Indoor seeding by gjmpzlaezgx


									             Tips to Garden

 Down to Earth Ideas for Good Health
      and a Safe Environment

                       By Paule Hjertaas, B.Sc.

Copyrighted Paule Hjertaas. Permission granted for personal use. Other uses please contact the
author at dp.hjertaas(at)

Photos credits: Paule Hjertaas and the Insect Images, a joint project of the University of Georgia and the

USDA Forest Service.
       Organic Gardening
   Is an approach based on
    observation and                Is not simply
    prevention                      replacing one
   Deals with the causes of        chemical by a less
                                    toxic product
    Pays attention to
    garden design and              Treated wood of
    garden and plant siting         any type has no
   Builds up soil, stability       place in an organic
    and bio-diversity               garden (CCA creosote,
   Starts by using the             penta)
    safest methods
         Topics Covered
   Why not use              Beds vs Rows
    pesticides?              Companion
   Timing of Seeding         Planting
    and Transplanting        Pest Control
   Indoor or                Disease Control
    Greenhouse               Weed Control
    common problems          Products
   Organic Fertilizers       Discussion and
     Factors Affecting Plant
      Health, Insects and
   Light                        Wind
   Length of Frost-free          Air Circulation
    season                       Watering
   Soil quality                 Proper pruning and
    – Type (sand, clay,etc)       thinning
    – Soil test so you can       Not to much
      correct deficiencies
    10 Lines of Defense
     against Pests and
   Good Husbandry           Mix and Match
   Hygiene                   Companion Plants
   Resistant Varieties      Barriers and Traps
   Cunning Cultivation      Direct Action
    Methods                  Brought-in Predators
   Encouraging               and Parasites
    Predators and            Organic Pesticides
    Parasites                 including enzyme
   Manure            Used to build soil
   Green Manure      As soil amendment
   Compost           As foliar spray
   Supplements        (Seaweed
                       emulsion, well
                       finished compost
          Fertilizer Recipe
   Complete Organic                Some catalogs
    fertilizer Blend (West           offering organic and
    Coast Seed)                      natural fertilizers
    – 4 parts seed meal (I.e.
      flax)                          –   West Coast Seeds
    – 1 part rock phosphate or       –   William Dam Seeds
      ½ part bone meal
    – 1 part lime                    –   Territorial
    – ½ part kelp meal               –   T&T
Prepackaged equivalent is All-       –   Vesey Seeds
   Purpose Blend (Gaia) or
   Power Bloom (Gaia)                –   NIC Ontario
         Alfalfa - best soil
   Seed in August                   At end of summer cut to 3-4
   pH 6.6 to 7.5                     “ tall
   Needs lots of K and P            Ass greensand and
    (bonemeal and greensand)          bonemeal 1-2 times /yr 5
   Good drainage                     lb/2 lb respectively for 10 ft
   Inoculate seeds and only
    loosen soil a little             Stand lasts 5 years
   Cover with ½” compost            Choose disease-resistant
   Next year, each time 10 %
    flowers, mow to 1 “ tall         Can be used to break up
                                      compacted subsoil in
   Spread clippings around           problem areas
                                     Or buy good-quality pellets
                                (OG Aug 06)
        Indoor Seeding                     1

   My mix:                 Water with
    1/2 peat moss           Water
    ½ vermiculite           Seaweed emulsion
    1 handful bonemeal       (and foliar feed)

    1 handful rock          Aquarium water
    phosphate               Manure Tea
    1 handful organic
Physical Insect Control
   Use barriers      Hand-picking
   Spray water       Sticky and other
   Prune and          traps (including
    destroy            tree bands)
Indoor Seeding         2

