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					                                    E/1981/52
                                 E/ESCAP/239




ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION
FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC


ANNUAL REPORT
30 March 1980 - 20 March 1981




ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
OFFICIAL RECORDS, 1981




SUPPLEMENT No. 12




UNITED NATIONS
                                                 CONTENTS
                                                                                        Paragraphs      Page
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………….                                                  1          1
I.     Issues calling for action by the Economic and Social Council or brought to its
       attention ……………………………………………………………………….                                                2-3        1
       A. Draft resolution and draft decision for action by the Economic and Social
          Council ………………………………………………………………………...                                             2-3        1
        B. Resolutions brought to the attention of the Economic and Social Council                      1
II.    Work of the Commission since the thirty-sixth session. ……………………... .                  4-182      3
       A Activities of subsidiary bodies ……………………………………………                                   6-116      3
       B. Other activities ……………………………………………………………                                           117-168    17
       C. Relations with other United Nations programmes. …………………………                         169-182    21
III.   Thirty-seventh session of the Commission. ……………………………………                              183-848    24
       A. Attendance and organization of work……………………………………..                                183.197    24
       B. Agenda …………………………………………………………………….                                                 198        25
       C. Account of proceedings ……………………………………………………                                        199-848    26
           Inaugural address by the Prime Minister of Thailand …………………….                     200-202    26
           Message from the Secretary-General of the United Nations……………….                   203-209    26
           Statement by the Executive Secretary of ESCAP…………………………..                         210-217    27
       Policies and perspectives for the development of the ESCAP region. …………..             218-270    28
           Policy statement by the Executive Secretary. ……………………………….                        218-238    28
           Review and appraisal of current economic and social developments in the
           ESCAP region ……………………………………………………………….                                            239.251    30
           Short-term economic policy aspects of the energy situation in the ESCAP
           Region………………………………………………………………………..                                               252-270    31
       Expanded functions of the regional commissions: implications for the terms
.      of reference of ESCAP …………………………………………………………..                                        271-282    33
       Progress, proposals and issues in various fields of activity of ESCAP…………..           283-717    34
           Food and agriculture ………………………………………………………..                                      286-314    34
           Development planning, projections and policies ……………………………                        315-331    37
           Industry, human settlements and technology. ………………………………                          332-399    39
           International trade, raw materials and commodities and special measures
           for the least developed, land-locked and developing island countries. ……..        400-433    46
           Natural resources. ……………………………………………………………                                        434-473    50
           Population 474-491 53
           Shipping, ports and inland waterways……………………………………….                               492-536   55
           Social development ………………………………………………………….                                        537-553    60
           Statistics ……………………………………………………………………..                                           554-574    62
           Transport, communications and tourism. …………………………………….                            575-628    64
           Environment ………………………………………………………………….                                            629-643    70




                                                       i
                                         CONTENTS (Continued)

                                                                                     Paragraphs       Page

              Information systems and documentation services. ……………… …                      644-655    71

              Integrated rural development ……………………………………….                                 656-663   72

              Progress report on the implementation of resolution 205 (XXXVI) on the
              role of qualified national personnel in the social and economic development
              of developing countries ……………………………………………                                   664-670     74

              The Commission's activities in the Pacific. ……………………….                        671-682   74

              Transnational corporations…………………………………………                                    683-693   75

              Programmechanges,1981 …………………………………………..                                      694       76

              Programme of work and priorities, 1982-1983 …………………….                         695-708   78

              Medium-term plan,1984-1989 , ……………………………………                                   709.717   80

          Progress reports on special regional projects and regional institutions…          718-792   81

              Special regional projects ……………………………………………                                   718.777   81

              Regional institutions ……………………………………………….                                     778-792   86

          Mobilization of extrabudgetary resources. …………………………….                            793.798   88

          Economic and technical co-operation among developing countries. ….                799-813   88

          Findings and recommendations of the Advisory Committee of Permanent
          Representatives and Other Representatives Designated by Members of the
          Commission ……………………………………………………………..                                              814-822   90

          General Assembly resolution 35/116 on the Third United Nations Conference on
          the Law of the Sea: consequences for the ESCAP region of a new legal regime 823-832         91

          Other matters. ………………………………………………………………                                           833-847   92

          Adoption of the annual report of the Commission. …………………………                       848       94

IV     Resolutions adopted by the Commission at its thirty-seventh session…………..            95

                                                   Annexes

I.     Programme of work and priorities, 1982-1983 ……………………………………                                     107

II.    Statements of financial implications of actions and proposals of the Commission ..             146

III.   Meetings of subsidiary bodies held during the period under review……………….                       147

N.     Publications and documents issued by the Commission …………………………..                               148

V.     Terms of reference of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific              150

VI.    Rules of procedure of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific              152



                                                      (ii)
                                         ABBREVIATIONS
ACC          Administrative Committee on Co-ordi- ITC                  UNCTAD/GATT International Trade
              nation                                                    Centre
ACPR         Advisory Committee of Permanent               ITU         International Telecommunication Un-
              Representatives and Other Represen-                        ion
              tatives Designated by Members of
              the Commission                               LRCS        League of Red Cross Societies
ADB          Asian Development Bank                        MTN         Multilateral trade negotiations
ANRPC        Association of Natural Rubber Produc-         OECD        Organisation for Economic Co-opera-
              ing Countries                                             tion and Development
APCC         Asian and Pacific Coconut Community           RCTT        Regional Centre for Technology
APCWD        Asian and Pacific Centre for Women                         Transfer
              and Development                              RMRDC       Regional Mineral Resources Develop-
APDAC        Asian and Pacific Development Ad-                          ment Centre
              ministration Centre                          RNAM        Regional Network for Agricultural
APDC         Asian and Pacific Development Centre                       Machinery .

APDI         Asian and      Pacific   Development          SEATRADC Southeast Asia Tin Research and
              Institute                                              Development Centre
ASEAN        Association of South-East Asian Na-           SIAP        Statistical Institute for Asia and the
              tions                                                      Pacific
CCOP         Committee for Co-ordination of Joint          SPC         South Pacific Commission
              Prospecting for Mineral Resources in
              Asian Offshore Areas                         SPEC        South Pacific Bureau for Economic
                                                                        Co-operation
CCOP/SOPAC   Committee for Co-ordination of Joint
               Prospecting for Mineral Resources in        SWDCAP      Social Welfare and Development Cen-
               South Pacific Offshore Areas                             tre for Asia and the Pacific
CMEA         Council for Mutual Economic Assis-            TCDC        Technical co-operation among devel-
              tance                                                     oping countries
ECA          Economic Commission for Africa                UIC         International Union of Railways
ECDC         Economic co-operation among devel-            UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on Inter-
              oping countries                                        national Trade Law
ECE          Economic Commission for Europe                UNCTAD      United Nations Conference on Trade
                                                                        and Development
ECLA         Economic Commission for Latin
              America                                      UNDP        United Nations Development Pro-
                                                                        gramme
ECW A        Economic Commission for Western
              Asia                                         UNDRO       Office of the United Nations Disaster
EEC          European Economic Community                                Relief Co-ordinator

ESCAP        Economic and Social Commission for            UNEP        United Nations Environment Pro-
              Asia ~d the Pacific                                       gramme

FAO          Food and Agriculture Organization of          UNESCO      United Nations Educational, Scientific
              the United Nations                                        and Cultural Organization

GATT         General Agreement on Tariffs and              UNFPA       United Nations Fund for Population
              Trade                                                     Activities
GSP          Generalized system of preferences             UNICEF      United Nations Children's Fund
IBRD         International Bank for Reconstruction         UNIDO       United Nations Industrial Develop-
             and Development                                            ment Organization
ICAO         International Civil Aviation Organiza-        UPU         Universal Postal Union
               tion
                                                           WHO         World Health Organization
ICC          International Chamber of Commerce
                                                           WIPO        World Intellectual Property Organiza-
ILO          International Labour Organisation                          tion
IMCO         Inter-Governmental Maritime Consul-           WMO         World Meteorological Organization
               tative Organization
                                                           WTO         World Tourism Organization
IPC          International Pepper Community

                                                      ii
                                         ABBREVIATIONS
ACC          Administrative Committee on Co-ordi- ITC                   UNCTAD/GATT International Trade
              nation                                                     Centre
ACPR         Advisory Committee of Permanent                ITU         International Telecommunication Un-
              Representatives and Other Represen-                         ion
              tatives Designated by Members of
              the Commission                                LRCS        League of Red Cross Societies
ADB          Asian Development Bank                         MTN         Multilateral trade negotiations
ANRPC        Association of Natural Rubber Produc-          OECD        Organisation for Economic Co-opera-
              ing Countries                                              tion and Development
APCC         Asian and Pacific Coconut Community            RCTT        Regional Centre for Technology
APCWD        Asian and Pacific Centre for Women                          Transfer
              and Development                               RMRDC       Regional Mineral Resources Develop-
APDAC        Asian and Pacific Development Ad-                           ment Centre
              ministration Centre                           RNAM        Regional Network for Agricultural
APDC         Asian and Pacific Development Centre                        Machinery .

APDI         Asian and      Pacific   Development           SEATRADC Southeast Asia Tin Research and
              Institute                                               Development Centre
ASEAN        Association of South-East Asian Na-            SIAP        Statistical Institute for Asia and the
              tions                                                       Pacific
CCOP         Committee for Co-ordination of Joint           SPC         South Pacific Commission
              Prospecting for Mineral Resources in
              Asian Offshore Areas                          SPEC        South Pacific Bureau for Economic
                                                                         Co-operation
CCOP/SOPAC   Committee for Co-ordination of Joint
               Prospecting for Mineral Resources in         SWDCAP      Social Welfare and Development Cen-
               South Pacific Offshore Areas                              tre for Asia and the Pacific
CMEA         Council for Mutual Economic Assis-             TCDC        Technical co-operation among devel-
              tance                                                      oping countries
ECA          Economic Commission for Africa                 UIC         International Union of Railways
ECDC         Economic co-operation among devel-             UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on Inter-
              oping countries                                         national Trade Law
ECE          Economic Commission for Europe                 UNCTAD      United Nations Conference on Trade
                                                                         and Development
ECLA         Economic Commission for Latin
              America                                       UNDP        United Nations Development Pro-
                                                                         gramme
ECW A        Economic Commission for Western
              Asia                                          UNDRO       Office of the United Nations Disaster
EEC          European Economic Community                                 Relief Co-ordinator

ESCAP        Economic and Social Commission for             UNEP        United Nations Environment Pro-
              Asia ~d the Pacific                                        gramme

FAO          Food and Agriculture Organization of           UNESCO      United Nations Educational, Scientific
              the United Nations                                         and Cultural Organization

GATT         General Agreement on Tariffs and               UNFPA       United Nations Fund for Population
              Trade                                                      Activities
GSP          Generalized system of preferences              UNICEF      United Nations Children's Fund
IBRD         International Bank for Reconstruction          UNIDO       United Nations Industrial Develop-
             and Development                                             ment Organization
ICAO         International Civil Aviation Organiza-         UPU         Universal Postal Union
               tion
                                                            WHO         World Health Organization
ICC          International Chamber of Commerce
                                                            WIPO        World Intellectual Property Organiza-
ILO          International Labour Organisation                           tion
IMCO         Inter-Governmental Maritime Consul-            WMO         World Meteorological Organization
               tative Organization
                                                            WTO         World Tourism Organization
IPC          International Pepper Community

                                                      iii
                                                       Introduction

                        1.     The annual report of the Economic and Social Commission for
                        Asia and the Pacific, which covers the period 30 March 1980 to 20
                        March 1981, was adopted unanimously by the Commission at its 571st
                        meeting on 20 March 1981. It is submitted for consideration by the
                        Economic and Social Council at its first regular session, 1981, in
                        accordance with paragraph 15 of the Commission's terms of reference.


                                                       Chapter I

                     ISSUES CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE
                       ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
                       OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION
       A. DRAFT RESOLUTION AND DRAFT                                Annual report of the Economic and Social
             DECISION FOR ACTION BY                                 Commission for Asia and the Pacific

                THE ECONOMIC AND
                                                                    3.     At its 571st meeting, the Commission
                    SOCIAL COUNCIL
                                                                    unanimously approved the following draft decision
                                                                    for adoption by the Economic and Social Council:
Amendment of the terms of          reference    of     the
Commission: admission of Guam as an associate                             "...Annual report of the Economic and
                                                                              Social Commission for Asia and the
member of the Commission1
                                                                              Pacific

2.        At its 559th meeting, the Commission                            "At its       meeting, on              1981,
unanimously approved the following draft resolution                 the Council:
for submission to the Economic and Social Council
                                                                           "Took note of the report of the Economic and
for action:
                                                                    Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the
                                                                    period 30 March 1980 to 20 March 1981 and of the
          "The Economic and Social Council,                         recommendations and resolutions contained in
                                                                    chapters III and IV of the report."
          "Noting    the   recommendation      of       the
                                                                        B. RESOLUTIONS BROUGHT TO THE
Commission with regard to the request of the
                                                                          ATTENTION OF THE ECONOMIC
Government of the United States of America that
                                                                              AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Guam should be included in the geographical scope
of the Commission and admitted as an associate                            211 (XXXVII). Strengthening            the
member, as contained in its annual report,                                              Commission      in       the
                                                                                        promotion of the integration
                                                                                        of women in              the
          "Decides to amend paragraphs 2 and 4 of the
                                                                                        development process
terms of reference of the Commission accordingly."
                                                                          212 (XXXVII). Review and appraisal of the
_______                                                                                 implementation of the new
1                                                                                       International Development
    See chapter III, section C, paragraph 833 below.
                                                                                        Strategy

                                                              (1)
2l3 (XXXVII).   Unified approach to economic           217 (XXXVII).   Role of     qualified national
                and social development and                             personnel    in the social and
                planning                                               economic development        of
                                                                       developing countries
214 (XXXVII).   United Nations Conference on
                the Least Developed Countries          218 (XXXVII).   Impending retirement of J.B.P.
                                                                       Maramis, Executive Secretary
215 (XXXVII).   Charter of the Asian and Pacific                       of ESCAP
                Development Centre
                                                       219 (XXXVII).   Expanding and strengthening
216 (XXXVII).   Role of the       co-operative                         the     functions        of the
                movement in the social and                             Commission in the context of
                economic development of the                            the restructuring     of    the
                developing countries of Asia                           economic and social sectors of
                and the Pacific                                        the United Nations system




                                                   1
2l3 (XXXVII).   Unified approach to economic           217 (XXXVII).   Role of     qualified national
                and social development and                             personnel    in the social and
                planning                                               economic development        of
                                                                       developing countries
214 (XXXVII).   United Nations Conference on
                the Least Developed Countries          218 (XXXVII).   Impending retirement of J.B.P.
                                                                       Maramis, Executive Secretary
215 (XXXVII).   Charter of the Asian and Pacific                       of ESCAP
                Development Centre
                                                       219 (XXXVII).   Expanding and strengthening
216 (XXXVII).   Role of the       co-operative                         the     functions        of the
                movement in the social and                             Commission in the context of
                economic development of the                            the restructuring     of    the
                developing countries of Asia                           economic and social sectors of
                and the Pacific                                        the United Nations system




                                                   2
                                                 Chapter II

                WORK OF THE COMMISSION SINCE THE
                      THIRTY -SIXTH SESSION

4.      In pursuance of Commission resolution 206              Ministerial Conference on Social Welfare and Social
(XXXVI), the Asian and Pacific Development                     Development was held in lieu of the Committee on
Centre was established during the year under review,           Social Development.
integrating the four regional institutions, namely,            7.     Details concerning the meetings held are
APDI, APDAC, SWDCAP and APCWD. The                             given in annex III to the present report.
Director of APDC assumed his duties at the Centre.
                                                               Agriculture
5.      The following are some of the major
achievements during the year: (a) the ESCAP/RCTT               8.     The following meetings were held during the
                                                               period under review:
Symposium on Solar Science and Technology was
organized at Bangkok in November-December 1980;                      Four ARSAP (agricultural requisites scheme
(b) the Asian Reinsurance Corporation (ARC) started                  for Asia and the Pacific) training planning
underwriting business effective 1 January 1980 and                   workshops for instructors of agro-pesticide
the gross value of business for the first year of its                retailers: Bangkok, May 1980; Manila, June
operation was over $4 million; ARC is also                           1980; Rangoon, November 1980; Dacca,
                                                                     February 1981
proposing to undertake the developmental aspect of
its activities and is providing technical and advisory               Expert Group Meeting on    Agricultural
services to the insurance markets of its members; (c)                Development    Planning and Policies,
the Second Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference                  Bangkok, May 1980
on Social Welfare and Social Development was held
in October 1980; the Conference made specific                        Study Tour of Agricultural and Rural
                                                                     Development Institutions in Bangladesh,
recommendations relating to perspectives, priorities                 June-July 1980
and strategies in social we1;fare and social
development for the 1980s and urged their adoption                   Seminar on Agricultural Development
and implementation by member Governments and                         Planning, Tashkent, USSR, September 1980
United Nations agencies; it also recommended that
the Conference should be held at four-year intervals,                Workshop on Organizing Small Farmer
                                                                     Groups for Income-generating Activities,
the next one soon after the global meeting of                        Kathmandu, November 1980
ministers proposed for 1982; (d) the computer
system which had been generously offered by the                      Regional Consultative Meeting on      the
Government of Japan at the thirty-fifth session of the               Improvement of Lower-level     Fertilizer
Commission was installed in the secretariat and will                 Distribution Capacity in the Developing
strengthen the secretariat's capabilities as a focal                 Countries of the ESCAP Region, Bangkok,
                                                                     December 1980
point for the transfer of information on the economic
and social development of the region; (e) the total
value of the 1980 regional technical co-operation                    ESCAP/FAO Planning Consultation on Small
programmes administered by ESCAP reached a                           Farmer Group Marketing in Asia, Bangkok,
record level of $US 22,440,619; and (f) in view of                   December 1980
the concern expressed by ESCAP member countries
                                                                     Ad Hoc Advisory Group Meeting on a Special
about the present energy situation, the Special                      study on Food Supply in the ESCAP Region,
Project on Energy was established in the secretariat.                Bangkok, January 1981
                                                                     Five national workshops on local-level
A.     ACTIVITIES OF SUBSIDIARY BODIES                               planning: Manila, Dacca, Colombo, Jakarta,
                                                                     December1980; Kathmandu, February 1981
6.     The Committees on Development Planning,                 9.     The Fertilizer Advisory, Development and
Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and the                Information Network for Asia and the Pacific
Environment, Natural Resources, Shipping, and                  completed its third year of operation. In 1980, the
Transport and Communications, and Trade met                    Network organized a Regional Consultative Meeting
during the period under review. The Second Asian               on the Improvement of Lower-level Fertilizer
and Pacific                                                    Distribution Capacity in the Developing Countries of
                                                               the ESCAP
                                                         (3)
Region, which was an inter-country technical co-              15.     A preparatory consultation was convened in
operation project. Eleven member countries, namely,           December 1980 for the Colloquium on the
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, China, Indonesia,             Administration of Rural Development in the ASEAN
Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, the Republic of             countries. The Colloquium was conceived as a
Korea, Sri Lanka and Thailand, participated in the            follow up to the ASEAN Consultative Meeting of
project.                                                      Experts on Community Development, which had
                                                              been held at Jakarta in December 1976. It was also
10.    The Expert Group Meeting on Agricultural               felt that the Colloquium would be a logical and
Development Planning and Policies, which was                  useful sequel to the Round Table on Adaptation of
attended by experts from Bangladesh, India,                   Administration to Rural Development: Decentralized
Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and               Management and People's Participation in Poverty-
Thailand, discussed the main agricultural planning            focused Programmes and the Working Party on
and policy issues. The Group recommended that                 Public Service Delivery Systems for the Rural Poor
ESCAP should give high priority to the following              organized with the collaboration of the Government
projects: training in plan formulation, agricultural
                                                              of India in 1978 and 1979 respectively. The
sector analysis, monitoring programmes and
                                                              preparatory consultation was convened with the
projects, technical co-operation among developing
countries through exchange of ideas among                     basic understanding that the dominant concern of the
agricultural planners and scientists, and assistance to       Colloquium would be to consider the means of
developing countries in the formulation of                    improving the administrative capability for rural
agricultural plans, taking into consideration equity          development within tile ASEAN countries in order
and nutritional and ecological objectives.                    to alleviate poverty, improve distributive justice and
                                                              increase productivity and employment opportunities.
11.     At the Seminar on Agricultural Development            The meeting considered various aspects of those
Planning, organized jointly with the Development              issues, reviewing goals, policies and strategies for
Planning Division and UNDP, it was suggested that             accelerated rural development administration, and
ESCAP should convene a meeting of agricultural                also dealt with specific preparatory arrangements for
development planners once every two years to                  conducting the Colloquium itself. Complementary to
enable substantive consultations to be held on the            this area of work, the services of the regional adviser
modification of intersectoral and intrasectoral               on public administration were extended on request to
relationships in order to improve plan performance,           member countries to assist them in improving their
as well as on needed improvements in planning                 administrative capabilities in the execution of
techniques.                                                   development planning.

12.    The Ad Hoc Advisory Group Meeting on a                 16.     The report on a project designed to analyse
Special Study on Food Supply in the ESCAP Region              the long-term development experience of selected
reviewed the preliminary work performed by the                member countries, initiated in 1978 with financial
secretariat on the subject and recommended the                assistance from the Government of Japan and
major policy areas for coverage in the study.                 undertaken in co-operation with a Japanese national
                                                              research institution, was completed in April 1980.
                                                              The name of the project, "Growth, equity and
Development planning                                          structural change in the developing ESCAP region",
                                                              suggests its focus and the relevance of its findings to
13.    The Seminar on Agricultural Development                broad issues involving patterns of development and
Planning, mentioned above, was organized jointly              the distribution of the benefits of development.
with the Agriculture Division and UNDP.                       Based on an analysis of historical statistics and
                                                              institutional evolution in selected economies, the
14.    In October 1980, the Development Planning
                                                              findings included the observed patterns of sectoral
Division hosted a meeting of the Working Group on
Development Priorities and Policy Needs of South              change and associated aggregative growth indicators.
and East Asia, a subsidiary body of the Committee             Of particular interest were the observations relating
for Development Planning at Headquarters. The                 to changes in patterns in income distribution and
Working Group considered the elaboration of                   their association with aggregative and sectoral
regional and subregional strategies for the                   development patterns. The implications drawn from
development of south and east Asia during the Third           those findings were found to bear upon the range of
United Nations Development Decade, examining                  policy alternatives that confronted development
both the fundamental development issues involved              planners contemplating development strategies for
and specific development priorities and policy needs.         the 1980s. The project thus served as a component of
The Working Group submitted its findings for the              the secretariat's ongoing work concerning the
ESCAP region to Headquarters, where they were to              formulation of regional development strategies for
be combined with those from other regions to                  the Third Development Decade.
provide the basis for the Committee's
recommendations to the Economic and Social                    17.     Long-term projections work, initiated in 1977
Council with regard to appropriate strategies for the         with a view to providing a quantitative framework
Decade.                                                       for the formulation of development strategies for the

                                                          3
Region, which was an inter-country technical co-              15.     A preparatory consultation was convened in
operation project. Eleven member countries, namely,           December 1980 for the Colloquium on the
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, China, Indonesia,             Administration of Rural Development in the ASEAN
Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, the Republic of             countries. The Colloquium was conceived as a
Korea, Sri Lanka and Thailand, participated in the            follow up to the ASEAN Consultative Meeting of
project.                                                      Experts on Community Development, which had
                                                              been held at Jakarta in December 1976. It was also
10.    The Expert Group Meeting on Agricultural               felt that the Colloquium would be a logical and
Development Planning and Policies, which was                  useful sequel to the Round Table on Adaptation of
attended by experts from Bangladesh, India,                   Administration to Rural Development: Decentralized
Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and               Management and People's Participation in Poverty-
Thailand, discussed the main agricultural planning            focused Programmes and the Working Party on
and policy issues. The Group recommended that                 Public Service Delivery Systems for the Rural Poor
ESCAP should give high priority to the following              organized with the collaboration of the Government
projects: training in plan formulation, agricultural
                                                              of India in 1978 and 1979 respectively. The
sector analysis, monitoring programmes and
                                                              preparatory consultation was convened with the
projects, technical co-operation among developing
countries through exchange of ideas among                     basic understanding that the dominant concern of the
agricultural planners and scientists, and assistance to       Colloquium would be to consider the means of
developing countries in the formulation of                    improving the administrative capability for rural
agricultural plans, taking into consideration equity          development within tile ASEAN countries in order
and nutritional and ecological objectives.                    to alleviate poverty, improve distributive justice and
                                                              increase productivity and employment opportunities.
11.     At the Seminar on Agricultural Development            The meeting considered various aspects of those
Planning, organized jointly with the Development              issues, reviewing goals, policies and strategies for
Planning Division and UNDP, it was suggested that             accelerated rural development administration, and
ESCAP should convene a meeting of agricultural                also dealt with specific preparatory arrangements for
development planners once every two years to                  conducting the Colloquium itself. Complementary to
enable substantive consultations to be held on the            this area of work, the services of the regional adviser
modification of intersectoral and intrasectoral               on public administration were extended on request to
relationships in order to improve plan performance,           member countries to assist them in improving their
as well as on needed improvements in planning                 administrative capabilities in the execution of
techniques.                                                   development planning.

