MUSCULAR_ SKELETAL_ AND INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS by yaoyufang

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									MUSCULAR, SKELETAL,
AND INTEGUMENTARY
      SYSTEMS
         Levels of Organization
   Cells
   Tissue
   Organ
   Organ System
   Organism
     4 Types of Tissue
1. Connective Tissue-
   Support, protect, and
   insulate- blood, bone
2. Nervous Tissue- nerve
   cells and their supporting
   cells.
3. Muscle Tissue- 3 types
   (smooth, cardiac,
   skeletal) to hold body
   together and permit
   motion
4. Epithelial Tissue-lines
   and protects most of the
   parts of the body.
Integumentary System

        Skin
Identify the different layers of the skin
        and their components
         Skin helps body maintain
              Homeostasis by:
   Regulates body temperature
   Protective layer
   Functions as a sense organ
   Maintain balance of chemicals in the body

Its parts are skin, hair, and nails.
   Largest organ of the body (~15% total body weight)
Epidermis: The outer layer of skin
                        Epidermis
   Outer layer of skin
   Protects against infection
   Thin layer of flattened, dead
    cells containing keratin to
    help waterproof the skin
   Melanocytes- determine
    skin color through the
    production of melanin.
   Every 4 weeks, all cells of
    the epidemis is replaced by
    new cells.
   5 layers
Dermis: The inner layer of skin
                         Dermis
   Second layer of skin
   Sweat glands – to help
    regulate body temperature
   Blood Vessels – dilate and
    constrict to help regulate
    body temperature
   Fat – provides cushion,
    insulation and stores food
   Hair follicle
   Nerves (sense of touch,
    cold, heat, pain, etc.)
   Oil glands
                Body Temperature
   When your body temperature rises, the many small
    blood vessels in the dermis dilate, blood flow
    increases, and body heat is lost by radiation.
       Also glands in the dermis produce sweat in response to an
        increase in body temperature
       As sweat evaporates, water changes state from liquid to
        vapor and heat is lost.


   When you are cold, the blood vessels in the skin
    constrict and heat is conserved.
                  Vitamin D
   When exposed to UV light, dermis cells
    produce Vitamin D that aids in absorption of
    calcium into blood
           Pimples & Wrinkles
   Pimples (acne) are a build up of dirt and oils.
   Wrinkles occur because of getting less elastic
    with age and producing less oil becoming
    dryer.
Skin Cancer PPT
Skeletal System

     Bones
Skeletal
System
Structure
• The adult human
  skeleton contains
  about 206 bones.

• Its two main parts
  are shown.
                   Skeleton
   AXIAL – skull and supportive bones such as
    vertebra, ribs and sternum
   APPENDICULAR – bones of arms, legs,
    shoulders, and pelvic girdle
Skeletal
System
Structure
              Skeletal System

Function of Skeleton:
 Support

 Protection

 Assists in movement

 Storage of minerals

 Production of blood cells
                            Joints
   Where two or more bones meet.
   Allows for movement, but some are fixed
   They contain:
       Ligaments – conncetive tissue that connects bone to bone
       Bursa – fluid filled sac located between bones. The bursae
        act to decrease friction and keep bones and tendons from
        rubbing against each other.
       Tendons – connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
                Types of Joints

Ball-n-Socket
– shoulder
and hip
               Types of Joints

Pivot - neck
            Types of Joints

Hinge - elbow
              Types of Joints

Gliding - wrist
             Problems with Joints
   Arthritis: inflammation of joints
   Sprains: forceable twisting of a joint



       RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Compact and spongy bone
• Bones are composed of two different types of
  bone tissue: compact bone and spongy bone.
                   Spongy
                   bone
          Marrow
          cavity
                                 Humerus
   Compact                  Periosteum
   bone
                       Artery
                    Vein
Compact and spongy bone
• Surrounding every bone is a layer of hard
  bone, or compact bone.
                    Spongy
                    bone
           Marrow
           cavity
                                  Humerus
   Compact                   Periosteum
   bone
                       Artery
                    Vein
                                          Cartilage
Compact and spongy bone
                               Spongy
                               bone
• Compact bone surrounds                 Marrow
  less dense bone known as               cavity
  spongy bone because, like               Compact
  a sponge, it contains many              bone
  holes and spaces.                      Membrane
                                Blood
                                vessel
Skeletal System Functions

• Bones also produce blood cells.