           Damping off solution
           Cinnamon on surface
            Fungus gnat
           Yellow sticky trap
           Insecticidal Soap
           Hypoaspis miles
            Predatory mite
           Steimernema feltiae
           Sand on top of soil
                 Neem Oil
   In Cda, registered as       Effectiveness may
    leaf shine                   depend on
   Acts as anti-feedant         concentration of
    and pseudo-steroidal         azadirachtin
    IGR                         Most effective on larval
   Can prevent                  forms on insects with
    swallowing and affects       total metamorphosis
    digestion                    (caterpillars, including
   Chitin synthesis             sod webworms, gypsy
    inhibitor                    moth and cutworms,
                                 larval beetles. whitefly
   Generally must be            nymphs), leafminers
    eaten                        and mites
            Neem Oil (2)
   Low mammalian
   Works slowly
   Washed off by rain
   Reentry as soon as
    spray dries
   Does not persist in
   Pour boiling water      The tunnels vary
    down the hole            tremendously in length
                             and shape between
   Citrus oils              species
   Diatomaceous            Most published
    Earth in hole            controls for indoors or
                             for fire ants which we
   Borax-based bait
                             don’t have
   Repellent garlic        Some species are
    spray                    useful
   Row cover
   Spray with water or
    insecticidal soap
   Yellow sticky traps or
    yellow pail with soapy
    water (flying)
   Reflective mulch
   Predators
   Parasites
   New horticultural oils
         Asparagus Beetle
   Plant in full sun, in area
    where neither asparagus or
    onions grew recently
   Best in sandy loam
   Enrich with compost
   Neutral pH (low pH
    increases Fusarium rot)
   Well-weeded site
   Choose crowns over seeds
   Prepare soil properly
   Remove asparagus ferns in
    fall to prevent beetle
   Plant oregano nearby as a
    living mulch to attract beetle
Blister Beetles
        Hand Pick with gloves
         Row Cover

         Lime or lime spray
          or soap and lime
         Not all bad:
          Larvae eat
Colorado Potato Beetle
              Row Cover
              Clean cultivation
              Heavy mulching
              Plant near green
               beans, coriander,
              Vacuuming
              Handpick and remove
              Diatomaceous earth
              .5 % solution of black
               pepper for adults
        Black Pepper
 .01% extract for tent
  caterpillars,European Sawfly and
  some Ermine Moths
 .01-.02 % for adult striped cucumber
  beetle, larval lily leaf beetles,
  Viburnum leaf beetles
 Also a repellent at .1 % solution

 Caution: Watch your eyes!
Imported Cabbage
           Row cover
           Garlic spray
           Btk
           Diatomaceous
           Plant near mint,
            sage, rosemary,
 Cabbage(Root) Maggot
1st generation emerges          Transplant into
mid-May-June                     protective screen
                                 cones or use collars
2nd generation possible 4-
                                Dust plants with wood
8 weeks later                    ashes, rock phosphate
* Destroy all diseased           or diatomaceous earth
material                        Encourage predators:
                                 Rove beetles, parasitic
* Rotate crop                    nematodes,centipedes
* Control weedy Brassicas       Had success digging
 Row Cover
                                 the root some and
                                 scraping off
 Start inside
Carrot Fly, Onion
            Row cover
            Crop rotation
            Alter Planting dates
            Clean cultivation
            Rock Phosphate or
             Diatomaceous Earth
             around plant base
            Nematodes in furrow
            Early mulch
       Row Cover
       Collar or 2 toothpicks
       Reduce weeds,
        especially grasses
       10 day weed free
        period before
        emergence of crop
       Tack Trap sticky
       Mix Btk 12% by weight
        with wheat bran and
        grape or apple
        pomace. Place on soil
        surface or on boards
Flea Beetles
         Row Cover
         Insecticidal soap or
         If late in season,
          harvest plant
         Brush onto sticky trap
         Lime
         Diatomaceous earth
         Would black pepper
      Natural Control
         Eggs eaten by bee flies,
          blister beetles, ground
          beetles, crickets and others.
         Parasites, predators and
       Early Seeding

       Trap Strips

       Row cover

       Safer’s Insecticidal Soap

       Bug Juice

       Chickens, ducks, etc

       Nosema locustrae
Grasshopper Damage
      in 2003  1

             Yellow Bush
              Bean – Nugget
             Hit hard
Grasshopper Damage
      in 2003   2

            Green Bean Jade
            Less damage
Grasshopper Damage
      in 2003    3

            From left to right
            Ruby Gold
            Kennebec
            Eramosa
            Purple viking
Grasshopper Damage
      in 2003   4

            Potato Purple
Grasshopper Solution
             Bags of leaves
              covered with
              Tanglefoot around the
              garden (left)
             The 1930’s drought
              saw a lot of home-
              made grasshopper
              harvesters. They were
              then dried and used for
              livestock feed.
   Clean standing
    water around home
   Cover yourself.
    Avoid mosquito
    times. Use a good
    herbal repellent.
   Bti (bacterial
   Mosquito larvae
Scale insects and
            Dormant oil before bud
             break (trees and shrubs)
            Gently Scrape off the Plant
             or touch with cotton swab
             soaked with alcohol
            Insecticidal soap
            Enzyme Cleaner (recipe 2)
            Parasites
            Predators
            Top: scale; bottom: mealybug
             destroyers eating mealybug
      Slugs and Snails
 Cultural control:
 No objects or refuse on