12.    The Ad Hoc Advisory Group Meeting on a                 16.     The report on a project designed to analyse
Special Study on Food Supply in the ESCAP Region              the long-term development experience of selected
reviewed the preliminary work performed by the                member countries, initiated in 1978 with financial
secretariat on the subject and recommended the                assistance from the Government of Japan and
major policy areas for coverage in the study.                 undertaken in co-operation with a Japanese national
                                                              research institution, was completed in April 1980.
                                                              The name of the project, "Growth, equity and
Development planning                                          structural change in the developing ESCAP region",
                                                              suggests its focus and the relevance of its findings to
13.    The Seminar on Agricultural Development                broad issues involving patterns of development and
Planning, mentioned above, was organized jointly              the distribution of the benefits of development.
with the Agriculture Division and UNDP.                       Based on an analysis of historical statistics and
                                                              institutional evolution in selected economies, the
14.    In October 1980, the Development Planning
                                                              findings included the observed patterns of sectoral
Division hosted a meeting of the Working Group on
Development Priorities and Policy Needs of South              change and associated aggregative growth indicators.
and East Asia, a subsidiary body of the Committee             Of particular interest were the observations relating
for Development Planning at Headquarters. The                 to changes in patterns in income distribution and
Working Group considered the elaboration of                   their association with aggregative and sectoral
regional and subregional strategies for the                   development patterns. The implications drawn from
development of south and east Asia during the Third           those findings were found to bear upon the range of
United Nations Development Decade, examining                  policy alternatives that confronted development
both the fundamental development issues involved              planners contemplating development strategies for
and specific development priorities and policy needs.         the 1980s. The project thus served as a component of
The Working Group submitted its findings for the              the secretariat's ongoing work concerning the
ESCAP region to Headquarters, where they were to              formulation of regional development strategies for
be combined with those from other regions to                  the Third Development Decade.
provide the basis for the Committee's
recommendations to the Economic and Social                    17.     Long-term projections work, initiated in 1977
Council with regard to appropriate strategies for the         with a view to providing a quantitative framework
Decade.                                                       for the formulation of development strategies for the

                                                          4
ESCAP region in the 1980s, was further elaborated                      Interagency Task      Force on      Human
during 1980. The work was based on a modelling                          Settlements   (fourth session),  Bangkok,
system developed at several Japanese universities                       September 1980; (fifth session), Bangkok,
and adapted in collaboration with secretariat staff to                  February 1981
improve the applicability of the system with respect
to the ESCAP region and its development issues. A                      Technical Advisory Committee of the
major report was completed which, making use of a                      Regional Network        for     Agricultural
conventional macroeconomic projections model and                       Machinery (fourth session), Bangkok,
input-output analysis, examined various alternative                    October 1980
development scenarios for the ESCAP region,
particularly with respect to the oil situation. Another                ESCAP/RCTT      Training     Workshop on
aspect of the work on projections, consisting of the                   Technology Transfer, Suva, October 1980
development of a regional LINK model, received
assistance from the Government of the Netherlands                      Intergovernmental Meeting on Agro-
and was carried out in close collaboration with the                     industries, with Emphasis on Production of
Department of International Economic and Social                         Energy and New Resources, Tokyo, October
Affairs at Headquarters, UNCTAD and national                           1980
research institutes within the region. It concentrated
on the building of an articulated system of country                    Fourth Seminar on Foreign Investment and
models for the region to provide the Asian                             Tax Administration, Bangalore, October
component of the developing country bloc in the                        1980 Intergovernmental Meeting of Heads of
global LINK system of projections. The work                            Standards Institutions in the Region,
continued into 1981.                                                   Bangkok, November 1980
18.     The secretariat prepared the Economic and                      ICPE/ESCAP/RCTT Regional Workshop on
Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1980. The first                  Management of Transfer of Technology by
part of the Survey consists of a review of economic                     Public Sector Enterprises in the ESCAP
developments in the region within the context of the                    Region, Bangalore, November 1980
global economic picture. The second part, which was
under taken as a special project in the Office of the                  UNCHS/ESCAP Expert Group Meeting on
Executive Secretary, provides a special study of the                   Integration of Physical Planning with
short term economic policy aspects of the energy                       Economic and Social Planning in Asia and
situation in the ESCAP region                                          the Pacific, Bangkok, November 1980
                                                                       Governing Body of the Regional Network for
Industry, housing and technology                                       Agricultural Machinery (third session),
                                                                       Bangkok, November 1980
19.    The following meetings were held during the
period under review:                                                   ESCAP/RCTT Symposium on Solar Science
                                                                       and Technology, Bangkok, November-
       Exhibition-cum-Workshop       for   Master                      December 1980
       Craftsmen of the ESCAP Region in Selected
       Handicrafts, Bangalore, April-May 1980                          ESCAP/RCTT Expert Group Meeting on
                                                                       Orientation of Research and Development for
       UNESCO/ESCAP Regional           Meeting of                      Industrial Growth, Beijing, December 1980
       Experts from South and Central Asia on
       Follow-up of UNCSTD Recommendations                             WIPO/RCTT/ESCAP national seminars on
       for Development of National and Regional                        patent information, Bangkok and Chiang
       Programmes and Projects in Science and                          Mai, January 1981
       Technology, Colombo, May 1980
                                                                       COSTED/ESCAP/RCTT Workshop on the
       Workshop on Technology Development and                          Role of User Education in Technology
       Technology Transfer for Utilization of                          Transfer, Bangalore, January 1981
       Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Colombo,
       May 1980                                                        Meeting of Senior Officials Preparatory to the
                                                                       ESCAP Meeting of Ministers of Science and
       Working Session on Integrated                                   Technology, Bangkok, February 1981
       Industrialization in Non-metropolitan Areas,
       Manila, June 1980                                        20.    The Workshop on Technology Development
                                                                and Technology Transfer for Utilization of
       ESCAP/RCTT Consultative Meeting              on          Medicinal and Aromatic Plants was organized jointly
       Electronics, Islamabad, August 1980                      by ESCAP and RCTT to consider the development
                                                                of national and regional projects which could be
       ESCAP/RCTT Consultative Meeting on                       submitted to the United Nations Interim Fund for
       Science and Technology, Beijing, August                  Science and Technology for Development. The
       1980                                                     Workshop evolved guidelines, which were made
                                                                available to the member countries, and presented
       ILO/ESCAP/RCTT Regional           Technical              some specific themes for the regional projects. It also
        Consultation on Information Documentation               offered observations and views with regard to the
        Processing and Dissemination on Alternative             procedures for the operation of the Fund; these were
        Technologies, Hyderabad, September 1980                 submitted as an input into the first
                                                          (5)
session of the Intergovernmental Committee on                  which had ceased to exist. The Meeting recognized
Science and Technology for Development.                        the enlarged role of the ESCAP secretariat in the
                                                               field of science and technology and proposed the
21.     The Working Session on Integrated                      strengthening of its in-house capabilities. It
Industrialization in Non-metropolitan Areas (INA)              emphasized that if the science and technology input
reviewed the projects so far identified in each                into the development effort was to be substantially
participating country and selected two specific                increased, there had to be a strategic approach
projects for each country for " further consideration.         whereby there would be a clear choice of strategic
It recommended that ESCAP should continue to play              objectives and corresponding determination of the
co-ordinating role in bringing together the group of           supporting policies, institutional arrangements,
seven participating countries and should at the                allocation of resources, procedures and so forth.
earliest opportunity open a dialogue with the
Government of Japan and ADB covering assistance
for funding a team of consultants who would prepare            24.    The Regional Workshop on Management of
a uniform format for the feasibility studies; visit the        Transfer of Technology by Public Sector Enterprises
member countries and assist them with the                      in the ESCAP Region was organized jointly by
reformulation of the projects in view of the new               ESCAP, RCTT and the International Centre for
approaches recommended; undertake the feasibility              Public Enterprises of Yugoslavia. It based its
studies for the projects recommended; and assist in            discussions on specific case studies of technology
the conduct of technical programmes for product                transfer and development in some of the public
development and product quality improvement and                sector enterprises in the region. The Workshop made
an integrated processing plant programme. It also              a number of recommendations for action at the
recommended that the members of the group should               national level and at the level of public enterprises
meet once a year to continue the exchange of views             and for co-operation among the public enterprises in
and experiences concerning the INA programme and               the developing countries, including the establishment
to institutionalize its existing arrangement of co-            of a network for co-operation among the public
operation.                                                     enterprises, the conduct of case studies and surveys
                                                               and the preparation of guidelines.
22. The ESCAP/RCTT Consultative Meeting on
Electronics was held to make a critical survey of the          25.     The UNCHS/ESCAP Expert Group Meeting
status of the industry in the countries of the ESCAP           on Integration of Physical Planning with Economic
region and to propose national initiatives and the             and Social Planning in Asia and the Pacific
framework of a regional programme for the                      recommended a number of measures, including the
promotion of that vital industry. It indicated the lines       establishment by ESCAP of a network of country
along which the institutional and policy
                                                               organizations on human settlements for the
infrastructure could be evolved in the countries
intending to develop the industry. The discussions             dissemination of experience on the integrated
focused particularly on policies relating to the               development planning of human settlements.
acquisition of foreign technologies. Emphasis was
laid on standardization and quality control. The               26. The ESCAP/RCTT Symposium on Solar Science
Meeting considered specific production lines, such             and Technology took stock of the progress of solar
as for radio and television, telecommunication                 science and technology in the ESCAP region,
equipment, instrumentation and control systems,                discussed numerous research papers, identified the
computers and components, and recommended                      direction of future efforts and suggested some
specific regional and national initiatives. It also            regional programmes for co-operation in the field of
established a regional network to provide a forum for          solar energy. An exhibition of solar equipment,
contacts, exchange of experiences, interaction and             SOLEX '80, organized in conjunction with the
planning of joint activities for the promotion of the          Symposium, provided a display of a wide variety of
electronics industry in tile region and proposed the           solar equipment, which has been retained
framework of a regional study to be undertaken by              permanently as the Energy Park of the Asian
the network.                                                   Institute of Technology, Bangkok. In its
                                                               recommendations, the Symposium emphasized the
23.    The ESCAP/RCTT Consultative Meeting on                  need for clearly designed policies, an appropriate
Science and Technology reviewed the follow-up                  institutional framework, incentives for the utilization
action taken at tile global, regional and national             of solar energy, proper direction of research and
levels since the United Nations Conference on                  development and increased availability of technical
Science and Technology for Development, which                  information. It recommended that a high-level panel
had been held at Vienna in August 1979. It                     of experts on solar science and technology should be
emphasized that the primary responsibility for
implementing the Vienna Programme of Action lay                attached to RCTT to advise it on building up an
with, the national Governments. It recommended the             appropriate regional programme. It was proposed
holding of a regional meeting of ministers of science          that RCTT should also examine the feasibility of
and technology and proposed the establishment of a             setting up a regional association of solar energy
regional advisory group of eminent scientists and              experts. The deliberations of the Symposium were
technologists, to replace the regional group of the            used as an input into the Regional Preparatory
Advisory Committee on the Application of Science               Meeting for the United Nations Conference on New
and      Technology         to         Development,            and Renewable Sources of Energy.
                                                           5
session of the Intergovernmental Committee on                  which had ceased to exist. The Meeting recognized
Science and Technology for Development.                        the enlarged role of the ESCAP secretariat in the
                                                               field of science and technology and proposed the
21.     The Working Session on Integrated                      strengthening of its in-house capabilities. It
Industrialization in Non-metropolitan Areas (INA)              emphasized that if the science and technology input
reviewed the projects so far identified in each                into the development effort was to be substantially
participating country and selected two specific                increased, there had to be a strategic approach
projects for each country for " further consideration.         whereby there would be a clear choice of strategic
It recommended that ESCAP should continue to play              objectives and corresponding determination of the
co-ordinating role in bringing together the group of           supporting policies, institutional arrangements,
seven participating countries and should at the                allocation of resources, procedures and so forth.
earliest opportunity open a dialogue with the
Government of Japan and ADB covering assistance
for funding a team of consultants who would prepare            24.    The Regional Workshop on Management of
a uniform format for the feasibility studies; visit the        Transfer of Technology by Public Sector Enterprises
member countries and assist them with the                      in the ESCAP Region was organized jointly by
reformulation of the projects in view of the new               ESCAP, RCTT and the International Centre for
approaches recommended; undertake the feasibility              Public Enterprises of Yugoslavia. It based its
studies for the projects recommended; and assist in            discussions on specific case studies of technology
the conduct of technical programmes for product                transfer and development in some of the public
development and product quality improvement and                sector enterprises in the region. The Workshop made
an integrated processing plant programme. It also              a number of recommendations for action at the
recommended that the members of the group should               national level and at the level of public enterprises
meet once a year to continue the exchange of views             and for co-operation among the public enterprises in
and experiences concerning the INA programme and               the developing countries, including the establishment
to institutionalize its existing arrangement of co-            of a network for co-operation among the public
operation.                                                     enterprises, the conduct of case studies and surveys
                                                               and the preparation of guidelines.
22. The ESCAP/RCTT Consultative Meeting on
Electronics was held to make a critical survey of the          25.     The UNCHS/ESCAP Expert Group Meeting
status of the industry in the countries of the ESCAP           on Integration of Physical Planning with Economic
region and to propose national initiatives and the             and Social Planning in Asia and the Pacific
framework of a regional programme for the                      recommended a number of measures, including the
promotion of that vital industry. It indicated the lines       establishment by ESCAP of a network of country
along which the institutional and policy
                                                               organizations on human settlements for the
infrastructure could be evolved in the countries
intending to develop the industry. The discussions             dissemination of experience on the integrated
focused particularly on policies relating to the               development planning of human settlements.
acquisition of foreign technologies. Emphasis was
laid on standardization and quality control. The               26. The ESCAP/RCTT Symposium on Solar Science
Meeting considered specific production lines, such             and Technology took stock of the progress of solar
as for radio and television, telecommunication                 science and technology in the ESCAP region,
equipment, instrumentation and control systems,                discussed numerous research papers, identified the
computers and components, and recommended                      direction of future efforts and suggested some
specific regional and national initiatives. It also            regional programmes for co-operation in the field of
established a regional network to provide a forum for          solar energy. An exhibition of solar equipment,
contacts, exchange of experiences, interaction and             SOLEX '80, organized in conjunction with the
planning of joint activities for the promotion of the          Symposium, provided a display of a wide variety of
electronics industry in tile region and proposed the           solar equipment, which has been retained
framework of a regional study to be undertaken by              permanently as the Energy Park of the Asian
the network.                                                   Institute of Technology, Bangkok. In its
                                                               recommendations, the Symposium emphasized the
23.    The ESCAP/RCTT Consultative Meeting on                  need for clearly designed policies, an appropriate
Science and Technology reviewed the follow-up                  institutional framework, incentives for the utilization
action taken at tile global, regional and national             of solar energy, proper direction of research and
levels since the United Nations Conference on                  development and increased availability of technical
Science and Technology for Development, which                  information. It recommended that a high-level panel
had been held at Vienna in August 1979. It                     of experts on solar science and technology should be
emphasized that the primary responsibility for
implementing the Vienna Programme of Action lay                attached to RCTT to advise it on building up an
with, the national Governments. It recommended the             appropriate regional programme. It was proposed
holding of a regional meeting of ministers of science          that RCTT should also examine the feasibility of
and technology and proposed the establishment of a             setting up a regional association of solar energy
regional advisory group of eminent scientists and              experts. The deliberations of the Symposium were
technologists, to replace the regional group of the            used as an input into the Regional Preparatory
Advisory Committee on the Application of Science               Meeting for the United Nations Conference on New
and      Technology         to         Development,            and Renewable Sources of Energy.
                                                           6
27. While the final decision regarding the holding of                 Preparatory Meeting of the      Standing
an ESCAP meeting of ministers of science and                           Committee of the Bangkok Agreement prior
technology, as well as its timing, venue and agenda,                   to the Second Round of Negotiations,
will be made by the Commission at its thirty-seventh                   Bangkok, September 1980
session, the Preparatory Meeting of Senior Officials
indicated the way in which the preparations for such                  ESCAP/pepper       Community     Meeting of
a meeting might be undertaken. It observed that the                    Specialists    on     Determination     of
issues to be submitted to the meeting should be                        Remunerative Price Levels of Pepper
sufficiently substantial and of common concern.                        Products, Jakarta, November 1980
Furthermore, their presentation should be supported
by adequate documentation. It suggested, therefore,                   Trade Co-operation Group (third session),
that a regional task force consisting of                               Bangkok, November 1980
representatives of the United Nations bodies                          Trade Negotiations Group (ninth session),
concerned should be established to assist in the                       Bangkok, November 1980
preparations for the meeting. It also indicated the
nature of the documentation which would be of                         UNCTAD/ESCAP Seminar on Insurance
interest to the ministers and the material on which it                 Supervision, Manila, November-December
might be based.                                                        1980
International trade                                                   Government  Consultation among Jute
                                                                       Producing Countries, Dacca, December
28. The following meetings were held during the                        1980
period under review:
                                                                      UNCTAD/ESCAP Regional Seminar on the
       Consultative Meeting  of      Regional                          Generalized System of   Preferences,
        Commodity Communities and Associations,                        Bangkok, January 1981
        Bangkok, April 1980
                                                                      ESCAP/ITC/PRODEC/TMA Regional
       Standing  Committee of the Bangkok                              Seminar on Import Management, Pattaya,
        Agreement (eighth session), Bangkok, April-                    Thailand, February 1981
        May 1980; (ninth session),       Bangkok,
        December 1980
                                                               Trade expansion and monetary co-operation
       Seminar on Regional Co-operative Measures
        on Shrimps/Marine Products, Co chin ,                  29.    At its eighth session, the Standing Committee
        India, May 1980                                        of the Bangkok Agreement carried out a major
                                                               review of the operation of the Agreement to
       UNCT AD/ESCAP Insurance Seminar on                      determine the means of advancing the aims of
        Large Risks, Singapore, May 1980                       promoting trade expansion and complementary
                                                               economies among member countries. It decided to
       UNCTAD/ESCAP         Workshop       on                  convene a preparatory meeting in September 1980
                                                               which worked out the modalities and guidelines for
        International Commodity Issues in the                  the second round of negotiations among the
        ESCAP Region, Bangkok, May 1980                        members of the Bangkok Agreement with a view to
                                                               expanding the product coverage of the Agreement
       Meeting of Directors of National Trade                  under preferential treatment and expanding its
        Development and Promotion Agencies,                    membership. At its ninth session, the Standing
        Bangkok, July 1980                                     Committee adopted the recommendations of the
                                                               preparatory meeting.
       ESCAP/pepper Community         Meeting of
        Specialists on a Socio-economic Study on               30. The countries have agreed to adopt a common set
        Production and Productivity of Pepper                  of rules of origin based on existing standard norms
        Holdings in the Pepper Community Member                and to harmonize their external trade statistics, to the
        Countries, Bangkok, July 1980                          extent possible, by adopting the concepts, standards
                                                               and definitions of terms used in international trade
       UNCTAD/ESCAP Seminar on              Life               statistics, as recommended by the United Nations
        Insurance, Bombay, July-August 1980                    Statistical Office. In the field of customs tariff
                                                               nomenclatures, the countries also agreed to follow
       ESCAP/UNCTAD Meeting of Experts on the                  the Customs Co-operation Council's suggested
        Least Developed Countries, Bangkok, July-              version of tariff nomenclature as at 1 January 1978.
        August 1980
                                                               31.    At its ninth session, the Trade Negotiations
       ESCAP/UNCTAD/UNDP Pacific                               Group (TNG) took note of the proposals relating to
        Subregional Workshop on Harmonization of
        External Trade Statistics and Customs Tariff           the three priority areas of the programme for
        Nomenclature and Valuation, Apia, Samoa,               economic co-operation among developing countries
        August 1980                                            and considered the study on co-operation in import
                                                               procurement among developing countries of the
       Workshop on Japanese Market Information,                ESCAP region. It also considered the report of the
        Tokyo, August 1980
                                                               Pacific Subregional Workshop on Harmonization of
       Subgroups of the Trade Co-operation Group               External Trade Statistics and Customs Tariff
        (third sessions), Bangkok, September 1980              Nomenclature and Valuation.

                                                         (7)
32.   A tripartite review of the Asian trade               Insurance and reinsurance
expansion programme was held in September 1980,
during which it was decided that a new project             39.     The Asian Reinsurance Corporation (ARC)
should be formulated on the basis of the results of        started underwriting business effective 1 January
the sessions of the Standing Committee of the              1980 and the gross value of business for the first year
Bangkok Agreement and TNG, after June 1981.                of its operation was over $4 million. ARC is also
                                                           proposing to undertake the developmental aspect of
33.   The third sessions of the Trade Co-operation         its activities and is providing technical and advisory
Group and of its Subgroups, except the Subgroups           services to the insurance markets of its members.
for Monetary and Credit Co-operation, and for
Encouragement and Liberalization of Trade within
the Region, were held during the year.                     Least developed, land-locked and developing island
                                                           countries
34.    The Trade Co-operation Group reviewed the
progress made in implementing the programme of             40.    A joint UNDP/UNCTAD/ESCAP inter-
action adopted at the Ministerial Conference on Co-        country programming mission for the least
operation in Trade for Asia and the Pacific held in        developed countries in Asia and the Pacific was
                                                           launched in September-October 1980 to identify
August 1978, as reported by the various Subgroups.         project proposals for the UNDP 1982-1986 cycle, in
While expressing thanks for the assistance so far          accordance with the views expressed by and the
provided, the Group hoped that adequate resources          requirements of the Governments concerned.
would be available from UNDP to implement the
decisions of the Subgroups.
                                                           41.     Similarly, a UNDP/ESCAP inter-country
                                                           programming mission was dispatched to the Pacific
Trade promotion and development                            island countries in September-October 1980 to
                                                           consult the Governments and international and
35.    During the year, over 28 developing countries       regional organizations involved. The mission
of the region continued to avail themselves of the         concentrated on intercountry programme and project
various services offered by the ESCAP Trade                identification for the next cycle, taking into account
Promotion Centre.                                          the wishes of the Governments concerned and the
                                                           expression of interest by other donors.
36.    The facilities of the Trade Information
Service were enlarged through the acquisition of
materials and documentation, as well as by                 42.    Under project RAS/72/077, "Assistance to
developing a substantial data base and updated trade       least developed land-locked countries", activities
information source data. Dissemination of trade            continued in accordance with the work plan covering
information to member countries was provided               studies on transport and transit routes, multimodal
through the Trade Information Sources Data Bank            transport systems, cargo handling, warehousing,
and the Trade Information Sources Directory.               documentation procedures and training.
Special training courses on trade information were
conducted at Bangkok for participants from 11
countries of the region.                                   Natural resources
                                                           43.    The following meetings were held during the
Raw materials and commodities                              period under review:

37.    A joint ESCAP/FAO mission visited major                    Meeting on Co-operation in ESCAP Mineral
tropical timber producing countries in the region                  Programmes (sixth session), Bangkok,
with a view to consulting the government authorities               March 1980; (seventh session), Bangkok,
concerned about the co-operative arrangements                      October 1980
among major tropical timber producing/exporting                   Expert Group Meeting on Water Pricing,
countries and the possibilities of establishing a                  Bangkok, May 1980
regional tropical timber community along the lines
of APCC and IPC. The mission report will be                       Working Group Meeting on Energy in the
submitted to the Intergovernmental Meeting of                      South Pacific, Apia, Samoa, June 1980
Tropical Timber Producing Countries, to be held in
June 1981.                                                        Interagency Task Force on Water for Asia
                                                                   and the Pacific (fifth session), Bangkok, July
38.     With a generous contribution from the                      1980
Government of India, the secretariat organized and
serviced the Seminar on Regional Co-operative                     Training Course on Flood Loss Prevention
Measures on Shrimps/Marine Products, which                         and Management, Bangkok, July 1980
recommended that, with a view to facilitating the
identification and implementation of proper regional              Study Tour on Methods of Flood Control,
co-operative measures, a regional consultative group               China, July-August 1980
on Shrimps/Marine products should be established
under the auspices of ESCAP. Two feasibility                      Seminar on Modem Methods of Mineral
studies on regional co-operative arrangements in                   Prospecting, Tashkent, USSR, August-
tapioca and silk have been completed.                              September 1980

                                                       7
32.   A tripartite review of the Asian trade               Insurance and reinsurance
expansion programme was held in September 1980,
during which it was decided that a new project             39.     The Asian Reinsurance Corporation (ARC)
should be formulated on the basis of the results of        started underwriting business effective 1 January
the sessions of the Standing Committee of the              1980 and the gross value of business for the first year
Bangkok Agreement and TNG, after June 1981.                of its operation was over $4 million. ARC is also
                                                           proposing to undertake the developmental aspect of
33.   The third sessions of the Trade Co-operation         its activities and is providing technical and advisory
Group and of its Subgroups, except the Subgroups           services to the insurance markets of its members.
for Monetary and Credit Co-operation, and for
Encouragement and Liberalization of Trade within
the Region, were held during the year.                     Least developed, land-locked and developing island
                                                           countries
34.    The Trade Co-operation Group reviewed the
progress made in implementing the programme of             40.    A joint UNDP/UNCTAD/ESCAP inter-
action adopted at the Ministerial Conference on Co-        country programming mission for the least
operation in Trade for Asia and the Pacific held in        developed countries in Asia and the Pacific was
                                                           launched in September-October 1980 to identify
August 1978, as reported by the various Subgroups.         project proposals for the UNDP 1982-1986 cycle, in
While expressing thanks for the assistance so far          accordance with the views expressed by and the
provided, the Group hoped that adequate resources          requirements of the Governments concerned.
would be available from UNDP to implement the
decisions of the Subgroups.
                                                           41.     Similarly, a UNDP/ESCAP inter-country
                                                           programming mission was dispatched to the Pacific
Trade promotion and development                            island countries in September-October 1980 to
                                                           consult the Governments and international and
35.    During the year, over 28 developing countries       regional organizations involved. The mission
of the region continued to avail themselves of the         concentrated on intercountry programme and project
various services offered by the ESCAP Trade                identification for the next cycle, taking into account
Promotion Centre.                                          the wishes of the Governments concerned and the
                                                           expression of interest by other donors.
36.    The facilities of the Trade Information
Service were enlarged through the acquisition of
materials and documentation, as well as by                 42.    Under project RAS/72/077, "Assistance to
developing a substantial data base and updated trade       least developed land-locked countries", activities
information source data. Dissemination of trade            continued in accordance with the work plan covering
information to member countries was provided               studies on transport and transit routes, multimodal
through the Trade Information Sources Data Bank            transport systems, cargo handling, warehousing,
and the Trade Information Sources Directory.               documentation procedures and training.
Special training courses on trade information were
conducted at Bangkok for participants from 11
countries of the region.                                   Natural resources
                                                           43.    The following meetings were held during the
Raw materials and commodities                              period under review:

37.    A joint ESCAP/FAO mission visited major                    Meeting on Co-operation in ESCAP Mineral
tropical timber producing countries in the region                  Programmes (sixth session), Bangkok,
with a view to consulting the government authorities               March 1980; (seventh session), Bangkok,
concerned about the co-operative arrangements                      October 1980
among major tropical timber producing/exporting                   Expert Group Meeting on Water Pricing,
countries and the possibilities of establishing a                  Bangkok, May 1980
regional tropical timber community along the lines
of APCC and IPC. The mission report will be                       Working Group Meeting on Energy in the
submitted to the Intergovernmental Meeting of                      South Pacific, Apia, Samoa, June 1980
Tropical Timber Producing Countries, to be held in
June 1981.                                                        Interagency Task Force on Water for Asia
                                                                   and the Pacific (fifth session), Bangkok, July
38.     With a generous contribution from the                      1980
Government of India, the secretariat organized and
serviced the Seminar on Regional Co-operative                     Training Course on Flood Loss Prevention
Measures on Shrimps/Marine Products, which                         and Management, Bangkok, July 1980
recommended that, with a view to facilitating the
identification and implementation of proper regional              Study Tour on Methods of Flood Control,
co-operative measures, a regional consultative group               China, July-August 1980
on Shrimps/Marine products should be established
under the auspices of ESCAP. Two feasibility                      Seminar on Modem Methods of Mineral
studies on regional co-operative arrangements in                   Prospecting, Tashkent, USSR, August-
tapioca and silk have been completed.                              September 1980

                                                       8
       Seminar on the Improvement of Irrigation                three-year regional programme is expected to begin
        Performance at the Project        Level,               in 1982.
        Krasnodar, USSR, August-September 1980
                                                               50. The UNDP/ESCAP/United Nations natural
       Joint IOC/WESTPAC-CCOP/SOPAC Second
        International Workshop on Geology,                     resources sector review mission visited SEATRADC
        Mineral Resources and Geophysics of the                in July 1980; it reviewed the UNDP project activities
        South Pacific, Noumea, New Caledonia,                  and the proposals made by the Centre for specific
        October 1980                                           activities for which continued assistance during the
                                                               UNDP third programming cycle (1982-1986) was
       Seminar on Geothermal Energy, Rotorua and               requested. In the mean time, the extension of
        Auckland, October-November 1980                        assistance to the end of 1981 has been approved by
                                                               UNDP. A project document for a second phase of
       Regional Preparatory Meeting for the United             UNDP assistance of $1,200,000, covering the period
        Nations Conference on New and Renewable
        Sources of Energy, Bangkok, December                   1982-1984, is under preparation. The Board of
        1980                                                   Management of the Centre, at its sixth regular
                                                               session, held at Ipoh in October 1980, approved
                                                               a budget of over $M 1,502,000 for 1981. This
44.     The Working Group Meeting on Energy in                 represented a substantial increase in member country
the South Pacific reviewed the current energy                  contributions to the 1980 budget of over $M 800,000
situation of the countries in the Pacific area and the         and demonstrated the interest and close co-operation
resultant needs for energy development. The main               of the three member Governments of the Centre. At
outcome of the Meeting was the formulation of the              present, eight professional staff are provided and
Pacific regional energy programme, covering energy
planning and management, information exchange,                 funded by the participating Governments. Two
resources data, wood and waste utilization, small-             additional staff (a mineralogist and a geologist/
scale energy development and large-scale energy                geophysicist) are being recruited. Four international
development. The Meeting also recommended that                 experts were provided by UNDP. In addition, France
the programme should be supported by various                   provided a geochemist/geologist volunteer while the
donor countries and organizations, as well as UNDP.            Federal Republic of Germany provided a funds-in-
                                                               trust associate expert in mineralogy .
45.   The participants in the Seminar on the
Improvement of Irrigation Performance at the Project           51.    At its seventh session, held at Bangkok in
Level observed the techniques used by the USSR in
improving irrigation performance at the project level,         March 1980, the WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical
which resulted in high outputs in rice production.             Cyclones decided that the Technical Support Unit
                                                               should be moved periodically to enable all of the
46.    In response to Economic and Social Council              members to share the benefits of having the Unit
resolution 1979/31, a regional review report on the            located in their country. The Panel also adopted a
preparatory activities for the International Drinking          time-table for Panel members to take over the duties
Water Supply and Sanitation Decade was prepared                and responsibilities of the three posts currently filled
on the basis of the country reports which were                 by internationally recruited staff by providing a
submitted to United Nations Headquarters in                    hydrologist in 1981, a chief technical officer in 1983
response to a note by the Secretary-General dated 2
November 1979.                                                 and a telecommunication/electronics expert in 1985.

