)

                                                                                    2                                                NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998
                                            National Small Flows Clearinghouse Products List




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      products list
         The National Small Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC) helps small                                          New products are added regularly and are indicated by a shaded box.
      communities find practical, affordable solutions to their wastewater                                Occasionally, the price for a product may change because the product
      treatment problems.                                                                                 has been updated, or because it is no longer available and is now being
         The NSFC offers more than 300 different manuals, booklets, pam-                                  photocopied. These price changes are indicated with an asterisk (*).
      phlets, and videotapes. These materials range from technical design                                   To place an order, follow the directions on the order form on page 8
      manuals that detail system design, to general interest videotapes that                              of this insert. Abstracts of many products are provided in the NSFC’s
      help small communities plan for their environmental needs.                                          new Guide to Products and Services. The guide may be downloaded
                                                                                                          via the NSFC’s Web site (http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu).


   Case Studies                                                                                           WWBLDM02         Cost Effectiveness Analysis .......................................... $6.90
                                                                                                          WWBLDM03         Onsite Wastewater Disposal: Distribution Networks for
  WWBLCS02            Vacuum Collection System                                                                             Subsurface Soil Absorption Systems ............................ $6.65
                      (Cedar Rocks, West Virginia) ....................................... $1.15
                                                                                                          WWBLDM04         Onsite Wastewater Disposal: Evapotranspiration and
  WWBLCS03            Variable Grade Effluent Sewers                                                                       Evapotranspiration/Absorption Systems ....................... $2.30
                      (Maysville Area, Muskingum County, Ohio) ............... $1.90                      WWBLDM07         Low-Pressure Sewer Systems ........................................ $6.65
  WWBLCS04            Alternating Bed Soil Absorption Systems                                             WWBLDM08         Management Plans and Implementation Issues:
                      (Crystal Lakes, Colorado) .............................................. $2.20                       Small Alternative Wastewater Systems Workshops ..... $3.05
  WWBLCS05            Intermittent Sand Filter (Gardiner, New York) ............ $1.15                    WWBLDM09         Wisconsin Mound Soil Absorption System Siting,
  WWBLCS06            Overland Flow (Kenbridge, Virginia) ........................... $2.45                                Design, and Construction Manual ................................. $5.65
  WWBLCS07            Wetlands/Marsh (Cannon Beach, Oregon) ................... $2.05                     WWBLDM12         Site Evaluation for Onsite Treatment
  WWBLCS09            Slow Rate Land Treatment (Craigsville, Virginia) ....... $1.90                                       and Disposal Systems .................................................... $5.65
  WWBLCS10            Year-Round Slow-Rate Land Treatment                                                 WWBLDM13         Design Workbook for Small-Diameter, Variable-Grade,
                      (Hershey’s Mills, Pennsylvania) ................................... $1.30                            Gravity Sewers ............................................................... $6.65
  WWBLCS11            Flat Grade Sewers (Ericson, Nebraska) ........................ $1.05                WWBLDM14         Subsurface Soil Absorption of Wastewater:
  WWBLCS12            Grinder Pump Pressure Sewers (Augusta, Maine) ........ $1.15                                         Trenches and Beds ......................................................... $3.60
                                                                                                          WWBLDM15         Vacuum Sewerage ......................................................... $6.75
  WWBLCS13            Minimum Grade Effluent Sewers (Dexter, Oregon) ..... $1.45
                                                                                                          WWBLDM16         Subsurface Soil Absorption System Design Work Session:
  WWBLCS14            New York State Free Access Intermittent Sand Filter .. $2.45
                                                                                                                           New Development—Stump Creek Subdivision ............ $3.75
  WWBLCS18            New York State Septic Tank Effluent Collection and
                                                                                                          WWBLDM18         Onsite Wastewater Treatment: Septic Tanks ................ $2.20
                      Sand Filter Treatment .................................................... $1.45
                                                                                                          WWBLDM20         Technology Assessment of Intermittent Sand Filters ... $4.50
  WWBLCS21            Pollution Prevention at POTWs .................................... $0.00
  WWBKCS22            Combined Sewer Overflows and the Multimetric                                        WWBLDM21         Design and Installation of Low-Pressure Pipe
                                                                                                                           Waste Treatment Systems .............................................. $4.75
                      Evaluation of Their Biological Effects:
                      Case Studies in Ohio and New York ............................. $0.00               WWBLDM22         Variable Grade Sewers: Special Evaluation Project ..... $2.45
                                                                                                          WWBKDM31         Planning Wastewater Management Facilities
                                                                                                                           for Small Communities ................................................ $22.45
   Computer Searches
                                                                                                          WWBKDM35         Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
  WWBLCM01            Constructed Wetland, December 1996 .......................... $9.95                                  Systems ......................................................................... $45.00
  WWBLCM02            Composting Toilets, December 1996 ............................ $5.35                WWBKDM36         Municipal Wastewater Stabilization Ponds ................ $48.85
  WWBLCM03            Failing Systems, December 1996 ................................ $13.80              WWBKDM38         Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems
  WWBLCM04            Greywater, December 1996 ........................................... $7.90                           for Municipal Wastewater Treatment .......................... $10.00
  WWBLCM05            On Site Management, December 1996 ........................ $49.40                   WWBLDM40         Sequencing Batch Reactors ........................................... $3.45
  WWBLCM06            Mound Systems, December 1996 ................................ $10.65                WWBKDM41         Phosphorus Removal ................................................... $17.85
  WWBLCM07            Pressure Sewers, December 1996 .................................. $7.90             WWBKDM42         Dewatering Municipal Wastewater Sludges ................. $0.00
  WWBLCM08            Sand Filters, December 1996 ....................................... $16.55          WWBKDM43         Odor and Corrosion Control in Sanitary
                                                                                                                           Sewage Systems and Treatment Plants ....................... $20.00
  WWBLCM09            Septage, December 1996 ............................................... $8.35
                                                                                                          WWBKDM44         Seminar Publication: Composting of Municipal
  WWBLCM10            Wastewater Characteristics, December 1996 .............. $10.65                                      Wastewater Sludges ....................................................... $9.80
  WWBLCM11            Water Conservation, December 1996 ......................... $13.10                  WWBKDM46         Retrofitting POTWs ....................................................... $0.00
  WWPCCM12            Customized Bibliographic Database Search ............... Varies                     WWBKDM47         Fine Pore Aeration Systems .......................................... $0.00
  WWPCCM15            Facilities Database Search ........................................... Varies       WWBLDM48         EPA Environmental Regulations and Technology:
  WWPCCM16            Manufacturers and Consultants Database Search ....... Varies                                         The National Pretreatment Program .............................. $4.20
  WWPCCM17            Lagoons, December 1996 ............................................ $19.85
  WWBLCM18
  WWBLCM19
                      Drip Irrigation, June 1997 ............................................. $1.45
                      Spray System, June 1997 ............................................... $6.20
                                                                                                                            Explanation of Item Number
  WWBLCM20            Additives, June 1997 ...................................................... $2.05       First two characters of item                       Third two characters of item
  WWBLCM21            Low-Flush Toilet, June 1997 ......................................... $2.60             number: (Major Product Category)                   number: (Content Type)
  WWBLCM22            Operator Health and Safety, January 1998 ................... $2.45                      WW Wastewater                                      BI Back Issue
                                                                                                              FM Finance and Management                          CM Computer Search
  WWBKCM23            Disinfection, February 1998 .......................................... $9.50
                                                                                                              GN General Information                             CS Case Study
  WWBKCM24            Site Evaluation, February 1998 ..................................... $8.35              SF Small Flows                                     DM Design Manuals
                                                                                                              Second two characters of item                      FN Finance
   Computer Software                                                                                          number: (Document Type)                            GN General Information
                                                                                                              BK Book, greater than 50 pages                     NL Newsletter
  WWSWDM39 Airvac Version 3.2 and User’s Guide ........................... $6.90                              BL Booklet, less than 50 pages                     OM Operation and Maintenance
  WWSWDM55 Station Version 3.0 and User’s Guide ........................... $6.60                             BR Brochure                                        PE Public Education
  WWSWDM58 User Documentation: POTW Expert Version 1.0 ...... $30.60                                          FS Fact Sheet                                      PP Public-Private Partnerships (P3)
  WWSWDM77 Gravity Sewer Design Version 2.2 M and                                                             JR Journal                                         RE Research
           User’s Guide .................................................................. $6.60              NL Newsletter                                      RG Regulations
                                                                                                              PL Pipeline                                        TR Training
  WWSWDM79 Variable Grade Effluent Sewer Design
           Version 2.2 M and User’s Guide ................................... $9.20                           PK Packet                                          Last two characters of item number:
                                                                                                              PS Poster                                          Uniquely identifies product within
                                                                                                              SW Software                                        major category.
   Design Manuals/Modules                                                                                     VT Videotape
  WWBLDM01            Subsurface Soil Absorption of Wastewater:                                               Note: Shaded areas are new products. * Denotes price, title, or item # change.
                      Artificially Drained Systems ......................................... $2.45


NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998                                                                          3
           WWBKDM49   Municipal Wastewater Disinfection .............................. $0.00                           FMBLFN29   Federal Funding Sources for Small Community
           WWBKDM50   Identification and Correction of Typical Design                                                             Wastewater Systems ...................................................... $0.00
                      Deficiencies at Municipal Wastewater                                                             FMBKGN01   It’s Your Choice: A Guidebook for Local Officials on
                      Treatment Facilities ..................................................... $60.35                           Small Community Wastewater Management Options .. $7.50
           WWBKDM53   Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems ............... $25.00                                 FMBLGN04   Looking at User Charges: A State Survey
           WWBKDM57   Control of Slug Loadings to POTWs                                                                           and Report ...................................................................... $5.20
                      Guidance Manual ......................................................... $14.20                 FMBKGN11   Andrew W. Breidenback Environmental Research
products   WWBKDM59   Guidance Manual on the Development and
                      Implementation of Local Discharge Limitations                                                    FMBLGN14
                                                                                                                                  Center Small Systems Resource Directory ................... $0.00
                                                                                                                                  Watershed Approach Framework .................................. $0.00
                      Under the Pretreatment Program ................................. $51.30                          FMBLGN15   Why Watersheds? .......................................................... $0.00
           WWBLDM65   General Design, Construction, and Operation Guidelines:                                          FMBKMG02   Management of a Construction Project.
                      Constructed Wetlands Wastewater Treatment Systems for                                                       A Guide for Grantees ..................................................... $4.55
                      Small Users Including Individual Residences
                      (Second Edition) ............................................................ $5.00              FMBLMG05   Septic Systems and Ground Water Protection:
                                                                                                                                  An Executive’s Guide .................................................... $2.05
           WWBKDM68   Technical Support Document for Water Quality Based
                      Toxics Control ................................................................ $0.00            FMBKPE32   Economic Benefits of Runoff Controls ......................... $0.00
           WWBKDM70   Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems                                                        FMBKPP03   Public-Private Partnerships for Environmental Facilities.
                      for Small Communities ................................................ $16.50                               A Self-Help Guide for Local Governments .................. $0.00
           WWBKDM71   Retrofitting POTWs for Phosphorus Removal in the                                                 FMBLPP06   Developing Public/Private Partnerships: An Option
                      Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin ................................... $0.00                                     for Wastewater Financing .............................................. $0.00
           WWBKDM72   Guidelines for Water Reuse ......................................... $30.00                      WWBKMG02   Biosolids Management Handbook for Small Publicly
                                                                                                                                  Owned Treatment Works ............................................. $37.50
           WWBKDM73   Guidance to Protect POTW Workers from Toxic and
                      Reactive Gases and Vapors ........................................... $0.00                      WWBLMG03   Septage Management in Ohio ........................................ $1.25
           WWBKDM74   Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater                                              WWBKMG04   A Manual for Managing Septic Systems ..................... $21.55
                      Treatment ..................................................................... $12.25           WWBKMG05   Draft Framework for Watershed-Based Training ......... $0.00
           WWBKDM75   Combined Sewer Overflow Control .............................. $0.00                             WWBKMG07   Environmental Planning for Small Communities:
           WWBLDM76   Mound Systems: Pressure Distribution of Wastewater                                                          A Guide for Local Decision Makers ........................... $15.00
                      Design and Construction in Ohio .................................. $2.75
           WWBKDM80   In-Vessel Composting of Municipal Wastewater                                                     General Information
                      Sludge ............................................................................. $0.00
           WWBKDM81   Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge and                                                            GNBKGN02   Federal Agency Ground Water Technical
                      Domestic Septage ......................................................... $42.40                           Assistance Directory ...................................................... $0.00
           WWBKDM83   Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 1 ......... $10.10                                      GNBLGN03   Watershed Protection Approach .................................... $0.00
           WWBLDM84   Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 2,                                                      GNBLGN04   ENVEST: Engineers Volunteering Environmental
                      Domestic Wastewater .................................................... $4.35                              Service Teams ................................................................ $0.75
           WWBLDM85   Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 3,                                                      WWBKGN05   Small Town Task Force ................................................. $5.00
                      Agricultural Wastewater ................................................ $4.75                   GNBKGN08   Watershed Protection: A Project Focus ........................ $0.00
           WWBLDM86   Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 5,                                                      GNBLGN09   Office of Compliance An Introductory Guide .............. $0.00
                      Stormwater ..................................................................... $5.50           GNBLGN10   Top 10 Watershed Lessons Learned .............................. $0.00
                                                                                                                       GNBLGN11   Section 319 National Monitoring Program:
           Fact Sheets                                                                                                            An Overview .................................................................. $0.00
                                                                                                                       WWBRGN15   Water Reuse via Dual Distribution Systems ................. $0.00
           WWFSGN84   Constructed Wetlands/Natural Wetlands ...................... $0.30
                                                                                                                       WWBLGN16   Report on the Use of Wetlands for Municipal
                                                                                                                                  Wastewater Treatment and Disposal ........................... $5.90*
           Finance and Management                                                                                      WWBRGN19   Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment in
                                                                                                                                  Cold Climates ................................................................. $0.00
           FMBKCS21   Cost Savings Models for Environmental Protection:
                      Helping Communities Meet Their Environmental                                                     WWBRGN20   Innovations in Sludge Drying Beds:
                      Goals ............................................................................. $13.65                  A Practical Technology ................................................. $0.00
           WWBRFN02   EPA's Clean Water Act-Indian Set-Aside                                                           WWBLGN31   Inflow/Infiltration: A Guide for Decision Makers ........ $6.05
                      Grant Program ................................................................ $0.00             WWBKGN35   Municipal Wastewater Reuse: Selected Readings
           FMBLFN03   A Water and Wastewater Manager’s Guide for                                                                  on Water Reuse ............................................................ $10.80
                      Staying Financially Healthy .......................................... $0.00                     WWBKGN36   Waste Water Justice? Its Complexion in Small Places
           WWBLFN03   Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About the US                                                          Appendix ........................................................................ $0.00
                      EPA Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Grant Program ..... $0.00                                       WWBKGN39   Septic Tank Siting to Minimize the Contamination of
           WWFSFN04   Rural Community Assistance Program (RCAP) Help                                                              Ground Water by Microorganisms .............................. $13.95
                      for Small Community Wastewater Projects .................. $0.00                                 WWBLGN40   EPA Journal Reprint: Protecting Ground Water,
           FMBKFN06   Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for                                                                      The Hidden Resource ..................................................... $4.75
                      Funding Options ............................................................. $5.00              WWBLGN55   GAO Report: Water Pollution—Information on the
           FMBKFN12   Alternative Financing Mechanisms for                                                                        Use of Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems ..... $2.00
                      Environmental Programs ............................................. $17.50                      WWBKGN58   Guide to Septage Treatment and Disposal .................... $0.00
           FMBLFN13   A Utility Manager’s Guide to Water and                                                           WWBLGN59   Biosolids Recycling: Beneficial Technology for
                      Wastewater Budgeting ................................................... $0.00                              a Better Environment ..................................................... $0.00
           FMSWFN16   Determining Wastewater User Service Charge Rates .. $5.00                                        WWBLGN62   Office of Wastewater Management Primer ................... $4.35
           FMBLFN17   The Road To Financing, Assessing, and Improving                                                  WWBRGN63   Clean Water . . . A Better Environment:
                      Your Community’s Credit Worthiness .......................... $0.00                                         Wastewater Management at EPA .................................. $0.00
           FMBKFN18   Financing Models for Environmental Protection: Helping                                           WWBRGN64   Source Reduction, An Integral Part of the
                      Communities Meet Their Environmental Goals ........... $0.00                                                MWPP Program ............................................................. $0.00
           FMBLFN19   Evaluating Municipal Wastewater User Charge                                                      WWBLGN65   Marine and Estuarine Protection Programs and
                      Systems ........................................................................... $5.50                   Activities ........................................................................ $0.00
           FMBLFN20   Clean Water State Revolving Fund ............................... $0.00                           WWBKGN67   Summary Report: Small Community Water and
           FMBKFN22   Beyond SRF: A Workbook for Financing CCMP                                                                   Wastewater Treatment ................................................. $13.65
                      Implementation .............................................................. $0.00              WWBLGN71   Combined Sewer Overflows: Screening and
           FMFSFN24   Clean Water State Revolving Fund Program ................ $0.00                                             Ranking Guidance .......................................................... $0.00
           FMBLFN25   Clean Water State Revolving Fund Funding                                                         WWBKGN72   Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for
                      Framework ..................................................................... $0.00                       Long Term Control Plan ................................................ $0.00
           FMBKFN26   CSO's: Guidance for Financial Capability                                                         WWBKGN73   Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for
                      Assessment and Schedule Development ....................... $0.00                                           Permit Writers ................................................................ $0.00
           FMFSFN27   Hardship Grants Program for Rural Communities ....... $0.00                                      WWBLGN78   United States Census Data: 1980 and 1990 .................. $1.05
           FMBLFN28   State Match Options for the State Revolving Fund                                                 WWBLGN79   Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy: A
                      Program .......................................................................... $0.00                    Consensus Solution to Improve Water Quality ............. $0.60



                                                                                                                   4                                                  NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998
  WWBKGN85      Guide to the Biosolids Risk Assessment for the EPA                                           WWBKOM16        Detection, Control, and Correction of Hydrogen Sulfide
                Part 503 Rule .................................................................. $0.00                       Corrosion in Existing Wastewater Systems ................ $23.15
  WWBRGN88      Clean Vessel Act: Keep Our Water Clean—                                                      WWBKOM17        Chemical Aids Manual for Wastewater Treatment
                Use Pumpouts ................................................................ $0.00                          Facilities ......................................................................... $0.00
  WWBKGN89      National Onsite Wastewater Treatment: A National Small                                       WWBKOM19        Inspectors Guide for Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater
                Flows Clearinghouse Summary of Onsite Systems                                                                Treatment Plants ............................................................ $0.00
                in the United States, 1993 ............................................ $17.50
  WWBKGN90      Seminar Publication: National Conference on Sanitary
                Sewer Overflows ............................................................ $0.00
                                                                                                                 Public Education
  WWBLGN91      Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) Use or Disposal                                                    GNBLPE01        Xeriscape Landscaping: Preventing Pollution and
                Documents ...................................................................... $0.45                       Using Resources Efficiently .......................................... $0.00
  WWBKGN92      Commitment to Watershed Protection: A Review of the                                          GNBRPE02        Everyone Shares a Watershed ....................................... $0.20
                Clean Lakes Program ..................................................... $0.00              GNBLPE03        DES Guide to Groundwater Protection: Answers
  WWBKGN93      Response to Congress on Use of Decentralized                                                                 to Questions about Groundwater Protection in
                Wastewater Treatment Systems ................................... $13.10                                      New Hampshire .............................................................. $2.75
  WWBLGN94      Waste Water Justice? Its Complexion in Small Places . $0.00                                  GNBRPE04        Test The Waters! Careers in Water Quality ................. $0.20
  WWBKGN96      Compendium of Tools for Wastewater Assessment                                                GNBRPE05        Adopt Your Watershed .................................................. $0.00
                and TMDL Development ............................................... $0.00                   WWBLPE01        Is Your Proposed Wastewater Project Too Costly?
  WWBKHD52      Directory of Local Health Departments ...................... $26.60                                          Options for Small Communities .................................... $0.90
  GNBKIN05      Designing a Water Conservation Program: An                                                   WWPSPE02        Small Wastewater Systems: Alternative Systems for
                Annotated Bibliography of Source Materials ............... $0.00                                             Small Communities and Rural Areas ............................ $0.55
  WWBRPR04      National Onsite Demonstration Project ......................... $0.00                        WWPSPE03        Do More with SCORE Poster ........................................ $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBLPE07        Benefits of Water and Wastewater Infrastructure ......... $0.00
   NSFC Newsletters                                                                                          WWBLPE08        The State of the Chesapeake Bay 1995 ......................... $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBRPE17        Septic Systems: A Guide for Homeowners ................... $0.00
  GNBKIN01      NSFC Publications Index, 1997 .................................... $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBRPE18        The Care and Feeding of Your Septic Tank .................. $0.00
  GNNLBI24      Small Flows, July 1993 .................................................. $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBRPE20        So . . . Now You Own A Septic Tank ........................... $0.00
  GNNLBI27      Small Flows, Spring 1994 .............................................. $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBRPE21        Groundwater Protection ................................................. $0.00
  GNNLBI28      Small Flows, Summer 1994 ........................................... $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBRPE22        Combined Sewer Overflows in Your Community ........ $0.00
  GNNLBI29      Small Flows, Fall 1994 .................................................. $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBRPE26        Preventing Pollution Through Efficient Water Use ...... $0.00
  GNNLBI31      Small Flows, Spring 1995 .............................................. $0.00
                                                                                                             WWPSPE27        Water Quality . . . Potential Sources of Pollution ......... $0.00
  GNNLBI32      Small Flows, Summer 1995 ........................................... $0.00
                                                                                                             WWPKPE28        Homeowner Septic Tank Information Package
  GNNLBI33      Small Flows, Fall 1995 .................................................. $0.00                              (NSFC) ......................................................................... $2.00*
  GNNLBI34      Small Flows, Winter 1996 ............................................. $0.00                 WWBLPE30        Homeowner’s Septic Tank System Guide and
  GNNLBI35      Small Flows, Spring 1996 .............................................. $0.00                                Record Keeping Folder (NOWRA) ............................... $0.50
  GNNLBI36      Small Flows, Summer 1996 ........................................... $0.00                   WWBLPE31        Sanitary Sewer Overflows: What are they, and how
  GNNLBI37      Small Flows, Fall 1996 .................................................. $0.00                              do we reduce them? ....................................................... $0.00
  GNNLBI38      Small Flows, Winter 1997 ............................................. $0.00                 WWPSPE35        Indicator Organisms in Wastewater Treatment ............. $2.60
  GNNLBI39      Small Flows, Spring 1997 .............................................. $0.00                WWPSPE36        Pipeline: Small Community Options & Resources ...... $0.00
  GNNLBI43      Small Flows, Spring 1998 ............................................ $0.00                  WWBLPE37        Homeowner Onsite System Recordkeeping Folder
                                                                                                                             (NSFC) ........................................................................... $0.40
  SFJRNL01      Small Flows Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1 ............................... $0.00
  SFJRNL02      Small Flows Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1 ............................... $0.00
  SFJRNL04      Small Flows Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1 .............................. $0.00
                                                                                                                 Regulations
  SFPLNL01      CSO Pipeline .................................................................. $0.20        A number of the regulatory documents have been updated. Please refer to
  SFPLNL02      Septic Tanks Pipeline ..................................................... $0.20            them by date.
  SFPLNL03      Septic Tanks Operation and Maintenance Pipeline ...... $0.20                                 GNBLRG01        Introduction to Water Quality Standards ...................... $0.00
  SFPLNL04      Aerobic Treatment Units Pipeline ................................. $0.20                     WWBKRG01        A Guide to State-Level Onsite Regulations,
  SFPLNL05      Management Programs Can Help Small Communities                                                               September 1997 .......................................................... $12.50*
                Pipeline ........................................................................... $0.20   WWBKRG19        Application Rates and Sizing of Effluent Drainfields
  SFPLNL06      Wastewater Treatment Protects Small Community                                                                from the State Regulations, November 1996 .............. $13.50
                Life, Health Pipeline ...................................................... $0.20           WWBKRG20        Location and Separation Guidelines from the
  SFPLNL07
  SFPLNL08

  SFPLNL09
  SFPLNL10
  SFPLNL11
                Alternative Sewers Pipeline ........................................... $0.20
                Choose the Right Consultant for Your Wastewater
                Project Pipeline .............................................................. $0.20
                Lagoon Systems Pipeline ............................................... $0.20
                Sand Filters Pipeline ...................................................... $0.20
                Wastewater Characteristics Pipeline..............................$0.20
                                                                                                             WWBKRG21

                                                                                                             WWBKRG22

                                                                                                             WWBKRG23
                                                                                                                             State Regulations, November 1996 ............................. $13.65
                                                                                                                             Wastewater Flow Rates from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                             October 1996 ................................................................ $15.95
                                                                                                                             Percolation Tests from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                             November 1996 ............................................................ $16.55
                                                                                                                             No-Flow Toilets from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          products
                                                                                                                             November 1996 ............................................................ $16.25
  SFPLNL12      A Homeowners Guide to Onsite System Regulations $0.20*
                                                                                                             WWBLRG24        Greywater Systems from the State Regulations,
  SFPLNL13      Onsite System Inspection Pipeline ................................ $0.00                                     September 1997 ............................................................ $6.90*
                                                                                                             WWBKRG26        Package Plants and Aerobic Treatment Systems
   Operation and Maintenance                                                                                                 from the State Regulations, September 1997 .............. $13.50
                                                                                                             WWBKRG27        Site Evaluations from the State Regulations,
  WWBLOM01      Reducing the Cost of Operating Municipal                                                                     November 1996 ............................................................ $31.75
                Wastewater Facilities ..................................................... $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBKRG30        Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in
  WWBKOM02      Cost Reduction and Self-Help Handbook ..................... $7.80                                            Sewage Sludge ............................................................... $0.00
  WWBLOM04      Contract Operation and Maintenance:                                                          WWBLRG31        NPDES Storm Water Program, Question and Answer
                The Answer for Your Town? ......................................... $1.90                                    Document, Volume 1 ..................................................... $0.00
  WWBLOM05      Analysis of Performance Limiting Factors (PLFs)                                              WWBLRG34        State Regulations Contact List, September 1997 ........ $0.00*
                at Small Sewage Treatment Plants ................................ $3.05
                                                                                                             WWBKRG35        Standards for Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge
  WWBLOM06      The Onsite Operator Training Program:                                                                        40 CFR Part 503 ............................................................. $0.00
                Success in Every Region! .............................................. $3.75
                                                                                                             WWBKRG36        Domestic Septage Regulatory Guidance: A Guide to
  WWBLOM07      Alternative Sewers Operation and Maintenance                                                                 the EPA 503 Rule ........................................................... $0.00
                Special Evaluation Project ............................................. $2.60
                                                                                                             WWBLRG37        NPDES Storm Water Program Question and Answer
  WWBKOM08      Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for Nine                                                                  Document, Volume 2 ..................................................... $0.00
                Minimum Controls ......................................................... $0.00
                                                                                                             WWBKRG38        Plain English Guide to the EPA Part 503
  WWBKOM09      POTW Sludge Sampling and Analysis Guidance                                                                   Biosolids Rule ................................................................ $0.00
                Document ....................................................................... $0.00



NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998                                                                             5
           WWBLRG39   NPDES Self-Monitoring System User Guide ............... $3.75                                   Training Materials
           WWBKRG40   Inspections from the State Regulations,
                      November 1996 ............................................................ $12.80               WWBKTR01       NPDES Compliance Inspection Training Program
                                                                                                                                     Student’s Guide ............................................................ $16.85
           WWBLRG41   Federal Register Part VII EPA CSO Control Policy .... $0.00
                                                                                                                      WWBLTR02       NPDES Compliance Inspection Video Workbook:
           WWBLRG42   NPDES and Sewage Sludge Program Authority: A
                                                                                                                                     Inspecting a Parshall Flume ........................................... $4.05
                      Handbook for Federally Recognized Indian Tribes ...... $0.00
                                                                                                                      WWBKTR03       NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—
           WWBKRG43   Land Application of Sewage Sludge ............................. $0.00
                                                                                                                                     Sampling ...................................................................... $13.95
           WWBKRG44   Preparing Sewage Sludge for Land Application or
                                                                                                                      WWBKTR04       NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—
                      Surface Disposal ............................................................ $7.90
                                                                                                                                     Biomonitoring .............................................................. $11.25
           WWBKRG45   Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge .............................. $0.00
                                                                                                                      WWBKTR05       NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—
           WWBRRG48   Florida Clean Vessel Act: What It Means For                                                                    Overview ...................................................................... $12.65
                      Boaters and Marinas ...................................................... $0.00
                                                                                                                      WWBKTR06       NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—
           WWBKRG49   Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy .................. $4.75                                                Legal Issues .................................................................. $16.70
           WWBKRG50   Part 503 Implementation Guidance ............................... $0.00                          WWBKTR07       NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—
           WWBKRG51   US EPA NPDES Permit Writers' Manual ..................... $0.00                                                Laboratory Analysis ..................................................... $20.00
           WWBKRG52   Septic Tanks-Southeast From the State Regulations:
                      September 1997 (AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD,                                                     Videotapes
                      NC, SC, TN, VA, WV) ................................................ $11.95
           WWBKRG53   Septic Tanks-Southwest From the State Regulations:                                              FMVTMG01       Wastewater Management in Unsewered Areas ........... $10.00
                      September 1997 (AZ, CA, CO, HI, KS, MO, NE,                                                     FMVTPE01       Building Support for Increasing User Fees
                      NV, NM, OK, TX, UT) ................................................. $9.95                                    (videotape and workbook) ........................................... $12.45
           WWBKRG54   Septic Tanks-Northwest From the State Regulations:                                              WWVTGN10       Morrilton, Arkansas, Land Application of
                      September 1997 (AK, ID, IL, IA, MN, MT, ND,                                                                    Wastewater ................................................................... $10.00
                      OR, SD, WA, WI, WY) ................................................. $8.35                     WWVTGN13       Alternative Is Conservation ......................................... $10.00
           WWBKRG55   Septic Tanks-Northeast From the State Regulations:                                              WWVTGN87       Proper Treatment and Uses of Septage ....................... $15.00
                      September 1997 (CT, DE, IN, ME, MA, MI, NH,
                      NJ, NY OH, PA, RI, VT) ............................................... $8.65                    WWVTPE03       Sand Filter Technology ................................................ $10.00
                                                                                                                      WWVTPE04       Small Diameter Effluent Sewers ................................. $10.00
           Research                                                                                                   WWVTPE05       Planning Wastewater Treatment for Small
                                                                                                                                     Communities ................................................................ $10.00
           WWBKRE13   Technical Evaluation of the Vertical Loop Reactor                                               WWVTPE06       Upgrading Small Communities Wastewater
                      Process Technology ....................................................... $0.00                               Treatment ..................................................................... $10.00
           WWBLRE14   Methodology to Predict Nitrogen Loading from                                                    WWVTPE13       Municipal Wastewater: America’s Forgotten
                      Conventional Gravity On-Site Wastewater                                                                        Resources ..................................................................... $15.00
                      Treatment Systems ......................................................... $3.75               WWVTPE16       Your Septic System: A Guide for Homeowners ......... $10.00
           WWBKRE16   Preliminary Risk Assessment for Viruses in Municipal                                            WWVTPE18       The Care and Feeding of Your Septic Tank ................ $10.00
                      Sewage Sludge Applied to Land ................................... $0.00
                                                                                                                      WWVTPE22       Surface Water Video ....................................................... Loan
           WWBKRE17   Evaluation of Oxidation Ditches for Nutrient
                      Removal ....................................................................... $15.40          WWVTPE23       Ground Water Video Adventure ..................................... Loan
           WWBLRE18   Rock-Plant Filter: An Alternative for Onsite Sewage                                             WWVTPE24       Saving Water—The Conservation Video ....................... Loan
                      Treatment ....................................................................... $1.30         WWVTPE25       Careers in Water Quality ................................................ Loan
           WWBLRE19   NPCA Septic Tank Project 1990-1995 ......................... $4.90                              WWVTPE29       Artificial Marshland Treatment Systems .................... $10.00
           WWBLRE20   Field Performance of the Waterloo Biofilter with                                                WWVTPE33       Water Conservation—Managing Our Precious
                      Different Wastewaters ................................................... $3.60                                Liquid Asset ................................................................. $12.00
           WWBKRE21   Potential Effects of Water Softener Use on Septic                                               WWVTPE34       Keeping Our Shores/Protecting Minnesota Waters:
                      Tank Soil Absorption On-Site Waste Water Systems .. $7.60                                                      Shoreland Best Management Practices ....................... $20.00
           WWBLRE22   Project Summary: Treatment of Municipal Waste-
                      waters by the Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Process ........... $1.15
           WWBKRE23   Treatment Capability of Three Filters for Septic
                      Tank Effluent ............................................................... $15.70                 NSFC Offers New Septic Tank
                                                                                                                                Information Folder
products




           Technology Packages
           WWBLGN09   Alternative Toilets Technology Package .................... $7.35*
                                                                                                                       The NSFC has developed a                       designer, installer, and pumper.
           WWBKGN29   Sand Filter Technology Package ................................. $12.10
                                                                                                                       new Homeowner Onsite System                    The cost of this folder is 40 cents.
           WWBKGN41   STEP Pressure Sewer Technology Package ................ $12.10
                                                                                                                       Recordkeeping Folder (Item
           WWBKGN53   Spray and Drip Irrigation Technology Package .......... $15.55                                   #WWBLPE37). This folder                        The Homeowner Septic Tank Infor-
           WWBKGN54   Constructed Wetlands General Information                                                         provides a place to record and                 mation Package (NSFC) (Item
                      Package ......................................................................... $10.10
                                                                                                                       store information about your                   #WWPKPE28) provides you with
           WWBLGN57   Watershed Management Technology Package ............. $5.90
                                                                                                                       system and its maintenance.                    this folder packed with materials
           WWBKGN61   Vertical Separation Distance Technology Package .... $9.95*
                                                                                                                                                                      that give an overview on septic
           WWBKGN66   Septic Tank Additives Technology Package ............... $12.10
                                                                                                                       On the cover of the folder are                 tanks for homeowners. Included
           WWBKGN68   Water Conservation Effects on Onsite Wastewater                                                  sections for permit and local                  are several brochures on how to
                      Treatment Technology Package .................................. $10.80
                                                                                                                       health department information                  maintain a septic tank and how to
           WWBKGN69   Design of Constructed Wetlands Technology
                      Package ........................................................................... $9.80        and for a description of the sys-              recognize potential problems
           WWBKGN70   Management Districts .................................................. $12.10                   tem. This description consists                 (“Your Septic System: A Reference
           WWBKGN74   Gravelless Drainfields Technology Package .............. $10.20                                  of a checklist that covers septic              Guide for Homeowners,” “The Care
           WWBKGN75   Operator Protection Information Packet (Aids Virus
                                                                                                                       tank and pump size, soil treat-                and Feeding of Your Septic Tank
                      in Wastewater Treatment Plants) ............................... $13.40*                          ment system dimensions and                     System,” “So...Now You Own a
           WWBKGN76   Sand Mound Technology Package ................................ $8.80                             components, accessories, and                   Septic Tank,” and “Groundwater
           WWBKGN77   Biomat Technology Package ....................................... $12.35                         household information.                         Protection”). Also included are
           WWBKGN80   Grinder Pump Pressure Sewer Technology                                                                                                          three issues of the NSFC newsletter
                      Package ......................................................................... $13.25         Inside are tips for locating your              Pipeline that focus on septic sys-
           WWPCGN81   Disinfection Package ................................................... $20.55                  system, space for a sketch of the              tems and several photocopies of
           WWBKGN82   Greywater Technology Package .................................. $7.80*                           system, a safety checklist, and a              fact sheets dealing with septic tank
           WWPCGN83   Site Evaluation Information Package .......................... $22.55                            section for recording the names,               maintenance. The package costs
           WWPKGN86   Nonpoint Pointers: Understanding and Managing                                                    addresses, and certifications                  two dollars.
                      Nonpoint Source Pollution in Your Community .......... $0.00                                     numbers of your system’s

                                                                                                                  6                                                    NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998
  Many New Products Available from the NSFC
  During the past three months, the       bioreactor process for secondary      as well as for O&M training,              There is no charge for this booklet,
  National Small Flows Clearing-          treatment and as a roughing treat-    technical assistance, and education.      aside from shipping and handling.
  house (NSFC) has added a number         ment process in plant upgrades.       This fact sheet outlines criteria         Ask for Item #GNBLRG01. (1994)
  of new products to its inventory.                                             for eligibility and where to go
  Descriptions of some of these           Along with process design elements,   for additional information.               Compendium of Tools for
  products are provided below.            stability of the process under high                                             Watershed Assessment and
                                          hydraulic peak loads typical of       There is no charge for this fact sheet,   TMDL Development
  NPDES Compliance Inspection             combined sewer systems also           aside from shipping and handling.         This 234-page book summarizes
  Training Program: Student’s             was evaluated.                        Ask for Item #FMFSFN27. (1997)            the available models and tools that
  Guide                                                                                                                   are used in water quality planning
  This 117-page book is the               The cost for this booklet is $1.15,   Combined Sewer Overflows:                 and pollution control to answer a
  student’s guide in the NPDES            plus shipping and handling. Ask       Guidance for Financial                    variety of questions, support water-
  (National Pollutant Discharge           for Item #WWBLRE22. (1988)            Capability Assessment                     shed planning and analysis, and
  Elimination System) Compliance                                                and Schedule Development                  develop total maximum daily
  Inspection Training Program. It         U.S. EPA NPDES Permit                 This 64-page book discusses how           loads (TMDLs).
  provides directed study and ques-       Writer’s Manual                       financial capability and other factors
  tions on the U.S. Environmental         This 294-page book provides new       may be used to negotiate reasonable       Three major categories of models
  Protection Agency’s (EPA) 1994          permit writers with the fundamental   compliance schedules for imple-           are discussed: watershed loading,
  NPDES Compliance Inspection             regulatory framework and technical    mentation of controls established         receiving water, and ecological.
  Manual, five of EPA’s 1990              considerations that support the       by the EPA’s final Combined               The book includes a wide range
  NPDES Compliance Monitoring             development of wastewater dis-        Sewer Overflow Control Policy.            of tools and offers selection criteria
  Inspector Training Modules (Over-       charge permits as required under      Issued on April 11, 1994, this            to assist the user in choosing the
  view, Legal Issues, Biomonitoring,      the NPDES program; it also may        policy establishes a consistent           model(s) appropriate for a particu-
  Sampling Procedures, and Labora-        serve as a reference for experi-      national approach for controlling         lar application.
  tory Analysis), the Clean Water         enced permit writers.                 discharges from combined sewer
  Act, and pertinent regulations.                                               systems through the NPDES               There is no charge for this book,
                                          The manual describes the permit       permit program.                         aside from shipping and handling.
  The cost for this book is $16.85,       components and the permitting                                                 Ask for Item #WWBKGN96. (1997)
  plus shipping and handling. Ask         process, different types of effluent There is no charge for this book,
  for Item #WWBKTR01. (1995)              limits, the legal and technical con- aside from shipping and handling. Watershed Protection:
                                          siderations involved in limit devel- Ask for Item #FMBKFN26. (1997) A Project Focus
  NPDES Compliance Inspection             opment, and other permit conditions.                                          This 138-page book is a guide to
  Video Workbook: Inspecting a                                                  Introduction to Water Quality           watershed protection designed for
  Parshall Flume                          This manual is not intended to be     Standards                               state water quality managers. It
  This 28-page booklet instructs          a stand-alone reference document,     This 40-page booklet provides           focuses on one aspect of the Water-
  NPDES inspectors on the proper          and it identifies and references      general information about the           shed Protection Approach: develop-
  procedures for evaluating the accu-     other guidance documents              nation’s water quality standards        ing watershed-specific programs or
  racy of flow measurements using a       throughout the text, providing        program and is intended to serve        projects. The book provides a blue-
  Parshall flume, a common primary        information on how these docu-        as an introductory document for         print for designing and implement-
  flow measuring device used to           ments can be obtained.                the general public and for those        ing watershed projects and includes
  measure wastewater flows at treat-                                            unfamiliar with the program.            references and case studies for
  ment facilities. While it was pre-      There is no charge for this book,                                             specific elements of the process.
  pared to be used in conjunction with    aside from shipping and handling.     Begun under the Clean Water Act
  the video “Inspecting a Parshall        Ask for Item #WWBKRG51. (1996) of 1972, the program requires that There is no charge for this book,
  Flume,” this workbook also can be                                             states, U.S. Territories, and Indian aside from shipping and handling.
  used as an independent training tool.   Operator Health and Safety—           Tribes authorized to administer the Ask for Item #GNBKGN08. (1995)
                                          Computer Search                       program adopt water quality stan-
  The cost for this booklet is $4.05,     This 17-page booklet lists article    dards for each waterbody within         Federal Funding Sources for
  plus shipping and handling. Ask         citations and abstracts on the topic  their boundaries.                       Small Community Wastewater
  for Item #WWBLTR02. (1995)              of wastewater operator health and                                             Systems
                                          safety from the NSFC’s Biblio-        The booklet discusses how water         This 31-page booklet highlights
  Inspectors Guide for Evalua-            graphic Database.                     quality standards define the use        10 federal programs that help state,
  tion of Municipal Wastewater                                                  for a waterbody and describe the        tribal, and local officials identify
  Treatment Plants                        The cost for this booklet is $2.45,   criteria to achieve that use, how       possible funding sources, who
  This 359-page book is both a train-     plus shipping and handling. Ask       antidegradation policies are            to contact, and how to apply.
  ing tool and a reference source to      for Item #WWBLCM22. (1997)            adopted and implemented, and            While this publication describes
  help state and EPA inspectors evalu-                                          how water quality standards are         some drinking water programs, it
  ate the operation and maintenance       Hardship Grants Program for           adopted. There is a glossary of         focuses mainly on wastewater.
  (O&M) of wastewater treatment           Rural Communities                     terms and a section on obtaining
  plants. It was developed in conjunc-    This two-page fact sheet details the additional information about             There is no charge for this booklet,
  tion with an EPA O&M inspection         Hardship Grants Program for Rural water quality standards.                    aside from shipping and handling.
  form and includes checklists for        Communities, which was created by                                             Ask for Item #FMBLFN29. (1997)
  individual unit processes.              the 1996 Congressional Appropria-
                                          tions Act to help small, disadvan-
  There is no charge for this book,       taged rural communities address           If you would like to see a listing of all of this quarter’s new
  aside from shipping and handling.       their wastewater treatment needs.         products, refer to the list of currently available NSFC
  Ask for Item #WWBKOM19. (1979)                                                    products in the four inner pages of this insert. New products
                                          The grants are made by the EPA            are indicated by a shaded box.
  Project Summary: Treatment of           to each state to provide financial
  Municipal Wastewaters by the            assistance to eligible rural commu-
  Fluidized Bioreactor Process            nities for planning, design, and
  This eight-page booklet reports on      construction of treatment facilities,
  the application of the fluidized bed

NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998                                                7
             Wastewater Discussion Groups Are on the Web
             The online discussion groups of the                 (NODP) discussion group. The                   versus percolation tests, and antibac-        As well as being able to post
             National Small Flows Clearinghouse                  NODP group allows users to con-                terial cleansers. There are more than         and respond to questions, users
             (NSFC) are the newest addition to                   nect across the country with people            a dozen others, and anyone is free to         of the NSFC Web site can make
             the services offered by the NSFC to                 who are interested in the NODP or              begin a new discussion.                       use of a special “chat” feature
             Internet users who visit its Web site.              are involved in demonstration                                                                that allows two or more users
                                                                 projects of their own.                         In the NODP discussion group,                 to communicate in a real-time,
             There are two distinct discussion                                                                  topics include older onsite demon-            instant-message format.
             groups that users can participate                   Topics posted for discussion thus              stration projects, permaculture,
             in: the NSFC discussion group                       far in the NSFC group include                  and low-pressure sewer systems.               Those interested in participating
             (for small community wastewater                     septic tanks and grease, odors—                Anyone interested in demonstration            in these discussion groups can
             issues in general) and the National                 house vents, soils evaluation                  projects is invited to join in or add         access the Web site at http://
             Onsite Demonstration Project                                                                       new topics.                                   www.nsfc.wvu.edu.

              To Place an Order:
             Phone:                                              Mail:                                          Free items are limited to one of each         To place your order using VISA,
             (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191                    National Small Flows Clearinghouse             per order. Due to availability, prices        MasterCard, or Discover, include
             Business hours are 8 a.m. to                        West Virginia University                       may change. Please call or e-mail             your credit card number, expiration
             5 p.m. Eastern Time                                 P.O. Box 6064                                  NSFC to verify prices before ordering.        date, and signature on the order form.
                                                                 Morgantown, WV 26506-6064
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                                                                                                            8                                                NSFC Products Insert–Spring 1998
                                                                                                                                                  ¢
                                          Small Flows Readership Survey




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     Dear Reader,
     In order for us to better serve you, we ask that you please take a few minutes to complete this survey, cut along the dotted line, fold as
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                                                                                                                      Jeremy Canody, Editor

     1.   Please indicate your profession by checking the appropriate box(es):
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             readership survey
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          t technology          t finance                  t educational resources
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SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                                                                                                      13
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                                                                                                                                                     Small Flows Readership Survey                                       Continued




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                    14                                                                                                                                                                                            SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   E-train Offers Onsite Training Centers Update;
   Free Training Newsletter Available




                                                                                                                                                                              newsletters
   One of the hottest topics in waste-           ing centers have gained momen-           practical tips and techniques for
   water training lately has been the            tum in the last few years and some       successful instruction. It also
   rapid growth in the number of                 of the challenges they’ve faced          includes listings of upcoming
   onsite training centers around the            such as funding, staffing, opera-        training events and training re-
   country. At last count, approxi-              tions, and selecting and obtaining       sources such as books, manuals,
   mately 30 centers were either oper-           demonstration technologies. The          and videos.
   ating or in the development stage.            summer issue will focus on recent
                                                 developments and what representa-        Operators, regulatory officials,
   To keep those in the field up-to-date         tives see as the future for their        local officials, technical assistance
   with recent onsite training center            centers and onsite wastewater            specialists, and those involved in
   developments, E-train, the environ-           training overall.                        health and safety can find informa-      (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191,
   mental training newsletter for small                                                   tion to help them in educating           or write to NETCSC, West Virginia
   communities, will publish a special           Published quarterly by the Na-           others, whether co-workers, local        University, P.O. Box 6064,
   two-part series on the subject.               tional Environmental Training            officials, or the general public.        Morgantown, WV 26506-6064.
                                                 Center for Small Communities                                                      The newsletter may also be ac-
   The spring issue—published in                 (NETCSC), E-train covers exem-           To receive your free subscription        cessed through NETCSC’s Web
   March—explores how these train-               plary training programs, feature         to E-train, including the series         site at http://www.netc.wvu.edu.
                                                 articles relevant to the field, and      about onsite training centers, call
   The National Small Flows Clearinghouse,
     established by the U.S. Environmental
   Protection Agency under the federal Clean
    Water Act (CWA) in 1977 and located at
     West Virginia University, gathers and
                                                 NDWC Publishes Source Water Protection Issue
       distributes information about small       Conservationists have long held          Other articles include an introduc-
     community wastewater systems. Small
          Flows is published quarterly.          the idea that we need to treat the       tion to geographic information
                                                 environment as a holistic system—        systems, a computer-based tool for
                  Small Flows                    that we all live downstream. Once        mapping and analyzing; a feature
                 Sponsored by:
                                                 a water supply is contaminated, the      on land trusts, an increasingly
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency         financial cost of remediation can        popular method of protecting
          Steve Hogye, Project Officer           be extraordinary and the ecological      source water by purchasing and
          Municipal Support Division
                                                 cost inestimable.                        preserving open spaces for public
       Office of Wastewater Management
               Washington, D.C.                                                           benefit; and a review of the U.S.
                                                 The 1996 amendments to the Safe          Environmental Protection
     National Small Flows Clearinghouse          Drinking Water Act, the primary          Agency's State Source Water As-
          West Virginia University
        John L. Mori, Ph.D., Manager,
                                                 statute that protects our nation’s       sessment and Protection Programs
         WVU Environmental Services              public drinking water supplies, now      Guidance. This recently finalized
            and Training Division                mandate source water protection.         document will be states’ source
             Peter Casey, P. Eng.                                                         water protection “bible.”
         NSFC Program Coordinator
                                                 The National Drinking Water                                                       offering, “Water Treatment Plant
        Jeremy Canody, Interim Editor
           Natalie Eddy, Staff Writer            Clearinghouse (NDWC), a sister           The publication includes a histori-      Residuals Management.”
       Daniel Gloyd, Graphic Designer            organization to the National Small       cal piece that tells the story of New
                                                 Flows Clearinghouse, has devoted         York City’s first source water           For further information or to re-
    International Standard Serial Number
                  1060-0035                      an entire issue of its quarterly news-   protection project and provides an       ceive a free subscription to On
                                                 letter On Tap to source water            interesting glimpse into 19th cen-       Tap, call the NDWC at (800) 624-
               Article Submissions               protection, beginning with an            tury water system politics and           8301 or (304) 293-4191. To order
   Small Flows welcomes letters to the editor,   educational feature that discusses       engineering.                             the special source water issue,
   articles, news items, photographs, or other
    materials for publication. Please address    watersheds, aquifers, well-head                                                   request Spring 1998 On Tap, Vol-
                correspondence to:               protection, and the sources and          One of On Tap’s most popular             ume 7, Issue 1. On Tap is also
                                                 dangers posed by drinking water          features is the “Tech Brief,” a          available on the Internet and may
             Editor, Small Flows                                                                                                   be downloaded from NDWC’s Web
                                                 contaminants.                            four-page fact sheet. This issue
     National Small Flows Clearinghouse
          West Virginia University                                                        includes the newsletter’s seventh        site at http://www.ndwc.wvu.edu.
                P.O. Box 6064
       Morgantown, WV 26506-6064
              1-800-624-8301 or
                (304) 293-4191
                                                 Products Insert Highlights Half Off Special
          http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu                The National Small Flows Clear-          cost very little to begin with this is   A special feature focusing on
                     Reprints                    inghouse (NSFC) products insert,         an offer that can not be passed up.      NSFC products that provide infor-
     For permission to reprint information       found in the middle of this issue,                                                mation on aerobic treatment units
    appearing in Small Flows, please send a      offers a wealth of information on        For more information on these            (ATUs) is also included to comple-
         letter of request to the editor.
                                                 all products and many services that      products or to see a list of NSFC's      ment this issue's Q&A topic on
           Small Flows is funded by the          the NSFC offers.                         products, see the insert. Shipping       ATUs (see page 11).
     U.S.Environmental Protection Agency.                                                 and handling charges still apply.
     The contents of this newsletter do not      This particular insert highlights the                                             In addition, articles on the latest
    necessarily reflect the views and policies
    of the Environmental Protection Agency,
                                                 "NSFC Spring Half Off Sale" on           Also included in this insert are new     edition of the Small Flows Journal
       nor does mention of trade names or        all product orders placed on June        products that have been added            and information on how to log on
    commercial products constitute endorse-      22 and 23. Customers calling,            since the winter issue. Brief sum-       to NSFC discussion groups on the
        ment or recommendation for use.          faxing, or e-mailing their orders on     maries about each new product are        Web are also included in this prod-
                                                 those two days will receive 50           included, as well as their prices        ucts insert.
                Small Flows is printed           percent off of the listed price.         and item numbers for ordering.
                 on recycled paper.              Since most of NSFC's products



SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                                   15
                            Clean Water Action Plan Highlights Earth Day Goals
                                by Margaret McKenzie             This is also an appropriate occa-         areas along the Tualatin River,
                               NSFC Contributing Writer          sion to recognize that, despite           threatening to continue the ban
                                                                 significant progress, the challenge       until wastewater disposal problems
                            Congress has enacted nearly 40       for all of us in protecting our           were solved.
                            major federal environmental laws     nation’s waters remains unfin-
                            since the first Earth Day on March ished. The health of our people             EPA's administration of the
                            20, 1970. Of these laws, environ-    continues to be threatened by ex-         CWA
pollution prevention
                            mentalists identify the U.S. Envi-   posure to harmful organisms in our        In his October 18 memo, Gore
                            ronmental Protection Agency’s        waters; consumption of fish from          gives EPA high marks for its efforts
                            (EPA) 1972 Clean Water Act           many of our waters presents a             to protect our nation’s waters,
                            (CWA) as the most successful.        threat to the most vulnerable             stating, “In 25 years, the Clean
                            One of its greatest achievements,    among us; polluted runoff has for         Water Act has stopped billions of
                            they note, has been to control point too long eluded control under             pounds of pollution from flowing        culture (USDA) and EPA collabo-
                            source pollution from factories and conventional regulatory ap-                into our rivers, lakes, and streams,    rate with all affected agencies and
                            communities.                         proaches.”                                and doubled the number of water-        target the following three goals:
                                                                                                           ways that are safe for swimming
                            Before this law, more than seven        EPA’s Clean Water Challenge            and fishing.”                           • Enhanced protection from public
                            million tons of untreated wastewa-      From the smallest community to                                                   health threats posed by water
                            ter were dumped daily into our          the largest city, approximately half   This is certainly true for the            pollution,
                            waterways, and less than half the       of the U.S. population gets its        Cuyahoga, Holston, and Tualatin         • more effective control of polluted
                            nation’s population had access to       drinking water from rivers and         rivers. Today, Cleveland’s                runoff, and
                            adequate wastewater treatment           lakes. However, prior to 1972, the     riverfront has been transformed         • promotion of water quality
                            facilities, according to the Water      quality of these waters was well       into a prosperous waterfront com-         protection on a watershed basis.
                            Environment Federation.                 below the standards necessary to       munity. Once little more than a
                                                                    be considered safe for drinking.       waste site, it is now home to res-      Protecting Public Health
                            Waters were too polluted for fish-      EPA needed to convince industries      taurants, parks, sports facilities,     According to an October 15, 1997,
                            ing, swimming, or sustaining wild-      that dumping their waste into the      and museums.                            press release by the Sierra Club,
                            life. Today, over 60 percent of the     waterways would cost the nation                                                there was a total of 2,193 fish
                            nation’s waters support their in-       dearly in health impairment, lost      In Tennessee’s Holston River,           consumption bans and 3,685 beach
                            tended uses, but environmentalists      recreational resources, and a de-      pollutants discharged into the river    closures and advisories nationwide
                            say efforts to improve water qual-      cline in the quality of life; and      have been reduced by 99 percent,        in 1996.
                            ity must continue. President Bill       EPA had plenty of examples it          and the number of fish species
                            Clinton and Vice President Al           could point to.                        living in the river has increased       Of particular concern is the runoff
                            Gore concur.                                                                   from three to 19. In fact, official     of nitrogen and phosphorous in the
                                                                    Cleveland, Ohio (June 22, 1969)        surveys have found an increase in       water, since scientists suspect the
                            Clinton recognized how far this         Used as a dumping ground for           the endangered bald eagle and           over-enrichment of these nutrients
                            country has come since the intro-       industrial waste and raw sewage,       river otter and the rare double-        to be a factor in Pfiesteria
                            duction of the CWA in his January       the Cuyahoga River burst into          crested cormorant now nesting in        piscicidsa, the toxic organism that
                            27, 1998, State of the Union Ad-        flames when sparks from a passing      the Holston River Basin.                has caused numerous fish kills and
                            dress to Congress. Clinton stated       train ignited the floating debris and                                          threatened public health.
                            that our nation’s waters have im-       industrial chemicals that polluted    Urban areas along the Tualatin River
                            proved immensely since then, but        the river.                            in Oregon are now home to two            Therefore, Gore has instructed
                            added that with approximately 40                                              wetlands, various wildlife preserves,    EPA, in conjunction with the
                            percent of our country’s waters         Kingsport, Tennessee (1969)           and six riverfront parks that offer a    states, to develop and implement
                            being no better off than they were      With 42 separate point sources        variety of water recreation.             a criteria system for nitrogen and
                            over 25 years ago, a great deal still   dumping wastewater into the South                                              phosphorous runoff by the year
                            needs to be done.                       Fork of the Holston River, Tennes- With the help of new wastewater             2000.
                                                                    see officials named it one of the     treatment plants, water in the
                            The initiative to do something          most polluted waters in the state.    Tualatin is cleaner than the water       One example of controlling nitro-
                            about this country’s remaining                                                that drains into it from natural         gen and phosphorous runoff is the
                            water quality problems stems from       According to fisheries biologists     sources, and construction once           proper design, installation, and
                            a directive from Gore who marked        from the Tennessee Valley Author- banned in this area is now flourishing.      operation of onsite disposal sys-
                            the anniversary of the CWA last         ity, it was common in this five-                                               tems. The Office of Water has
                            October by ordering EPA and             mile stretch of river to find tumors Gore’s Clean Water Initiatives            issued a nonpoint source fact sheet
                            other agencies to develop a plan to     and deformities on some species of Although half of America’s water-           (EPA841-F-96-004G), which
                            guide future efforts to clean up        fish, particularly the sunfish, while ways meet CWA’s water quality            states that “these septic systems
                            waterways.                              other species of fish sensitive to    standards, still half remain polluted.   should be situated away from open
                                                                    pollution, such as the smallmouth                                              waters and sensitive resources such
                            In his October 18, 1997, Memo-          bass, had abandoned the river.        This has prompted Gore to man-           as wetlands and floodplains. These
                            randum to Heads of Departments                                                date in his October 18 memo that a       systems should also be inspected,
                            and Agencies, Gore not only rec-        Washington County, Oregon (1969) comprehensive plan be developed               pumped out, and repaired at regu-
                            ognizes the CWA’s past achieve-         The Tualatin River is the major       (with help from the Secretary of         lar intervals. Household mainte-
                            ments but also identifies its future    water source and a wildlife refuge Agriculture, Dan Glickman and the           nance of septic systems can play a
                            challenges.                             in this suburban area, yet 10 cities Administrator of EPA, Carol M.            large role in preventing excessive
                                                                    and 16 sanitary districts dumped      Browner) to address nonpoint             system discharges.”
                            He states, “Rivers once polluted        their untreated wastewater into the source pollution (reducing agricul-
                            enough to catch fire, lakes once        rivers and streams that fed into it.  tural runoff and developing com-         Preventing Polluted Runoff
                            devoid of life, and streams once        In an effort to stop this pollution,  bined sewer overflow controls).          State and tribal water quality agen-
                            used as open sewers are now re-         the Oregon Environmental Quality                                               cies agree that nitrogen and phos-
                            stored centerpieces of healthy          Commission banned all new con-        In developing the plan, Gore asks
                            communities because of the CWA.         struction in the once thriving urban that the U.S. Department of Agri-         Continued on next page



                       16                                                                                                                   SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Continued from previous page            The federal government is already        Gore has directed the USDA to           designed to spark networking
                                           setting a good example according         work with local landowners to           among water preservation groups
   phorous runoff is a major concern, to a June/July 1996 bulletin in               develop a plan for nonpoint source      and to spur volunteerism among
   and they identify animal feeding        Nonpoint Source News published           pollution in watersheds that comprise   the general public, schools, librar-
   operations as the primary source of by the Terrene Institute, a not-for-         both public and private lands.          ies, and children’s organizations.
   runoff of these nutrients.              profit organization that links busi-
                                           ness with government, academia,          In addition, the USDA in consulta-      Information in the catalog includes
   This initiative, therefore, requires    and citizens to improve the envi-        tion with the Department of Inte-       a directory of existing partner-
   EPA to revise outdated regulations ronment. An article entitled “Strat-          rior, is required to develop a plan     ships, volunteer opportunities,
   governing polluted runoff and           egy to Reduce Polluted Runoff            to address runoff from abandoned        environmental conditions, drinking
   charges the U.S. Department of          from Federal Lands in D.C.,” out-        mines, eliminate unnecessary            water supplies, land use practices,
   Agriculture (USDA) with guiding lines how the federal government                 roads, improve road maintenance,        and population statistics.
   states in developing and presenting has initiated its first comprehen-           and ensure coordinated watershed
   proposals that address water qual- sive effort to improve stormwater             management practices for federal,       For more information on the Clean
   ity, soil erosion, and fish and wild- runoff in the District of Columbia.        state, local, and tribal governments.   Water Action Plan, visit EPA's
   life habitat needs.                                                                                                      Office of Water’s Web site at
                                           Some newly-established practices         For this Clean Water Action Plan        http://www.epa.gov/cleanwater.
   The USDA has already success-           are improved management of ani-          to succeed, both Clinton and Gore
   fully helped some states, such as       mal waste at the National Zoo,           believe there must be a cooperative     This Web site highlights Clinton’s
   Maryland and Minnesota, in              economically and environmentally         approach among federal, state, and      State of the Union Address, pro-
   achieving these goals.                  beneficial landscaping methods,          local agencies and tribal govern-       vides an outline of the Clean Water
                                           reduction in the use of pesticides,      ments.                                  Action Plan, explains the develop-
   The key program for this federal-       and a conversion of 120 postal                                                   ment of the plan, and provides
   state partnership is the Conserva-      service vehicles to natural gas.         In addition, the plan must be sup-      related information and Web links.
   tion Reserve Enhancement Pro-                                                    ported by public participation and
   gram (CREP) which provides              Not only is polluted runoff de-          must include all appropriate regu-      For those who would like to estab-
   direct payments to farmers who          stroying our waters, but runoff          latory, incentive, compliance,          lish a watershed group, detailed
   retire erodible acres of land from      from agricultural operations, urban      enforcement, and budgetary steps.       information for getting started is
   production or who restore wetlands development, and streets annually                                                     provided by those groups that are
   and stream buffers on environmen- destroy an average of 117,000                  How can we help?                        already at work protecting our
   tally sensitive lands.                  acres of wetlands, according to          While each one of us should do all      waters.
                                           U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.          we can to protect and restore our
   The USDA will continue to notify                                                 rivers, streams, wetlands, lakes,       To locate your watershed and to
   states through the Federal Register To reverse this trend, the vice              groundwater, and estuaries, EPA         view a list of watershed organiza-
   of the availability of this program     president has required NOAA and          challenges us specifically to join or   tions, search the Surf Your
   and will help these states complete EPA to develop a strategy that will          establish a local watershed group.      Watershed Web site at http://
   pending proposals.                      ensure a net gain of as many as                                                  www.epa.gov/surf/adopt/diff.html.
                                           100,000 acres of wetlands by the         To help in this effort, the EPA has
   Major constituents of nutrient          year 2005. This strategy includes        compiled a national catalog of          If you do not have Internet access,
   pollution in our oceans are due to      placing two million miles of buffer      watershed information. A joint          call Adopt a Watershed, EPA's
   human population increase, in-          strips along streams to trap fertiliz-   effort of the Office of Water and       Office of Water, toll free at (888)
   creased chemical-based farming          ers, animal manure, and other            the Office of Oceans, Wetlands,         478-2051 and ask for information
   and intensive animal husbandry,         polluted runoff.                         and Watersheds, this catalog is         on watershed groups.
   and the expanding use of fossil
   fuel. Yet, population and develop- In addition, the National Wetlands
   ment trends indicate that by 2010       Inventory (NWI) of the U.S. Fish
                                                                                      Catalog Provides Watershed Funding Sources
   more than half of the nation will       and Wildlife Service will continue
   live in coastal towns and cities;       to monitor the status of wetlands          The Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed
   without proper management, our          through their Status and Trends of         Protection provides information for state and local
   waterways could be devastated by Wetlands in the Conterminous                      watershed professionals and groups on federal funding
   raw sewage and waste from such          United States report.                      programs that may assist them in funding various aspects
   development.                                                                       of watershed protection and local-level watershed projects.
                                           This report is used to help resource       The catalog contains one-page fact sheets for each of the
   To prevent this, the president and      managers gauge the success of              52 sources for grants and loans that indicate what types of
   vice president have set June 30,        efforts to protect and restore wet-        activities are funded and who is eligible. Contacts and
   1998, and December 31, 1999, as         lands. Congressional mandates              Internet sites are also provided for each program, as well
   deadlines for the National Oceanic      require NWI to produce these               as additional publications and Web sites on funding.
   and Atmospheric Administration          reports at 10-year intervals.
   (NOAA) and EPA to respectively                                                     Copies of the document are available for free from the
   meet in establishing and approving Ensuring Community-Based                        National Center for Environmental Publications and
   all 29 state coastal nonpoint pollution Watershed Management                       Information (NCEPI) in Cincinnati. Call (800) 490-9198 or
   control programs (this includes         Under this initiative, EPA will            (513) 489-8190 and request U.S. Environmental Protection
   states that border the Great Lakes). expand technical and financial                Agency document EPA841-B-97-008. You may also fax
                                           assistance to ensure that agricul-         orders to (513) 489-8695. This document is also
   Not only does Gore expect the           tural producers in 1,000 critical          available on the Watershed Academy home page at
   federal government to help states       rural watersheds have the neces-           http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/watershed/wacademy/
   in achieving water quality standards, sary tools to reduce polluted runoff         fund.html.
   but he also expects the federal         and to comply with current stan-
   government to model effective           dards.
   watershed planning itself for lands
   it owns, manages, or controls.


SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                             17
                Land-Use Planning and Septic Disposal Systems
                    by Margaret McKenzie                cess can be found in A Manual of         Once all the information for land-     quantity and quality of open space
                   NSFC Contributing Writer             Build-Out Analysis, Lacy, 1990.)         use regulations and design guide-      used in the two designs.
                                                                                                 lines are incorporated into the
                Prior to the 1987 Federal Water         Conservation and Develop-                land-use plan, the next step is to    With OSDD, 50 to 70 percent of
                Quality Act, the U.S. Environmen-       ment Map                                 find a pattern of development that    buildable land is set aside for open
                tal Protection Agency (EPA)             This second tool can be helpful in       can simultaneously protect natural    space before development begins.
                awarded communities construction        developing a land-use plan that          resources and satisfy the needs of    This open space is in a location
                grants to pay for 55 to 85 percent      shows sections of a parcel to pre-       public officials, developers, and     and a configuration that is related
                of most project costs. State revolv-    serve and to develop. This map           residents.                            to its ultimate purpose like farm-
                ing funds, established by the 1987      includes areas for permanent pres-                                             ing, outdoor recreation, and land-
                amendments to the Clean Water           ervation such as wetlands; flood-        Development Design                    scape protection. Development
                Act, are replacing these grants.        plains; significant wildlife habitats;   According to Randall Arendt, vice areas are then designed around these
                Now communities may borrow              land along lakes, river, and oceans;     president of Natural Lands Trust (a features. With cluster develop-
                some of the money needed to build       and woodlands. Development               Pennsylvania-based conservation       ment, however, only 25 to 30 per-
                or upgrade wastewater systems.          should be regulated by well-writ-        group), a pattern of development      cent of buildable land is set aside
                Unlike grants, this money must be       ten, legally defensible zoning           that can satisfy all involved parties for open space; and it is usually
                repaid to the fund so that it can be    ordinances and should be limited         is open space design development land that is unsuitable for develop-
                borrowed by other communities.                                                                                         ment or conservation.
                                                         Figure 1
                Moving from grants to loans has                                                                                         Another difference is the density of
                caused local officials to rethink                                                                                       development between the two de-
                options for choosing an affordable,                                                                                     signs. With OSDD, full density is
                effective wastewater system that                                                                                        achievable for layouts in which 50
                will support both current and fu-                                                                                       percent or more of the uncon-
                ture needs. In selecting a system,                                                                                      strained land is conserved as perma-
                officials need to determine the land                                                                                    nent, undivided open space. With
                use that will support the intended                                                                                      cluster development, full density
                growth and development of a com-                                                                                        can use the entire parcel for devel-
                munity (commercial, industrial,                                                                                         opment, with no open space.
                                                                                                                  Drainfield/
                residential, or a mix of these uses),                                                            Sand Mound
                the density and layout of its hous-                                                             Easement Area           Does OSDD limit sewage
                ing, its public utilities; community                                                                                    system choices?
                facilities, and transportation. One                                              Open Space                             Arendt shows how the flexibility
                tool to help answer these questions                                                                                     inherent in the design of OSDD
                is a carefully crafted land-use plan.                                                                                   subdivisions make them superior
planning



                                                                                                                                        to conventional layouts in their
                Developing a Land-Use Plan               Reducing lot sizes within a development site can sometimes help subdivi-       ability to provide adequate sewage
                Currently, the zoning ordinance          sion designers locate homes on soils that can better support conventional      treatment. For example, houselots
                acts as the primary tool that a          septic systems, rather than using larger spaces with marginal soils that       are arranged on the piece of prop-
                                                         may or may not meet legal requirements. Source: Rural by Design: Main-
                community uses to direct and                                                                                            erty that has deeper, better-drained
                                                         taining Small Town Character by Randall Arendt
                manage land use, and subdivision                                                                                        soils rather than spreading them
                regulations are the principal means     to locations outside conservation        (OSDD). This design resembles a        out with some house lots sited on
                by which a community controls the       areas. To determine if a site can        classic rural village settlement and   soil that barely meets minimum
                layout of new and proposed streets.     handle new development, planners         clearly illustrates how efficient      standards for septic approval.
                However, sometimes planners are         should prepare an environmental          urban development can effectively
                unaware of the extent or type of        inventory. This inventory includes       reduce the total number of acres of    He points out that a practical alter-
                development these regulations and       an analysis of slopes, soils, and        land required for the same amount      native to central sewage disposal
                ordinances allow. Two tools to          depth to the water table and bed-        of growth.                             facilities are individually owned
                help planners realistically view the    rock, floodplains, wetlands, ero-                                               septic systems located within con-
                development that can occur are a        sion, and sedimentation character-       OSDD counters unplanned subur-         servation areas. Since there is no
                build-out map and a map of con-         istics. The information can be used      ban sprawl that requires more          engineering reason to require that
                servation and development.              to insure development is directed        roads, more sewer and water ex-        septic filter beds be located within
                                                        toward areas that make sense from        tensions, produces greater environ-    each houselot, these filter beds can
                Build-Out Map                           the standpoint of infrastructure         mental impacts, and ultimately         be located under playing fields or
                A build-out map shows the prob-         provision, service delivery, and         may consume every unprotected          conservation meadows in the same
                able location of houses and new         natural resource management.             acre of building ground. In addi-      way they typically occupy posi-
                roads, which legally based upon                                                  tion to preserving land and de-        tions under suburban lawns.
                current zoning ordinances, could        Some resources for developing an         creasing the cost of a community’s
                be constructed on vacant and            environmental inventory are state        infrastructure, it can also increase   For this particular plan to work, the
                buildable land remaining within a       and regional planning agencies,          developers’ profits and landowner      final approved subdivision plan
                community. To be credible, this         your local cooperative extension         equity.                                must clearly show which parts of
                map must not project development        service, U.S. Geological Survey                                                 the undivided open space are desig-
                into areas where natural or regula-     topographic sheets, and U.S. De-         Open Space Development                 nated for septic disposal, with each
                tory constraints would prevent it.      partment of Agriculture Soil Con-        Arendt details the steps for creat-    lot’s disposal area graphically indi-
                                                        servation Service soil data. As          ing an OSDD community in his           cated through dotted lines extend-
                This map is an inexpensive and          infrastructure changes, such as          book Rural by Design. He cautions      ing out into the conservation land.
                effective tool for showing local        constructing a new road, or              that OSDD is often confused with
                residents and officials the pattern     changes in water capacity, docu-         “cluster development,” a design     Who maintains the systems?
                of development allowed by exist-        ments should be updated to reflect       that is not well received by many   Maintenance and repair of septic
                ing zoning and subdivision regula-      these changes.                           communities. One difference be-     systems remain the responsibility
                tions. (A detailed step-by-step                                                  tween the two, he explains, is the
                description of this mapping pro-                                                                                        Continued on next page

           18                                                                                                                    SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Continued from previous page
                                           Figure 2
   of individual lot owners. To ensure                                                                                                   This graphic shows
   the system is properly cared for,                                                                                                     how individual
                                                                                     Better soils                                        septic system
   the homeowner can be required to
   obtain an operating permit that is                                                                                                    disposal areas can
   annually reviewed. Depending                                                                                                          be located on
   upon state regulations, these per-                                                                                                    adjacent conserva-
                                                                                                                                         tion lands where the
   mits may be required by the state,
                                                                                                                                         better soils are
   county, or municipal government.                                                                                                      found.
                                                      Wet                             Wet                               Wet              Source: Growing
   Another approach to monitor proper                                                                                                    Greener by Natural
   operation of a septic system is                                                                                                       Lands Trust, Inc.
   creating a homeowners’ association.
   This group could be authorized to                                       Marginal soils
   pump individual septic tanks on a
   regular basis to ensure that sludge
   never rises to a level where it can    “Cost Effective Site Planning:        percent. Clearly, people were willing   environments to treat the wastewa-
   flow into the filter beds and clog     Single Family Development,”           to spend more for equivalent homes      ter. Natural systems include apply-
   them. Should a homeowner not           illustrates cost savings through      on smaller lots when they included      ing wastewater to the land where it
   follow through with required main-     compact residential development       other neighborhood amenities.           interacts with soil and vegetation.
   tenance and repair, the homeowners’    designs. For example, on a 166-
   association could hire a contractor    acre parcel in Ohio, site develop-    Choosing Your System                    Mechanical systems are engineered
   to do the work and then place a lien   ment costs per dwelling were one-     Once your land-use and design           treatment facilities that treat large
   against the individual’s home until    third less for the more compact       plans have been defined, you are        quantities of wastewater in a small
   payment is received.                   layout ($8,512 versus $12,856).       ready to look at the wastewater         amount of space. These systems
                                          Even though both designs pro-         systems available to you: onsite        usually need greater operator atten-
   Developers Reap Benefits               duced the same number of houses,      systems, cluster systems, and cen-      tion and use greater amounts of
   With OSDD, the developer is            the compact design preserved three    tralized systems. (A helpful re-        power than natural systems.
   entitled to the same number of lots    times more property as open space     source is EPA’s September 1987
   as he would ordinarily receive, but    than did the conventional layout.     issue of It’s Your Choice.)             EPA lists the following consider-
   he is restricted from spreading        Additional cost savings also could                                            ations for choosing your system:
   these lots out across the entire       be in building roads and, if appli-According to EPA, septic systems
   parcel. Instead, he builds houses      cable, water and sewer lines.      generally work best on large, rela-        • construction and equipment
   on small lots and preserves 50 to                                         tively level, well-drained lots with         costs of the system,
   70 percent of the parcel as com-     Landowner Equity                     deep, moderately permeable soil.           • operation and maintenance costs
   mon open space. The area chosen      Landowners find that houses built Simplicity of operation is a major              of the system,
   for preservation must conform to     with open space can appreciate at a advantage of onsite systems. With           • user fees needed to pay for all of
   those identified in the map of con-  greater rate than those built using  periodic inspection, servicing, and          the community’s costs to build
   servation and development. Other-    the conventional land-consumptive pumping out of the septic tank                  and operate the system,
   wise, the preserved land might       approach. Arendt provides several every three to five years, these              • ease of operation and maintenance,
   only contain undesirable areas       examples in his book.                systems can provide years of low-          • local environmental impacts of
   such as stormwater management                                             cost, trouble-free service.                  the facilities, such as odor or
   facilities and land under high-      One example tracks more than                                                      generation of sludge,
   tension power lines.                 800 property sales transactions over EPA explains that cluster systems          • public acceptance of the project,
                                        a 21-year period for 227 homes in    are an alternative for a community         • performance reliability of the
   Although developers might reason Amherst, Massachusetts. It com-          where onsite systems can not be              technology,
   that smaller lots mean reduced       pares two subdivisions: Orchard      used. With this system, you need a         • ability to expand to meet future
   asking prices, just the opposite is  Valley and Echo Hill. Homes in       low-cost, reliable, and easily oper-         needs, and
   often true. Buying trends show       both developments had 1,600          ated treatment facility to support         • regulatory requirements.
   little or no correlation between lot square feet of floor space and sold the system. Alternative sewers
   size and price because houses built for average prices of $26,300 and     collect wastewater and transport it        Individuals and organizations that
   using the conservation design        $26,900 respectively. Orchard        a short distance to a community            can assist you at little or no cost
   include a parklike setting. Homes    Valley had one-half acre houselots, treatment facility.                         include state water pollution control
   can be placed close to the conser-   while Echo Hill had one-quarter                                                 agencies, health departments, the
   vation area, backing up to wood-     acre houselots. The major difference EPA points to centralized treat-           National Small Flows Clearinghouse
   lands or hedgerows for privacy and was in the layout of the subdivisions. ment for communities that have             (NSFC), local cooperative exten-
   fronting onto a central common,                                           areas of fairly dense development.         sion services, and the Rural Com-
   wildflower meadow, or open field. Orchard Valley included only a          These areas may be unsuitable for          munity Assistance Program that can
   Contrast that to houses built under small amount of open space            either onsite or cluster systems or        be reached at (703) 771-8636.
   a conventional design that uses all around a pond. Conversely, Echo       regulatory agencies may prohibit
   available space and provides a       Hill preserved half of its parcel as alternative systems in certain ar-         Arendt’s book Rural by Design can
   view of only other houses. In fact, common open space. This layout        eas. In these situations, the best         be purchased by contacting the
   evidence indicates that open space included a 3.7-acre centrally lo-      solution may be to combine con-            American Planning Association,
   enhances sales in two ways: in-      cated playing field, an extensive    ventional or alternative sewers            122 South Michigan Avenue, Suite
   creased absorption rates and higher woodland trail network, and two       with centralized treatment.                1600, Chicago, IL 60603-6107.
   prices through premiums added to ponds (one of which included a
   the prices of lots that abut the     swimming area) and an adjacent       Although there are numerous types          To purchase It's Your Choice, call
   conservation areas.                  tennis court and baseball diamond. of centralized treatment facilities,         the NSFC at (800) 624-8301 or
                                        After two decades, the apprecia-     the two general kinds are natural          (304) 293-4191 and request Item
   A 1986 study by the National         tion of houses in Echo Hill out-     and mechanical. Natural systems            #FMBKGNO1. The cost is $7.50
   Association of Home Builders,        paced Orchard Valley by 12.7         use soils, vegetation, or aquatic          plus shipping.

SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                          19
              EPA Programs and Initiatives Help Small Communities



                                                      ment periods (up to 20 years).      equate wastewater facilities. This      planning, design, and construction
               There are many Environmental
                                                      States may also customize loan      must be done at your IHS area           of publicly owned treatment works
               Protection Agency (EPA)
                                                      terms to meet the needs of small    office in April and May to meet a       or alternative wastewater treat-
               programs and initiatives that
                                                      and disadvantaged communities.      June deadline for submissions;          ments such as onsite systems.
               deal with wastewater concerns.                                             final priority lists are available in   These grants also may be used to
               Many of the programs are aimed         For more information about the      December. The ISA Program uses          provide training, technical assis-
               at helping small communities,          CWSRF or for a program repre-       the SDS to identify high priority       tance, and educational programs
               those with fewer than 10,000           sentative in your state, call (202) wastewater projects for funding,        on the operation and maintenance
               people, ensure that their local        260-7359; fax (202) 260-1827;       and the EPA and the IHS work            of wastewater treatment systems.
               wastewater systems comply              write to Clean Water State Revolv- together to decide which projects
               with state and federal regula-         ing Fund Branch, Mailcode 4204,     to fund. You can obtain a copy of       If your community has fewer than
               tions. The following programs          U.S. Environmental Protection       the April 1988 guidance document        3,000 residents, it can qualify for
               are only a sampling of what is         Agency, 401 M Street SW, Wash- titled Guidelines and Requirements           hardship assistance from your
                                                      ington, DC 20460; or visit the      for Applying for Grants from the        state’s program if it also meets the
               available to small communities
                                                      Office of Wastewater Management Indian Set-Aside Program and its            following criteria:
               that need help and guidance.
                                                      Web site at http://www. epa.gov/    March 1995 addendum from your
                                                      owm on the Financial Assistance— EPA Regional Indian Set-Aside              • the community lacks access to
                                                      General Information Web page.       Coordinator.                              centralized wastewater treatment
              Clean Water State Revolving
                                                                                                                                    or collection systems or needs
              Fund (CWSRF)
                                                  Clean Water Act Indian Set-              EPA’s OWM is stepping up its             improvements to onsite waste-
              Individuals, municipalities, and
                                                  Aside Grant Program                      efforts to increase tribal awareness     water treatment systems;
              other organizations can take ad-
assistance


                                                  Native Americans who are mem-            of and access to ISA grants and        • the proposed project will im-
              vantage of low-cost state loans for
                                                  bers of federally recognized Indian      has recently released a brochure         prove public health or reduce
              water quality projects by applying
                                                  tribes with control over reservation     that describes the ISA Grant Pro-        environmental risk;
              to their state’s Clean Water State
                                                  lands, Alaskan Native villages, and      gram with points of contact for        • the community’s per capita
              Revolving Fund (SRF) program.
                                                  tribes on former reservations in         further information. A new booklet       income is less than 80 percent of
              Each state has one as a result of the
                                                  Oklahoma are eligible for grants         provides answers to frequently           the national average; and
              1987 Clean Water Act (CWA),
                                                  for the construction of wastewater       asked questions about the ISA          • its unemployment rate exceeds
              which allowed the states and
                                                  facilities through the CWA Indian        program, including the grant appli-      the national average by one
              Puerto Rico to create revolving
                                                  Set-Aside (ISA) Grant Program.           cation process.                          percentage point or more.
              loan funds (83 percent from fed-
                                                  The 1987 Amendments to the
              eral funds and 17 percent from
                                                  CWA established the program and          For copies of these documents, call    For more information, or to get a
              state funds) to provide independent
                                                  authorized EPA to administer these       (202) 260-7786. They also will be      copy of the program’s guidelines
              and permanent sources of low-cost
                                                  grants in cooperation with the           soon available at the OWM’s Web        or the number of your state’s Hard-
              financing for a range of water
                                                  Indian Health Service (IHS). This        page at http://www.epa.gov/owm,        ship Grants Program representa-
              quality infrastructure projects.
                                                  partnership maximized the techni-        where there is information about       tive, call (202) 260-2268; fax (202)
              Repayments made on the loans are
                                                  cal resources available through          Indian programs, including a listing   260-1827; write to Clean Water
              recycled to fund additional water
                                                  both agencies to address tribal          of Regional Office Indian Set-Aside    State Revolving Fund Program,
              protection projects.
                                                  sanitation needs. To date, the ISA       Coordinators. For more informa-        Mailcode 4204, U.S. Environmen-
                                                  program has contributed more than        tion about the ISA program, con-       tal Protection Agency, 401 M
              While this is a partnership between
                                                  $72 million in funding for 150           tact Sylvia Bell at (202) 260-7255.    Street SW, Washington, DC
              the states and the EPA, it is the
                                                  projects.                                                                       20460; or visit the OWM’s Web
              states who choose which projects
                                                                                           Hardship Grants Program                site at http://www.epa.gov/owm
              to finance, and project eligibility
                                                  Native American communities can          for Rural Communities                  under General Information on the
              varies according to each state’s
                                                  receive grants for planning, design,     If your rural community cannot         Financial Assistance Page.
              program and priorities. Tradition-
                                                  and construction of wastewater           afford the full cost of a CWSRF
              ally, loans have been used to build
                                                  treatment facilities with no match-      loan to improve an outdated or         National Onsite Demonstration
              or improve wastewater treatment
                                                  ing funds required and with up to        failing wastewater treatment sys-      Project (NODP)
              plants, but they are now being
                                                  100 percent of the project costs         tem, you may qualify for a grant       The NODP is an EPA-funded
              increasingly used for agricultural,
                                                  funded. Typical projects include         from your state through the Hard-      project, begun in 1993, that seeks
              rural, and urban runoff control;
                                                  interceptor sewers, wastewater           ship Grants Program. The 1996          to demonstrate the successful
              estuary improvement projects; wet
                                                  treatment facilities (conventional       Congressional Appropriations Act       implementation of alternative
              weather control, including storm-
                                                  or alternative), infiltration/inflow     reserved $50 million from CWSRF        onsite wastewater technologies in
              water and sewer overflows; and
                                                  correction, collection sewers, ma-       appropriations to start this new       small communities throughout the
              alternative treatment technologies.
                                                  jor sewer rehabilitation, and onsite     program, which awards grants to        nation. Coordinated by the Na-
                                                  systems.                                 the states, Puerto Rico, and U.S.      tional Small Flows Clearinghouse
              States have flexibility in choosing
                                                                                           Territories, who in turn will pro-     (NSFC), the NODP funds the
              from a variety of assistance op-
                                                  To be eligible for a grant, tribes       vide hardship assistance to small      design, installation, and monitor-
              tions, including providing loans,
                                                  must first identify their needs to       communities by supplementing           ing of wastewater systems in se-
              re-financing, guaranteeing local
                                                  the IHS’s Sanitation Deficiency          CWSRF loans with hardship grant        lected communities.
              debt, and purchasing bond insur-
                                                  System (SDS), which has five             assistance.
              ance. States also set loan terms,
                                                  deficiency levels, ranging from                                                 Six communities were selected in
              including interest rates (from zero
                                                  communities that need only routine       These grants may be awarded to         the NODP’s Phase I by congres-
              percent to market rate) and repay-
                                                  maintenance to those lacking ad-         qualifying communities for the
                                                                                                                                  Continued on next page

         20                                                                                                                SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
   Continued from previous page        an EPA-funded program that seeks           shops feature NETCSC’s drinking         National Small Flows Clear-
                                       to improve the health of small             water, wastewater, and solid waste      inghouse (NSFC)
   sional representatives because the  communities by helping environ-            curricula and are offered at various    The NSFC was established under
   communities had been identified as mental trainers improve drinking            locations around the country. The       the 1977 CWA, and since 1979 has
   having an urgent need for waste-    water, wastewater, and solid waste         training sessions are geared for        been serving as an EPA-funded
   water treatment or because they or services in those communities.              environmental trainers and techni-      national collection and distribution
   their representatives had expressed                                            cal assistance providers and meet       center for information about inno-
   an interest in small wastewater     NETCSC develops and delivers               National Environmental Training         vative, low-cost wastewater treat-
   treatment systems. They are Para- training materials to meet national          Association standards for certified     ment for small communities.
   dise, California; Monongalia        environmental training needs.              trainers.
   County, West Virginia; Benzie       Projects include the enhancement                                                   In addition to Small Flows, the
   County, Michigan; Gloucester and of existing training programs, the            NETCSC provides a toll-free train-      NSFC also offers a variety of other
   Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts; and     adaptation of training programs            ing assistance hotline where callers    services including a toll-free tech-
   Anne Arundel County, Maryland.      from one state’s requirements to           can get answers to questions about      nical assistance hotline; several
   (See related articles on page 22.)  another’s, and the development of          all aspects of environmental train-     computer databases to help answer
                                       new curricula. Wastewater-related          ing, including upcoming training        callers’ questions about treatment
   Additional phases of the NODP       curriculum packages in stock and           events and materials available          facilities, small system manufac-
   also are under way. The NSFC will available for purchase include               nationwide. Callers can also be put     turers, consultant contacts, and
   be covering NODP progress in        Assessing Wastewater Options for           in touch with trainers and training     regulations; a quarterly newsletter
   future Small Flows issues and will Small Communities, Onsite Waste-            organizations throughout the coun-      specifically for local officials and
   be publishing a summary of Phase water System Operation and Main-              try. Other services provided by         the public; a research journal; a
   I in the near future. You may call  tenance, Industrial Pretreatment           NETCSC are a free quarterly             product inventory of more than
   the NSFC assistance line to obtain and Hazardous Material Recogni-             newsletter, a resource catalog, a       250 educational items (videos,
   further information about the       tion, and Troubleshooting and              Web site, and customized elec-          publications, brochures, etc.); and
   NODP at (800) 624-8301 or (304) Optimizing Wastewater Treatment                tronic database searches.               a Web site with discussion groups,
   293-4191. The NODP Web page         in Small Communities.                                                              general information, and links.
   and online general discussion                                                  For information, call (800) 624-
   forum is located at the NSFC Web Environmental trainers who wish               8301 or (304) 293-4191, fax (304)       For more information about the
   site at http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu.    to improve their skills, establish         293-3161 and request a free infor-      NSFC, call (800) 624-8301 or
                                       new environmental programs, or             mation packet, or visit the Web         (304) 293-4191; fax (304) 293-
   National Environmental              enhance existing training in their         site at http://www.netc.wvu.edu,        3161 and request a free informa-
   Training Center for Small           region may attend NETCSC-spon-             where you will also find an online      tion packet, or visit the Web site at
   Communities (NETCSC)                sored train-the-trainer workshops          discussion group. (See related          http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu.
   Established in 1991, NETCSC is      throughout the year. These work-           article below.)



   Training Assistance Available for Wastewater Professionals
   With changing regulations and           training materials, training events    locating drinking water curricula.      If you have a training-related
   technologies in the field, it is even   and activities, training-related       They were in the process of re-         question, call a NETCSC training
   more important today that waste-        organizations, and environmental       building their drinking water train-    assistant at (800) 624-8301 or
   water professionals stay informed       trainers.                              ing program and wanted to learn         (304) 293-4191. You may also post
   and educated. Reading Small                                                    more about various existing pack-       questions to the trainers discussion
   Flows can certainly help, but some-     Callers to NETCSC request informa- ages. We provided them with lists           forum located on NETCSC’s Web
   times hands-on workshops, training      tion on a variety of subjects relating of curricula and descriptions of        site at http://www.netc.wvu.edu.
   manuals, or even correspondence         to wastewater, drinking water, solid available materials.”
   courses may be needed to increase       waste, and adult education.
   one’s knowledge and skills.                                                    Hoornbeek says callers have dif-
                                           “We’ve received calls from all         ferent needs specific to their region
   However, finding the right re-          over the country,” says Jeff Bailey, or area and are looking for training
   sources may sometimes be diffi-         who helps staff the assistance line. packages to address the need. For
   cult. To address this concern, the      “Operators, designers, consultants, instance, he says callers from
   National Environmental Training         installers, and many others find       Florida have requested information
   Center for Small Communities            they need help in locating training about curricula that are available
   (NETCSC) offers a toll-free train-      sessions or trainers in their areas.   for training local officials. A num-
   ing assistance service to help an-      It’s as simple as running a search     ber of requests have also been
   swer the questions trainers, opera-     of our databases, printing out the     received for NETCSC to bring
   tors, and assistance providers may      information, and faxing it to them.” training sessions using one or more
   have. NETCSC, a “sister organiza-                                              of its 31 curricula to locations
   tion” of the National Small Flows       Others request information about       across the country.
   Clearinghouse (NSFC), offers a          the certification requirements in
   one-stop-shop for training infor-       their states and training curricula    Trainers and others call to locate
   mation.                                 that cover specific subjects such as training materials to supplement
                                           onsite systems or pretreatment.        their own training activities. Some
   As the NSFC does with small,                                                   callers request information to use
   onsite wastewater information,          “The best first step is probably       in writing hand-outs and home-
   NETCSC collects and maintains a         calling NETCSC,” says John             work assignments. One recent
   comprehensive clearinghouse of          Hoornbeek, training research asso- caller was preparing for a certifica-
   environmental training informa-         ciate, who also fields incoming        tion examination and needed mate-       Senior Information Assistant Jeff Bailey speaks
   tion. Four specialized databases        calls. “The Pennsylvania Depart-       rials to help him study.                with a caller on the NETCSC assistance line.
   house information that helps staff      ment of Environmental Protection
   answer questions about available        recently requested assistance in

SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                            21
           NAL ONS
        TIO       I

                                      NODP Phase I Monitoring Nears Completion
 NA




                      TE
DEMO




                           ECT
                                      Phase I of the National Onsite        Gloucester, Massachusetts;              Some of the benefits of the NODP        A final report of NODP Phase I
                       OJ
       ST                             Demonstration Project (NODP) is       Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts;             that have been realized thus far        will be available through the
  N




                      R
            R AT I O N P
                                      nearing completion, with success-     Anne Arundel County, Maryland;          include substantial cost savings        NSFC in fall 1998 and will de-
                                      ful alternative onsite wastewater     Benzie County, Michigan; and            when compared with centralized          scribe each system, the installation
NODP update                           treatment technologies operating in   Monongalia County, West Vir-            sewage treatment, reduced threats       experiences, and the monitoring
                                      six communities around the country.   ginia. Installation has been largely    to public health, eliminated pollu-     results. Updates will be included in
                                                                            complete for some time.                 tion, and states’ acceptance of         future issues of Small Flows.
                                      Funded by the U.S. Environmental                                              newer, effective technologies.
                                      Protection Agency and managed       However, two sites—Gloucester             Arthur Adams, director of the           Based on the success of Phase I,
                                      by the National Small Flows         and Anne Arundel County—have              Environmental Health Division of        additional demonstration phases
                                      Clearinghouse (NSFC), the NODP      remaining funds available for             the Monongalia County Health            are now underway (see below).
                                      encourages the adoption of appro-   additional systems. Gloucester is         Department, said, “Many of these
                                      priate wastewater treatment systems in the process of adding another          onsite wastewater technologies          For further information about the
                                      to protect public health and the    aerobic system, while Anne Arundel        have proven to be effective and         NODP, contact the NSFC at (800)
                                      environment in small communities.   County is retrofitting an existing        will provide good service, but          624-8301 or (304) 293-4191 or
                                                                          recirculating sand filter with new        management of the systems will be       visit the NSFC’s Web site at http://
                                      The six Phase I demonstration sites media. Monitoring will continue           the key to overall success.”            www.nsfc.wvu.edu.
                                      include Paradise, California;       on all sites until June 30, 1998.