 Dry surface between watering

 Plant unattractive varieties

 Biological: encourage toads

 Mechanical: Copper bands
           Slugs and Snails
   Handpick at night and drop
    into soapy water                    Traps
   Agricultural Lime                   Safer’s bait
   Pick under boards or other          Diatomaceous earth
    traps (grapefruit rind) during      5 % garlic solution
    the day                              provides best barrier and
   Destroy eggs                         kills 95 %
   Boiling water or salt               As the clay hardpan
                                         improves, the numbers
   Best bait: Crushed slugs
   Spray plants w ½-1/2
    vinegar-water early am.
    When #s down, every 2
    weeks (untested)
Wasps and Hornets
            Eliminate food sources
             (empty garbage cans
             frequently, proper
             fitting lids, no pet food
            Add lids and straw to
             sugary drinks
            Traps
            Wet Vac at nest
            Diatomaceous earth
             squirted into nest
   Sticky traps - usually blue;        Insecticidal soap,
    to some degree can trap              Horticultural oils and neem
    out population.                      oil containing azadirachtin
   Biological controls                  are effective
   Application of compost to           Spinosad
    soil may help.
   Deadheading and removing            Spray a test area first to see
    infested foliage is an option.       if not phytotoxic.
    Do not shear or stimulate           All degrade very quickly.
    new growth. Prune by                 Due to overlapping
    cutting plants just above            generations, may have to
    branch crotches and nodes.           apply several times
Avoid Ticks
      •   wear clothes that fit
          tightly around your
          wrists, ankles and waist.
          Tuck your shirt into your
          pants and tuck your
          pants into your socks.

      •   Discourage animals such
          as mice, chipmunks and
          deer that "host" ticks.

      * Perform tick checks.
                  Trap Ticks

Tick Flag (for med.height            Tick Drag (grass or
    brush)                            low brush)
   Staple 1 sq yard piece of        4 ft wide x 6 ft long.Velcro
    white flannel cloth with
                                      strip one end
    heavy knap to a stick ( hem
    one end if used often)           Add lead weights to lower
   Sweep flag ahead.                 end
    Captured ticks show well.        Make a clothesline handle
   Turn over, pick ticks and         through plastic pipe.
    drop in plastic container        Drag besides and behind.
    with cap. Will die in 24
    hours. Or drop in soapy
   Crows dig up seeds      Grackles squish all
   House Sparrows           peas
    eat seedlings           Robins eat Fruits
    – Row cover              -- timing
    – Netting                -- row cover
    – Mulch?                 -- netting
       Ground Squirrel
Protection          Trap to kill (e.g. Lee’s
  – Seed early       trapworks)

  – Row cover       AC Greenfix (variety of
                     Chickling Vetch - Lathyrus
  – Fences           sativus)
                    Gas
            Meadow Voles
   Modify habitat
   Mow lawn closely in fall
   Remove mulch from
    perennial beds
   Intensive fall trapping
   Traps in vole’s runway
   Bait with apple
   Check and rebait daily
    for at least 5 days or
    until no more voles
         Pocket gophers
   Build raided beds
    with 1/2” hardware
    cloth at bottom
   Use wire baskets to
    pretect tree and
    shrub roots and
   Dogs and cats
    deter gophers
            Lawn insects      1

   Grubs
   Walk on lawn with long
    spike sandals in late
    spring or late summer
   Basin of soapy water
    under a light at night
   Nematodes
   Milky spore disease for
    Japanese beetle
Lawn Insects            2

          Chinch bugs
          Wet vac removes 100% all
           age classes
          Water area with water or
           soapy water frequently
          Id but cover areas with
           flannel sheet. Bugs will
           collect on it. Scrape and
          Nematodes
          Permanently deepen your
           soil with good garden loam
           or compost
Lawn insects             3

          Resistant grass cultivar
          Reduce thatch
          Correct hot and dry
           day conditions (water,
          Predators/parasites
          Use soap drenches
           and raking for
           moderate populations
          Btk
        Trees and shrubs
   Pear Slugs                Cankerworms
   Forceful spraying         Banding, but may
    with water                 blow in
   Home recipe 1             Insecticidal soap
   Insecticidal soap on       sickens
                              Btk
   Try .01 % black
    pepper spray
   Lime sulfur
      Lures and Traps                   1