47.    Following the request made at the thirty-fifth
session of the Commission for UNDP assistance for
a three-year regional co-operation programme on                Population
remote sensing, a preparatory UNDP/ESCAP
mission was organized during May-June 1980 to                  52.    The following meetings were held during the
formulate a programme for regional co-operation in             period under review:
remote sensing.
                                                                      Second Study Directors' Meeting on the
48.    The mission visited and consulted                               Study of the Impact of Family Planning
government authorities in Bangladesh, China, India,                    Programmes: Multivariate Analysis of
Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, the Republic of                     Family Planning Programmes' Contribution
Korea and Viet Nam. By means of a questionnaire,                       to Fertility Change, Bangkok, May 1980
the views of all the remaining ESCAP countries were
sought on the formulation of the regional remote                      First Meeting of the Study Directors on the
sensing programme.                                                     Study of the Relationship between Fertility
49.    The mission identified and recommended a                        Behaviour and Size, Structure and Functions
multidisciplinary regional remote sensing                              of the Family, Bangkok, June 1980
programme comprising information exchange,
training, and joint research and pilot applications                   Regional Seminar on the Use of Multivariate
projects as the main components. The mission also                      Techniques in Second-stage Analysis of
recommended an institutional framework for the                         World Fertility Survey Data for Selected
programme.      UNDP       support     for      the                    ESCAP Countries, Bangkok, August 1980
                                                         (9)
       Preparatory Committee for the Third Asian                    Joint ESCAP/IMCO Regional Meeting of
        and Pacific Population Conference (first                     Experts in Maritime         Training   and
        session), Bangkok, October-November 1980                     Certification, Bangkok, April-May 1980

       Advisory Committee on Migration and                          Workshop on Shippers' Co-operation: Legal
        Urbanization (second session), Bangkok,                      and Institutional      Framework     and
        November 1980                                                Negotiations in Shipping, Bangkok, August
                                                                     1980
       ESCAP/WHO Research Seminar on Social
        and Psychological Aspects of Fertility and                  Third Workshop on Economic Statistics of
        Family Planning Behaviour, Bangkok,                          Shipping, Bangkok, September 1980
        November 1980                                               Workshop for Port Trainers on Container
                                                                     Terminal Operations and Management,
       WHO/ESCAP Meeting on Mortality in Asia:                       Manila, September 1980
        A Review of Changing Trends and Patterns,
        Manila, December 1980                                       Meeting of Chief Executives of National
                                                                    Shippers' Organizations (fourth session),
53.     The Preparatory Committee for the Third                     Bangkok, September 1980
Asian and Pacific Population Conference
recommended that "an integrated approach to                         Meeting of Chief Executives of National
population and related development issues" should                   Shipowners' Associations (third session),
be adopted as the theme of the Conference scheduled                  Bangkok, September 1980
to be held at Colombo in September 1982. The
provisional agenda for the Conference recommended                   Meeting of Chief       Executives of Port
by the Committee includes formulation and                            Authorities (first    session),  Bangkok,
implementation of integrated population and                          September 1980
development policies; demographic situation and
outlook; urbanization and growth of cities; spatial                 Joint Meeting of Chief Executives of National
mobility, including redistribution programmes, other                 Shippers'    Organizations,     Shipowners'
internal migration and international migration;                      Associations and Port Authorities, Bangkok,
strategies for meeting basic socio-economic needs in                 September 1980
the context of achieving the goals of population
policies and programmes; and evaluation of                          Workshop on       Shippers' Co-operation:
integrated schemes and strategies in family planning.                Transport of Copra and Coconut Products,
The Committee also identified a number of                            Suva, October 1980
important topics which were common to several                       Seminar on Port Construction       and
agenda items, among which were the situation of                      Development, Paris, September-October
disadvantaged groups and cultural aspects of                         1980
population change. The Committee agreed that
participation ill the Conference should be of a                     Study Tour by Chief Executives of National
general intergovernmental nature.                                    Shippers' Organizations, Hong Kong/Tokyo/
                                                                     United States of America, November 1980
54.     The secretariat collaborated with the
Population Division of United Nations Headquarters                  Workshop on Planning of Shipping Services,
in implementing the minimum research programme                       Beijing, October-November 1980
for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey
data. A report entitled "Levels and trends of fertility
in the ESCAP region: comparative analysis of World                  Seminar on Planning and Management of
Fertility Survey data" was prepared and presented to                 Modern Cargo Terminals, Yokohama,
the United Nations Working Group on Comparative                      November 1980
Analysis of World Fertility Survey Data at its fourth
session, held at Geneva in November 1980.                           Workshop on Shippers' Co-operation: Cargo
                                                                     Consolidation, Calcutta, January 1981
                                                                    Workshop on Shippers'  Co-operation:
Shipping, ports and inland waterways                                Calculation of Ocean Costs, Madras,
                                                                     January 1981
55.    The following meetings were held during the                  Workshop on the Training of Trainers, Hong
period under review:                                                 Kong, February 1981 :
       Working Group on Co-operation among Ship-              56.    The Meeting of Chief Executives of National
        owners, Bangkok, April 1980                           Shippers' Organizations recommended that the issues
                                                              on (a) implications for shippers of the currency
                                                              adjustment factor and bunker adjustment factor and
       Joint   Working Group on Co-operation                  (b) shippers' contracts with shipping conferences
               between Shippers and Shipowners,               should be taken up in the consultations between
               Bangkok, April 1980                            shippers in the ESCAP region and Europe. With
                                                              regard to co-operation between shippers and
       Joint Ad Hoc Working Group on Co-                      shipowners, the Meeting requested the secretariat to
        operation between Shippers in the ESCAP               pursue the concept of establishing a consultation/
        Region and Europe, Bangkok, April 1980                negotiation machinery for such co-operation.
                                                          9
       Preparatory Committee for the Third Asian                     Joint ESCAP/IMCO Regional Meeting of
        and Pacific Population Conference (first                      Experts in Maritime         Training   and
        session), Bangkok, October-November 1980                      Certification, Bangkok, April-May 1980

       Advisory Committee on Migration and                           Workshop on Shippers' Co-operation: Legal
        Urbanization (second session), Bangkok,                       and Institutional      Framework     and
        November 1980                                                 Negotiations in Shipping, Bangkok, August
                                                                      1980
       ESCAP/WHO Research Seminar on Social
        and Psychological Aspects of Fertility and                   Third Workshop on Economic Statistics of
        Family Planning Behaviour, Bangkok,                           Shipping, Bangkok, September 1980
        November 1980                                                Workshop for Port Trainers on Container
                                                                      Terminal Operations and Management,
       WHO/ESCAP Meeting on Mortality in Asia:                        Manila, September 1980
        A Review of Changing Trends and Patterns,
        Manila, December 1980                                        Meeting of Chief Executives of National
                                                                     Shippers' Organizations (fourth session),
53.     The Preparatory Committee for the Third                      Bangkok, September 1980
Asian and Pacific Population Conference
recommended that "an integrated approach to                          Meeting of Chief Executives of National
population and related development issues" should                    Shipowners' Associations (third session),
be adopted as the theme of the Conference scheduled                   Bangkok, September 1980
to be held at Colombo in September 1982. The
provisional agenda for the Conference recommended                    Meeting of Chief       Executives of Port
by the Committee includes formulation and                             Authorities (first    session),  Bangkok,
implementation of integrated population and                           September 1980
development policies; demographic situation and
outlook; urbanization and growth of cities; spatial                  Joint Meeting of Chief Executives of National
mobility, including redistribution programmes, other                  Shippers'    Organizations,     Shipowners'
internal migration and international migration;                       Associations and Port Authorities, Bangkok,
strategies for meeting basic socio-economic needs in                  September 1980
the context of achieving the goals of population
policies and programmes; and evaluation of                           Workshop on       Shippers' Co-operation:
integrated schemes and strategies in family planning.                 Transport of Copra and Coconut Products,
The Committee also identified a number of                             Suva, October 1980
important topics which were common to several                        Seminar on Port Construction       and
agenda items, among which were the situation of                       Development, Paris, September-October
disadvantaged groups and cultural aspects of                          1980
population change. The Committee agreed that
participation ill the Conference should be of a                      Study Tour by Chief Executives of National
general intergovernmental nature.                                     Shippers' Organizations, Hong Kong/Tokyo/
                                                                      United States of America, November 1980
54.     The secretariat collaborated with the
Population Division of United Nations Headquarters                   Workshop on Planning of Shipping Services,
in implementing the minimum research programme                        Beijing, October-November 1980
for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey
data. A report entitled "Levels and trends of fertility
in the ESCAP region: comparative analysis of World                   Seminar on Planning and Management of
Fertility Survey data" was prepared and presented to                  Modern Cargo Terminals, Yokohama,
the United Nations Working Group on Comparative                       November 1980
Analysis of World Fertility Survey Data at its fourth
session, held at Geneva in November 1980.                            Workshop on Shippers' Co-operation: Cargo
                                                                      Consolidation, Calcutta, January 1981
                                                                     Workshop on Shippers'  Co-operation:
Shipping, ports and inland waterways                                 Calculation of Ocean Costs, Madras,
                                                                      January 1981
55.    The following meetings were held during the                   Workshop on the Training of Trainers, Hong
period under review:                                                  Kong, February 1981 :
       Working Group on Co-operation among Ship-               56.    The Meeting of Chief Executives of National
        owners, Bangkok, April 1980                            Shippers' Organizations recommended that the issues
                                                               on (a) implications for shippers of the currency
                                                               adjustment factor and bunker adjustment factor and
       Joint   Working Group on Co-operation                   (b) shippers' contracts with shipping conferences
               between Shippers and Shipowners,                should be taken up in the consultations between
               Bangkok, April 1980                             shippers in the ESCAP region and Europe. With
                                                               regard to co-operation between shippers and
       Joint Ad Hoc Working Group on Co-                       shipowners, the Meeting requested the secretariat to
        operation between Shippers in the ESCAP                pursue the concept of establishing a consultation/
        Region and Europe, Bangkok, April 1980                 negotiation machinery for such co-operation.
                                                          10
57.    At the Meeting of Chief Executives of                           Subregional Follow-up Meeting for Pacific
National Shipowners' Associations, it was                               Women on the World Conference of the
unanimously agreed that the representatives of                          United Nations Decade for Women, Suva,
national shipowners' associations should meet for                       October-November 1980
consultations from time to time and review at a later
date the prospects for the establishment of a regional                 Ad Hoc Meeting with Interagency and Non-
shipowners' association. The Meeting also                               governmental Organizations Concerned with
considered the desirability of developing subregional                   Youth Development in the Region,
shipping groups for co-operation in shipping matters.                   Bangkok, November 1980
The Meeting recommended a list of items for co-
operation among shipowners, shippers and port                          ESCAP/OISCA Regional Forum on Active
authorities.                                                            Youth    Participation     in    National
                                                                        Development, Jakarta, December 1980
58.     The Meeting of Chief Executives of Port
Authorities endorsed the ESCAP work programme                          Expert Group Meeting on the Development of
on port development and considered the training of                      Relevant Indicators       for    Planning,
port personnel at all levels to be a matter of high                     Monitoring and Evaluation of Country
priority. It noted a number of major problem areas in
which co-operation between shippers, shipowners                         Efforts for Promoting Youth's Role in
and port authorities would be most profitable.                          Development, Manila, December 1980

59.    The first Joint Meeting of Chief Executives of                  Technical Meeting on Aging for the Asian
National Shippers' Organizations, Shipowners'                           and Pacific Region, Bangkok, January 1981
Associations and Port Authorities unanimously
agreed that co-operation among the three parties was                   Ad Hoc Interagency Meeting on Women and
the most essential step towards the improvement of                      Development, Bangkok, February 1981
shipping services and the expansion of trade in the
region. The need for co-operation among all parties                    Workshop on Social Problems of Low-
involved with a view to the proper planning of                          income Urban Groups: Some Legal
expansion and development of port facilities was                        Approaches, Bangkok, February 1981
also stressed. The Meeting recognized that
documentation was an important element in the                   61.     The Ministerial Conference, which was
smooth flow of traffic. In that connexion, it was               attended by representatives of 30 members and
stressed that efforts should be made to find ways and           associate members, of which 18 were at the
means of simplifying and rationalizing                          ministerial level, made specific recommendations
documentation and port clearance procedures.                    relating to perspectives, priorities and strategies in
                                                                social welfare and social development for the 1980s
Social development                                              and urged their adoption and implementation by
                                                                member Governments and United Nations agencies.
60.    The following meetings were held during the              It further urged that APDC should give special
period under review:                                            organizational identity to programmes relating to
                                                                social welfare and development. It recommended
       Field Study and Workshop on Self-                        that the Conference should be held at four-year
        employment and Family Life Education                    intervals, the next one soon after the global meeting
        Programmes for Young Women in Rural                     of ministers proposed for 1982.
        Areas     through    Group Participation,
        Philippines, Apri11980                                  62.     The Subregional Meeting for Pacific Women
                                                                was held as a follow-up of the Regional Preparatory
       Seminar/Workshop on the Role of Young                    Conference for the World Conference of the United
        Women      in    Social Progress  and                   Nations Decade for Women, held in 1979, and the
        Development, Especially in Industries,                  World Conference itself, held in 1980. It approved a
        Singapore, May 1980                                     Plan of Action for Pacific Women containing policy
       Expert Group Meeting on Women and Forest                 guidelines for adoption by Governments and the
        Industries, Bangkok, June 1980                          United Nations system in promoting and developing
                                                                action programmes for the effective participation and
       National leadership training workshops for               contribution of women in all aspects of development
        youth leaders and workers: Thailand, June-              in the subregion by the end of the second half of the
        July 1980; Nepal, August-September 1980;                Decade in 1985.
        Papua New Guinea, November-December
        1980; Bangladesh, January-February 1981                 63.    The Technical Meeting and Regional Seminar
                                                                formulated specific proposals for a promotional,
       Technical Meeting and Regional Seminar on                preventive and rehabilitative programme for disabled
        the Objectives and Plan of Action of the                persons in the developing countries, with particular
        International Year of Disabled Persons,                 emphasis on those in the rural areas. It recommended
        Bangkok, September 1980                                 the strengthening of regional co-operation in all
                                                                aspects of rehabilitation and prevention, including
       Second Asian and Pacific Ministerial                     the establishment of a unit within the secretariat in
        Conference on Social Welfare and Social                 which competent disabled persons should be
        Development. Bangkok, October 1980                      employed. It         also      recommended       that
                                                         (11)
the secretariat should convene an expert group                 of the region and discussed the role of the National
meeting to consider the feasibility of establishing a          Household Survey Capability Programme (NHSCP),
regional institute for training and research on the            which was enthusiastically endorsed as a means of
prevention of disability and the rehabilitation of             strengthening survey capabilities. The Seminar
disabled persons as a long-term objective.                     discussed in detail the role of household surveys in
                                                               national statistical systems, the problems involved in
64.    The Ad Hoc Meeting with Interagency and                 organizing integrated household surveys, sampling
Non-governmental Organizations Concerned with                  methods and designs and the prerequisites of
Youth Development in the Region discussed ways                 sampling, methodological problems relating to
and means to facilitate co-ordination among regional           household surveys in various subject fields, the
youth organizations and agencies concerned with                particular difficulties of collecting data on women,
youth development, including the establishment of              children and youth and on disabled persons, data
an appropriate mechanism for institutionalizing such           processing and the evaluation, analysis and use of
co-ordination and the development of a preliminary             survey data. The Seminar also suggested a future
regional plan of action for the observance in 1985 of          course of action which gives a crucial role to
International Youth Year: Participation,                       NHSCP.
Development, Peace. The Meeting stressed the role
of ESCAP in co-ordinating and integrating efforts
for youth development in the region.                           69.      NHSCP has taken shape in the region. A team
                                                               of regional advisers, three financed by UNFPA and
65.    The Ad Hoc Interagency Meeting on Women                 one provided by ILO, was constituted to assist the
and Development identified areas for joint action and          Statistics Division in implementing the Programme.
mechanisms for effecting co-operation in                       A project proposal for strengthening national
implementing the world, regional and subregional               household survey capability in Thailand has been
plans of action.                                               formulated, discussed and subsequently revised, and
                                                               is now under consideration by the Government. A
66.     Since 1977 the secretariat has received a total        mission consisting of the NHSCP Co-ordinator and
of $1,252,710 from the Voluntary Fund for the                  two staff members of the secretariat visited the South
United Nations Decade for Women. An additional                 Pacific in April-May 1980 and formulated proposals
$450,973 was approved by the Fund during 1980 for              for Fiji, Samoa and Solomon Islands; these are also
the implementation of new projects in the countries            under consideration. The preliminary findings of the
of the ESCAP region. The following projects and                mission with regard to Tonga were followed up at a
activities were implemented during the period under            later date and a draft project proposal has since been
review: (a) training of trainers of rural women in             prepared. Interest in the Programme has also been
income. generating activities and labour-saving                expressed by Papua New Guinea, the Republic of
devices: Nepal; (b) promotion and training of rural            Korea and Vanuatu. In a related development, a
women in income-raising group activities.: regional,           project for the establishment of an integrated
including the Pacific subregion; (c) national women's          statistical system in Sri Lanka, with an in-built
co-operative development programme: Philippines;               national household survey programme, has
(d) APCWD Women's Resource Book (updated and                   commenced.
published in 1980); (e) APCWD subregional
workshop for project identification, formulation and           70.     Apart from assisting in developing project
development; and (f) field training for South Pacific          proposals in selected countries which have shown
rural services.                                                interest in the Programme, the secretariat has also
                                                               undertaken a review of the household survey
Statistics                                                     experiences of the countries of the region, especially
                                                               in the field of labour force and household income
67.    The following meetings were held during the             and expenditure, and reviews have been prepared in
period under review:                                           respect of 10 countries A regional review on
                                                               household surveys was prepared for inclusion in the
       Seminar on Household Surveys, Bangkok,                  revised version of the United Nations Handbook on
        September 1980                                         Household Surveys.
       ESCAP/IEA/EEC Workshop on Energy
        Statistics, Karachi, October 1980                      71.     The Workshop on Energy Statistics was
                                                               hosted by the Government of Pakistan with financial
       UNSO/ESCAP Pacific         Workshop     on              assistance from the International Energy Agency of
        Environment Statistics, Honolulu, October              OECD and the Commission of the European
        1980                                                   Communities. Experts from 11, mostly Asian,
                                                               members and associate members of the Commission
       UNSO/ESCAP      Asian     Workshop      on              participated. The Workshop dealt with statistics on
        Environment Statistics, Pattaya, Thailand,             all forms of energy in the context of over-all energy
        February 1981                                          balances, but concentrated its attention on non-
                                                               conventional energy sources for which data remain
68. The Seminar on Household Surveys, financed by              extremely scarce; methodologies for collecting such
the Federal Republic of Germany, was attended by               information were discussed in detail. The Workshop
survey statisticians from 22 members and associate             also made several recommendations designed to
members of the Commission. The Seminar reviewed                further the development of comprehensive,
the current household survey programmes of the                 internationally comparable energy statistics in the
countries                                                      ESCAP region.
                                                          11
the secretariat should convene an expert group                 of the region and discussed the role of the National
meeting to consider the feasibility of establishing a          Household Survey Capability Programme (NHSCP),
regional institute for training and research on the            which was enthusiastically endorsed as a means of
prevention of disability and the rehabilitation of             strengthening survey capabilities. The Seminar
disabled persons as a long-term objective.                     discussed in detail the role of household surveys in
                                                               national statistical systems, the problems involved in
64.    The Ad Hoc Meeting with Interagency and                 organizing integrated household surveys, sampling
Non-governmental Organizations Concerned with                  methods and designs and the prerequisites of
Youth Development in the Region discussed ways                 sampling, methodological problems relating to
and means to facilitate co-ordination among regional           household surveys in various subject fields, the
youth organizations and agencies concerned with                particular difficulties of collecting data on women,
youth development, including the establishment of              children and youth and on disabled persons, data
an appropriate mechanism for institutionalizing such           processing and the evaluation, analysis and use of
co-ordination and the development of a preliminary             survey data. The Seminar also suggested a future
regional plan of action for the observance in 1985 of          course of action which gives a crucial role to
International Youth Year: Participation,                       NHSCP.
Development, Peace. The Meeting stressed the role
of ESCAP in co-ordinating and integrating efforts
for youth development in the region.                           69.      NHSCP has taken shape in the region. A team
                                                               of regional advisers, three financed by UNFPA and
65.    The Ad Hoc Interagency Meeting on Women                 one provided by ILO, was constituted to assist the
and Development identified areas for joint action and          Statistics Division in implementing the Programme.
mechanisms for effecting co-operation in                       A project proposal for strengthening national
implementing the world, regional and subregional               household survey capability in Thailand has been
plans of action.                                               formulated, discussed and subsequently revised, and
                                                               is now under consideration by the Government. A
66.     Since 1977 the secretariat has received a total        mission consisting of the NHSCP Co-ordinator and
of $1,252,710 from the Voluntary Fund for the                  two staff members of the secretariat visited the South
United Nations Decade for Women. An additional                 Pacific in April-May 1980 and formulated proposals
$450,973 was approved by the Fund during 1980 for              for Fiji, Samoa and Solomon Islands; these are also
the implementation of new projects in the countries            under consideration. The preliminary findings of the
of the ESCAP region. The following projects and                mission with regard to Tonga were followed up at a
activities were implemented during the period under            later date and a draft project proposal has since been
review: (a) training of trainers of rural women in             prepared. Interest in the Programme has also been
income. generating activities and labour-saving                expressed by Papua New Guinea, the Republic of
devices: Nepal; (b) promotion and training of rural            Korea and Vanuatu. In a related development, a
women in income-raising group activities.: regional,           project for the establishment of an integrated
including the Pacific subregion; (c) national women's          statistical system in Sri Lanka, with an in-built
co-operative development programme: Philippines;               national household survey programme, has
(d) APCWD Women's Resource Book (updated and                   commenced.
published in 1980); (e) APCWD subregional
workshop for project identification, formulation and           70.     Apart from assisting in developing project
development; and (f) field training for South Pacific          proposals in selected countries which have shown
rural services.                                                interest in the Programme, the secretariat has also
                                                               undertaken a review of the household survey
Statistics                                                     experiences of the countries of the region, especially
                                                               in the field of labour force and household income
67.    The following meetings were held during the             and expenditure, and reviews have been prepared in
period under review:                                           respect of 10 countries A regional review on
                                                               household surveys was prepared for inclusion in the
       Seminar on Household Surveys, Bangkok,                  revised version of the United Nations Handbook on
        September 1980                                         Household Surveys.
       ESCAP/IEA/EEC Workshop on Energy
        Statistics, Karachi, October 1980                      71.     The Workshop on Energy Statistics was
                                                               hosted by the Government of Pakistan with financial
       UNSO/ESCAP Pacific         Workshop     on              assistance from the International Energy Agency of
        Environment Statistics, Honolulu, October              OECD and the Commission of the European
        1980                                                   Communities. Experts from 11, mostly Asian,
                                                               members and associate members of the Commission
       UNSO/ESCAP      Asian     Workshop      on              participated. The Workshop dealt with statistics on
        Environment Statistics, Pattaya, Thailand,             all forms of energy in the context of over-all energy
        February 1981                                          balances, but concentrated its attention on non-
                                                               conventional energy sources for which data remain
68. The Seminar on Household Surveys, financed by              extremely scarce; methodologies for collecting such
the Federal Republic of Germany, was attended by               information were discussed in detail. The Workshop
survey statisticians from 22 members and associate             also made several recommendations designed to
members of the Commission. The Seminar reviewed                further the development of comprehensive,
the current household survey programmes of the                 internationally comparable energy statistics in the
countries                                                      ESCAP region.
                                                          12
72.      Two subregional workshops on environment                  and to undertake the preparatory work for a meeting
statistics were held in collaboration with the United              of ministers responsible for railways. The report of
Nations Statistical Office and with financial support              the Working Group was submitted to the
provided through that Office by UNEP. Experts from
10 countries attended the Pacific meeting and experts              Intergovernmental Railway Group Meeting, which
from 13 countries and organizations attended the                   recommended that a meeting of an expanded
Asian meeting, in their personal capacities. The                   working group of experts should be convened to
workshops reviewed the state of the environment and                undertake more detailed in-depth studies and to
statistics in their respective subregions, the activities          consider all aspects of the proposal thoroughly. The
of the United Nations Statistical Office in the field of           meeting is scheduled for April 1981.
environment statistics, and guidelines and a draft
framework for development of environment statistics
prepared by that Office. The workshops                             77.     The Intergovernmental Railway Group
recommended the organization of pilot studies in                   Meeting, which was followed by a study tour,
selected countries; the co-ordinated development,                  considered such technical issues as new techniques
collection and dissemination of environment                        for detecting defects in locomotives, rolling stock
statistics; and the preparation and publication of                 and track; the application of pre-stressed and pre-cast
manuals, guidelines and classification systems for                 concrete in railway bridges and concrete sleepers;
the sets of information required for environmental
analyses and policy planning.                                      modem technology for checking motive power
                                                                   through the application of computer systems and the
73.    The ESCAP/UNCTAD/UNDP Pacific                               possibility of phased introduction of such technology
Subregional Workshop on Harmonization of                           into the railway administrations of the ESCAP
External Trade Statistics and Customs Tariff                       countries; introduction of micro-computers for the
Nomenclature and Valuation, held at Apia, Samoa,                   management and operation of the railways of the
in August 1980, was organized jointly with the                     region; improvement of signalling and
International Trade Division.
                                                                   telecommunication in the railway systems of the
74. The United Nations Statistical Office contributed              region where electric power supply and adequate
significantly to the Third Workshop on Economic                    transmission lines were not available; the problem of
Statistics of Shipping, held at Bangkok in September               low-cost railway operations in rural areas; modem
1980.                                                              anti-corrosion technology to prolong the life of
                                                                   railway rolling stock and equipment; and utilization
Transport, communications and tourism                              of modem materials for the construction of railway
75.    The following meetings were held during the                 vehicles, particularly to effect savings in energy and
period under review:                                               maintenance costs. The Group endorsed the report of
                                                                   the Railway Research Co-ordination Group. It also
       Workshop on       Research Towards a                        formulated a programme of work and priorities in the
        Methodology for Defining the Transport                     field of railways for 1982-1983.
        Needs of Isolated Communities, Kuching,
        Malaysia, March 1980
                                                                   78.     The secretariat continued its task of
       Seminar-cum-Study Tour on Evolution and                     collecting, analysing and disseminating technical
        Trends in Design and Modernization of                      information on transport, communications and
        Rolling Stock and Equipment, France, June                  tourism through its biannual Transport and
        1980                                                       Communications Bulletin for Asia and the Pacific. It
                                                                   also prepared a map of the Asian Highway with
       Working Group of Experts on an Asian                        interregional links, showing linkages of the Asian
        Railway Union, Bangkok, July 1980
                                                                   Highway with the road networks of the ECA, ECE
       Railway Research Co-ordination Group                        and ECWA regions. This map, in three parts, the first
        (eighth session), Bangkok, August 1980                     of its kind to be published by ESCAP, will be ready
                                                                   for distribution to delegations of member
       Intergovernmental Railway Group Meeting,                    Governments during the thirty-seventh session of the
        Bangkok, August-September 1980                             Commission.
       Seminar-cum-Study Tour on Technical and
        Economic Aspects of Railway                                79.     The Intergovernmental Meeting of Highway
        Electrification, Brussels, September-October               Experts discussed matters relating to strategy for
        1980                                                       roads and road transport development in view of the
                                                                   scarcity of energy; improvement of traffic safety; the
       International  Course on Road and Road                      Asian Highway; the facilitation of international
        Transport    Problems  in  Developing                      traffic; environmental impacts of roads and road
        Countries, Roorkee, India, October-
        November 1980                                              transport operations; and rural road planning,
                                                                   construction and maintenance. The experts made a
       Intergovernmental Meeting of Highway                        number of recommendations relating to energy-
        Experts, Bangkok, February 1981                            saving measures in transport operations; the
                                                                   economic advantages of road maintenance; the
76.    The objectives of the Working Group of                      environmental aspects of roads and road transport;
Experts on an Asian Railway Union, comprising one                  teachers' training programmes on rural roads; and the
expert each from Bangladesh, India, Japan and
Thailand, were to initiate studies on the requirements             organization of seminars-cum-study tours/raining
for and implications of the establishment of an Asian              programmes on different aspects of roads and road
railway                                          union             transport operations.

