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					2010 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
  Question 1: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 1 - Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth's common
physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.

The diagram below shows a side view of a landform with different elevations.




Which of the following maps best represents this landform?




  A.                                                         C.




  B.                                                         D.
2010 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
  Question 5: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 6 - Describe and give examples of ways in which the earth's surface is built up
and torn down by natural processes, including deposition of sediments, rock formation,
erosion, and weathering.

The Appalachian Mountains, which extend from Canada to Alabama, were much taller in the past than they
are today. Which of the following two processes are most responsible for the decrease in the height of the
Appalachian Mountains?
  A. weathering and erosion
  B. sedimentation and flooding
  C. volcanic eruptions and landslides
  D. tectonic collisions and earthquakes


2010 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
  Question 6: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 2 - Describe the layers of the earth, including the lithosphere, the hot
convecting mantle, and the dense metallic core.

The diagram below shows four layers of Earth. Each layer is identified by a number.




Which layer of Earth is composed primarily of solid iron?
  A. layer 1
  B. layer 2
  C. layer 3
  D. layer 4

2010 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 12: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 12 - Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and that
each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

Which of the following correctly lists the structures in space from smallest to largest?
  A. star, galaxy, solar system, universe
  B. star, solar system, galaxy, universe
  C. star, solar system, universe, galaxy
  D. star, universe, solar system, galaxy


2010 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
  Question 14: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 10 - Compare and contrast properties and conditions of objects in the solar
system (i.e., sun, planets, and moons) to those on Earth (i.e., gravitational force, distance
from the sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions).

Which of the following planets is always closer to the Sun than it is to Earth?
  A. Jupiter
  B. Mercury
  C. Saturn
  D. Uranus
Question 17: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 9 - Describe lunar and solar eclipses, the observed moon phases, and tides.
Relate them to the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.

The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Moon and rays of sunlight.




Based on the diagram, which of the following best represents how the Moon would appear as seen from
Earth?


  A.                                                        C.




  B.                                                        D.




2009 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 3: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 11 - Explain how the tilt of the earth and its revolution around the sun result in
an uneven heating of the earth, which in turn causes the seasons.

Which of the following statements best explains why it is warmer at the equator than at the North Pole?
  A. The equator has a larger area than the North Pole.
  B. The equator is closer to the Sun than the North Pole.
  C. The equator receives more direct sunlight than the North Pole.
  D. The equator has more hours of daylight per year than the North Pole.
2009 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 4: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 5 - Describe how the movement of the earth's crustal plates causes both slow
changes in the earth's surface (e.g., formation of mountains and ocean basins) and rapid
ones (e.g., volcanic eruptions and earthquakes).

Seafloor spreading provides evidence of which of the following Earth processes?
  A. erosion of coastlines
  B. weathering of mountains
  C. movement of crustal plates
  D. formation of sedimentary rocks

2009 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 6: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 3 - Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three
mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth's system.

The diagram below represents an experiment on different types of soil.




The thermometers are measuring the temperature of the center of the soil samples. Which of the following
is a cause of the measured difference in the temperature of the two soils?
  A. conduction within different soil types
  B. condensation within different soil types
  C. radiation emitted by different soil types
  D. convection in the air above different soil types

2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 1: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 8 - Recognize that gravity is a force that pulls all things on and near the earth
toward the center of the earth. Gravity plays a major role in the formation of the planets,
stars, and solar system and in determining their motions.


Which of the following causes a ship’s
iron anchor to sink to the ocean floor
when it is released overboard?


  A. chemical forces
  B. gravity
  C. magnetism
  D. nuclear forces

2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 3: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 12 - Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and that
each galaxy contains many billions of stars.


Which of the following is the best estimate of the number of stars in a typical galaxy?

  A. tens
  B. hundreds
  C. thousands
  D. billions
The four pictures below show how a pond environment changed from 1900 to 2000.




Which of the following processes was most directly responsible for the changes that
occurred in the pond environment?

 A. freezing
 B. evaporation
 C. sediment deposition
 D. chemical weathering
 2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
 Question 9: Multiple-Choice
 Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
 Standard: 11 - Explain how the tilt of the earth and its revolution around the sun result in
 an uneven heating of the earth, which in turn causes the seasons.


 Which of the following statements best
 explains why the tilt of Earth on its
 axis causes summer to be warmer than
 winter in the Northern Hemisphere?