Garden                  Orchard
 Armyworm               Apple maggot

                         Codling Moth
 Beet Armyworm
                         Oblique banded
 Cabbage Looper
 Corn Earworm
                         Omnivorous Leafroller
 Diamondback Worm
                         Oriental Fruit Moth
 European Corn borer    Peachtree Borer
 Fall Armyworm          Grape Berry Borer

                         Available from Natural
                          Insect Control
       Lures and Traps 2
   Home                  Tree
   Indian Meal Moth      Gypsy Moth
   Clothes Moth          Sm. Elm Bark
   Fleas                  Beetle
   Fruit Flies           Traps
   Cluster flies         Lygus Bug and
   Flies                  European Sawfly
                          Ash/Lilac Borer
         Disease Control
   Keep things clean      Baking Soda
   Discard diseased        Recipe
    material, don’t        Compost Teas
    compost                 Sprays
   Mulch                  Competing
                                 Prevent stress from
   Identify and find the         over- or under-
    source                        watering,
   Fungi spread by               overfertilization,
    spores                        extreme weather or
   Viruses when sap from         other.
    infected plant               Beware of family
    transferred to healthy        connections (i.e
    plant                         petunias, tomatoes,
   Bacterial D transmitted       delphiniums are in
    by insects like               different families but all
    leafhoppers, aphids           host the tobacco
    and thrips                    mosaic virus)
                                 Get rid of infected plant
                  Anthracnose on
   This disease
    splashes from soil
   Spread several
    layers of
    newspaper around
    the plants; moisten;
    top with 2-3 “ grass
   This traps the
    disease into soil
   (OG Aug 06)
                  Powdery Mildew
   Spray solution of 1
    pt milk to 2 parts
    water on plants
   Make sure stems
    and underside of
    leaves sprayed too
   Repeat after rain
   (OG Aug 06)
         Blackspot on roses
   2 tbsp baking soda
    + 2 tsp liquid hand
    soap + 2 quarts
   Put in spray bottle
    and coat the leaves
   The change in pH
    maes leaves
    inhospitable to the
   (OG Aug 06)
        Weed Control
 Don’t plant any in your garden

 If you do, keep them dead-headed, and
  the perennials in one spot
 Know Your Weeds and choose the
  proper control method
 Looser soil means easier weeding
Weed Control Methods                            1

   Minimize Imports          Don’t disturb soil
    – Clean tools and          unnecessarily
      shoes                   Don’t till areas
    – Don’t throw              infested with
      flowering weeds in       perennial weeds,
      compost                  dig them up
    – Pick seeds with         Encourage healthy
      lowest % weed            competition
      seeds                   Anti-weed Watering
Weed Control Methods                                 2

   Timing is everything       Crowd them out
   Hot water works            When in doubt,
   A little salt will do       mulch
    the trick                  Action must follow
   Sprout them out             planning
Weed Control Methods                                  3

   Organically            Cut of their heads
    herbicide them          – Before they go to seed
                              with mower or string
    – Corn gluten             trimmer

   Cook them out          Mow them down
                            – Before they go to seed
    – Solarize
    – Propane weeder       Pull them out
    – Infrared weeder      Dig them out
                            – Follow the roots to
   Choke them                China if you have to!
    – Green manure         Graze or eat them
      Weed Control Tools
   Weed Barriers             U-Bar Digger
   Sweep and Vac
                              String trimmers
   Cultivators
   Hoes                      Lawn mowers
   Japanese Weeding          Rototillers
    Knife (Maria Rodale)
                              Herbicidal Soap
   Dandelion Digger
   Water-Powered             Propane Weeders
    Weeder                    Eco-Weeder –
   Garden Fork                Infrared
                              Grazers
             Herbicidal green
   A solid stand of
    Buckwheat (photo)
    suppresses all annual
    weeds and deters
    some troublesome
    perennials such as
    quackgrass, nutsedge
    (here?) and Canada
   Mow after 5 weeks, no
    more, to prevent
   (OG Feb 07)
         Fir and pine mulch
   Needles are
    compostable but
    better as mulch
   Slow decomposers
    and don’t blow
    away as much
   Do not really acidify
    the soil
   (OG Feb 07)
                  Creeping Charlie
   Use de-thatching rake to
   Most critical time to weed is
    spring before flowers set,
    and fall
   After thorough weeding,
    plant dense ground covers
    in ornamental beds and
    keep lawn thick and healthy
   Renovate thin lawns in fall
    and reseed with shade-
    tolerant grass such as fine
   (OG Feb 07)

To top