                                                            (13)
Economic and technical co-operation among                    inter-country as well as bilateral activities, with
developing countries                                         emphasis on the needs of disadvantaged ESCAP
                                                             countries and on innovative and regenerative TCDC
80.     ESCAP TCDC publications programme. As                activities.
its contribution to a regional information system for
ECDC and TCDC, the secretariat published two                 84.     Programme development and other promotion
volumes in its TCDC series: Inter-country                    and support activities. In the context of the UNDP
Institutional Arrangements for Economic and                  intercountry programming exercise, discussions were
Technical Co-operation among Developing Asian                held with visiting UNDP missions on the need for
and Pacific Countries, volume I: Intergovernmental           and modes of identifying TCDC needs and capacities
Institutions, and volume II: Non-governmental and            systematically through seminars at the national,
National Institutions; preparations were also under          subregional and regional levels. Discussions were
way for a third volume covering the Pacific islands          held with an official mission from China concerning
exclusively. The sectoral series was increasingly            a project proposal on a national seminar for the
oriented towards emerging development issues. A              identification of TCDC needs and capacities; with
series on renewable sources of energy was initiated          the object of promoting and supporting an active
with a publication on solar energy in 1980.                  interchange of appropriate technology as embodied
Preparations for publications on biogas and wind             in agricultural planting materials and technology
energy neared completion in 1980, while data and             blueprints and prototypes, project proposals for
information were collected on mini hydroelectric             extrabudgetary assistance were drawn up and
plants. Information collected on machine tools was           submitted.
also evaluated for publication in the near future.
                                                             85. Monitoring and evaluation of progress. The
81.    Regional information system for ECDC and              following detailed reviews were prepared: (a)
TCDC. The Regional Interagency Working Group on              ESCAP inputs into the UNDP system-wide report to
ECDC and TCDC, which finalized its terms of                  the High-level Meeting on the Review of Technical
reference, commenced consideration of the various            Co-operation among Developing Countries, 1981;
information services, at the regional level, of the          (b) part of the joint paper by the regional
agencies in the United Nations development system.           commissions for that Meeting; and (c) the
Further consideration and progress towards a                 secretariat's report to the Commission at its thirty-
regional information system awaited developments             seventh session. Such reviews were confined to the
following up the proposed UNDP global project on a           promotional and supportive activities of the United
development information network, on which the                Nations development system. Field missions were
secretariat held discussions with a visiting UNDP            undertaken to explore on a preliminary basis the
mission.                                                     possibility of preparing reviews of TCDC activities
                                                             undertaken by developing member countries of
82     Promotion of interregional co-operation. A            ESCAP.
report on consultations between the Government of
India and Latin American Governments to identify             Energy
opportunities for interregional ECDC and TCDC was
disseminated among member Governments of                     86.   In view of the concern expressed by ESCAP
ESCAP. In keeping with the recommendations of an             member countries about the present energy situation,
informal consultative meeting on South-South                 it was decided that "energy" would be the main
industrial co-operation, a joint ESCAP/ECWA                  theme for discussion at the thirty-seventh session of
project proposal to identify prospects for co-               the Commission.
operation between the Middle East oil-exporting
countries and developing ESCAP countries was                 87.     In order to prepare the secretariat report on
drawn up and submitted for funding. The secretariat          the subject, the Special Project on Energy was
joined the secretariats of other regional commissions        established in the Office of the Executive Secretary
in pursuing the joint decision that the regional             in May 1980. An Ad Hoc Advisory Group on the
commissions should be full partners in the UNDP/             Special Project on Energy was convened at Bangkok
UNCTAD multisectoral programme on ECDC and                   in June 1980 to advise on the probable content of the
TCDC.                                                        secretariat report. 88. The secretariat report was
                                                             presented for comments to a High-level Expert
83.     Supplementary external assistance for TCDC           Group Meeting on Short-term Economic Policy
activities. The ESCAP supplementary funding                  Aspects of the Energy Situation in the ESCAP
facility was set up, to start with on a modest scale,        Region, which met at Bangkok in January 1981. The
with extrabudgetary assistance. It incorporates: (a)         report of the secretariat and that of the High-level
the TCDC scheme for disadvantaged ESCAP                      Expert Group Meeting were submitted for discussion
countries, in accordance with Commission resolution          at the third session of the Committee on
209 (XXXVI), (b) the TCDC training fellowships               Development Planning, held in March 1981.
supplement programme and (c) other supplementary
finance, especially for activities leading to further        Environment
TCDC or ECDC. Detailed criteria were drawn up for
fund disbursement, and TCDC programmes                       89. The following meetings were held during the
supported       by      the facility        included         period under review:

                                                        13
Economic and technical co-operation among                    inter-country as well as bilateral activities, with
developing countries                                         emphasis on the needs of disadvantaged ESCAP
                                                             countries and on innovative and regenerative TCDC
80.     ESCAP TCDC publications programme. As                activities.
its contribution to a regional information system for
ECDC and TCDC, the secretariat published two                 84.     Programme development and other promotion
volumes in its TCDC series: Inter-country                    and support activities. In the context of the UNDP
Institutional Arrangements for Economic and                  intercountry programming exercise, discussions were
Technical Co-operation among Developing Asian                held with visiting UNDP missions on the need for
and Pacific Countries, volume I: Intergovernmental           and modes of identifying TCDC needs and capacities
Institutions, and volume II: Non-governmental and            systematically through seminars at the national,
National Institutions; preparations were also under          subregional and regional levels. Discussions were
way for a third volume covering the Pacific islands          held with an official mission from China concerning
exclusively. The sectoral series was increasingly            a project proposal on a national seminar for the
oriented towards emerging development issues. A              identification of TCDC needs and capacities; with
series on renewable sources of energy was initiated          the object of promoting and supporting an active
with a publication on solar energy in 1980.                  interchange of appropriate technology as embodied
Preparations for publications on biogas and wind             in agricultural planting materials and technology
energy neared completion in 1980, while data and             blueprints and prototypes, project proposals for
information were collected on mini hydroelectric             extrabudgetary assistance were drawn up and
plants. Information collected on machine tools was           submitted.
also evaluated for publication in the near future.
                                                             85. Monitoring and evaluation of progress. The
81.    Regional information system for ECDC and              following detailed reviews were prepared: (a)
TCDC. The Regional Interagency Working Group on              ESCAP inputs into the UNDP system-wide report to
ECDC and TCDC, which finalized its terms of                  the High-level Meeting on the Review of Technical
reference, commenced consideration of the various            Co-operation among Developing Countries, 1981;
information services, at the regional level, of the          (b) part of the joint paper by the regional
agencies in the United Nations development system.           commissions for that Meeting; and (c) the
Further consideration and progress towards a                 secretariat's report to the Commission at its thirty-
regional information system awaited developments             seventh session. Such reviews were confined to the
following up the proposed UNDP global project on a           promotional and supportive activities of the United
development information network, on which the                Nations development system. Field missions were
secretariat held discussions with a visiting UNDP            undertaken to explore on a preliminary basis the
mission.                                                     possibility of preparing reviews of TCDC activities
                                                             undertaken by developing member countries of
82     Promotion of interregional co-operation. A            ESCAP.
report on consultations between the Government of
India and Latin American Governments to identify             Energy
opportunities for interregional ECDC and TCDC was
disseminated among member Governments of                     86.   In view of the concern expressed by ESCAP
ESCAP. In keeping with the recommendations of an             member countries about the present energy situation,
informal consultative meeting on South-South                 it was decided that "energy" would be the main
industrial co-operation, a joint ESCAP/ECWA                  theme for discussion at the thirty-seventh session of
project proposal to identify prospects for co-               the Commission.
operation between the Middle East oil-exporting
countries and developing ESCAP countries was                 87.     In order to prepare the secretariat report on
drawn up and submitted for funding. The secretariat          the subject, the Special Project on Energy was
joined the secretariats of other regional commissions        established in the Office of the Executive Secretary
in pursuing the joint decision that the regional             in May 1980. An Ad Hoc Advisory Group on the
commissions should be full partners in the UNDP/             Special Project on Energy was convened at Bangkok
UNCTAD multisectoral programme on ECDC and                   in June 1980 to advise on the probable content of the
TCDC.                                                        secretariat report. 88. The secretariat report was
                                                             presented for comments to a High-level Expert
83.     Supplementary external assistance for TCDC           Group Meeting on Short-term Economic Policy
activities. The ESCAP supplementary funding                  Aspects of the Energy Situation in the ESCAP
facility was set up, to start with on a modest scale,        Region, which met at Bangkok in January 1981. The
with extrabudgetary assistance. It incorporates: (a)         report of the secretariat and that of the High-level
the TCDC scheme for disadvantaged ESCAP                      Expert Group Meeting were submitted for discussion
countries, in accordance with Commission resolution          at the third session of the Committee on
209 (XXXVI), (b) the TCDC training fellowships               Development Planning, held in March 1981.
supplement programme and (c) other supplementary
finance, especially for activities leading to further        Environment
TCDC or ECDC. Detailed criteria were drawn up for
fund disbursement, and TCDC programmes                       89. The following meetings were held during the
supported       by      the facility        included         period under review:

                                                        14
       Regional Meeting and Study Tour on the                    1980. Country reports were completed with the
        Protection of the Marine Environment and                 assistance of the secretariat of the programme with
        Related Ecosystems in Asia and the Pacific,              the ultimate objective of preparing a report on the
        Bangkok and Sweden, August 1980                          state of the environment for the countries of the
                                                                 South Pacific.
       Regional Seminar on the Application of
        Systems    Analysis    Techniques   to
        Environmental       Problems, Bangkok,                   Information systems and documentation services
        November 1980
                                                                 95.    The second session of the Study Group on the
In addition, national seminars were convened in                  Co-ordination of Government Information Systems
China, Singapore and Sri Lanka, as part of a regional            was held at Bangkok in February 1981. The Study
project on protection of the marine environment and              Group stressed the need for compatibility and
related ecosystems implemented with the assistance               uniformity in the machine-readable information of
of the Swedish Environmental Protection Service.                 government to permit its more effective use for
                                                                 planning and decision making That goal was
90.    Pursuant to the recommendations of the Com-               attainable through the establishment of co-ordinating
mission at its thirty-sixth session, the Environmental           authorities that would promote the movement of
Co-ordinating Unit has continued to implement the                information between the separate information
Commission's programme of work in the field of the               systems of government.
environment in four priority areas as defined by the
Commission at its thirty-fifth session: (a) creation of
environmental awareness within the region; (b)                   96.     The computer system which was generously
development and strengthening of the institutional               offered by the Government of Japan at the thirty-fifth
and legal framework for environmental protection                 session of the Commission has recently been
and management at the national level; (c)                        installed in the secretariat. It will not only strengthen
environmental management of land ecosystems,                     the capabilities of the secretariat as a focal point for
particularly of arid and semiarid lands; and (d)                 the transfer of information on the economic and
protection of the marine environment and related                 social development of the region, but will also
ecosystems.                                                      greatly increase its capability to analyse information
                                                                 which it holds in machine-readable form. Thus,
91.    With regard to the development and                        econometric modelling, which previously had to be
strengthening of the institutional and legal                     done under rather costly and restrictive conditions in
framework, the secretariat has completed a                       other countries, can now be performed internally.
comparative study of marine pollution legislation in
selected countries of the region, with particular                The work of statistical collection and analysis can be
reference to the five ASEAN countries.                           made more timely, and routine demographic analysis
                                                                 can be performed more speedily and in greater depth.
92.    The secretariat has also carried out the                  The new computer system is expected to result in a
preliminary work for a manual on environmental                   fourfold increase in the number of jobs performed
impact assessment, including a literature survey and             monthly.
the preparation of guidelines.
                                                                 97.    The new computer system is also to be used
93.    With regard to management of arid and                     extensively for the management of documentary
semiarid lands, the secretariat has been preparing for           information which is contained in the sectoral
a regional workshop on the implementation of the                 information systems of substantive divisions of the
Plan of Action to Combat Desertification, scheduled              secretariat. A file of computerized document
to be held during September-October 1981 with
                                                                 references can now be searched from terminals on a
extrabudgetary assistance from the Government of
Australia. An interagency consultative meeting was               common indexing basis for the secretariat as a
convened at Bangkok in November 1980 to finalize                 whole. This application will greatly improve the co-
the outline of the workshop and to identify possible             ordination of information held in the sectoral
technical inputs from relevant agencies. A report on             information systems of the secretariat.
the status of the preparatory activities of the
secretariat in the field of desertification was                  98.     The interest of member countries in export
submitted to the meeting.                                        promotion and trade expansion has been reflected in
                                                                 a growing demand for trade data in machine-
94.    With regard to the development of the South               readable form. During 1980, five countries were
Pacific regional environment programme, a co-                    continuing to exchange trade information. The
ordinating group comprising representatives of the               Government of the United States has contributed its
four co-operating agencies (SPC, SPEC, UNEP and                  trade data for the year 1978 and the secretariat is
ESCAP) has been established to review progress in
                                                                 endeavouring to obtain similar data from those
the successive stages of implementation. Two
meetings of the group were held during the period                countries which represent the main markets for the
under review, the first at SPC headquarters at                   region's exports. The computer system donated by
Noumea in January 1980 and the second at SPEC                    the Government of Japan will greatly improve the
headquarters at        Suva      in     November                 effectiveness of this arrangement in the future.
                                                          (15)
Integrated programme on rural development                    Papeete in April 1980. The participant used the
                                                             opportunity to identify possible areas of co-operation
99.     The Committees on Industry, Technology,              between Maldives and the South Pacific countries in
Human Settlements and the Environment, on Natural            respect of atoll development. Technical co-operation
Resources and on Shipping, and Transport and                 and related activities
Communications met and reviewed past activities
and provided guidance with regard to the further             104. The total value of the 1980 regional technical
implementation of the respective sectoral activities,        co-operation programmes administered by ESCAP
including those forming part of the integrated               reached a record level of $US 22,440,619. This
programme on rural development. Another important            continuing expansion of the volume of technical co-
contribution was made by the Second Asian and                operation programmes reflects the growing
Pacific Ministerial Conference on Social Welfare             importance of the operational activities of ESCAP on
and Social Development, which stressed the need for          behalf of the countries of the region, which is made
balanced socio-economic and integrated                       possible by the increased resources received by the
development to ensure appropriate attention to               secretariat from all sources, particularly
social, cultural and economic factors in development         extrabudgetary assistance.
and diffusion of benefits to all segments of the
population, particularly the disadvantaged groups.           105. In 1980, a total of 44 missions were
Interagency co-ordinated plan of action for                  undertaken on request by a corps of nine regional
integrated rural development                                 advisers and experts to many of the developing
                                                             member countries of the region. In providing
100. The Interagency Committee on Integrated                 technical and advisory services, particular attention
Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific met               was given to the needs of the least developed and
three times and its Task Force held 11 meetings              island member countries of the region and to the
during the period under review. The Interagency              priority areas indicated by the Commission.
Committee reviewed the progress of work, provided
policy guidance for future activities and also               106. The United Nations Development Advisory
considered detailed proposals by the Task Force on           Team (UNDAT) for the South Pacific enlarged its
follow-up action to the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental             programme of rendering services to the developing
Meeting on Integrated Rural Development held in              island countries of the region. During the year, the
December 1979.                                               main emphasis was on the provision of advisory
                                                             services through short-term consultancies at the
101. The following major activities were                     request of Pacific island countries.
undertaken or completed under the plan of action
during the period under review. In Maldives,                 107. As in previous years, the extrabudgetary
completion of a detailed socio-economic survey in            assistance received by the secretariat from developed
Alifu atoll was followed by a planning workshop
                                                             and developing member Governments in the form of
attended by national officials and representatives of
                                                             funds-in-trust and non-reimbursable loans has made
different sections of the local population and
                                                             a substantial contribution towards the
finalization of a long-term atoll development project
                                                             implementation of the secretariat's programme of
with identified inputs and outputs. A similar
                                                             activities. The approximate value of non-
preparatory assistance project has been implemented
for Pangasinan province in the Philippines. This             reimbursable loan assistance to the secretariat's
exercise involved the holding of seven barangay-             activities, although not included in the value of
level workshops to identify local problems and               funds-in-trust contributions, is estimated to have
potential for development, in close consultation with        been in excess of $US 8 million.
representatives of different sections of the local
population, and to formulate an integrated area              Transnational corporations
development project for the province.
                                                             l08. During the year under review, the Joint CTC/
102. A meeting of national experts and officials             ESCAP Unit on Transnational Corporations further
and selected representatives of United Nations               developed and intensified its activities in the fields of
agencies examined draft guidelines formulated to             research, information and technical co-operation.
improve existing methodologies on monitoring and
evaluating rural development programmes and                  109. The research activities of the Joint Unit
projects and made specific recommendations on the            expanded further by virtue of the fact that
technical and organizational aspects. These                  extrabudgetary assistance from the Governments of
guidelines have now been circulated among the                Australia and the Netherlands was extended and a
Governments, concerned national agencies and                 new grant was received from the Federal Republic of
international organizations.                                 Germany.

103. Resources were mobilized to enable a                    110. Under the ESCAP/ECLA/ECA interregional
representative of the Government of Maldives to              project on TNCs and primary export commodities,
participate in the SPC technical seminar on atoll            the Joint Unit finalized the following studies: (a)
cultivation           held                    at             transnational corporations in export-oriented primary
                                                        15
Integrated programme on rural development                    Papeete in April 1980. The participant used the
                                                             opportunity to identify possible areas of co-operation
99.     The Committees on Industry, Technology,              between Maldives and the South Pacific countries in
Human Settlements and the Environment, on Natural            respect of atoll development. Technical co-operation
Resources and on Shipping, and Transport and                 and related activities
Communications met and reviewed past activities
and provided guidance with regard to the further             104. The total value of the 1980 regional technical
implementation of the respective sectoral activities,        co-operation programmes administered by ESCAP
including those forming part of the integrated               reached a record level of $US 22,440,619. This
programme on rural development. Another important            continuing expansion of the volume of technical co-
contribution was made by the Second Asian and                operation programmes reflects the growing
Pacific Ministerial Conference on Social Welfare             importance of the operational activities of ESCAP on
and Social Development, which stressed the need for          behalf of the countries of the region, which is made
balanced socio-economic and integrated                       possible by the increased resources received by the
development to ensure appropriate attention to               secretariat from all sources, particularly
social, cultural and economic factors in development         extrabudgetary assistance.
and diffusion of benefits to all segments of the
population, particularly the disadvantaged groups.           105. In 1980, a total of 44 missions were
Interagency co-ordinated plan of action for                  undertaken on request by a corps of nine regional
integrated rural development                                 advisers and experts to many of the developing
                                                             member countries of the region. In providing
100. The Interagency Committee on Integrated                 technical and advisory services, particular attention
Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific met               was given to the needs of the least developed and
three times and its Task Force held 11 meetings              island member countries of the region and to the
during the period under review. The Interagency              priority areas indicated by the Commission.
Committee reviewed the progress of work, provided
policy guidance for future activities and also               106. The United Nations Development Advisory
considered detailed proposals by the Task Force on           Team (UNDAT) for the South Pacific enlarged its
follow-up action to the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental             programme of rendering services to the developing
Meeting on Integrated Rural Development held in              island countries of the region. During the year, the
December 1979.                                               main emphasis was on the provision of advisory
                                                             services through short-term consultancies at the
101. The following major activities were                     request of Pacific island countries.
undertaken or completed under the plan of action
during the period under review. In Maldives,                 107. As in previous years, the extrabudgetary
completion of a detailed socio-economic survey in            assistance received by the secretariat from developed
Alifu atoll was followed by a planning workshop
                                                             and developing member Governments in the form of
attended by national officials and representatives of
                                                             funds-in-trust and non-reimbursable loans has made
different sections of the local population and
                                                             a substantial contribution towards the
finalization of a long-term atoll development project
                                                             implementation of the secretariat's programme of
with identified inputs and outputs. A similar
                                                             activities. The approximate value of non-
preparatory assistance project has been implemented
for Pangasinan province in the Philippines. This             reimbursable loan assistance to the secretariat's
exercise involved the holding of seven barangay-             activities, although not included in the value of
level workshops to identify local problems and               funds-in-trust contributions, is estimated to have
potential for development, in close consultation with        been in excess of $US 8 million.
representatives of different sections of the local
population, and to formulate an integrated area              Transnational corporations
development project for the province.
                                                             l08. During the year under review, the Joint CTC/
102. A meeting of national experts and officials             ESCAP Unit on Transnational Corporations further
and selected representatives of United Nations               developed and intensified its activities in the fields of
agencies examined draft guidelines formulated to             research, information and technical co-operation.
improve existing methodologies on monitoring and
evaluating rural development programmes and                  109. The research activities of the Joint Unit
projects and made specific recommendations on the            expanded further by virtue of the fact that
technical and organizational aspects. These                  extrabudgetary assistance from the Governments of
guidelines have now been circulated among the                Australia and the Netherlands was extended and a
Governments, concerned national agencies and                 new grant was received from the Federal Republic of
international organizations.                                 Germany.

103. Resources were mobilized to enable a                    110. Under the ESCAP/ECLA/ECA interregional
representative of the Government of Maldives to              project on TNCs and primary export commodities,
participate in the SPC technical seminar on atoll            the Joint Unit finalized the following studies: (a)
cultivation           held                    at             transnational corporations in export-oriented primary
                                                        16
commodities: a case study of tea in Bangladesh; (b)               taken to collect similar information on technology
transnational corporations in the copper industry of              and marketing contracts in other countries of the
south-east Asia; (c) Indonesian forestry development              region.
and foreign investment; and (d) transnational
corporations and the Philippine banana export                     115. Under the technical co-operation component,
                                                                  CTC, together with the Joint Unit and FAO,
industry. These studies, along with those previously              organized the Asia and Pacific Regional Workshop
completed, provided the background for the Expert                 on Negotiations with Transnational Corporations in
Group Meeting on TNCs in Primary Commodity                        the Tropical Hardwoods Sector at Pattaya in August-
Export Industries convened by the Joint Unit at                   September 1980, which was attended by participants
Pattaya, Thailand, in February 1981.                              from Bhutan, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua
                                                                  New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Is
111. As part of an input into the globally                        lands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam.
conceived research studies undertaken by the United
Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations (CTC)                116. As a follow-up of one of the
on specific economic sectors, the Joint Unit assisted             recommendations of the High-level Consultative
in completing its consultant's study on the impact on             Group Meeting on Increasing the Negotiating
Sri Lanka of transnational corporation activities in              Capacity of Host Governments of .the- Pacific Island
                                                                  Countries in Their Dealings with Transnational
the food and beverages industry and forwarded it to               Corporations held in November 1979, CTC and the
CTC for follow. up action. In addition, consultants               Joint Unit organized the Subregional Training
contacted by the Joint Unit have begun further work               Workshop on Regulating and Negotiating with
on studies on banking in Malaysia and Thailand and                Transnational Corporations in Tonga in September-
on tourism in Thailand intended ultimately for the                October 1980, in co-operation with UNDAT and
CTC global research study.                                        SPEC.

112. Under the ESCAP/APDAC project on the
regulation, supervision and monitoring of TNCs in                              B. OTHER ACTIVITIES
Asia, the following studies. were completed: (a)
monitoriny, and regulating transnational corporations             Regional training and research institutions
in the Philippines; (b) monitoring and regulating                 117.               In accordance with Commission
transnational corporations in India; and (c)                      resolution 206 (XXXVI), the secretariat pursued
regulation, supervision and monitoring of                         action for the establishment of APDC. Its activities
transnational corporations in Asia: in-depth study for            included the establishment of a preparatory
the Republic of Korea. The first two studies have                 committee to formulate a short-term transitional
been finalized and published in the Joint Unit's                  work programme for the Centre and to discuss
working paper series.                                             administrative matters connected with the
                                                                  establishment of the Centre, the convening of a
113. In response to the changing modes and                        consultative meeting on its initial work programme,
increasing complexities of TNC involvement in Asia                the recruitment of the Director and initial core staff
and the Pacific and the specific needs of Asian and               and the convening of an Intergovernmental Meeting
Pacific Governments, studies have been undertaken                 on the Draft Charter of the Centre, as directed by the
                                                                  Commission.
on: (a) the costs of technology transfer and the
restrictive business practices of TNCs in selected
Asian and Pacific countries; (b) an analysis of the               Asian and Pacific Development Centre
host country benefits from the operations f TNCs in
export processing zones in selected Asian and                     118. The first Director of APDC assumed office
Pacific countries; (c) the taxation of natural resource-          on 16 September 1980. A small core group of initial
based projects in Asia and the Pacific; and (d) joint             Professional staff as well as the administrative
ventures and other forms of collaboration with trans-             support staff began work at the Centre on 1 July
national corporations in the field of commerce in                 1980. The Centre moved into its new premises in
selected ESCAP countries.                                         August 1980.
                                                                  119. The Centre took action on the formulation of
114. The Joint Unit commenced activities on the                   its initial work programme, which was submitted to
preparation of corporate profiles of the 50 most                  the Management Board at its rust session, held at
important TNC subsidiaries operating in Asia and                  Kuala Lumpur in December 1980.
Pacific, which in turn will be submitted to CTC for
synthesis into its corporate profiles of parent
companies. General corporate data will be an input                Sta1i.stil:/Jllnstitute for Asia and the Pacific
into the CTC computerized system, which will
eventually consist of over 3,000 company reports,                 120. Action was taken with regard to the fma1ization
1,500 specialized reports and more than 300                       of the project document and the funds-in-trust
company directories. During the year, over 300                    arrangements for the third five-year phase of SlAP,
technology and marketing contracts of one member                  which commenced on 1 October 1980. The tenth
                                                                  general course, which commenced in October 1979,
country were catalogued and will be analysed as part              ended in March 1980. The eleventh general course
of the research project on the costs of technology                commenced in October 1980. Thirty participants
transfer from TNCs.            Steps    have     been             attended                                  each
                                                           (17)
of the courses. The Institute also conducted two             are made up of about $US 111.9 million, or 26.2 per
advanced seminars for senior statisticians. The              cent, for pre-investment work and about $US 315.8
seminars were on statistics for redistribution and           million, or 73.8 per cent, for construction work. The
basic needs-oriented development strategies and on           total may also be divided into $US 159.3 million, or
processing, analysis and use of the 1980 agricultural        37.2 per cent, made available by the Governments of
census results to meet the new demands of the                the four riparian countries themselves and $US 268.4
development strategies for the 1980s. The Institute          million, or 62.8 per cent, contributed by co-operating
also conducted five country courses during the year.         countries, United Nations agencies and other
                                                             organizations. The equivalent of $US 318.5 million,
Asian and Pacific Development Institute. Asian and           or 74.5 per cent, represented grants and budget
Pacific Development Administration Centre. Social            appropriations, and the equivalent of $US 109.2
Welfare and Development Centre for Asia and the              million, or 25.5 per cent, concessional loans.
Pacific and Asian and Pacific Centre for Women
and Development
                                                             Delta development
121. These four institutions ceased their activities
on 30 June 1980. During the final phase of their             128. Preparatory work has been undertaken by the
existence, they concentrated mainly on the                   Committee for a comprehensive programme of
publication of the outputs from their research and           agricultural production projects in the delta area,
training activities.                                         including six projects, totaling some 535,000
                                                             hectares, to provide flood protection, drainage,
122. During the period January-June 1980, APDl               salinity control and irrigation for the purpose of
conducted two regional training courses and five             growing two crops of rice per year. fu 1980, a
consu1tative meetings; APDAC, seven regional and             preliminary study was carried out by mathematical
four country training programmes; SWDCAP, seven              modelling of the over-all features of salinity
training activities; and APCWD, four training                intrusion in the Mekong delta. That study was aimed
activities.                                                  at providing basic data for delta development
                                                             planning as well as for the expansion of the scope of
                                                             low-flow forecasting. Plans are being updated for
Interim Committee for Co-ordination of                       three fishery projects in Viet Nam.
Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin
123. The eighth session of the Interim Mekong                Tributary projects
Committee was held at Bangkok in March 1980
during the thirty-sixth session of the Commission,           129. Thirteen dams have been completed and
the ninth session at Ho Chi Minh City in October             another nine are under construction on the tributaries
1980 and the tenth session at Bangkok in January             in the lower Mekong basin. Under Mekong auspices,
1981.                                                        investigations have also been carried to the
                                                             feasibility stage for various other tributary projects.
124. The 1981 work programme, as approved by                 The total number of projects so identified by the
the Interim Mekong Committee, conforms to the                secretariat is 144.
general framework of the indicative basin plan. The
programme is composed of 24 sectoral sub
programmes, which, in turn, are subdivided into 107          Agriculture
separate activities.                                         130. All the agricultural planning studies carried
                                                             out with Mekong Committee participation and
125. The proposals include provision for both pre-           sponsorship in the past have been evaluated. This
investment work (planning, data collection, surveys,         evaluation has been the basis of suggestions for
feasibility studies etc.) and investment work (dams,         guiding future agricultural development throughout
port and ferry facilities, irrigation works, training        the basin. With respect to the agricultural
centres and other permanent installations, as well as        development programme, the work sponsored by the
improvement of navigation channels and other public          Committee is being continued and includes
works).                                                      agricultural planning studies (the Vientiane Plain,
                                                             north-east Thailand, the Vietnamese part of the delta
126. The work programme will be carried out by               etc.), experimentation and demonstration farms,
the Mekong secretariat, which is largely funded by           pioneer agriculture projects and ongoing irrigation
UNDP under a project of institutional support,               projects.
approved for a further three-year period which
started on 1 May 1979 (phase V), in collaboration
with riparian government departments, co-operating           Fishery production programmes
countries and institutions, and United Nations
agencies.                                                    131. Fishery production programmes through the
                                                             development of aquaculture and the development
127. The cumulative total of resources contributed           and management of man-made lakes made good
or pledged to the Mekong Committee and the Interim           progress in 1980. In the Lao People's Democratic
Mekong Committee or to projects sponsored by                 Republic, in the field of aquaculture, the construction
those bodies as at 31 December 1980 amounted to              of a 50-ha pilot fish farm at Tha Ngone is nearing
the equivalent of some $US 427.7 million. These              completion, and the finished section of the farm is
resources                                                    already                producing                   fish
                                                        17
of the courses. The Institute also conducted two             are made up of about $US 111.9 million, or 26.2 per
advanced seminars for senior statisticians. The              cent, for pre-investment work and about $US 315.8
seminars were on statistics for redistribution and           million, or 73.8 per cent, for construction work. The
basic needs-oriented development strategies and on           total may also be divided into $US 159.3 million, or
processing, analysis and use of the 1980 agricultural        37.2 per cent, made available by the Governments of
census results to meet the new demands of the                the four riparian countries themselves and $US 268.4
development strategies for the 1980s. The Institute          million, or 62.8 per cent, contributed by co-operating
also conducted five country courses during the year.         countries, United Nations agencies and other
                                                             organizations. The equivalent of $US 318.5 million,
Asian and Pacific Development Institute. Asian and           or 74.5 per cent, represented grants and budget
Pacific Development Administration Centre. Social            appropriations, and the equivalent of $US 109.2
Welfare and Development Centre for Asia and the              million, or 25.5 per cent, concessional loans.
Pacific and Asian and Pacific Centre for Women
and Development
                                                             Delta development
121. These four institutions ceased their activities
on 30 June 1980. During the final phase of their             128. Preparatory work has been undertaken by the
existence, they concentrated mainly on the                   Committee for a comprehensive programme of
publication of the outputs from their research and           agricultural production projects in the delta area,
training activities.                                         including six projects, totaling some 535,000
                                                             hectares, to provide flood protection, drainage,
122. During the period January-June 1980, APDl               salinity control and irrigation for the purpose of
conducted two regional training courses and five             growing two crops of rice per year. fu 1980, a
consu1tative meetings; APDAC, seven regional and             preliminary study was carried out by mathematical
four country training programmes; SWDCAP, seven              modelling of the over-all features of salinity
training activities; and APCWD, four training                intrusion in the Mekong delta. That study was aimed
activities.                                                  at providing basic data for delta development
                                                             planning as well as for the expansion of the scope of
                                                             low-flow forecasting. Plans are being updated for
Interim Committee for Co-ordination of                       three fishery projects in Viet Nam.
Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin
123. The eighth session of the Interim Mekong                Tributary projects
Committee was held at Bangkok in March 1980
during the thirty-sixth session of the Commission,           129. Thirteen dams have been completed and
the ninth session at Ho Chi Minh City in October             another nine are under construction on the tributaries
1980 and the tenth session at Bangkok in January             in the lower Mekong basin. Under Mekong auspices,
1981.                                                        investigations have also been carried to the
                                                             feasibility stage for various other tributary projects.
124. The 1981 work programme, as approved by                 The total number of projects so identified by the
the Interim Mekong Committee, conforms to the                secretariat is 144.
general framework of the indicative basin plan. The
programme is composed of 24 sectoral sub
programmes, which, in turn, are subdivided into 107          Agriculture
separate activities.                                         130. All the agricultural planning studies carried
                                                             out with Mekong Committee participation and
125. The proposals include provision for both pre-           sponsorship in the past have been evaluated. This
investment work (planning, data collection, surveys,         evaluation has been the basis of suggestions for
feasibility studies etc.) and investment work (dams,         guiding future agricultural development throughout
port and ferry facilities, irrigation works, training        the basin. With respect to the agricultural
centres and other permanent installations, as well as        development programme, the work sponsored by the
improvement of navigation channels and other public          Committee is being continued and includes
works).                                                      agricultural planning studies (the Vientiane Plain,
                                                             north-east Thailand, the Vietnamese part of the delta
126. The work programme will be carried out by               etc.), experimentation and demonstration farms,
the Mekong secretariat, which is largely funded by           pioneer agriculture projects and ongoing irrigation
UNDP under a project of institutional support,               projects.
approved for a further three-year period which
started on 1 May 1979 (phase V), in collaboration
with riparian government departments, co-operating           Fishery production programmes
countries and institutions, and United Nations
agencies.                                                    131. Fishery production programmes through the
                                                             development of aquaculture and the development
127. The cumulative total of resources contributed           and management of man-made lakes made good
or pledged to the Mekong Committee and the Interim           progress in 1980. In the Lao People's Democratic
Mekong Committee or to projects sponsored by                 Republic, in the field of aquaculture, the construction
those bodies as at 31 December 1980 amounted to              of a 50-ha pilot fish farm at Tha Ngone is nearing
the equivalent of some $US 427.7 million. These              completion, and the finished section of the farm is
resources                                                    already                producing                   fish
                                                        18
for the market. The hatchery and nursery sections of             Interpretation of satellite imagery
this farm are operating at full capacity and they
produced a record number of 5 million fry of Asiatic             136. During 1980, the secretariat continued its
carp during the year. An additional 2 million fry                work on the interpretation of satellite imagery,
have been producted at a recently renovated derelict             focusing on applications to aspects of geological,
hatchery at Nong Teng. Experimental trials in fish               geomorphological and hydrological mapping.
hybridization have succeeded in producing variable,
improved hybrids between Indian and Chinese carp
Some of these hybrids are more productive and have               Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting
higher resistance to disease. These projects are being           for Mineral Resource in Asian Offshore Areas
implemented with a grant of about $US 1 million
                                                                 137. The seventeenth session of CCOP was held at
from the Netherlands.                                            Bangkok in November 1980. During the period
                                                                 under review, the following meetings were organized
132. In Thailand, the establishment of a pilot fish              under the auspices of the Committee:
farm at Lam Pao has commenced with a grant of
$US 542,000 from the Netherlands.                                       Joint    Working     Group     with    the
                                                                         Intergovernmental           Oceanographic
133. In the field of man-made lake fishery                               Commission (IOC) on the International
management and development, a project for the                            Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE)
development of fisheries in the Nam Ngum reservoir                       Programme for Studies of East Asia
(Lao People's Democratic Republic) is being                              Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) (sixth
implemented. In this connexion, the construction of                      session), Bangkok, November 1980
infrastructure facilities such as access roads, a
laboratory, office and workshop buildings, an ice                       Northwest Quadrant Panel of the Circum-
plant, a processing centre, water tanks and fish                         Pacific Map Project (sixth meeting),
landing areas is in progress. Biological and                             Bangkok, November 1980
limnological studies, monitoring of fish catches and
experimental and exploratory fishing are also                    138. The CCOP/SEATAR programme continues to
continuing. A programme for distributing engines                 make progress. The Studies in East Asian Tectonics
and spare parts for fishing boats and improved nets              and Resources have been published (CCOP/TP 7).
to fishermen has also been undertaken with a                     Invitations were sent out to 45 experts on minerals
Netherlands grant of about $US 1 million.                        and hydrocarbon resources to participate in
                                                                 evaluation of the SEATAR report. An Economic
                                                                 Advisory Panel on Minerals and Hydrocarbon
                                                                 Resources, comprising eight experts, met at Bangkok
Environmental studies                                            in September 1980 to recommend ways in which the
                                                                 information contained in the report could be used in
134. The third (management studies) phase of the                 the search for mineral and hydrocarbon resources.
Nam Pong environmental management research
project (Thailand) was initiated in 1980 with a one-             139. Under the programme for petroleum data
month workshop in which arrangements were made                   collection, storage and retrieval, a Standing Working
for a consultant firm to impart training in procedures           Group on Petroleum Data has been established.
and methods of "adaptive environmental assessment                Three workshops were organized, namely, on
and management" to participants selected from                    standardization of terminology and format for
agencies connected with the Nam Pong project. This               hydrocarbon data, on resources data handling and on
phase of the project is being carried out with support           the geology and hydrocarbon potential of the South
($US 160,000) from the Ford Foundation and UNEP.                 China Sea and possibilities for joint research and
The object of this phase of the studies is to integrate          development. A seminar/workshop on the
the results obtained in the first two phases and to              methodology of assessment of undiscovered
formulate simulation models of the Nam Pong                      hydrocarbon resources was also held.
systems, as bases for the formulation of management
measures.                                                        140. Within the hydrocarbon assessment
                                                                 programme, a manuscript "Synoptic review of some
                                                                 hydrocarbon- and potential hydrocarbon-bearing
Social development and public health                             basins of southeast Asia" was made available in late
                                                                 May. It has been modified and adapted for use by the
                                                                 ASEAN Council on Petroleum (ASCOPE).
135. In the field of public health, malaria and other            Publication by ASCOPE is planned prior to October
vector-borne diseases, schistosomiasis and other                 1981.
water-borne diseases and malnutrition are the main
items covered. Improvement of environmental health               141. A long-term programme on heat-flow
facilities in the basin is promoted through studies on           measurement and geothermal gradient studies was
existing services and advice is given on the best use            submitted and subsequently approved by the
of available resources for the phased development of             Committee.
water supplies, sewerage and drainage, refuse
disposal facilities and rural sanitation. In 1980,               142. Formal signing of the agreement between
attention was restricted to considerations of health             ASCOPE and CCOP to establish a joint
aspects as part of environmental studies.                        Intersecretariat                     Steering