        The warm ocean currents flow from
     A. the tropics to the Northern
        Hemisphere in the summer.
        The rays of the Sun strike the
     B. Northern Hemisphere more directly
        in the summer.
        The greenhouse effect increases
     C. in the Northern Hemisphere in
        the summer.
        The Northern Hemisphere is
     D. closer to the Sun in the
        summer.


 2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
 Question 11: Multiple-Choice
 Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
 Standard: 9 - Describe lunar and solar eclipses, the observed moon phases, and tides.
 Relate them to the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.


 Which of the following pictures shows the appearance of the Moon when a solar eclipse
 occurs?




A.                         B.                     C.                       D.
2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 13: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 7 - Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and
surface features of glaciation, supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic
time.


When bedrock in Massachusetts is examined, it often appears scraped and polished.
Which of the following most likely caused the bedrock to appear scraped and polished?

 A. crustal deformation
 B. frequent earthquakes
 C. glacial movement
 D. volcanic eruptions

2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 22: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 10 - Compare and contrast properties and conditions of objects in the solar
system (i.e., sun, planets, and moons) to those on Earth (i.e., gravitational force, distance
from the sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions).


Which of the following statements best describes one way that the Moon is different from
Earth?

 A. The Moon is not solid.
 B. The Moon has no gravity.
      The Moon has almost no
 C.
      atmosphere.
      The Moon receives almost no
 D.
      solar light.
2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 30: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 7 - Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and
surface features of glaciation, supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic
time.


The presence of which of the following geological features provides the best evidence
that glaciers once covered an area?

 A. wide riverbeds
 B. U-shaped valleys
 C. underground caves
 D. groundwater springs

2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 33: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 2 - Describe the layers of the earth, including the lithosphere, the hot
convecting mantle, and the dense metallic core.


A layer of solid brittle rock comprises the outer 100 kilometers of Earth. This layer,
which contains both the crust and the upper mantle, is called the

 A. core.
 B. sediment.
 C. lithosphere.
 D. hemisphere.
2008 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 35: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 4 - Explain the relationship among the energy provided by the sun, the global
patterns of atmospheric movement, and the temperature differences among water, land,
and atmosphere.

What is the primary energy source that drives all weather events, including precipitation,
hurricanes, and tornados?
  A. the Sun
 B. the Moon
 C. Earth’s gravity
 D. Earth’s rotation

2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 1: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 8 - Recognize that gravity is a force that pulls all things on and near the earth
toward the center of the earth. Gravity plays a major role in the formation of the planets,
stars, and solar system and in determining their motions.


Which of the following keeps the planets in our solar system in orbit around the Sun?

 A. atmospheric pressure
 B. gravitational force
 C. electromagnetic energy
 D. thermal energy

2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 5: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 3 - Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three
mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth's system.

Heat from deep in Earth's interior is transferred to its crust by which of the following?
 A. conduction in the ocean
 B. convection in the mantle
 C. radiation from the solid core
 D. evaporation at mid-ocean ridges
2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 7: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 7 - Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and
surface features of glaciation, supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic
time.


The map of Massachusetts below shows
where physical evidence of changes can
be found.




Which of these is the best indication
that Massachusetts’ climate has changed
over time?


  A. earthquake
  B. forest fire
  C. beach erosion
  D. glacial deposit
2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 9: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 4 - Explain the relationship among the energy provided by the sun, the global
patterns of atmospheric movement, and the temperature differences among water, land,
and atmosphere.


The ocean water near the equator absorbs more heat throughout the year than ocean water
near the North Pole. Which of the following best explains this difference?

 A. The equator is closer to the Sun.
 B. The equator has higher sea levels.
      The equator receives more direct
 C.
      sunlight.
      The equator rotates more quickly
 D.
      on Earth's axis.


2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 11: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 2 - Describe the layers of the earth, including the lithosphere, the hot
convecting mantle, and the dense metallic core.


Which of the following Earth layers has the greatest density?

 A. crust
 B. mantle
 C. inner core
 D. outer core
2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 17: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 5 - Describe how the movement of the earth's crustal plates causes both slow
changes in the earth's surface (e.g., formation of mountains and ocean basins) and rapid
ones (e.g., volcanic eruptions and earthquakes).


Which of the following statements best explains why earthquakes occur more frequently
in California than in Massachusetts?