• Red marrow—found in the humerus,
  femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and
  pelvis—is the production site for red
  blood cells, white blood cells, and cell
  fragments involved in blood clotting.
Skeletal System Functions

• Yellow marrow,
  found in many
  other bones,
  consists of stored
  fat.
                            Yellow bone
                            marrow
                                  Cartilage
Formation of Bone
• The skeleton of a                           Blood
  vertebrate embryo is     Bone               supply

  made of cartilage.

• By the ninth week of
  human development,
  bone begins to replace
  cartilage.                Marrow
                            cavity
                                  Cartilage
Formation of Bone
• Blood vessels                               Blood
                                              supply
  penetrate the            Bone
  membrane covering
  the cartilage and
  stimulate its cells to
  become potential
  bone cells called
  osteoblasts.              Marrow
                            cavity
                Adult Skeleton
   The adult skeleton is almost all bone, with
    cartilage found in regions such as the nose tip,
    external ears, discs between vertebrae, lining
    of movable joints.
                  Bone Growth
   Your bones grow in both length and diameter.
   Growth in length occurs at the ends of bones      in
    cartilage plates.
   Growth in diameter occurs on the outer
       surface of the bone.
   After growth stops, bone-forming cells are
        involved in repair and maintenance of bone.
               Objective 9
     Disorders of the Skeletal System
   Leukemia- a kind of cancer in which abnormal
    white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled
    manner.
   Osteoporosis
   Fracture- broken bone.
Types of fractures
                     Osteoporosis
   Around the age of 35, bone
    replacement gradually becomes
    less efficient and some bone
    tissue is lost. Severe bone loss
    can lead to a condition called
    osteoporosis which means
    ―porous bone‖. Bones affected
    by osteoporosis are less dense
    and are easily fractured. This
    condition can be prevented by
    eating a diet high in calcium and
    by regular weight bearing
    exercise.
Muscular System

     Muscles
             Muscle Contractions
   Voluntary – under conscious control
       Walking
       Eating
       Etc.
   Involuntary – NOT under conscious control
       Heart rate
       Digestion
       Etc.
                Skeletal Muscle
   Skeletal movement
   Attached to bones
   Contractions are short and strong.
   Maintain body temperature
   Voluntary muscle
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
                           Contracting
                           biceps           The majority of skeleta
                                             muscles work in
                                             opposing pairs.
              Relaxed
              triceps

                 Relaxed
                 biceps

Contracting
triceps
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
                           Contracting      Muscle tissue is
                           biceps            made up of muscle
                                             fibers, which are
              Relaxed
                                             actually just very
              triceps                        long, fused muscle
                                             cells.
                 Relaxed
                 biceps

Contracting
triceps
                Smooth Muscle
   Found in internal organs
    and blood vessels.
   Contractions slow and
    prolonged.
   Squeezes, exerts
    pressure on organ it
    surrounds
   Involuntary muscles
                Cardiac Muscle
   Found only in the heart.
   Involuntary
   Adapted to conduct the
    electrical impulses
    necessary for rhythmic
    contraction.
   Slow to fatigue
Muscle Strength and Exercise
   Muscle strength does not depend on the
    number of fibers in a muscle.

   Rather, muscle strength depends on the thickness
    of the fibers and on how many of them contract
    at one time.
Muscle Strength and Exercise
   Regular exercise stresses muscle
    fibers slightly; to compensate for
    this added workload, the fibers
    increase in diameter by adding
    myofibrils.

   Muscle cells are continually supplied
    with ATP from both aerobic and
    anaerobic processes.
Muscle Strength and Exercise
   When an adequate supply of oxygen is unavailable,
    such as during vigorous activity, an anaerobic
    process—specifically lactic acid fermentation—
    becomes the primary source of ATP production.
The End

								
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