                                                          (19)
Committee took place in the course of the                       an expert group meeting was held at Bangkok in
seventeenth session of CCOP at Bangkok. The first               March 1980 and advisory services were provided to
meeting of the Steering Committee, the objectives of            CCOP member countries in south-east Asia.
which are the supervision and implementation of
joint projects, had taken place earlier at Bangkok in           149. Other investigations and research relevant to
September 1980. Joint work programmes currently                 CCOP activities are Project MAGNET, isotopic age
in force cover such matters as stratigraphic                    dating, remote sensing as applied to off-shore
correlation studies, a petroleum data bank, the                 surveys and the SEATAR programme, manganese
marine environment and geothermometry and heat.                 nodules and marine phosphorite, the preparation of
flow studies.                                                   sea-floor and continental margin geological maps of
                                                                eastern Asia and a project on gravity and magnetics
143. With the use of the shallow marine                         and their relation to regional geological structures
geophysical and navigation equipment acquired in                and distribution of mineral resources.
late 1978/early 1979, the Project Office assisted
Indonesian P.T. Timah in conducting a geophysical
survey for tin in the Riau Islands. The survey was              Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting
completed in early August 1980 after about 6,000                for Mineral Resources in South Pacific Offshore
line km had been completed. The most                            Areas
comprehensive coverage was obtained around
Singkep Island, where lines were run on a 2 to 5 km             150. The UNDP project staff had been completely
grid. On the basis of preliminary interpretation of the         recruited by the time of the ninth session of CCOP/
data, it was recommended that over 60 boreholes                 SOPAC, which was held at Tarawa, Kiribati, in
should be drilled around Singkep to check the                   October 1980.
interpretation and determine the tin content of the
sediments.                                                      151. The activities to be carried out by ESCAP as
                                                                a result of the decisions of the Committee include:
144. A limited off-shore drilling programme off                 (a) providing supplementary information that might
the east coast of Singapore was carried out in                  be helpful to the Governments of the member
November 1980. The drilling was conducted at                    countries in their review of the legal status of CCOP/
locations recommended following interpretation of               SOPAC; (c) assisting with the preparation of a
seismic profiler results obtained in the area in                project document for UNDP support for the period
November 1979 in a joint Port of Singapore                      1982-1986; (c) assisting with the selection of a site
Authority/Project Office survey. The drilling was               for the permanent location of the offices of the
conducted by a drilling barge constructed in                    technical secretariat and the NDP project; (d)
Singapore for the UNDP/Thailand project in the                  securing TCDC funds from New Zealand for earth
Andaman Sea and also constituted the final                      science courses at the University of the South
acceptance trials of the barge.                                 Pacific; (e) persuading supporting Governments,
                                                                institutions and organizations to maintain and, where
145. In early December 1980 Universiti Sains                    appropriate, to increase their participation in
Malaysia conducted a marine geophysical survey off              scientific research programmes under the auspices of
Kedah to the north of Penang. The Project Office                CCOP/SOPAC; (f) facilitating the offer by the USSR
assisted in this survey by providing consultancy                to carry out a co-operative cruise in the CCOP/
services to advise on survey procedures and                     SOPAC region at no cost in late 1981 and the
interpretation of results and by providing some                 proposal by the Office de la recherche scientifique et
positioning equipment on loan for the survey.                   technique outremer for a joint cruise with shared
                                                                costs also in 1981; and (g) securing financial and
146 Plans for a comprehensive marine                            other support from donor Governments, institutions,
geophysical survey in the eastern part of the                   organizations and others for the priority activities of
Philippines were finalized during September-October             the committee.
1980. The survey is to be carried out between
January and June 1981 by the Bureau of Mines and
Geosciences using the Bureau of Coast and Geodetic              Regional Mineral Resources Development Centre
Survey vessel Atyimba. The Project Office will
provide all geophysical and navigation equipment for            152. The third session of the Governing Council of
the survey and the services of its experts to assist and        RMRDC was held at Seoul in September 1980.
advise at all stages of the work and provide on-the-
job training for Philippine technical personnel.                153. The Council noted with deep appreciation the
                                                                continued support by the Governments of the Federal
147. Pursuant to a decision made at the sixteenth               Republic of Germany and Japan; the provision of
session of CCOP, two fact-finding missions were                 postgraduate training facilities for five persons in
organized, one to study the feasibility of establishing         mineral exploration methods by the Government of
a regional Quaternary centre attached to an existing            India and that Government's reiteration of its offer to
organization in one of the CCOP member countries                provide the services of three specialists on a TCDC
and the other to study the feasibility of establishing          basis; and the provision of a specialist in mining
an east Asia off-shore training centre.                         development by the Government of Finland and of
148. Under the programme on the marine                          an editor/documentation specialist by the
environment,                                                    Government of the United Kingdom.
                                                           19
Committee took place in the course of the                       an expert group meeting was held at Bangkok in
seventeenth session of CCOP at Bangkok. The first               March 1980 and advisory services were provided to
meeting of the Steering Committee, the objectives of            CCOP member countries in south-east Asia.
which are the supervision and implementation of
joint projects, had taken place earlier at Bangkok in           149. Other investigations and research relevant to
September 1980. Joint work programmes currently                 CCOP activities are Project MAGNET, isotopic age
in force cover such matters as stratigraphic                    dating, remote sensing as applied to off-shore
correlation studies, a petroleum data bank, the                 surveys and the SEATAR programme, manganese
marine environment and geothermometry and heat.                 nodules and marine phosphorite, the preparation of
flow studies.                                                   sea-floor and continental margin geological maps of
                                                                eastern Asia and a project on gravity and magnetics
143. With the use of the shallow marine                         and their relation to regional geological structures
geophysical and navigation equipment acquired in                and distribution of mineral resources.
late 1978/early 1979, the Project Office assisted
Indonesian P.T. Timah in conducting a geophysical
survey for tin in the Riau Islands. The survey was              Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting
completed in early August 1980 after about 6,000                for Mineral Resources in South Pacific Offshore
line km had been completed. The most                            Areas
comprehensive coverage was obtained around
Singkep Island, where lines were run on a 2 to 5 km             150. The UNDP project staff had been completely
grid. On the basis of preliminary interpretation of the         recruited by the time of the ninth session of CCOP/
data, it was recommended that over 60 boreholes                 SOPAC, which was held at Tarawa, Kiribati, in
should be drilled around Singkep to check the                   October 1980.
interpretation and determine the tin content of the
sediments.                                                      151. The activities to be carried out by ESCAP as
                                                                a result of the decisions of the Committee include:
144. A limited off-shore drilling programme off                 (a) providing supplementary information that might
the east coast of Singapore was carried out in                  be helpful to the Governments of the member
November 1980. The drilling was conducted at                    countries in their review of the legal status of CCOP/
locations recommended following interpretation of               SOPAC; (c) assisting with the preparation of a
seismic profiler results obtained in the area in                project document for UNDP support for the period
November 1979 in a joint Port of Singapore                      1982-1986; (c) assisting with the selection of a site
Authority/Project Office survey. The drilling was               for the permanent location of the offices of the
conducted by a drilling barge constructed in                    technical secretariat and the NDP project; (d)
Singapore for the UNDP/Thailand project in the                  securing TCDC funds from New Zealand for earth
Andaman Sea and also constituted the final                      science courses at the University of the South
acceptance trials of the barge.                                 Pacific; (e) persuading supporting Governments,
                                                                institutions and organizations to maintain and, where
145. In early December 1980 Universiti Sains                    appropriate, to increase their participation in
Malaysia conducted a marine geophysical survey off              scientific research programmes under the auspices of
Kedah to the north of Penang. The Project Office                CCOP/SOPAC; (f) facilitating the offer by the USSR
assisted in this survey by providing consultancy                to carry out a co-operative cruise in the CCOP/
services to advise on survey procedures and                     SOPAC region at no cost in late 1981 and the
interpretation of results and by providing some                 proposal by the Office de la recherche scientifique et
positioning equipment on loan for the survey.                   technique outremer for a joint cruise with shared
                                                                costs also in 1981; and (g) securing financial and
146 Plans for a comprehensive marine                            other support from donor Governments, institutions,
geophysical survey in the eastern part of the                   organizations and others for the priority activities of
Philippines were finalized during September-October             the committee.
1980. The survey is to be carried out between
January and June 1981 by the Bureau of Mines and
Geosciences using the Bureau of Coast and Geodetic              Regional Mineral Resources Development Centre
Survey vessel Atyimba. The Project Office will
provide all geophysical and navigation equipment for            152. The third session of the Governing Council of
the survey and the services of its experts to assist and        RMRDC was held at Seoul in September 1980.
advise at all stages of the work and provide on-the-
job training for Philippine technical personnel.                153. The Council noted with deep appreciation the
                                                                continued support by the Governments of the Federal
147. Pursuant to a decision made at the sixteenth               Republic of Germany and Japan; the provision of
session of CCOP, two fact-finding missions were                 postgraduate training facilities for five persons in
organized, one to study the feasibility of establishing         mineral exploration methods by the Government of
a regional Quaternary centre attached to an existing            India and that Government's reiteration of its offer to
organization in one of the CCOP member countries                provide the services of three specialists on a TCDC
and the other to study the feasibility of establishing          basis; and the provision of a specialist in mining
an east Asia off-shore training centre.                         development by the Government of Finland and of
148. Under the programme on the marine                          an editor/documentation specialist by the
environment,                                                    Government of the United Kingdom.
                                                           20
It also noted with great appreciation the generous                Typhoon Committee
host facilities and. local support staff provided by the
Government of Indonesia.                                          162. A planning meeting for the Typhoon
                                                                  Operational Experiment (TOPEX) was held in Japan
154. The senior expert on geochemistry provided                   in June 1980.
by the Government of the Republic of Korea joined
RMRDC in October 1980 and the Government of                       163. At its thirteenth session, held at Bangkok in
Japan authorized the allocation of $US 20,748 to the              December 1980, the Typhoon Committee reviewed
Japan-ESCAP Co-operation Fund for the Centre for                  the preparations for TOPEX. All 10 members of the
the investigation of physical properties of rocks to be           Committee attended the session. A pre-experiment is
conducted in co-operation with national agencies in               to be held in 1981 and the first and second
Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand on a TCDC basis.                 experiments in 1982 and 1983.

155. The Council deeply appreciated the decision                  164. The Committee also noted that five members
of UNDP to increase its support to the Centre                     had selected seven pilot watersheds for the
considerably until the end of 1981. It expressed the              implementation of measures for flood loss
desire for continued UNDP support at least at the                 prevention and management. ESCAP had conducted
present level and of the present character, including             a training course on principles of flood loss
the provision of the services of a co-ordinator, to               prevention and management in July 1980.
ensure the continued momentum of operation of the
Centre.                                                           165. China was host to a Typhoon Committee
                                                                  group study visit on methods of flood control during
156. It noted that previously the contributions                   July-August, organized by ESCAP. Four countries
towards the total budget of the Centre had been 67                sent eight participants to observe the methods of
per cent from donor countries in the form of                      controlling the floods along the Huanghe River.
specialist services, 22 per cent from UNDP, 7 per
cent from Indonesia for host facilities and 4 per cent            166. Recognizing the desire of UNDP to terminate
from cash contributions by members of ESCAP.                      institutional support to the Committee, the members
                                                                  requested ESCAP and WMO to prepare a new
157. The Council further noted that the cash                      project document for submission to UNDP to seek
contributions pledged by the member States, $US                   support for activities which the Committee planned
28,000 for 1978 and $US 24,000 for 1979, had been                 to undertake during 1982-1983.
fully paid while less than 40 per cent of the $US
16,000 pledged for 1980 had been paid by the                      167. A representative of LRCS will undertake a
                                                                  six-month consultancy on disaster preparedness in
ESCAP member countries. Since those cash
                                                                  1981 for the benefit of the members. This is to be
contributions constituted the only source from which
                                                                  financed jointly by WMO, UNDRO and LRCS.
operating costs were met, the Council expressed
deep concern at the inadequacy of such contributions              168. A tripartite review of the technical support to
and urged ESCAP members and associate members                     the Committee was held immediately following the
to increase them or make new token contributions as               thirteenth session. The review team was composed of
an expression of support for the operations of the                representatives of members of the Committee,
Centre.                                                           ESCAP, WMO and UNDP.
158. Recognizing the' importance of workshops
and seminars as a means of stimulating contact and                    C. RELATIONS WITH OTHER UNITED
collaboration between countries, the Council                                NATIONS PROGRAMMES
recommended that RMRDC should organize or assist
in organizing up to three seminars a year during the              169. In planning and implementing activities in the
period 1982-1986.                                                 food and agriculture sector, the secretariat has
                                                                  received close co-operation and assistance from
159. In December 1980, the Centre organized a                     various United Nations specialized agencies and
work. shop on decision variables in mining, which                 other organizations, such as UNlDO, UNEP and F
was attended by 25 participants from six countries in             AO; inter alia, and ESCAP/ FAO joint review was
the region.                                                       held at Bangkok in 1980 to discuss the ESCAP
                                                                  programme of work and priorities in the food,
160. A seminar on tungsten mineralization has                     agriculture and rural development sectors in areas of
been planned for Jiangxi province in September                    common interest in order to ascertain the availability
1981 under the sponsorship of the Chinese Ministry                of F AO and UNEP inputs into the programme: and
of Geology.                                                       to avoid duplication of work.
161. During the year under review, RMRDC                          170. In the field of industry, housing and
specialists have carried out 32 technical advisory                technology, further efforts were made during the
missions to 12 member countries. A total of 37                    year under review to strengthen co-operation and co-
reports have been prepared and submitted. The first               ordination with other _agencies, particularly
two issues of the Newsletter have been prepared and               UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNCHS, ILO and FAO.
distributed.                                                      UNIDO       has     been     involved      in    the
                                                           (21)
activities in the field of industry and technology: it        national Solar Energy Society, the Commonwealth
provided funds to ESCAP to recruit an expert as a             Regional Consultative Workshop on Energy, the
regional adviser to assist the least developed                Asian Institute of Technology, ADB, SPC and the
countries in strengthening their consultancy services         East-West Resource Systems Institute of the East-
and provided support in the implementation of other           West Center.
activities of the Division concerned. ILO, F AO and
UNESCO co-operated fully in the organization of               175. In the field of mineral resources, several
the Symposium on Solar Science and Technology.                activities were carried out in collaboration with
UNCTAD has continued to co-operate in the                     UNESCO and with other international agencies and
activities of RCTT. ADB has continued its co-                 organizations, including the UNESCO-sponsored
operation in relation to the industrial survey of the         International Geological Correlation Programme, the
South Pacific; it has also contributed papers to              Commission for the Geological Map of the World
meetings organized by the Division and participated           and the Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral
in meetings. RNAM has received full support and               Resources Council. Furthermore, co-operative
guidance from both UNIDO and F AO.                            activities were carried out with UNEP, the Division
                                                              of Natural Resources and Energy and the Ocean
                                                              Economics and Technology Branch at United
171. More systematic methods of co-operation and              Nations Headquarters, and the secretariat of the
co-ordination of work with UNCHS have been                    Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the
developed. In addition to the deployment of staff             Sea.
from UNCHS to ESCAP, regular discussions and
meetings have been held between the personnel of              176. In the field of water, consultations were
UNCHS and the Human Settlements Section of                    carried out at the global level with other United
ESCAP concerning programmes and projects and                  Nations units (the Departments of International
ways of implementing them in co-operation with                Economic and Social Affairs and of Technical Co-
each other.                                                   operation for Development at United Nations
                                                              Headquarters, UNEP and other regional
172. The interagency task forces on science and               commissions), UNIDO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNEP,
technology and on human settlements have proved to            WFP, ILO, FAO, UNESCO, WHO, WMO and
be very effective tools in bringing about better co-          IAEA through the ACC Intersecretariat Group for
ordination in the implementation of work. Meetings            Water Resources concerning the implementation of
of these task forces have been successfully held as           the Mar del Plata Action Plan and monitoring of
and when required.                                            progress. At the regional level, close co-operation
                                                              was maintained with WHO concerning the
173. In carrying out its various activities in the            International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation
field of international trade, commodities and raw             Decade; with UNDRO, WMO and LRCS on the
materials, and also those relating to the least               Typhoon Committee and Panel on Tropical
developed, landlocked and developing island                   Cyclones; and with F AO on measures to improve
countries of the region, the secretariat continued to         irrigation projects. In addition, contact was
maintain close working relations with various United          maintained with UNIDO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNEP,
Nations bodies and international agencies such as the         ILO, FAO and WHO on follow-up to the
other regional economic commissions, UNCTAD,                  recommendations of the Mar del Plata Action Plan
UNDP, UNCITRAL, ILO, FAO, GATT, lTC, ADB,                     through the Interagency Task Force on Water for
CMEA, EEC, SPC, SPEC, the ASEAN secretariat,                  Asia and the Pacific.
the Commonwealth Secretariat and ICC as well as
with the import opportunities offices of developed            177. In the field of statistics, close collaboration
                                                              and working relationships were maintained between
countries. It also maintained close contact with
                                                              the secretariat and the specialized agencies and other
existing commodity communities, namely, ANRPC,                organizations. Representatives of UNCTAD,
APCC, IPC and the South-East Asia Lumber                      UNICEF, UNEP, UNDAT, SlAP, ILO, FAO and
Producers Association.                                        IBRD participated in statistical meetings organized
                                                              by the secretariat. Active collaboration with the
174. In the field of energy, close contact was                United Nations Statistical Office continued in all
maintained with the secretariat of tile United Nations        aspects of statistics, including its global programmes
Conference on New and Renewable Sources of                    such as the National Household Survey Capability
Energy. Co-operation continued with other United              Programme, the 1983 World Programme of
Nations bodies and specialized agencies having                Industrial Statistics and the international Comparison
common interests, particularly UNDP and the                   Project and through attendance at meetings,
Division of Natural Resources and Energy at United            preparation of and comments on documents and
Nations Headquarters on programming, UNEP on                  technical papers, and joint country missions. A
environmental matters, UNIDO on technology                    growing dialogue was fostered with the statistics
transfer, UNESCO on solar energy and rural                    divisions of other regional commissions, especially
demonstration centres and F AO on biogas and                  on developmental issues and global projects having
biomass. In addition, close contact was maintained            regional implications. Contacts were established or
with other organizations with common interests: the           strengthened with a number of organizations outside
World Energy Conference, the international                    the common system, including lEA, the Organization
Electrotechnical Commission, the international                of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, the
Energy Agency (lEA) of OECD, the Inter-                       Statistical
                                                         21
activities in the field of industry and technology: it        national Solar Energy Society, the Commonwealth
provided funds to ESCAP to recruit an expert as a             Regional Consultative Workshop on Energy, the
regional adviser to assist the least developed                Asian Institute of Technology, ADB, SPC and the
countries in strengthening their consultancy services         East-West Resource Systems Institute of the East-
and provided support in the implementation of other           West Center.
activities of the Division concerned. ILO, F AO and
UNESCO co-operated fully in the organization of               175. In the field of mineral resources, several
the Symposium on Solar Science and Technology.                activities were carried out in collaboration with
UNCTAD has continued to co-operate in the                     UNESCO and with other international agencies and
activities of RCTT. ADB has continued its co-                 organizations, including the UNESCO-sponsored
operation in relation to the industrial survey of the         International Geological Correlation Programme, the
South Pacific; it has also contributed papers to              Commission for the Geological Map of the World
meetings organized by the Division and participated           and the Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral
in meetings. RNAM has received full support and               Resources Council. Furthermore, co-operative
guidance from both UNIDO and F AO.                            activities were carried out with UNEP, the Division
                                                              of Natural Resources and Energy and the Ocean
                                                              Economics and Technology Branch at United
171. More systematic methods of co-operation and              Nations Headquarters, and the secretariat of the
co-ordination of work with UNCHS have been                    Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the
developed. In addition to the deployment of staff             Sea.
from UNCHS to ESCAP, regular discussions and
meetings have been held between the personnel of              176. In the field of water, consultations were
UNCHS and the Human Settlements Section of                    carried out at the global level with other United
ESCAP concerning programmes and projects and                  Nations units (the Departments of International
ways of implementing them in co-operation with                Economic and Social Affairs and of Technical Co-
each other.                                                   operation for Development at United Nations
                                                              Headquarters, UNEP and other regional
172. The interagency task forces on science and               commissions), UNIDO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNEP,
technology and on human settlements have proved to            WFP, ILO, FAO, UNESCO, WHO, WMO and
be very effective tools in bringing about better co-          IAEA through the ACC Intersecretariat Group for
ordination in the implementation of work. Meetings            Water Resources concerning the implementation of
of these task forces have been successfully held as           the Mar del Plata Action Plan and monitoring of
and when required.                                            progress. At the regional level, close co-operation
                                                              was maintained with WHO concerning the
173. In carrying out its various activities in the            International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation
field of international trade, commodities and raw             Decade; with UNDRO, WMO and LRCS on the
materials, and also those relating to the least               Typhoon Committee and Panel on Tropical
developed, landlocked and developing island                   Cyclones; and with F AO on measures to improve
countries of the region, the secretariat continued to         irrigation projects. In addition, contact was
maintain close working relations with various United          maintained with UNIDO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNEP,
Nations bodies and international agencies such as the         ILO, FAO and WHO on follow-up to the
other regional economic commissions, UNCTAD,                  recommendations of the Mar del Plata Action Plan
UNDP, UNCITRAL, ILO, FAO, GATT, lTC, ADB,                     through the Interagency Task Force on Water for
CMEA, EEC, SPC, SPEC, the ASEAN secretariat,                  Asia and the Pacific.
the Commonwealth Secretariat and ICC as well as
with the import opportunities offices of developed            177. In the field of statistics, close collaboration
                                                              and working relationships were maintained between
countries. It also maintained close contact with
                                                              the secretariat and the specialized agencies and other
existing commodity communities, namely, ANRPC,                organizations. Representatives of UNCTAD,
APCC, IPC and the South-East Asia Lumber                      UNICEF, UNEP, UNDAT, SlAP, ILO, FAO and
Producers Association.                                        IBRD participated in statistical meetings organized
                                                              by the secretariat. Active collaboration with the
174. In the field of energy, close contact was                United Nations Statistical Office continued in all
maintained with the secretariat of tile United Nations        aspects of statistics, including its global programmes
Conference on New and Renewable Sources of                    such as the National Household Survey Capability
Energy. Co-operation continued with other United              Programme, the 1983 World Programme of
Nations bodies and specialized agencies having                Industrial Statistics and the international Comparison
common interests, particularly UNDP and the                   Project and through attendance at meetings,
Division of Natural Resources and Energy at United            preparation of and comments on documents and
Nations Headquarters on programming, UNEP on                  technical papers, and joint country missions. A
environmental matters, UNIDO on technology                    growing dialogue was fostered with the statistics
transfer, UNESCO on solar energy and rural                    divisions of other regional commissions, especially
demonstration centres and F AO on biogas and                  on developmental issues and global projects having
biomass. In addition, close contact was maintained            regional implications. Contacts were established or
with other organizations with common interests: the           strengthened with a number of organizations outside
World Energy Conference, the international                    the common system, including lEA, the Organization
Electrotechnical Commission, the international                of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, the
Energy Agency (lEA) of OECD, the Inter-                       Statistical
                                                         22
Office of the European Communities, the Common-              Indian Railways and the Japan Railway Technical
wealth Secretariat, SPC, CMEA and the International          Service on railway research matters, and with the
Statistical Institute.                                       Transport and Road Research Laboratory of the
                                                             United Kingdom and the Asian Institute of
178. In the field of transport, communications and           Technology on the promotion of transport research.
tourism, the secretariat maintained close working
relations with ITU, through the ESCAP/ITU Unit,              180. In the field of facilitation of international
and with the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity on                   traffic, the secretariat worked in co-operation with
telecommunication development; with UPU and the              UNCTAD/FALPRO and the Customs Co-operation
Asian Oceanic Postal Union on postal development;            Council.
with ILO on labour-intensive road construction
methods and tourism manpower development; with               181. The secretariat also maintained close contact
ICAO on a study/survey on the economic aspects of            with the Southeast Asian Agency for Regional
air cargo transport; with WTO on tourism                     Transport and Communication Development in the
development; and with UNEP on environmental                  identification of programmes and projects in the field
aspects of transport and tourism development.                of transport and communications development.

