Auditing Microsoft Active Directory
Eric Dugger Network Services Manager Nevada Legislature
What is Active Directory
A central component of the Windows platform, Active Directory directory service provides the means to manage the identities and relationships that make up network environments. Resources – Computers & Printers Services – E-Mail, Policies, DNS, etc. Users – Accounts and security groups
Primary Items of Importance
Business Continuity •Is Active Directory backed up? •Are there multiple Domain Controllers?
Security •Who has access to change Active Directory? •What settings in Active Directory affect security? (passwords, etc.) Policies •What environment is created from AD Polices?
Active Directory Backups – Critical Data •How often? •Where are they stored?
see Backing up an Active Directory Server doc
Multiple Domain Controllers •Should have the global catalog
show where in Sites and Services
Active Directory Security
Who can access Active Directory?
What can they change?
Is auditing turned on for Active Directory?
Access to Active Directory
Active Directory Boundaries
Physical Security Domain Forests & Trusts
Permissions to Change AD
Groups of Interest Enterprise Admins Schema Admins Administrators Domain Admins Server Operators Account Operators Backup Operators DS Restore Mode Administrator
Group Policy in Microsoft Windows Active Directory
What is Active Directory Group Policy?
The Group Policy management solution in Microsoft®
Windows Server™ 2003 allows administrators to define configurations for both servers and user machines. Local policy settings can be applied to all machines, and for those that are part of a domain, an administrator can use Group Policy to set policies that apply across a given site, domain, or range of organizational units (OUs) in the Active Directory® directory service. Support for Group Policy is available on machines running Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, Microsoft Windows® XP Professional, and Windows Server 2003.
Control Internet Explorer Settings Control Computer/User Settings Software Distribution Windows Updates
Much, Much More…..
Windows 2003 Active Directory Group Policy Manager Plug-in
Creating a Policy
Create and Link GPO
Choose an Organizational Unit
Assigning a Policy
Policies Linked Policies Inherited Delegation to this OU to this OU this OU of
Defining Internet Explorer
Control the Functionality of IE
Plug-Ins Menus Empty Temp Folder Active X .NET Block Sites
Control the Security of IE
Configuring an IE Policy
Define your Zones
Internet Intranet Trusted Restricted
ZONES 1 – Intranet
2 – Trusted 3 – Internet 4 - Restricted
Define your Settings Apply Policy to an OU
Control User/Computer Settings
Configure the Desktop
Hide icons/menus Dictate wallpaper Prohibit software from being installed or uninstalled Prohibit software from being run
Network or security settings
Control Software Installation or Use
Lockdown Administrator Functions
Configure Windows Firewall
Configure a Desktop Policy
Automatically Install Software at Logon Publish Software Remove Software Update Software
Configure a Software Install Policy
Install a Software Package on Logon The software will be installed when the user logs on
Publish a Software Package The software will be available through “Add/Remove Programs” Redeploy a Software Package Install Path to MSI (Update or New The package will be redeployedFile Version)
Uninstall a Software Package The software will be removed
Managing Windows Updates
Create a policy to use the Windows
Update Services server
Assign WSUS Server Assign WSUS Groups
Install and Configure WSUS
Windows System Update Server
Updates for Windows, Office, Exchange Server, and
SQL Server, with additional product support over time Automatic download of specific updates Automated actions for updates, determined by administrator approval Ability to determine the applicability of updates before installing them Targeting Reporting
How WSUS Works
Downloads selected updates to central update server Release updates to specified groups Report on status of updates
Operating System Last Status Computer Group Report
Detect only Not Approved
Update Type Release Date Approval
Computer Name Status Type Update Title Installed Not Needed Failed Updated Needed UnknownLast
GPResult Admx Group Policy Manager
True Last Logon
What AD Policies am I getting?
GPRESULT Open a command window Type gpresult
Export Group Policy Settings
AdmX.exe: ADM File Parser Category The ADM File Parser (AdmX) is a command-line tool that enables an administrator to export Group Policy settings to a tab-delimited text file. The administrator can then use the text produced by ADM File Parser (AdmX) to find changes for the policy settings between different versions of the operating systems. AdmX is for use only with policies based on administrative templates. Version compatibility The AdmX.exe tool runs on Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP Professional. AdmX.exe also requires the Microsoft .NET Framework 1.0.
Group Policy Manager