                                      Sites in Six States Selected for NODP Phase II
                                      Sites have been selected for Phase • Rockbridge, Missouri, where              training and the creation of onsite  and member of the EPA Office of
                                      II of the National Onsite Demon-         polluted limestone cave river        management districts.                Pollution Prevention and Compliance
                                      stration Project (NODP), which           systems pose a threat to public                                           Assistance, Advanced Science and
                                      was developed to help spur the use       health and wildlife;                 Much of the installation for these   Technical Research Team; Robert
                                      of alternative wastewater treatment • Centerville, Pennsylvania, an           projects is expected to be com-      Mayer, chairman of the Technical
                                      technologies to protect public           area with contaminated water-        pleted by the end of the summer;     Practices Committee of the National
                                      health and the environment in            sheds;                               after which, monitoring will begin Onsite Wastewater Recycling
                                      small and rural communities.           • Green Hill Pond, Rhode Island,       and continue for the duration of the Association; Richard Piluk, public
                                                                               which suffers from coastal           contract, and possibly beyond. The health engineer for the Anne
                                      According to Project Coordinator         pollution;                           project is being managed by staff    Arundel County Health Department;
                                      Clement Solomon, Phase II is the       • Monongalia County, West              from the National Small Flows        Valerie Nelson from the Coalition
                                      result of several states’ requests for   Virginia, and Franklin, Addison,     Clearinghouse (NSFC), and an         for Alternative Wastewater Treat-
                                      demonstration projects, following        and Windham Counties, Vermont,       expert panel will be available to    ment; and Thomas Yeager, con-
                                      the implementation of the project’s      where management models for          assist the communities with ques-    sultant and participant in the Elec-
                                      Phase I. Phase II sites were se-         small community treatment            tions about the technologies, in-    tric Power Research Institute’s
                                      lected based on community interest       technologies will help ensure        stallations, and monitoring.         Community Environmental Center.
                                      and other criteria, such as ecologi-     proper system maintenance; and
                                      cally/geologically sensitive areas     • Rockbridge,Washington, which         Expert panel members include:           For more information about the
                                      and areas where no wastewater            has polluted salmon breeding         Steve Hogye, U.S. Environmental         NODP, call the NSFC at (800)
                                      treatment facilities exist.              grounds.                             Protection Agency project coordi-       624-8301 or (304) 293-4191 or
                                                                                                                    nator; David Gustafson, University      visit the NSFC’s Web site at http://
                                      The sites selected for demonstra-     In addition, NODP Phase II              of Minnesota extension educator         www.nsfc.wvu.edu. Updates on
                                      tion projects, along with some        projects will involve septic system     and instructor of the Onsite Sew-       the project also will be included in
                                      of the major problems to be ad-       operation and maintenance               age Treatment Workshop; Bernard         future Small Flows issues.
                                      dressed, include:                                                             Hoffnar, Pennsylvania regulator


                                      NSFC To Examine NODP Management Issues in Phase IV
                                      West Virginia University is cur-      NODP Director John Mori, Ph.D.          lation uses onsite systems, and         implement it came with NODP
                                      rently negotiating the scope of       “Management districts are a major       homeowners are not always aware         Phase IV. A three-year project,
                                      work for the fourth phase of the      component of the proper protection      when their systems are not func-        Phase IV is expected to begin in
                                      National Onsite Demonstration         of public health.”                      tioning properly until a problem        fall 1998.
                                      Project (NODP). The emphasis of                                               becomes severe.
                                      Phase IV will be to promote and        Administered by the U.S. Environ-                                              “The NSFC is very excited about
                                      develop management strategies for      mental Protection Agency (EPA)         “Onsite systems often fail because      undertaking Phase IV of the
                                      onsite wastewater treatment in our     with a budget of $1.25 million,        they don’t have the regulated man-      NODP,” Mori said. “We think this
                                      nation’s small communities.            NODP Phase IV will assist local        agement that centralized sewer          initiative is long overdue and be-
                                                                             officials in implementing manage-      systems have,” Mori continued.          lieve that this will provide an an-
                                      Managed by the National Small          ment districts around the country      “Therefore, it is important to set up   swer to many local problems.”
                                      Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC), the by identifying successful manage-             management districts that can
                                      first three phases of NODP have        ment models and providing infor-       oversee the onsite systems in a         For more information about the
                                      focused mainly on technologies         mation to local officials to educate   particular community and ensure         NODP, call the NSFC at (800)
                                      and community decision making.         them about these models. “The          proper operation and maintenance.”      624-8301 or (304) 293-4191. Up-
                                      (See related articles on this page.)   goal is to strategically disseminate                                           dates on the project will be in-
                                      “However, to provide a broad-          information on many different          The concept of management dis-          cluded on the NSFC’s Web site at
                                      based, comprehensive demonstra- management models that suit vari-             tricts is not new. Preliminary work     http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu and in
                                      tion project, it is necessary to focus ous situations,” Mori explained.       on the idea has been under way for      future Small Flows issues.
                                      on management systems,” said           “Twenty-five percent of the popu-      two years, and the opportunity to


                                 22                                                                                                                  SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2
                                                                                                                    S     M
                                Calendar of Events                                                                                T     W
                                                                                                                4                     T F
                                                                                                                     5                          S
                                         1998                                                                  11
                                                                                                              18
                                                                                                                    12
                                                                                                                          6
                                                                                                                         13
                                                                                                                               7
                                                                                                                              14
                                                                                                                                    8
                                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                                          2
                                                                                                                                         9 1
                                                                                                                                               3
                                                                                                                   19              15          0
               If your organization is sponsoring an event that you would like to have promoted              25         20              16
        in this calendar, please send information to the Small Flows editor at the address printed in             26         21              17
                                                                                                                       27         22
                                           the staff box on page 15.                                                        28         23
                                                                                                                                 29         24
                                                                                                                                      30
                                       Event: WasteExpo 98                   Event: Onsite Wastewater
   MAY                                 By:    Environmental Industry
                                              Associations                   By:
                                                                                    Systems Workshop
                                                                                    National Environmental        Event: ASCE Structural Engineers




                                                                                                                                                         events
                                       Date: June 8–11                              Health Association                   World Congress
   Event: 6th Annual Onsite Waste      Place: Chicago, IL                    Date: June 28–July 1                 By:    American Society of Civil
          water Treatment and Re-      Phone: (202) 424-4700                 Place: Las Vegas, NV                        Engineers
          search Council Conference           (800) 424-2869                 Phone: (303) 756-9090                Date: July 18–23
   By:    Texas Natural Resource              Jacqueline Wolfe                                                    Place: San Francisco, CA
          Conservation Commission             www.envasns.org/eii/           Event: Advances In Urban Wet         Phone: (703) 295-6060
   Date: May 20–22                            wasteexpo.htm                         Weather Pollution                    Vicky Troy
   Place: Corpus Christi, TX                                                        Reduction
   Phone: (512) 239-4799
          Diane Stallings
                                       Event: ASTM Committee Meeting
                                       By:    American Society for
                                              Testing and Materials
                                                                             By:    Water Environment
                                                                                    Federation
                                                                             Date: June 28–July1
                                                                                                                  AUGUST
   Event: Municipal Stormwater         Date: June 14–17                      Place: Clevland, OH                  Event: ASCE International Wa-
          Management                   Place: New Orleans, LA                Phone: (703) 684-2400                       ter Resources Engineering
   By:    American Society of          Phone: (610) 832-9732                        Nancy Blatt, Barry                   Conference
          Civil Engineers                     Bob Morgan                            Eisenberg                     By:    American Society of Civil
   Date: May 20–22                                                                                                       Engineers
   Place: Amelia Island, FL
   Phone: (703) 295-6007
   Fax: (703) 295-6144
                                       Event: AWMA 91st Annual

                                       By:
                                              Meeting and Exposition
                                              Air and Waste Manage-
                                                                             JULY                                 Date: August 3–7
                                                                                                                  Place: Memphis, TN
                                                                                                                  Phone: (800) 548-2723
                                              ment Association               Event: 53rd Annual Conference
   Event: Slope Stability and          Date: June 16–18                             of the Soil and Water         Event: Cross Currents in Water
          Stabilization                Place: San Diego, CA                         Conservation Society                 Policy
   By:    American Society of          Phone: (914) 421-3278                 Date: July 5–7                       By:    University Council of
          Civil Engineers                     Robert Greenbaum               Place: San Diego, CA                        Water Resources
   Date: May 27–29                            greenbaum.glm@mci              By:    Soil and Water Conservation   Date: August 4–7
   Place: Seattle, WA                         mail.com                              Soceity                       Place: Hood River, OR
   Phone: (703) 295-6007               Fax: (914) 948-6180                   Phone: (515) 289-2331                Phone: (540) 231-8039
   Fax: (703) 295-6144                                                              swcs@swcs.org                        Dr. Tamim Younos
                                       Event: AWWA Annual                           www.swcs.org
   Event: AWRA 1998 Symposium                 Conference and Exposition                                           Event: Pennsylvania Municipal
          Rangeland Management         By:    American Water Works           Event: NWQM Council: Moni-                  Authorities Association
          and Water Resources                 Association                           toring—Critical Founda-              56th Annual Conference
   By:    American Water Re-           Date: June 21–25                             tions to Protect Our Waters   By:    Pennsylvania Municipal
          sources Association          Place: Dallas, TX                     By:    National Water Quality               Authorities Association
   Date: May 27–30                     Phone: (800) 926-7337                        Monitoring Council            Date: August 30–September 2
   Place: Reno, NV                            (303) 347-6162                 Date: July 7–9                       Place: Hershey, PA
   Phone: (703) 904-1225               Fax: (303) 794-3951                   Place: Reno, NV                      Phone: (717) 737-7655
          awrahq@aol.com                                                     Phone: (405) 810-4400
                                       Event: Water Quality Interna-                Joanne Kurklin                These are just a sampling of events
   JUNE                                By:
                                              tional 1988
                                              International Association      Event: Treatment Innovation for
                                                                                                                  taking place this quarter. For a
                                                                                                                  more comprehensive listing of
                                              on Water Quality                      the Next Century:             events pertaining to wastewater-
   Event: ASCE-Engineering Water       Date: June 21–26                             Innovation 2000               related topics, contact NSFC
          Resources                    Place: Vancouver, British Co-         By:    European Water Pollution      Program Assistant Kelly Stewart at
   By:    American Society of Civil           lumbia, Canada                        Control Association           (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191
          Engineers                    Phone: (604) 681-5226                 Date: July 7–10                      Ext. 5559.
   Date: June 6–10                            congress@venuewest.com         Place: Churchill College, UK
   Place: Chicago, IL                                                        Phone: (703) 684-2400
   Phone: (206) 543-8974               Event: Western Building Show
          Robert Seabloom                     Conference                     Event: ASAE International
                                       By:    (multiple building sponsors)          Meeting: World of
   Event: 15th Annual EPA 104(g)       Date: June 24–27                             Engineering Expo &
          National Wastewater          Place: San Francisco, CA                     Sponsorship Opportunities
          Operator’s Conference        Phone: (916) 443-7933                 By:    American Society of
   By:    Arizona State Environ-                                                    Agricultural Engineers
          mental Technology Training   Event: NEHA’s 1998 AEC &              Date: July 11–16
          Center                              Exhibition                     Place: Orlando, FL
   Date: June 7–10                     By:    National Environmental         Phone: (616) 429-0300
   Place: Tucson, AZ                          Health Association
   Phone: (520) 206-7888               Date: June 27–July1
          Caroline Lee                 Place: Las Vegas, NV
                                       Phone: (303) 756-9090

SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2                                                                                                                  23
           Small Flows
          Volume 12, Number 2, Spring 1998


                                                                             Also in this issue

                                                                       1   Inflow/Infiltration


                                                                       1   Commercial Grease Traps
                                                                           for Onsite Systems


                                                                       6   Confined Space Safety

            Florida Explores Performance-                             11   Q&A Aerobic Treatment Units

            Based Treatment Systems                                   13   Special: Readership Survey
            see page 8
                                                                      18   Land-Use Planning for
                                                                           Onsite Systems




             L   SMALL
          NA                     National Small Flows Clearinghouse
                         FL
      O




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NAT I




                                 West Virginia University
                                                                                              ORGANIZATION
                             S




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                                      24                                           SMALL FLOWS-Spring 1998; Vol.12, No. 2

				
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