179. The secretariat collaborated with IBRD on               182. In the implementation of its activities in the
various transportation training courses organized            field of the environment, the secretariat has been
within the region. It worked in co-operation with            working in close co-operation with concerned United
UIC, the Research, Designs and Standards                     Nations bodies and specialized agencies, including
Organisation             of                   the            UNEP, FAO, UNESCO, WHO and IMCO.




                                                      (23)
                                               Chapter III

                           THIRTY- SEVENTH SESSION
                             OF THE COMMISSION

  A. ATTENDANCE AND ORGANIZATION                            188. Representatives of the following specialized
             OF WORK                                        agencies were present in a consultative capacity:
                                                            International Labour Organisation, Food and
183. The thirty-seventh session of the Commission           Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
was held at the United Nations Building, Bangkok,           United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
from 10 to 20 March 1981.                                   Organization, International Civil Aviation
                                                            Organization, World Health Organization,
184. The session was attended by representatives            International Bank for Reconstruction and
                                                            Development, International Monetary Fund,
of the following members and associate members:
                                                            Un iv ersal Po stal Union, In tern ation a l
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma,          Telecommunication Union, World Meteorological
China, Democratic Kampuchea, Fiji, France, India,           Organization and Inter-Governmental Maritime
Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Lao People's Democratic             Consultative Organization. A representative of the
Republic, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal,                 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade also
Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New               attended.
Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand,            189. T h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l
Tonga, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United          organizations attended as observers: Asian Clearing
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,              Union, Asian Development Bank, Asia-Pacific
United States of America, Viet Nam, Cook Islands,           Telecommunity, Asian Productivity Organization,
Hong Kong, Kiribati, Niue and Trust Territory of the        Asian Reinsurance Corporation, Association of
Pacific Islands.                                            Natural Rubber Producing Countries, Centre for
                                                            Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the
185. By virtue of rule 3 of the Commission's rules          Pacific, Commonwealth Secretariat, Council for
of procedure, representatives of Austria, Belgium,          Mutual Economic Assistance, European Economic
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Federal              Community, Intergovernmental Committee for
Republic of Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Poland,        Migration, International Pepper Community, South
                                                            Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation and
Romania and Turkey attended. A representative of
                                                            South Pacific Commission.
Switzerland attended under Economic and Social
Council resolution 860 (XXXII). A representative of         190. Observers from the following non-
the Holy See also attended under Council decision           governmental organizations in category I were
244 (LXIII).                                                present: International Alliance of Women -Equal
                                                            Rights, Equal Responsibilities, International
186. The session was also attended by officials             Chamber of Commerce, International Confederation
from United Nations Headquarters, representing the          of Free Trade Unions, International Co-operative
Department of International Economic and Social             Alliance, International Council of Women,
Affairs, the Department of Technical Co-operation           International Council on Social Welfare,
for Development, the Director-General for                   International Federation of Business and
Development and International Economic Co-                  Professional Women, International Organization for
operation, the Regional Commissions Liaison Unit,           Standardization, International Planned Parenthood
the United Nations Centre on Transnational                  Federation, World Confederation of Labour, World
Corporations and the Centre for Social Development          Federation of Trade Unions, World Federation of
and Humanitarian Affairs, and by representatives of         United Nations Associations and World Veterans
the United Nations Industrial Development                   Federation. An observer from the Friedrich Ebert
Organization.                                               Foundation, a non-governmental organization on the
                                                            Roster, was also present.
187. Representatives of the following United                191. The list of participants is given in document
Nations bodies attended: United Nations Children's          ESCAP (XXXVII)/INF .1 .
Fund, United Nations Development Programme,
United Nations Environment Programme, United                192. In accordance with rule 13 of the rules of
Nations Fund for Population Activities, United              procedure, the Commission at its 559th meeting
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and World            elected His Excellency Mr. Mahe U. Tupouniua,
Food Council.                                               Minister of Finance (Tonga), as Chairman.
                                                       23
                                               Chapter III

                           THIRTY- SEVENTH SESSION
                             OF THE COMMISSION

  A. ATTENDANCE AND ORGANIZATION                            188. Representatives of the following specialized
             OF WORK                                        agencies were present in a consultative capacity:
                                                            International Labour Organisation, Food and
183. The thirty-seventh session of the Commission           Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
was held at the United Nations Building, Bangkok,           United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
from 10 to 20 March 1981.                                   Organization, International Civil Aviation
                                                            Organization, World Health Organization,
184. The session was attended by representatives            International Bank for Reconstruction and
                                                            Development, International Monetary Fund,
of the following members and associate members:
                                                            Un iv ersal Po stal Union, In tern ation a l
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma,          Telecommunication Union, World Meteorological
China, Democratic Kampuchea, Fiji, France, India,           Organization and Inter-Governmental Maritime
Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Lao People's Democratic             Consultative Organization. A representative of the
Republic, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal,                 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade also
Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New               attended.
Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand,            189. T h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l
Tonga, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United          organizations attended as observers: Asian Clearing
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,              Union, Asian Development Bank, Asia-Pacific
United States of America, Viet Nam, Cook Islands,           Telecommunity, Asian Productivity Organization,
Hong Kong, Kiribati, Niue and Trust Territory of the        Asian Reinsurance Corporation, Association of
Pacific Islands.                                            Natural Rubber Producing Countries, Centre for
                                                            Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the
185. By virtue of rule 3 of the Commission's rules          Pacific, Commonwealth Secretariat, Council for
of procedure, representatives of Austria, Belgium,          Mutual Economic Assistance, European Economic
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Federal              Community, Intergovernmental Committee for
Republic of Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Poland,        Migration, International Pepper Community, South
                                                            Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation and
Romania and Turkey attended. A representative of
                                                            South Pacific Commission.
Switzerland attended under Economic and Social
Council resolution 860 (XXXII). A representative of         190. Observers from the following non-
the Holy See also attended under Council decision           governmental organizations in category I were
244 (LXIII).                                                present: International Alliance of Women -Equal
                                                            Rights, Equal Responsibilities, International
186. The session was also attended by officials             Chamber of Commerce, International Confederation
from United Nations Headquarters, representing the          of Free Trade Unions, International Co-operative
Department of International Economic and Social             Alliance, International Council of Women,
Affairs, the Department of Technical Co-operation           International Council on Social Welfare,
for Development, the Director-General for                   International Federation of Business and
Development and International Economic Co-                  Professional Women, International Organization for
operation, the Regional Commissions Liaison Unit,           Standardization, International Planned Parenthood
the United Nations Centre on Transnational                  Federation, World Confederation of Labour, World
Corporations and the Centre for Social Development          Federation of Trade Unions, World Federation of
and Humanitarian Affairs, and by representatives of         United Nations Associations and World Veterans
the United Nations Industrial Development                   Federation. An observer from the Friedrich Ebert
Organization.                                               Foundation, a non-governmental organization on the
                                                            Roster, was also present.
187. Representatives of the following United                191. The list of participants is given in document
Nations bodies attended: United Nations Children's          ESCAP (XXXVII)/INF .1 .
Fund, United Nations Development Programme,
United Nations Environment Programme, United                192. In accordance with rule 13 of the rules of
Nations Fund for Population Activities, United              procedure, the Commission at its 559th meeting
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and World            elected His Excellency Mr. Mahe U. Tupouniua,
Food Council.                                               Minister of Finance (Tonga), as Chairman.
                                                       24
193. In view of the heavy agenda, it was proposed              4. Policies  and perspectives for the
that the part of rule 13 of the rules of procedure of             development of the ESCAP region
the Commission providing for the election of 2 Vice-
Chairmen be held in abeyance, and 12 Vice-                          (a) Review and appraisal of current
Chairmen were elected, namely: the Hon. John                            economic and social developments
                                                                        in the ESCAP region (E/ESCAP/L.S8
Moore (Australia), H.E. Mr. M. Saifur Rahman                            and Corr.1 (English only), E/ESCAP/
(Bangladesh), H.E. Mr. Zhang Wenjin (China), H.E.                       L.S8/Add.1 and Corr.1 (French
Mr. Motoo Ogiso (Japan), Mr. Soulivong                                  only))
Phrasithideth (Lao People's Democratic Republic),
H.E. Mr. Jhambalyn Banzar (Mongolia), the Hon.                      (b) Short-term economic policy aspects
Ratna S.J.B. Rana (Nepal), H.E. Mr. M. Humayun                          of the energy situation in the ESCAP
Khan (Pakistan), the Hon. Noel Levi (Papua New                          Region (E/ESCAP/212 and Corr.l, E/
Guinea), H.E. Lt. Gen. Rafael M. Ileto (philippines),                   E SCAP/213)
the Hon. M.H.M. Naina Marikar (Sri Lanka) and
H.E. Air Chief Marshal Siddhi Savetsila (Thailand).            5.   Expanded functions of the regional
                                                                    commissions: implications for the
194. The Commission appointed a Committee of                         terms of reference of ESCAP   (E/
the Whole to consider agenda items 6 and 7. The                      ESCAP/214)
Committee elected H.E. Mrs. H. Abeysekera (Sri
Lanka) as I Chairman and Mr. Tomio Uchida (Japan)              6. Progress, proposals and issues in various
and Dean Carlos P. Ramos (Philippines) as Vice-                   fields of activity of ESCAP (E(ESCAP/
Chairmen.                                                         189-192, E/ESCAP/19S, E/ESCAP/199
                                                                  and Corr.l, E/ESCAP/201, E/ESCAP/20S,
                                                                  E/ESCAP/206 and Add.l, E/ESCAP/207-
195. The Commission also appointed a Technical                    210, E/ESCAP/211 and Corr.l, E/ESCAP/
and Drafting Committee. That Committee elected                    213, E/ESCAP/2IS and Corr.l, E/ESCAP/
H.E. Mr. A.M.A. Muhith (Bangladesh) as Chairman                   216-219, E/ESCAP/220 and Corr.l, E/
and Mr. Shaukat Umer (Pakistan) and Mrs. Lauralee                 ESCAP/221-226,       E/ESCAP/227 and
Peters (United States of America) as Vice-Chairmen.               Add.l,    E/ESCAP/228, E/ESCAP/229;
                                                                  ESCAP/192 and Add.l, ESCAP/193)
196. In accordance with the established practice,
an informal working group on draft resolutions was                  (a) Review of the implementation of the
also set up. The group elected Mr. G.Th.E.R. Arnold                     programme of work and priorities
(Netherlands) as Chairman and Mr. R.S. Rathore                          since the thirty-sixth session of the
(India) and. Mr. Somkiati Ariyapruchya (Thailand)                       Commission
as Vice-Chairmen.
                                                                    (b) Programme changes, 1981, and
197. The Chairman announced at the                                      programme of work and priorities,
Commission's 562nd meeting that, in accordance                          1982-1983
with rule 12 of the rules of procedure, he and the
Vice-Chairmen, constituting the credentials                         (c) Medium-term plan, 1984-1989
committee, had examine the credentials of the
                                                               7.    Progress reports on special regional
delegations. The Vice-Chairman from the Lao                          projects and regional institutions
People's Democratic Republic and the Vice-
Chairman from Mongolia had expressed their                          (a) Regional projects (E/ESCAP/193 and
reservations with regard to the qualifications of one                   Corr.l, E/ESCAP/194, E/ESCAP/197,
It representative. Furthermore, the Vice-Chairmen                       E/ESCAP/200, E/ESCAP/23 I and
from China and Mongolia had expressed their                             Corr.l)
reservations with regard to the qualifications of
another represent credentials committee, had found                  (b) Regional institutions (E/ESCAP/196
the credentials of all the representatives to be in                     and Corr.l, E/ESCAP/198, E/ESCAP/
order.                                                                  203, E/ESCAP/230 and Corr.I-3)

                                                               8. Mobilization of extrabudgetary resources
                                                                  (E/ESCAP/202, E/ESCAP/204 and Corr.l,
                   B. AGENDA                                       E/ESCAP/232 and Corr.1 and 2, E/
                                                                   ESCAP/233 and Corr.l)
198. At its 559th meeting, the Commission
unanimously adopted the following agenda:                      9. Economic and technical co-operation
                                                                  among developing     countries (E/
                                                                  ESCAP/234, E/ESCAP/238)
       1. Opening addresses                                    10. Findings and recommendations of the
       2. Election of officers ,                                   Advisory Committee    of Permanent
       3. Adoption of the agenda (E/ESCAP/L.56/                    Representatives    and        Other
          Rev.l, E/ESCAP/L.57 and Corr.l)                          Representatives              Desig-
                                                        (25)
           nated by Members of the Commission                 co-operation. He regretted that some nations
           (E/ESCAP/235)                                      continued to resort to force as a means of obtaining
       11. General Assembly resolution 35/116 on              political and security objectives, giving rise to
           the Third United Nations Conference on             tensions which had created hardship and suffering
           the Law of the Sea: consequences for the           for the peoples directly involved and also imposed a
           ESCAP region of a new legal regime (E/             tremendous and unfair burden on other countries.
           ESCAP/236)                                         The only way to resolve tensions and dispel distrust
                                                              was for nations to reason together, respect the
       12. Other matters (E/ESCAP/237)                        legitimate political and security interests of all
                                                              countries concerned and adhere strictly to the
       13. Adoption of the annual report of the               principles of the Charter of the United Nations in
           Commission (E/ESCAP/L.59)                          their relations with one another.

                                                              202. Elimination of tensions and restoration of
       C. ACCOUNT OF PROCEEDINGS                              tranquillity would enable all countries to dedicate
                                                              themselves to constructive and fruitful endeavours
199. The session was declared open by His                     for the prosperity and happiness of their peoples.
Excellency Mr. Dawa Tsering, Minister for Foreign
Affairs of Bhutan, the outgoing Chairman. His                 Message from the Secretary-General of the
Excellency Mr. Prem Tinsulanonda, Prime Minister              United Nations
of Thailand, delivered the inaugural address. The
Executive Secretary read out a message from the               203. In his message, the Secretary-General of the
Secretary-General of the United Nations and                   United Nations said that the current session was
delivered an address.                                         being held at a time of continued deterioration in the
                                                              world economic situation. The crisis was at once
Inaugural address by the Prime Minister of                    structural and conjunctural and was exacting a heavy
Thailand                                                      toll on all groups of countries. It affected not only
                                                              prices and production, but the very fabric of
200. The Prime Minister of Thailand, speaking on              international economic relations, and underlined the
                                                              urgent need to put into place a new international
behalf of the people and Government of Thailand,
                                                              economic order.
welcomed those attending the session.
                                                              204. The way out of the crisis lay in a system of
201. He stated that, despite some favourable                  global management of development in which all
developments such as the adoption of the Agreement            groups of countries would participate, on an equal
Establishing the Common Fund for Commodities                  basis, in adopting and implementing the measures
and of the International Development Strategy for             required to bring about the rapid and even
the Third United Nations Development Decade, little           development of the world economy. Global
progress had been made along the course charted to            negotiations in the areas of raw materials, trade,
achieve a new international economic order since the          development, energy and money and finances could
adoption of the relevant resolutions at the sixth             constitute the starting point of such an approach, and
special session of the General Assembly. Increasing           he took the opportunity to reiterate his hope that it
protectionism against the exports of the developing           would prove possible to; agree soon on the launching
countries, their deteriorating terms of trade, high           of such negotiations.
rates of inflation, substantial slowdown in economic
activities and monetary instability resulting from the        205. He noted that the issue of energy, which was
unco-ordinated financial and monetary policies of             one of the main topics for negotiations, would be
the major industrial countries continued to contribute        among the major themes of the session and that the
to the economic crisis of the day. A resurgence of            deliberations would focus on short-term economic
rapid inflation owing to sharp and prospective future         policy aspects of the energy situation. International,
rises in energy prices had also posed a serious               regional and subregional co-operation on energy, as
problem. The developing countries had been                    in other areas, was essential to the well-being of the
disappointed at the unsatisfactory outcome of the             world economy in general and of the developing
recently held eleventh special session of the General         countries in particular. He hoped that the
Assembly on matters relating to the "global round of          deliberations at the session would result in a
negotiations". He stressed the urgent need to                 substantial strengthening of such co-operation in the
redouble the resolve and renew the determination to           region.
deal with those problems, which affected rich and
poor countries alike. He commended the role of                206. The devolution of greater responsibilities to
ESCAP in helping its member countries in the region           the regional commissions was based on a recognition
as well as those outside the region to co-operate in          of their important role as the main general economic
economic and social activities of mutual interest. In         and social centres for their respective regions within
order to improve the standards of living of the               the United Nations system. That role required the
people, effective co-operation was essential in an            commissions both to contribute effectively to the
interdependent world. In that context, many regarded          global policy-making process of the Organization
ASEAN as a good example of effective                          and to ensure

                                                         25
           nated by Members of the Commission                 co-operation. He regretted that some nations
           (E/ESCAP/235)                                      continued to resort to force as a means of obtaining
       11. General Assembly resolution 35/116 on              political and security objectives, giving rise to
           the Third United Nations Conference on             tensions which had created hardship and suffering
           the Law of the Sea: consequences for the           for the peoples directly involved and also imposed a
           ESCAP region of a new legal regime (E/             tremendous and unfair burden on other countries.
           ESCAP/236)                                         The only way to resolve tensions and dispel distrust
                                                              was for nations to reason together, respect the
       12. Other matters (E/ESCAP/237)                        legitimate political and security interests of all
                                                              countries concerned and adhere strictly to the
       13. Adoption of the annual report of the               principles of the Charter of the United Nations in
           Commission (E/ESCAP/L.59)                          their relations with one another.

                                                              202. Elimination of tensions and restoration of
       C. ACCOUNT OF PROCEEDINGS                              tranquillity would enable all countries to dedicate
                                                              themselves to constructive and fruitful endeavours
199. The session was declared open by His                     for the prosperity and happiness of their peoples.
Excellency Mr. Dawa Tsering, Minister for Foreign
Affairs of Bhutan, the outgoing Chairman. His                 Message from the Secretary-General of the
Excellency Mr. Prem Tinsulanonda, Prime Minister              United Nations
of Thailand, delivered the inaugural address. The
Executive Secretary read out a message from the               203. In his message, the Secretary-General of the
Secretary-General of the United Nations and                   United Nations said that the current session was
delivered an address.                                         being held at a time of continued deterioration in the
                                                              world economic situation. The crisis was at once
Inaugural address by the Prime Minister of                    structural and conjunctural and was exacting a heavy
Thailand                                                      toll on all groups of countries. It affected not only
                                                              prices and production, but the very fabric of
200. The Prime Minister of Thailand, speaking on              international economic relations, and underlined the
                                                              urgent need to put into place a new international
behalf of the people and Government of Thailand,
                                                              economic order.
welcomed those attending the session.
                                                              204. The way out of the crisis lay in a system of
201. He stated that, despite some favourable                  global management of development in which all
developments such as the adoption of the Agreement            groups of countries would participate, on an equal
Establishing the Common Fund for Commodities                  basis, in adopting and implementing the measures
and of the International Development Strategy for             required to bring about the rapid and even
the Third United Nations Development Decade, little           development of the world economy. Global
progress had been made along the course charted to            negotiations in the areas of raw materials, trade,
achieve a new international economic order since the          development, energy and money and finances could
adoption of the relevant resolutions at the sixth             constitute the starting point of such an approach, and
special session of the General Assembly. Increasing           he took the opportunity to reiterate his hope that it
protectionism against the exports of the developing           would prove possible to; agree soon on the launching
countries, their deteriorating terms of trade, high           of such negotiations.
rates of inflation, substantial slowdown in economic
activities and monetary instability resulting from the        205. He noted that the issue of energy, which was
unco-ordinated financial and monetary policies of             one of the main topics for negotiations, would be
the major industrial countries continued to contribute        among the major themes of the session and that the
to the economic crisis of the day. A resurgence of            deliberations would focus on short-term economic
rapid inflation owing to sharp and prospective future         policy aspects of the energy situation. International,
rises in energy prices had also posed a serious               regional and subregional co-operation on energy, as
problem. The developing countries had been                    in other areas, was essential to the well-being of the
disappointed at the unsatisfactory outcome of the             world economy in general and of the developing
recently held eleventh special session of the General         countries in particular. He hoped that the
Assembly on matters relating to the "global round of          deliberations at the session would result in a
negotiations". He stressed the urgent need to                 substantial strengthening of such co-operation in the
redouble the resolve and renew the determination to           region.
deal with those problems, which affected rich and
poor countries alike. He commended the role of                206. The devolution of greater responsibilities to
ESCAP in helping its member countries in the region           the regional commissions was based on a recognition
as well as those outside the region to co-operate in          of their important role as the main general economic
economic and social activities of mutual interest. In         and social centres for their respective regions within
order to improve the standards of living of the               the United Nations system. That role required the
people, effective co-operation was essential in an            commissions both to contribute effectively to the
interdependent world. In that context, many regarded          global policy-making process of the Organization
ASEAN as a good example of effective                          and to ensure

                                                         26
that the results of those processes were brought to                213. In keeping with its multidisciplinary
bear on policy making at the regional and                          character, the Commission would, at its current
subregional levels.                                                session, deliberate on the entire range of social and
                                                                   economic subjects which had a bearing on
207. A major task that lay ahead for the regional                  development. Hence an integrated approach had
commissions was their participation in the review                  been reflected in the regional development strategy
and appraisal of the new international Development                 adopted at the previous session and projected in the
Strategy. That provided an opportunity for the                     ESCAP programme of work and priorities proposed
commissions to give the necessary political impetus                for consideration at the current session. He referred
to the implementation of the Strategy and to propose               to some of the issues which would attract special
and carry out adjustments or intensification of policy             attention at the session.
measures in the light of evolving needs and
developments in each region. In that context, it                   214. The constraint of energy was one of the
would be particularly important for the commissions                greatest challenges confronting the aspirations of the
to promote actions and policy reorientations aimed at              developing countries to achieve rapid growth. The
the eradication of poverty, the full participation of all          concern was not only to deal with the short-term
sections of the population in the development                      problems arising from the high prices of petroleum
process and a fair distribution of the benefits of                 and its uncertain supply but also to ensure the
development.                                                       progressively increasing levels of per capita
                                                                   utilization needed for development. The results of
208. In the light of the expanding potential for                   the studies undertaken by the secretariat on that
mutually beneficial flows of finance, trade,                       subject were before the Commission and contained
technology and expertise among developing                          suggestions for regional and subregional approaches
countries, the commissions also faced growing                      to deal with the problem of energy. Issues relating to
responsibilities for the promotion of co-operation                 food production and food security were linked to it
among developing countries at the subregional,                     and would come up for specific discussion at the
regional and interregional levels. Moreover, they                  session.
would have to make every effort to ensure that the
support given by the international community to                    215. Another important subject to be discussed at
such co-operation conformed to development
                                                                   the session related to promotion in the ESCAP
priorities for the 1980s.
                                                                   region of the rational development and management
                                                                   of marine resources.
209. ESCAP had done much to rationalize its
structure and institutional facilities and to adapt its
programmes to emerging needs. The support which                    216. It was also very important to consider
countries had given to that process through, inter                 proposals for strengthening the Commission to
alia, the provision of extrabudgetary resources in a               enable it not only to function as the main general
situation of financial stringencies for the system as a            economic and social centre within the United
whole was most encouraging.                                        Nations system, but also to contribute more
                                                                   effectively to the global policy-making process. The
Statement by the Executive Secretary of ESCAP                      Commission needed to be equipped for carrying out
                                                                   its role in implementing decisions relevant at the
210. The Executive Secretary welcomed all the                      regional level.
delegations to the session and thanked the Prime
Minister of Thailand for his enlightening address,                 217. The added significance of regional co-
which highlighted many important problems faced                    operation for development was well understood and
by the world at large and the ESCAP region in                      well recognized. The task before ESCAP in the
particular. He also referred to the message of the                 1980s was to give substance to the desire for
Secretary-General, which had underlined the urgent                 regional co-operation and mobilize the political will
need to put into place a new international economic                of the member countries for undertaking
order.                                                             collaborative efforts. That should be the main
                                                                   endeavour of the Commission. Co-operation often
211. The thirty-seventh session was taking place                   involved the sacrifice of transient interests for the
against the background of a crisis situation which                 achievement of long-term benefits. Only an approach
had continued to deteriorate. The ESCAP region,                    of enlightened self-interest could enable the member
being the largest and most diverse, could playa                    countries to convert the general climate for co-
significant role in the restructuring of the existing              operation into concrete forms of collaboration. The
order.                                                             Commission would continue to play a central and
                                                                   catalytic role in promoting regional and subregional
212. Being the home of the bulk of the world's                     co-operation. He hoped that the thirty-seventh
poor, the region had a pressing need for an                        session would mark the beginning of new initiatives
environment ensuring steady development. That was                  that would contribute to the improvement of the
why Commission sessions, as forums to articulate                   economic and social conditions of the region and
the collective view and will of the member countries,              help its people to attain a fuller and more meaningful
were so important.                                                 life.
                                                            (27)
  Policies and perspectives for the development               real prices imposed a growing burden on the balance
               of the ESCAP region                            of payments of developing countries of the region.
                                                              Consequently, those countries were faced with short-
Policy statement by the Executive Secretary                   and long-term policy considerations which involved
                                                              energy development, efficient energy use and energy
218. In his policy statement, the Executive                   planning. In that respect, action at the regional level
Secretary said that the current session of the                could assist in the following ways. First, institutional
Commission was taking place at a time of profound             arrangements could be developed to ensure adequate
political, economic and social instability. The               flows of capital to finance development of
problems which marked the time were exceedingly               indigenous energy resources. Second, expertise
complex, but the forces of change in the existing             could be made available to countries from a regional
international order would ultimately prevail and a            or subregional pool to assist in planning, exploration
reshaping of the current geopolitical and economic            and development of energy. Third, country groups
relations would eventually result from pressures for          through co-operative action could ensure a secure
political deliberation and economic self-reliance. A          supply of oil to the oil-importing countries in the
successful dialogue among nations could ensure an             face of restricted global supply. Fourth, regional
orderly process of transition.                                balancing of refinery output and bulk purchase and
                                                              transport of oil by groups of countries, especially the
219. Recent years had seen a growing                          small island countries, could be fruitful. Fifth,
interdependence among nations and a growing                   enormous scope existed for co-operative action to
interconnectedness of the problems confronting the            develop hydroelectricity.
world. As a result, national policies for development
could not be framed without taking full account of            223. He stressed the need for accelerated
international developments. Even the global sectoral          agricultural growth, chiefly to ensure adequate food
problems of energy, food, trade, technology transfer          supplies for eradicating hunger and malnutrition.
and finance could not be treated separately but               Population control policies should also constitute an
required an integrated approach and negotiated                integral part of the long-term effort to achieve that
solutions. The United Nations system provided a               objective. More important, however, the adverse
unique forum for mobilizing political commitment to           impact of the rise in the real price of energy on food
integrated global negotiations on the basis of clearly        supply and food prices owing to increased prices of
set long-term objectives and rules and principles             oil-based agricultural inputs, together with the
concerning those areas.                                       adverse environmental impact likely to result from
                                                              increased reliance on fuelwood as a substitute source
220. While the global problems required global                of energy, needed to be determined through in-depth
solutions, much could be accomplished through co-             studies in order that appropriate remedial policies
operation at the regional and subregional levels to           could be adopted. ESCAP had therefore recently
seek solutions to common problems and to attain               established a Special Project on Food Supply, which
common objectives. The previous annual report of              would, among other things, examine the potential for
the Commission had noted three salient features of            regional co-operation in the production and
past development in the region: first, a marked               distribution of fertilizer, the development of regional
variation of growth rates across countries; second, an        food reserves on a cost-sharing basis for emergency
almost common failure to stop the increase in the             use and improved research and training facilities in
already large number of abjectly poor, unemployed             area-specific problems in food production.
or underemployed people; and third, a clear lack of
correlation between growth and distributive equity.           224. The common development of the potential of
Against the backdrop of those findings, the                   river basin and marine resources on the basis of
Commission had adopted for the region in the 1980s            subregional co-operation was to be stressed in that
development goals which specified ambitious                   context. The lower Mekong basin development
quantitative targets for growth (6.7 per cent for GDP,        project was an example of such development and
3.5 per cent for agriculture and 8.9 per cent for             there were others such as the Ganges and
industry), but at the same time emphasized fuller             Brahmaputra systems, which offered enormous
employment, distributive equity, fulf1lment of basic          potential benefits.
mass needs, wider participation in development and
greater self-reliance.                                        225. Urgent and collaborative action by the
                                                              developing countries of the region was required for
221. Regional co-operation could assist the                   the prudent exploitation of the resources of their
developing countries in the attainment of those               exclusive economic zones for the maximum benefit
objectives. The following were some of the ways in            of the countries themselves and to pre-empt the
which that could be done.                                     possibilities of their exploitation by and for outside
                                                              interests. The possibilities of establishing formal
222. A substantial increase in the per capita                 regional machinery for consultation and for
consumption of energy in the developing countries             exchange of information, and the development of an
was essential if over-all rates of economic growth            indigenous technological capacity to exploit those
were to approximate the targets set. Growing scarcity         resources, could be on the agenda for regional co-
of renewable resources of energy as reflected in their        operation. The island countries of the Pacific should