    The rock found in California is
 A. igneous, but the rock found in
    Massachusetts is sedimentary.
    California is located on the
 B. boundary of two crustal plates, but
    Massachusetts is not.
    The rock under California is soft,
 C. but the rock under Massachusetts
    is hard.
    California is located on a
 D. continental plate, but
    Massachusetts is not.

2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 21: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 12 - Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and that
each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

Which of the following lists is in order from smallest to largest?

  A.


  B.


  C.

  D.
2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 23: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 6 - Describe and give examples of ways in which the earth's surface is built up
and torn down by natural processes, including deposition of sediments, rock formation,
erosion, and weathering.


Which of the following areas is most likely to form metamorphic rocks such as gneiss
and schist?

 A. a sea floor
 B. a windblown desert
 C. a site deep underground
 D. a site covered by a glacier



2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 25: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 9 - Describe lunar and solar eclipses, the observed moon phases, and tides.
Relate them to the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.


Which of the following diagrams best shows the relative positions of Earth, the Moon,
and the Sun during a lunar eclipse?




 A.                                               C.




 B.                                               D.
2007 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 36: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 1 - Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth's common
physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.


A map with contour lines is shown below.




Which of the following is the best estimate of the difference in elevation between Black
Bear Camp and Eagle Peak?

 A. 400 m
 B. 900 m
 C. 1200 m
 D. 1500 m
2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 4: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 6 - Describe and give examples of ways in which the earth's surface is built up
and torn down by natural processes, including deposition of sediments, rock formation,
erosion, and weathering.


Where is an igneous rock such as pumice most likely formed?

 A. in a desert
 B. in a creek bed
 C. near a volcano
 D. under a glacier



2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 12: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 1 - Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth's common
physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.


An engineer is analyzing which areas in a city might become flooded if there are heavy
rains. Which of the following maps is best to use for this analysis?

 A. a map showing the routes of city buses
 B. a map showing the locations of streets
 C. a map showing the locations of houses
 D. a map showing the elevations of ground surfaces
2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 15: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 12 - Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and that
each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

Which of the following diagrams best represents the relationship between galaxies, the
universe, and solar systems?




 A.                                                 C.




 B.                                                 D.




2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 16: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 7 - Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and
surface features of glaciation, supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic
time.

A researcher found shark fossils on top of a mountain. This evidence suggests which of
the following about this region?
  A. It was once below a waterfall.
 B. It was once part of a riverbed.
 C. It was once covered by an ocean.
 D. It was once near a freshwater lake.
2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 23: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 2 - Describe the layers of the earth, including the lithosphere, the hot
convecting mantle, and the dense metallic core.


Which of the following graphs best represents the relationship between density and depth
of material below Earth’s surface?




  A
                                                           C.
  .




                                                           D
  B.
                                                           .




2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 25: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 1 - Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth's common
physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.


Sal is looking at a map of Massachusetts. He has measured the distance, in inches, from Boston to Salem
on the map. He wants to know how many actual miles the inches represent.

What feature of the map should he look for?


  A. key
  B. scale
  C. legend
  D. compass
2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 27: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 1 - Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth's common
physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.


On the map below, dark circles indicate the positions of volcanoes in the "Ring of Fire"
in and around the Pacific Ocean. Dark lines indicate tectonic plate boundaries of Earth’s
crust.




According to this map, which of the following describes where volcanoes are most likely
to form in the Ring of Fire?

 A. Volcanoes form in the middle of a tectonic plate.
 B. Volcanoes form below the surface of tectonic plates.
 C. Volcanoes form where tectonic plates meet other plates.
 D. Volcanoes form where earthquakes are least likely to occur.
2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 29: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 7 - Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and
surface features of glaciation, supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic
time.


Index fossils help scientists estimate the age of a rock because index fossil species only
existed for a relatively short time. What happened to the species that are now used as
index fossils?

 A. They became extinct.
 B. They changed their diets.
 C. They hid in marine sediments.
 D. They migrated to new environments.

2006 Spring Release, Science and Technology/Engineering - Grade 8
Question 35: Multiple-Choice
Reporting Category: Earth and Space Science
Standard: 8 - Recognize that gravity is a force that pulls all things on and near the earth
toward the center of the earth. Gravity plays a major role in the formation of the planets,
stars, and solar system and in determining their motions.

The Moon orbits Earth at a speed of approximately one kilometer per second. The Moon
is kept in orbit by which of the following?
  A. gravity
 B. lunar phases
 C. magnetism
 D. ocean tides

				
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