                                                         27
  Policies and perspectives for the development               real prices imposed a growing burden on the balance
               of the ESCAP region                            of payments of developing countries of the region.
                                                              Consequently, those countries were faced with short-
Policy statement by the Executive Secretary                   and long-term policy considerations which involved
                                                              energy development, efficient energy use and energy
218. In his policy statement, the Executive                   planning. In that respect, action at the regional level
Secretary said that the current session of the                could assist in the following ways. First, institutional
Commission was taking place at a time of profound             arrangements could be developed to ensure adequate
political, economic and social instability. The               flows of capital to finance development of
problems which marked the time were exceedingly               indigenous energy resources. Second, expertise
complex, but the forces of change in the existing             could be made available to countries from a regional
international order would ultimately prevail and a            or subregional pool to assist in planning, exploration
reshaping of the current geopolitical and economic            and development of energy. Third, country groups
relations would eventually result from pressures for          through co-operative action could ensure a secure
political deliberation and economic self-reliance. A          supply of oil to the oil-importing countries in the
successful dialogue among nations could ensure an             face of restricted global supply. Fourth, regional
orderly process of transition.                                balancing of refinery output and bulk purchase and
                                                              transport of oil by groups of countries, especially the
219. Recent years had seen a growing                          small island countries, could be fruitful. Fifth,
interdependence among nations and a growing                   enormous scope existed for co-operative action to
interconnectedness of the problems confronting the            develop hydroelectricity.
world. As a result, national policies for development
could not be framed without taking full account of            223. He stressed the need for accelerated
international developments. Even the global sectoral          agricultural growth, chiefly to ensure adequate food
problems of energy, food, trade, technology transfer          supplies for eradicating hunger and malnutrition.
and finance could not be treated separately but               Population control policies should also constitute an
required an integrated approach and negotiated                integral part of the long-term effort to achieve that
solutions. The United Nations system provided a               objective. More important, however, the adverse
unique forum for mobilizing political commitment to           impact of the rise in the real price of energy on food
integrated global negotiations on the basis of clearly        supply and food prices owing to increased prices of
set long-term objectives and rules and principles             oil-based agricultural inputs, together with the
concerning those areas.                                       adverse environmental impact likely to result from
                                                              increased reliance on fuelwood as a substitute source
220. While the global problems required global                of energy, needed to be determined through in-depth
solutions, much could be accomplished through co-             studies in order that appropriate remedial policies
operation at the regional and subregional levels to           could be adopted. ESCAP had therefore recently
seek solutions to common problems and to attain               established a Special Project on Food Supply, which
common objectives. The previous annual report of              would, among other things, examine the potential for
the Commission had noted three salient features of            regional co-operation in the production and
past development in the region: first, a marked               distribution of fertilizer, the development of regional
variation of growth rates across countries; second, an        food reserves on a cost-sharing basis for emergency
almost common failure to stop the increase in the             use and improved research and training facilities in
already large number of abjectly poor, unemployed             area-specific problems in food production.
or underemployed people; and third, a clear lack of
correlation between growth and distributive equity.           224. The common development of the potential of
Against the backdrop of those findings, the                   river basin and marine resources on the basis of
Commission had adopted for the region in the 1980s            subregional co-operation was to be stressed in that
development goals which specified ambitious                   context. The lower Mekong basin development
quantitative targets for growth (6.7 per cent for GDP,        project was an example of such development and
3.5 per cent for agriculture and 8.9 per cent for             there were others such as the Ganges and
industry), but at the same time emphasized fuller             Brahmaputra systems, which offered enormous
employment, distributive equity, fulf1lment of basic          potential benefits.
mass needs, wider participation in development and
greater self-reliance.                                        225. Urgent and collaborative action by the
                                                              developing countries of the region was required for
221. Regional co-operation could assist the                   the prudent exploitation of the resources of their
developing countries in the attainment of those               exclusive economic zones for the maximum benefit
objectives. The following were some of the ways in            of the countries themselves and to pre-empt the
which that could be done.                                     possibilities of their exploitation by and for outside
                                                              interests. The possibilities of establishing formal
222. A substantial increase in the per capita                 regional machinery for consultation and for
consumption of energy in the developing countries             exchange of information, and the development of an
was essential if over-all rates of economic growth            indigenous technological capacity to exploit those
were to approximate the targets set. Growing scarcity         resources, could be on the agenda for regional co-
of renewable resources of energy as reflected in their        operation. The island countries of the Pacific should

                                                         28
benefit particularly from the exploitation of their               the plight and needs of the disadvantaged sections of
marine resources through co-operation and                         the population such as children, youth, women, the
international assistance.                                         handicapped and the aged. The ESCAP integrated
                                                                  programme on rural development, which was
226. The major focus of the industrial policies of                multidisciplinary in character, stressed both the
the developing countries of the region must be on                 economic and the social aspects of development by
raising their capacities for modern manufacturing.                emphasizing rural employment creation, raising of
The momentum of their growth and their ability to                 the productivity of low-income rural workers,
adapt and develop technologies and resources and to               structural reforms in rural society, adequate access to
respond to opportunities for trade could be stepped               the means of production and involvement of the rural
up only through such capacities. Industrial                       masses in making and implementing decisions.
development in most of the countries of the region
was severely restricted by market size. The                       230. For ESCAP to play its role in helping member
developing countries must continue to demand                      countries to attain their objectives, it needed: first, to
removal of restrictions on trade and freer access of
                                                                  expand its capacity to analyse the domestic
their products to the markets of developed countries
                                                                  performances of developing member countries and to
in conformity with the free trade ideal which the
latter countries had traditionally upheld. At the same            provide a better forum for discussing those
time, the developing countries could increasingly                 experiences so as to benefit from each other's
share their own markets with one another. Such trade              endeavours; second, to improve its ability to playa
flows would be facilitated by co-operative                        catalytic intellectual role in making economically
arrangements like joint-production ventures, sharing              and politically feasible proposals in the area of
of technology and technical skills, reduction of                  subregional, regional or interregional co-operation;
artificial barriers to trade, creation of new                     and third, to continue to provide the means for
infrastructure in transport, communications,                      making a regional contribution to the formulation of
insurance and finance and, above all, a more                      global policies and to assist in carrying out decisions
enlightened approach to identifying the areas of                  relevant at the regional level. Expansion and
dynamic comparative advantage not only between                    improvement of those functions would require a
developed and developing countries but also among                 considerable increase in the real financial resources
the developing countries in subregions and regions                available to ESCAP, better co-ordination within the
and between regions. Those were necessary                         secretariat and between it and other organizations
conditions for the speedy achievement of collective               and a careful selection of problem areas and
self-reliance.                                                    modalities.

227. The role of transnational corporations in                    231. Through ACPR and the various legislative
development had seen increased emphasis on areas                  committees, the full participation of the member
including production-sharing joint ventures and                   Governments in the decision making and
licensing and management agreements, apart from                   deliberations of ESCAP had been ensured. The work
traditional foreign investment in the developing                  programme reflected the excellent contributions
countries of the region. The gains derived from                   which those various committees had made to ESCAP
association with transnational corporations were                  activities.
often not equitably shared. There was a clear case for
greater bilateral and multilateral consultations and              232. The increasingly multidisciplinary nature of
exchange of information to strengthen the                         the work of the secretariat made it more relevant to
negotiating capacity of host Governments, there by                the economic and social development of member
enhancing the benefits to the host countries.                     countries. In that connexion, ESCAP had developed
                                                                  fruitful collaboration of a multidisciplinary character
228. Steps needed to be taken to reverse the
disturbing trend in real assistance flows in the face of          with other United Nations organizations and
the greatly increased capital flow requirements                   agencies in the field of integrated rural development
foreseen for the developing countries of the region to            through an interagency committee and task force.
attain their target rates of growth in the 1980s. New             Such collaborative approaches could be adopted in
institutional arrangements were also needed for the               other important areas.
low-income countries of south Asia as well as some
socialist countries of The region to gain access to the           233. During the previous decade, ESCAP had
market for commercial capital, which those groups                 established a number of regional institutions relating
of countries urgently required in addition to foreign             to technology, agricultural machinery, natural
assistance flows.                                                 disasters, trade etc. to work in close collaboration
                                                                  with their counterpart national institutions. APDC,
229. It was necessary to ensure that economic                     which had been established at Kuala Lumpur and
growth and development were not achieved at undue                 was intended to provide a leading intellectual role in
social cost. Moreover, social development objectives              development, was the most recent of those
should be viewed as direct objectives of                          institutions. He stressed that the institutions needed
development policy rather than as the secondary                   the assistance of funding organizations and of
outcome of policies for over-all growth. Special                  member Governments if they were to discharge their
attention      had        to       be paid        to              responsibilities effectively.
                                                           (29)
234. ESCAP had been receiving a generous flow                    240. The Commission commended the secretariat
of extrabudgetary resources which had enabled the                on the usefulness of the review of economic
secretariat to expand considerably its research and              developments during 1979-1980 and made several
technical assistance programmes. However, the                    suggestions for improvements in coverage and in
usefulness of the extrabudgetary resources could be              analysis for future surveys.
enhanced if they were provided on a programme
rather than a project basis. Annual budgetary                    241. It took note of the pervasive influence on the
appropriations by donor Governments could provide                developing economies of the region of the stagflation
sufficient funding in advance to cover an ESCAP                  which now characterized the international market
work programme biennium.                                         economy and of the fact that the prospects for
                                                                 appreciable recovery in the coming year were not
235. To ensure that extrabudgetary funds were                    propitious. Rapid rates of inflation had become
used to the best effect, an independent evaluation               widespread in both developed and developing market
system had been established in the Office of the                 economies. Slow rates of growth in the industrialized
Executive Secretary the previous year. It had been               countries had reduced the growth of demand for
carrying out in-depth evaluations of a number of                 exports from the developing economies and had in
ESCAP activities and had developed the                           many instances brought about falling prices for
methodology needed for the purpose.                              primary commodities. Concurrently, prices of
                                                                 necessary imports into developing economies had
236. Owing to the lack of the parallel political                 continued to rise; exacerbated by the sharp rise in the
institutions to be found in other regions, ESCAP                 prices of petroleum and its products, the increase in
played a unique role by providing a forum in which               import prices meant deteriorating terms of trade and
political leaders could discuss common economic                  increasing deficits on current account. That situation
and social problems. At the same time, ESCAP                     was worsened by diminishing access to markets in
encouraged and assisted subregional groups such as               the developed economies resulting from artificial
ASEAN, SPC and SPEC. The emergence of more                       barriers to trade and by the slackening flow of
subregional groupings, particularly in south Asia,               external financial resources.
could be expected in future.
                                                                 242. The Commission deplored the impasse in the
237. The first priority in development should be                 North-South dialogue and expressed the hope that
improvement in the quality of life of the common                 fruitful discussions might soon be resumed. The
man. The achievement of that goal required govern-               recent adoption by the General Assembly of the
mental commitments and the formulation of massive                International Development Strategy for the Third
and pragmatic programmes geared to the                           United Nations Development Decade was
requirements of different societies and different                recognized as a necessary first step, but the goals and
areas. Often the allocation of development resources             aspirations embodied therein required positive action
did not reflect an awareness of the needs and                    and a spirit of international co-operation. The
priorities of the weaker sections of society and that            Commission felt that peace and security were
had to be changed. Development viewed in that light              essential for the economic and social development of
required increased productivity of the poor, wider               the countries of the region.
participation in the process of development and a
fairer distribution of its benefits in the short term. In        243. While the establishment of the Common Fund
the longer term, it would be necessary to evolve a               was applauded by the Commission" it was
new international economic and social order in                   recognized that substantial progress would depend
which collective self-reliance through enhanced co-              upon individual commodity agreements. In the
operation among developing countries would be an                 current international situation, the need to stabilize
essential element.                                               the prices of commodity exports from the developing
                                                                 countries was particularly pressing.
238. Rapid and constant change was now a fact of
life. The ability to change and to learn to live with            244. Many delegations felt that there was an
change presented a great challenge and ESCAP and                 apparent stiffening of attitudes in many developed
the United Nations system could reinforce the efforts            economies towards tile demand of the developing
of their member countries to meet that challenge and             economies for increased access to markets for their
become a catalyst for change to build a better and               exports. The continuation and the multiplication of
prosperous world.                                                varieties of barriers to those exports at a time when
                                                                 demand was slackening was felt to be especially
                                                                 onerous. Disappointment was expressed by many
Review and appraisal of current economic and                     delegations in respect of the results of the Tokyo
social developments in the ESCAP region                          Round of the multilateral trade negotiations. Several
                                                                 delegations, while expressing hope for a satisfactory
239. The Commission considered document E/                       outcome of the pending negotiations for the renewal
ESCAP/L.S8 and Corr.1, Economic and Social                       of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement, were apprehensive
Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1980: Recent                     about the possibility of improvement in conditions..
Economic Developments, 1979-1980.                                for the textile garments trade in view of the
                                                            29
234. ESCAP had been receiving a generous flow                    240. The Commission commended the secretariat
of extrabudgetary resources which had enabled the                on the usefulness of the review of economic
secretariat to expand considerably its research and              developments during 1979-1980 and made several
technical assistance programmes. However, the                    suggestions for improvements in coverage and in
usefulness of the extrabudgetary resources could be              analysis for future surveys.
enhanced if they were provided on a programme
rather than a project basis. Annual budgetary                    241. It took note of the pervasive influence on the
appropriations by donor Governments could provide                developing economies of the region of the stagflation
sufficient funding in advance to cover an ESCAP                  which now characterized the international market
work programme biennium.                                         economy and of the fact that the prospects for
                                                                 appreciable recovery in the coming year were not
235. To ensure that extrabudgetary funds were                    propitious. Rapid rates of inflation had become
used to the best effect, an independent evaluation               widespread in both developed and developing market
system had been established in the Office of the                 economies. Slow rates of growth in the industrialized
Executive Secretary the previous year. It had been               countries had reduced the growth of demand for
carrying out in-depth evaluations of a number of                 exports from the developing economies and had in
ESCAP activities and had developed the                           many instances brought about falling prices for
methodology needed for the purpose.                              primary commodities. Concurrently, prices of
                                                                 necessary imports into developing economies had
236. Owing to the lack of the parallel political                 continued to rise; exacerbated by the sharp rise in the
institutions to be found in other regions, ESCAP                 prices of petroleum and its products, the increase in
played a unique role by providing a forum in which               import prices meant deteriorating terms of trade and
political leaders could discuss common economic                  increasing deficits on current account. That situation
and social problems. At the same time, ESCAP                     was worsened by diminishing access to markets in
encouraged and assisted subregional groups such as               the developed economies resulting from artificial
ASEAN, SPC and SPEC. The emergence of more                       barriers to trade and by the slackening flow of
subregional groupings, particularly in south Asia,               external financial resources.
could be expected in future.
                                                                 242. The Commission deplored the impasse in the
237. The first priority in development should be                 North-South dialogue and expressed the hope that
improvement in the quality of life of the common                 fruitful discussions might soon be resumed. The
man. The achievement of that goal required govern-               recent adoption by the General Assembly of the
mental commitments and the formulation of massive                International Development Strategy for the Third
and pragmatic programmes geared to the                           United Nations Development Decade was
requirements of different societies and different                recognized as a necessary first step, but the goals and
areas. Often the allocation of development resources             aspirations embodied therein required positive action
did not reflect an awareness of the needs and                    and a spirit of international co-operation. The
priorities of the weaker sections of society and that            Commission felt that peace and security were
had to be changed. Development viewed in that light              essential for the economic and social development of
required increased productivity of the poor, wider               the countries of the region.
participation in the process of development and a
fairer distribution of its benefits in the short term. In        243. While the establishment of the Common Fund
the longer term, it would be necessary to evolve a               was applauded by the Commission" it was
new international economic and social order in                   recognized that substantial progress would depend
which collective self-reliance through enhanced co-              upon individual commodity agreements. In the
operation among developing countries would be an                 current international situation, the need to stabilize
essential element.                                               the prices of commodity exports from the developing
                                                                 countries was particularly pressing.
238. Rapid and constant change was now a fact of
life. The ability to change and to learn to live with            244. Many delegations felt that there was an
change presented a great challenge and ESCAP and                 apparent stiffening of attitudes in many developed
the United Nations system could reinforce the efforts            economies towards tile demand of the developing
of their member countries to meet that challenge and             economies for increased access to markets for their
become a catalyst for change to build a better and               exports. The continuation and the multiplication of
prosperous world.                                                varieties of barriers to those exports at a time when
                                                                 demand was slackening was felt to be especially
                                                                 onerous. Disappointment was expressed by many
Review and appraisal of current economic and                     delegations in respect of the results of the Tokyo
social developments in the ESCAP region                          Round of the multilateral trade negotiations. Several
                                                                 delegations, while expressing hope for a satisfactory
239. The Commission considered document E/                       outcome of the pending negotiations for the renewal
ESCAP/L.S8 and Corr.1, Economic and Social                       of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement, were apprehensive
Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1980: Recent                     about the possibility of improvement in conditions..
Economic Developments, 1979-1980.                                for the textile garments trade in view of the
                                                            30
continued recession and increasing unemployment in                 sources, tourism and various aspects of social
the developed countries.                                           development. The training activities carried out by
                                                                   the secretariat were cited as especially useful and
245. Particular concern was voiced with regard to                  their continuation and expansion were
the plight of the least developed of the developing                recommended. The Commission looked forward to
countries of the region in the current international               significant accomplishments in the training field by
economic situation. Among those, the geographically                the newly established Asian and Pacific
disadvantaged, land-locked and Pacific island                      Development Centre.
economies were subject to special burdens, and
consideration was given to possible ameliorative                   250. Several delegations took special note of the
action.                                                            important task that awaited the Commission in the
                                                                   review and appraisal of the implementation of the
246. Among the broad problems of development                       new International Development Strategy. It was
which drew special attention during the discussions,               pointed out that the Commission had at its thirty-
issues relating to agricultural development and, in                sixth session decided to accord that matter high
particular, the problems of food production were of                priority at its thirty-seventh session but that the topic
primary concern. Particular emphasis was laid on the               of the elaboration of regional and subregional
achievement of food security, which was seen as a                  strategies in the light of the finalization of the new
task most effectively accomplished only through                    Strategy had not yet been brought up for discussion
collective action.                                                 at the thirty-seventh session. Those delegations
                                                                   urged that the secretariat should carry out, as part of
247. It was felt that remedial action to overcome                  its regular activity of preparing economic surveys of
the difficulties facing the majority of the developing             the region, periodic reviews of major aspects of
economies in the region would require co-operative                 development within the over-all framework of the
efforts at all pertinent levels: international, among              Strategy and consider the feasibility of preparing
developing and developed countries; and                            action programmes to support national efforts
interregional and intraregional, chiefly among                     seeking to implement the Strategy.
developing countries. In the existing circumstances,
it was clear that increased effort was urgently                    251. The Commission adopted resolution 212
required to develop economic and technical co-                     (XXXVII) on review and appraisal of the
operation among the developing countries of the                    implementation of the new International
region. It was recognized that in broad outline the                Development Strategy.
International Development Strategy at the
international level and the agreed strategies for the              Short-term economic policy aspects of the energy
ESCAP region for the 1980s provided the                            situation in the ESCAP region
appropriate guidelines. Positive action was thus the
urgent requirement to implement the broad principles               252. The Commission considered documents E/
and lines of approach already discussed and                        ESCAP/212 and Corr.1 and E/ESCAP/213.
accepted.
                                                                   253. It commended the secretariat on the high
248. Numerous potential fields for collective                      quality of the note by the secretariat entitled "Short-
action were suggested and examples of co-operative                 term economic policy aspects of the energy situation
action cited. Among the latter, specific mention was               in the ESCAP region".
made of the endeavours of the ASEAN group of
countries. From outside the region, the experience of
the CMEA countries was cited. In general, there was                254. The Commission noted that the energy
agreement that the principles and practice of TCDC                 problems of the developing ESCAP countries had to
in the region held great potential for self-reliant                be viewed in the over-all context of global energy
development. Although not restricted to the situation              situations and international trade and financial
of the least developed countries, TCDC gave                        relationships.
promise of substantial gains for the land-locked and
Pacific island countries.                                          255. It also noted, with grave concern, the
                                                                   difficulties being faced by the developing ESCAP
249. The Commission reaffirmed the importance                      countries consequent on the increases in the prices of
of the continued work of the ESCAP secretariat as                  imported energy sources. Such sources formed a
the focal point for common developmental efforts                   significant part of the total commercial energy
within the region. In particular, technical assistance             supplies in those countries and large and sudden
in a broad array of fields was looked upon as a                    price increases had strained their balance of
fundamental activity which the secretariat should                  payments and had necessitated considerable
continue and expand. The secretariat was                           adjustments in their economies.
commended on its work in that area. Several
delegations emphasized the importance of the                       256. The Commission noted that the developing
requirement that the projects and other activities of              ESCAP countries had come under much greater
the secretariat should be demonstrably oriented to                 strain in adjusting to the further import price
the expressed needs of the developing member                       increases in energy during 1979/80 and the
countries. In addition to the secretariat's activities in          continued increases that were anticipated in the
the areas of integrated rural development and the                  future. In that connexion, it was also noted that
promotion of industry, shipping and trade, specific                payments for imported energy were amounting to
mention was made of such areas as the development                  extremely large proportions of export earnings,
of                   marine                           re-          which had been stagnating owing to recession

                                                            (31)
in the industrial economies and the persistence of            Concurrently, the international community needed to
protectionist tendencies, which tended to restrict            seek long-term solutions which would balance the
market access for many exports from the developing            supply of and demand for petroleum at predictable
ESCAP region.                                                 and fair prices and provide for more equitable
                                                              distribution of available supplies.
257. Energy and development had become
inseparable issues and increasing consumption of              261. The Commission noted that the energy
energy was essential if the momentum of socio-                transition required would necessitate substantial
economic development in the developing ESCAP                  capital investments by developing ESCAP countries
countries was to be accelerated. Furthermore, for the         in the development of indigenous energy sources and
foreseeable future, developing ESCAP countries                that investments of such magnitude were beyond the
would continue to depend on imported petroleum                capacity of those countries themselves. Capital flows
supplies for a significant share of commercial energy         and technical assistance would be required on a
needs and such import demands could increase, in              much larger scale than in the past if the considerable
many countries, if development were to be                     energy potential of the developing ESCAP region
accelerated. Particular attention therefore had to be         was to be developed.
given to measures which could facilitate the
financing of the balance-of-payments deficits of oil-         262     In that connexion, the Commission noted that
importing developing countries through the recycling          the assistance programmes of the CMEA countries,
of surpluses and increased flow of financial                  the Development Assistance Committee countries,
resources from developed countries so that structural         ADB and the World Bank were giving greater
adjustments could be undertaken without reducing              priority to energy and energy related projects.
the tempo of the development process.
                                                              263. The Commission drew specific attention to
258. The Commission was of the opinion that                   the energy needs of the rural people in the region.
energy issues would be the dominant theme of the              The bulk of the region's population lived in the rural
1980s. Energy had become a matter of concern to the           areas and in energy development programmes
world community of nations as a whole. It was clear           careful attention had to be given to ensuring that
that processes of development based on the rapidly            their energy needs for essential consumption and
depleting energy source of petroleum would need to
                                                              production were adequately met. In that respect, the
be changed and a transition rapidly effected to
                                                              important role of new and renewable energy sources
alternative, renewable energy sources. Such a
                                                              and that of mini and micro hydroelectric sources
transition would not be an easy one or even a
transition that could be effected in the near future.         were specifically noted.
Furthermore, because of the critical and pervasive
effects of commercial energy supplies and demands             264. The Commission expressed its concern over
on both national economies and the international              the continuing phenomenon of deforestation and
economy, energy issues needed to be considered                recommended that ESCAP should pay more
along with other major issues on a priority basis. The        attention to the matter.
resolution of such important and complex issues
would be greatly facilitated by the attainment of             265. The Commission welcomed the opportunity
peace and stability within the world community of             to consider energy issues as the main theme of the
nations, particularly in the main oil-producing               current session and recommended that ESCAP
regions.                                                      should play an active role as the regional focal point
259. The Commission noted that the required                   for further work in the field of energy in the region.
transition from petroleum to alternative sources of           266. The Commission considered in detail the
energy would bear hardest on the developing                   future role of ESCAP in the field of energy and
countries. Their capacity to reduce the. consumption          strongly recommended that ESCAP should avoid
of petroleum without deleterious socio-economic               duplication of work with other organizations, that the
effects was severely limited, while their total               ESCAP programme of work should be carefully
consumption amounted to only a very minor                     tailored to the felt needs and priorities of the
proportion of total world consumption.                        developing ESCAP countries and that due priority
Consequently, it was incumbent on the international           should be given to the preparatory and follow-up
community as a whole to develop policies which                work required in connexion with the forthcoming
would restrain the profligate use of petroleum and            United Nations Conference on New and Renewable
achieve maximum efficiency in its use for productive          Sources of Energy .
purposes. In that connexion, it was noted .that
significant reductions in petroleum use were being            267. The Commission recommended that ESCAP
achieved in the industrial countries.                         should playa catalytic role in promoting and co-ordi-
                                                              nating new initiatives in the field of energy in the
260. The Commission recommended that ESCAP                    region. High priority should be given to the
countries should accelerate efforts to maximize               collection, standardization, assessment and analysis
efficiency in the use of non-renewable sources of             of energy and energy-related data. The importance of
energy and to develop alternative indigenous energy           systematizing the collection and dissemination of
sources rapidly.                                              information was also emphasized.
                                                         31
in the industrial economies and the persistence of            Concurrently, the international community needed to
protectionist tendencies, which tended to restrict            seek long-term solutions which would balance the
market access for many exports from the developing            supply of and demand for petroleum at predictable
ESCAP region.                                                 and fair prices and provide for more equitable
                                                              distribution of available supplies.
257. Energy and development had become
inseparable issues and increasing consumption of              261. The Commission noted that the energy
energy was essential if the momentum of socio-                transition required would necessitate substantial
economic development in the developing ESCAP                  capital investments by developing ESCAP countries
countries was to be accelerated. Furthermore, for the         in the development of indigenous energy sources and
foreseeable future, developing ESCAP countries                that investments of such magnitude were beyond the
would continue to depend on imported petroleum                capacity of those countries themselves. Capital flows
supplies for a significant share of commercial energy         and technical assistance would be required on a
needs and such import demands could increase, in              much larger scale than in the past if the considerable
many countries, if development were to be                     energy potential of the developing ESCAP region
accelerated. Particular attention therefore had to be         was to be developed.
given to measures which could facilitate the
financing of the balance-of-payments deficits of oil-         262     In that connexion, the Commission noted that
importing developing countries through the recycling          the assistance programmes of the CMEA countries,
of surpluses and increased flow of financial                  the Development Assistance Committee countries,
resources from developed countries so that structural         ADB and the World Bank were giving greater
adjustments could be undertaken without reducing              priority to energy and energy related projects.
the tempo of the development process.
                                                              263. The Commission drew specific attention to
258. The Commission was of the opinion that                   the energy needs of the rural people in the region.
energy issues would be the dominant theme of the              The bulk of the region's population lived in the rural
1980s. Energy had become a matter of concern to the           areas and in energy development programmes
world community of nations as a whole. It was clear           careful attention had to be given to ensuring that
that processes of development based on the rapidly            their energy needs for essential consumption and
depleting energy source of petroleum would need to
                                                              production were adequately met. In that respect, the
be changed and a transition rapidly effected to
                                                              important role of new and renewable energy sources
alternative, renewable energy sources. Such a
                                                              and that of mini and micro hydroelectric sources
transition would not be an easy one or even a
transition that could be effected in the near future.         were specifically noted.
Furthermore, because of the critical and pervasive
effects of commercial energy supplies and demands             264. The Commission expressed its concern over
on both national economies and the international              the continuing phenomenon of deforestation and
economy, energy issues needed to be considered                recommended that ESCAP should pay more
along with other major issues on a priority basis. The        attention to the matter.
resolution of such important and complex issues
would be greatly facilitated by the attainment of             265. The Commission welcomed the opportunity
peace and stability within the world community of             to consider energy issues as the main theme of the
nations, particularly in the main oil-producing               current session and recommended that ESCAP
regions.                                                      should play an active role as the regional focal point
259. The Commission noted that the required                   for further work in the field of energy in the region.
transition from petroleum to alternative sources of           266. The Commission considered in detail the
energy would bear hardest on the developing                   future role of ESCAP in the field of energy and
countries. Their capacity to reduce the. consumption          strongly recommended that ESCAP should avoid
of petroleum without deleterious socio-economic               duplication of work with other organizations, that the
effects was severely limited, while their total               ESCAP programme of work should be carefully
consumption amounted to only a very minor                     tailored to the felt needs and priorities of the
proportion of total world consumption.                        developing ESCAP countries and that due priority
Consequently, it was incumbent on the international           should be given to the preparatory and follow-up
community as a whole to develop policies which                work required in connexion with the forthcoming
would restrain the profligate use of petroleum and            United Nations Conference on New and Renewable
achieve maximum efficiency in its use for productive          Sources of Energy .
purposes. In that connexion, it was noted .that
significant reductions in petroleum use were being            267. The Commission recommended that ESCAP
achieved in the industrial countries.                         should playa catalytic role in promoting and co-ordi-
                                                              nating new initiatives in the field of energy in the
260. The Commission recommended that ESCAP                    region. High priority should be given to the
countries should accelerate efforts to maximize               collection, standardization, assessment and analysis
efficiency in the use of non-renewable sources of             of energy and energy-related data. The importance of
energy and to develop alternative indigenous energy           systematizing the collection and dissemination of
sources rapidly.                                              information was also emphasized.
                                                         32
268. The Commission stressed the importance of                   steps that had been made in the streamlining of the
policy-oriented research in the future work                      conference structure; and the limited devolution of
programme of ESCAP in the field of energy. Inter                 resources from United Nations Headquarters to the
alia, priority needed to be given to in-depth research           region. As to the last point, it was emphasized that
which could assist developing member countries in                any increases in resources in the region as part of the
the domestic pricing of energy products, in assessing            process of devolution should be matched by
various aspects of energy and development, in                    corresponding decreases in resources at
determining appropriate fiscal policies in the field of          Headquarters.
energy, in assessing and suggesting means of
meeting rural energy needs and in various aspects of             275. The Commission's discussions referred to the
energy-use efficiency in major economic sectors.                 five principal subject areas covered by document E/
Some countries requested assistance in determining               ESCAP/214: the functional role of ESCAP within
capital investment requirements, unraveling terms of             the United Nations system; co-ordination and co-
petroleum supply contracts, evaluating the viability             operation at the regional level; programme planning
of bulk oil supply and assessing the impact of energy            at the regional level; promotion of economic co-
prices on balances of payments.                                  operation among developing countries; and access to
                                                                 information and expertise.
269. The Commission recommended the provision
of technical assistance on a selective basis,                    276. With regard to the general functions of
particularly to the smaller developing countries of              ESCAP and the other regional commissions as
the region, in such fields as resource surveys, energy           policy-making and negotiating forums, some
planning and the compilation and analysis of energy              delegations warned that the new definition of the role
data.                                                            of the regional commissions had to be carefully
                                                                 worked out. It needed to be understood that the
270. The Commission stressed the importance of                   regional commissions, in performing those functions,
training personnel in those fields and recommended               would not take over but rather reinforce the role
that ESCAP should assist developing member                       played by the global assemblies. In respect of policy-
countries in obtaining adequate training facilities.             making functions, ESCAP had its full part to play. In
                                                                 that general context, the desirability of convening
                                                                 high-level meetings of eminent persons was referred
Expanded functions of the regional                               to by several delegations as an appropriate medium
commissions: implications for the                                for discussing policy issues. A few delegations
terms of reference of ESCAP                                      expressed reservations about the convening of
                                                                 meetings of eminent persons and preferred meetings
                                                                 of governmental experts. Mention was made of the
271. The Commission considered document E/                       pre-negotiations functions of ESCAP, which had
ESCAP/214.                                                       taken on increasing importance. The Commission
                                                                 recognized the need to enhance its role at the post-
272. The Commission was of the opinion that                      global-negotiation stage, particularly in the context
discussions under the current item were appropriate              of the implementation of the International
and timely. ESCAP had grown considerably in scope                Development Strategy at the regional level, and in
and importance since its inception, and it had                   the regional disaggregation of plans of action drawn
become necessary to clarify its role carefully and               up in global forums.
determine its place and function within the United
Nations system.                                                  277. The Commission commented on the broad
                                                                 functions of ESCAP as an interagency co-ordinating
273. It was recognized that the special place that               body. In that regard, positive reference was made to
ESCAP and the other regional commissions must                    the arrangements already developed in the field of
hold within the United Nations system derived from               integrated rural development. The Commission felt
their general multisectoral and multidisciplinary                that ESCAP should, in consultation with the
functions, their role in policy making at the regional           specialized agencies, seek ways of extending its co-
level, their special capacity to serve as co-ordinatory          ordinatory functions to other fields. The suggestion
bodies in the regions and their functions of                     was also made that team leadership by ESCAP
collecting, analysing and disseminating information.             should be developed beyond the intersecretariat stage
                                                                 to the intergovernmental level. Several delegations
274. The Commission was generally favourably                     expressed support for better inter-agency co-
disposed towards the restructuring process with a                ordination on the grounds that it would lead to less
view to making its role more effective for the region.           duplication of activities and an improved use of
It stressed the importance of continuing and                     resources.
expediting the process. Some impatience was
expressed at the slow progress in that respect,                  278. As to the question of programming, the
although it was recognized that certain significant              Commission was in favour of greater harmonization
changes in the role and functions of ESCAP had                   of programming procedures and formats. The
been made in recent years. Those changes included                strengthening of the authority of the Commission in
the conferring on ESCAP of executing agency status               determining its work programme was also mentioned
and its closer relationship with UNDP; the first                 in          that          context.         Several

                                                          (33)
delegations raised the question of priorities. The                    (c) Medium-term plan, 1984-1989
Commission felt strongly that comprehensive
reappraisal of the priorities attached to the ESCAP            283. The Commission considered the reports of the
programme was required not merely at the sectoral              legislative committees which had met during the
level but also on an intersectoral basis. The view was         year prior to the thirty-seventh session, the report of
also expressed that the programmes of the                      the Second Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference
Commission and the regional institutions under its             on Social Welfare and Social Development and
auspices should be subject to periodic reappraisal in          sectoral papers as indicated in each sector below. It
order to ensure their continuing effectiveness.                also considered document E/ESCAP/216 containing
Furthermore, it was stressed that the priorities of the        proposed programme changes, 1981, document E/
Commission should be taken into account by the                 ESCAP/217 containing the proposed programme of
funding countries and agencies.                                work and priorities, 1982-1983, and document E/
                                                               ESCAP/219 containing a report on the
279. With regard to the role of ESCAP in                       implementation of the programme of work and
promoting co-operation, it was noted that there were           priorities, 1978-1979.
many co-operative arrangements which
demonstrated that aspect of the Commission's work.             284. In his introductory statement, the Deputy
Stress was laid on the need for ESCAP to devote its
                                                               Executive Secretary highlighted the major issues
attention more to interregional co-operation through
interaction among the regional commissions.                    presented in the documents on progress, proposals
                                                               and issues in various fields of activity of ESCAP.
280. There was general support for ESCAP having                The sectoral papers provided background
greater access to the information and expertise                information, giving a review of progress in 1980 and
available in different parts of the United Nations             identifying issues for consideration in the
system, to enable it to perform its functions more             programmes of work and priorities for 1981 and for
effectively. However, the Commission felt that the             1982-1983.
information field was one in which the United
Nations system was most prone to duplication. More             285. The Commission reviewed those issues in the
exchange should therefore take place in the context            various sectors of the work programme, sector by
of an increasingly rational distribution of                    sector, as reflected in the following paragraphs.
responsibilities for information collection and
dissemination within the United Nations system, in             Food and agriculture
such a way as to avoid further proliferation and
overlapping.                                                   286. The Commission considered documents E/
                                                               ESCAP/199 and Corr.1 and E/ESCAP/206 and
281. The Commission felt that it was inappropriate             Add.1.
at the current stage of the restructuring process to
consider a revision of its terms of reference: the             287. Agricultural production and food security
existing ones were sufficiently loose and wide-                were emphasized as items of major concern for the
ranging to allow the Commission ample scope to                 current decade. The declining food reserves in
manage and amend its activities. However, the                  member countries could lead to another food crisis
Commission urged that, in pursuance of General                 and the efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in food and
Assembly decision 35/440 of 16 December 1980, the              improve the living conditions of the rural masses
opportunity should be taken to make the intentions of          were made increasingly difficult by the international
the Commission known to the General Assembly,                  economic situation.
through the Economic and Social Council, regarding
the further steps which should be taken in                     288. The Commission commended the secretariat
restructuring.                                                 on its realistic programme on food and agriculture,
                                                               emphasizing exchange of experience among member
282. The Commission adopted resolution 219                     countries and practical programmes at the grass-roots
(XXXVII) on expanding and strengthening its                    level. It was also felt that the annual joint F AO/
functions in the context of the restructuring of the           ESCAP review played a very useful role in
economic and social sectors of the United Nations              harmonizing the activities of both organizations and
system.
                                                               avoiding duplication.

                                                               289. In considering the programme of work on
     Progress, proposals and issues in various                 food and agriculture for 1982-1983, the Commission
           fields of activity of ESCAP                         assigned to the Committee on Agricultural
                                                               Development the further examination of the
       (a) Review of the implementation of the                 programme at its fourth session, to be held in 1981.
           programme of work and priorities                    Some delegations indicated that they might have
           since the thirty-sixth session of the               additional proposals to submit on that occasion, for
           Commission                                          instance, on matters of agrarian reform and rural
                                                               institutions. Serious concern was also expressed over
       (b) Programme changes, 1981,               and          the accelerated rate of deforestation and the
           programme         of  work             and          secretariat was requested to give attention to that
           priorities, 1982-1983                               problem.

                                                          33
delegations raised the question of priorities. The                    (c) Medium-term plan, 1984-1989
Commission felt strongly that comprehensive
reappraisal of the priorities attached to the ESCAP            283. The Commission considered the reports of the
programme was required not merely at the sectoral              legislative committees which had met during the
level but also on an intersectoral basis. The view was         year prior to the thirty-seventh session, the report of
also expressed that the programmes of the                      the Second Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference
Commission and the regional institutions under its             on Social Welfare and Social Development and
auspices should be subject to periodic reappraisal in          sectoral papers as indicated in each sector below. It
order to ensure their continuing effectiveness.                also considered document E/ESCAP/216 containing
Furthermore, it was stressed that the priorities of the        proposed programme changes, 1981, document E/
Commission should be taken into account by the                 ESCAP/217 containing the proposed programme of
funding countries and agencies.                                work and priorities, 1982-1983, and document E/
                                                               ESCAP/219 containing a report on the
279. With regard to the role of ESCAP in                       implementation of the programme of work and
promoting co-operation, it was noted that there were           priorities, 1978-1979.
many co-operative arrangements which
demonstrated that aspect of the Commission's work.             284. In his introductory statement, the Deputy
Stress was laid on the need for ESCAP to devote its
                                                               Executive Secretary highlighted the major issues
attention more to interregional co-operation through
interaction among the regional commissions.                    presented in the documents on progress, proposals
                                                               and issues in various fields of activity of ESCAP.
280. There was general support for ESCAP having                The sectoral papers provided background
greater access to the information and expertise                information, giving a review of progress in 1980 and
available in different parts of the United Nations             identifying issues for consideration in the
system, to enable it to perform its functions more             programmes of work and priorities for 1981 and for
effectively. However, the Commission felt that the             1982-1983.
information field was one in which the United
Nations system was most prone to duplication. More             285. The Commission reviewed those issues in the
exchange should therefore take place in the context            various sectors of the work programme, sector by
of an increasingly rational distribution of                    sector, as reflected in the following paragraphs.
responsibilities for information collection and
dissemination within the United Nations system, in             Food and agriculture
such a way as to avoid further proliferation and
overlapping.                                                   286. The Commission considered documents E/
                                                               ESCAP/199 and Corr.1 and E/ESCAP/206 and
281. The Commission felt that it was inappropriate             Add.1.
at the current stage of the restructuring process to
consider a revision of its terms of reference: the             287. Agricultural production and food security
existing ones were sufficiently loose and wide-                were emphasized as items of major concern for the
ranging to allow the Commission ample scope to                 current decade. The declining food reserves in
manage and amend its activities. However, the                  member countries could lead to another food crisis
Commission urged that, in pursuance of General                 and the efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in food and
Assembly decision 35/440 of 16 December 1980, the              improve the living conditions of the rural masses
opportunity should be taken to make the intentions of          were made increasingly difficult by the international
the Commission known to the General Assembly,                  economic situation.
through the Economic and Social Council, regarding
the further steps which should be taken in                     288. The Commission commended the secretariat
restructuring.                                                 on its realistic programme on food and agriculture,
                                                               emphasizing exchange of experience among member
282. The Commission adopted resolution 219                     countries and practical programmes at the grass-roots
(XXXVII) on expanding and strengthening its                    level. It was also felt that the annual joint F AO/
functions in the context of the restructuring of the           ESCAP review played a very useful role in
economic and social sectors of the United Nations              harmonizing the activities of both organizations and
system.
                                                               avoiding duplication.

                                                               289. In considering the programme of work on
     Progress, proposals and issues in various                 food and agriculture for 1982-1983, the Commission
           fields of activity of ESCAP                         assigned to the Committee on Agricultural
                                                               Development the further examination of the
       (a) Review of the implementation of the                 programme at its fourth session, to be held in 1981.
           programme of work and priorities                    Some delegations indicated that they might have
           since the thirty-sixth session of the               additional proposals to submit on that occasion, for
           Commission                                          instance, on matters of agrarian reform and rural
                                                               institutions. Serious concern was also expressed over
       (b) Programme changes, 1981,               and          the accelerated rate of deforestation and the
           programme         of  work             and          secretariat was requested to give attention to that
           priorities, 1982-1983                               problem.

                                                          34
Special study on food supply                                      secretariat to convene a meeting of agricultural
                                                                  development planners once every two years. That
290. As indicated in document E/ESCAP/206/                        was considered necessary because the structure and
Add.1, it had been proposed that a special study                  composition of the food and agricultural sector were
should be made on food. supply as a major topic for               undergoing changes in many developing countries in
consideration by the Commission at its thirty-eighth              the ESCAP region. Those changes called for
session in 1982. As a preliminary step, an Ad Hoc                 substantive consultations on modifications required
Advisory Group Meeting had been convened at                       in intrasectoral as well as intersectoral relationships
Bangkok in January 1981 to examine a general                      which were important considerations in agricultural
outline for the study.                                            development planning and policy formulation. The
                                                                  question was raised, however, whether further
291. The Commission endorsed the report of the                    strengthening of the Committee on Agricultural
Ad Hoc Advisory Group Meeting. It welcomed that                   Development should not be given higher priority.
initiative on the part of the secretariat in view of the
great concern expressed by several member countries               296. The attention of the Commission was drawn
over continuing food shortages and the problems of                to the two priority projects which had been approved
ensuring adequate nutritional standards, especially               at its thirty-sixth session in 1980: a training
for their lower-income population. It was therefore               workshop in agricultural project preparation and
recommended that the study should be undertaken                   analysis, with emphasis on food production, and a
immediately and that extrabudgetary funds should be
                                                                  consultation forum on improving development
made available urgently for its implementation.
                                                                  assistance for increased food production. In the
292. The revised outline for the study,                           interests of augmenting and stabilizing food
emphasizing the distributive aspects of food supply,              production in the region, the Commission requested
was generally found acceptable, although the point                donor agencies to provide the necessary funds for
was made that a study of distribution policies of                 planning and implementing those priority projects
national Governments might not be fully relevant to               during 1981-1982.
a regional study of the nature envisaged. It was
suggested that the section on distributive aspects                297. The Commission expressed satisfaction with
should not be merely analytical but should also                   programmes supporting the development of
indicate policy options for consideration by the                  agricultural information systems, which had been
Commission. The representative of FAO offered the                 supported financially and technically by the
co-operation of his organization in the preparation of            Government of Japan. It recommended the
the study and indicated that a number of existing                 continuation of the agricultural information
technical reports could be used for that purpose.                 development scheme, which had served a very useful
                                                                  purpose in helping member countries to upgrade
293. The view was expressed that the secretariat                  their agricultural information base and in promoting
should pursue the proposed measures for activating                TCDC. It also indicated its support for the continued
the Asian Rice Trade Fund and called upon the rice-               publication of the Agricultural Information
exporting countries of the region to extend full                  Development Bulletin and the expansion of the
support to the Fund.                                              correspondents' network. It recommended that
                                                                  regular budget funds should be sought to keep the
Agricultural plans, programmes and information                    scheme operational. It expressed appreciation of the
systems                                                           initiative of ESCAP in organizing training courses
                                                                  for farm broadcasting programme producers as part
294. The Commission continued to attach high                      of the project on regional co-operation on farm
priority to programme activities relating to                      broadcasting. The Government of Japan announced
improvement in agricultural plans, programmes and                 continuation of financial support for the project for
information systems and strongly urged bilateral and              another year.
multilateral donor agencies to allocate adequate
financial resources to those activities. The                      ARSAP / agro-pesticides
Commission endorsed the recommendations of the
Expert Group Meeting on Agricultural Development                  298. Several countries participating in the ARSAP
Planning and Policies regarding a regional action                 training programme for agro-pesticide distributors
programme, with emphasis on training in plan and                  indicated that they had found the project very useful
project formulation, technical assistance in                      and other countries indicated their intention to
agricultural planning, a forum for the exchange of
                                                                  participate in the near future. It was noted that
ideas among agricultural planners and scientists to
                                                                  participating countries shared in the cost of national
promote TCDC, and assistance for visits by senior
policy makers and planners to various small-scale                 training programmes.
farmer development projects.
                                                                  299. Since the extrabudgetary funds available for
295. W h i l e g e n e r a l l y e n d o r s i n g t h e          the project were to be terminated by the end of 1981,
recommendations of the Seminar on Agricultural                    some suggestions were made to the effect that the
Development Planning, which had been hosted by                    Commission should continue the information
the Government of the USSR at Tashkent, the                       services on the supply, distribution and use of agro-
Commission     particularly          urged         the            pesticides;                and                  alter-

                                                           (35)
native proposal was to integrate those activities with        expressed its appreciation of the generous
the forthcoming UNIDO/UNDP regional programme                 contributions of $US 116,400, $41,200 and $30,000
in that field. Mention was also made of the useful            from the Governments of Japan, Australia and the
contributions by the Centre for Overseas Pest                 Republic of Korea respectively for the project. It also
Research of the United Kingdom and by FAO.                    noted with appreciation the statement made by the
                                                              representative of France that his Government would
Fertilizer Advisory, Development and Information              provide an expert to the Centre in 1981. The
Network for Asia and the Pacific                              representative of Malaysia reiterated the willingness
                                                              of his Government to contribute to the activities of
300. Thirteen member countries had so far joined              the Centre. The Commission noted with appreciation
the Network. The project on the improvement of                that a seminar on CGPRT crops would be held in the
lower-level fertilizer distribution capacity initiated        USSR in 1981.
by FADINAP in 1980 was commended as a good
example of TCDC and its technical publications had            305. The Commission appealed to donor countries
been found very useful. Several delegations thanked           and international organizations, particularly UNDP,
the Government of the Netherlands for its generous            to provide financial support to the Centre. It urged
contribution to the programme in the past and urged           close co-operation with international research and
ESCAP to provide increasing regular budget                    development institutes and specialized agencies,
resources to ensure the continuation of the project,          particularly FAO, with a view to achieving the
with the co-operation of additional donor countries.          maximum benefit for the countries of the region. In
The Commission was informed that the recruitment              that connexion, the Commission noted with
of a team leader for F ADINAP was being actively              satisfaction that a preliminary discussion had been
pursued by F AO, which was associated with the                held at New Delhi on 26 February 1981 among the
project.                                                      representatives of the Government of Indonesia,
                                                              UNDP, ESCAP and FAO to work out the modalities
CGPRT crops                                                   of co-operation in the implementation of the project.
                                                              The representative of F AO assured the Commission
301. The Commission reiterated the importance of              of that organization's co-operation with ESCAP in
the development of coarse grains, pulses, roots and           the establishment and operation of the Centre and
tuber (CGPRT) crops in the context of the potential           recalled the earlier agreement reached among
contribution that those crops could make to meeting           UNDP, FAO and ESCAP to merge FAO's project
the increasing demand for food, animal feed and raw           proposal on establishing a network of CGPRT
materials for industrial uses, including agro-energy          research and development activities with the ESCAP
materials. Work in that field would bring increased           project at Bogor, Indonesia. The modalities of that
income to the rural households, employment and                merger would be further discussed between the
foreign exchange earnings and/or savings to the               parties concerned.
country. Some of those crops were also a cheap
source of protein and an excellent source of soil             Rural development
enrichment.
                                                              306. It was recognized that agriculture and rural
302. Unanimous support was given to the early                 development were closely related and that special
operation of the Regional Co-ordination Centre for            emphasis had to be given to the effective
Research and Development of CGPRT Crops in the                participation of the rural poor in local development.
Humid Tropics of Asia and the Pacific, which was              Some delegations, however, preferred to discuss
designed to be multidisciplinary in nature,                   rural development activities under a separate item
combining both the agro-technical and socio-                  and stressed the need for an integrated approach to
economic aspects of those crops, and aimed at the             rural development within ESCAP and with the other
development of production, utilization and trade of           agencies concerned.
CGPRT crops in the region through a network of
national research and development activities.                 307. The secretariat was commended on the series
                                                              of national workshops that had been held in seven
303. The Commission noted with satisfaction that              member countries for the purpose of encouraging the
the host facilities agreement was now at the final            formulation of more systematic guidelines on local-
stage. It appreciated the information provided by the         level planning for rural development. That initiative
representative of Indonesia that funds amounting to           helped in stimulating progress in the planning
$US 758,000 required for the construction of a                methodology and in strengthening the planning
modern building for the Centre had already been               machinery at the local level. It was suggested that
appropriated by his Government and that the                   ESCAP could also help in testing those guidelines
construction could be started at anytime after the            experimentally in selected areas as a basis for
signing of the agreement.                                     achieving more significant results.

304. The Commission noted with satisfaction that              308. The Commission took note of the work being
the Director-designate of the Centre had been                 implemented on small farmer development
recruited with the assistance of the Government of            programmes, including small farmer group
Japan and was expected to arrive in April 1981. The           marketing, by the secretariat in co-ordination with
Commission                                                    FAO.         The            guidelines          for

                                                         35
native proposal was to integrate those activities with        expressed its appreciation of the generous
the forthcoming UNIDO/UNDP regional programme                 contributions of $US 116,400, $41,200 and $30,000
in that field. Mention was also made of the useful            from the Governments of Japan, Australia and the
contributions by the Centre for Overseas Pest                 Republic of Korea respectively for the project. It also
Research of the United Kingdom and by FAO.                    noted with appreciation the statement made by the
                                                              representative of France that his Government would
Fertilizer Advisory, Development and Information              provide an expert to the Centre in 1981. The
Network for Asia and the Pacific                              representative of Malaysia reiterated the willingness
                                                              of his Government to contribute to the activities of
300. Thirteen member countries had so far joined              the Centre. The Commission noted with appreciation
the Network. The project on the improvement of                that a seminar on CGPRT crops would be held in the
lower-level fertilizer distribution capacity initiated        USSR in 1981.
by FADINAP in 1980 was commended as a good
example of TCDC and its technical publications had            305. The Commission appealed to donor countries
been found very useful. Several delegations thanked           and international organizations, particularly UNDP,
the Government of the Netherlands for its generous            to provide financial support to the Centre. It urged
contribution to the programme in the past and urged           close co-operation with international research and
ESCAP to provide increasing regular budget                    development institutes and specialized agencies,
resources to ensure the continuation of the project,          particularly FAO, with a view to achieving the
with the co-operation of additional donor countries.          maximum benefit for the countries of the region. In
The Commission was informed that the recruitment              that connexion, the Commission noted with
of a team leader for F ADINAP was being actively              satisfaction that a preliminary discussion had been
pursued by F AO, which was associated with the                held at New Delhi on 26 February 1981 among the
project.                                                      representatives of the Government of Indonesia,
                                                              UNDP, ESCAP and FAO to work out the modalities
CGPRT crops                                                   of co-operation in the implementation of the project.
                                                              The representative of F AO assured the Commission
301. The Commission reiterated the importance of              of that organization's co-operation with ESCAP in
the development of coarse grains, pulses, roots and           the establishment and operation of the Centre and
tuber (CGPRT) crops in the context of the potential           recalled the earlier agreement reached among
contribution that those crops could make to meeting           UNDP, FAO and ESCAP to merge FAO's project
the increasing demand for food, animal feed and raw           proposal on establishing a network of CGPRT
materials for industrial uses, including agro-energy          research and development activities with the ESCAP
materials. Work in that field would bring increased           project at Bogor, Indonesia. The modalities of that
income to the rural households, employment and                merger would be further discussed between the
foreign exchange earnings and/or savings to the               parties concerned.
country. Some of those crops were also a cheap
source of protein and an excellent source of soil             Rural development
enrichment.
                                                              306. It was recognized that agriculture and rural
302. Unanimous support was given to the early                 development were closely related and that special
operation of the Regional Co-ordination Centre for            emphasis had to be given to the effective
Research and Development of CGPRT Crops in the                participation of the rural poor in local development.
Humid Tropics of Asia and the Pacific, which was              Some delegations, however, preferred to discuss
designed to be multidisciplinary in nature,                   rural development activities under a separate item
combining both the agro-technical and socio-                  and stressed the need for an integrated approach to
economic aspects of those crops, and aimed at the             rural development within ESCAP and with the other
development of production, utilization and trade of           agencies concerned.
CGPRT crops in the region through a network of
national research and development activities.                 307. The secretariat was commended on the series
                                                              of national workshops that had been held in seven
303. The Commission noted with satisfaction that              member countries for the purpose of encouraging the
the host facilities agreement was now at the final            formulation of more systematic guidelines on local-
stage. It appreciated the information provided by the         level planning for rural development. That initiative
representative of Indonesia that funds amounting to           helped in stimulating progress in the planning
$US 758,000 required for the construction of a                methodology and in strengthening the planning
modern building for the Centre had already been               machinery at the local level. It was suggested that
appropriated by his Government and that the                   ESCAP could also help in testing those guidelines
construction could be started at anytime after the            experimentally in selected areas as a basis for
signing of the agreement.                                     achieving more significant results.

304. The Commission noted with satisfaction that              308. The Commission took note of the work being
the Director-designate of the Centre had been                 implemented on small farmer development
recruited with the assistance of the Government of            programmes, including small farmer group
Japan and was expected to arrive in April 1981. The           marketing, by the secretariat in co-ordination with
Commission                                                    FAO.         The            guidelines          for

                                                         36
formulating small fanner development projects were               313. Attention should be given to exchanging
endorsed by the Commission and it was requested                  experience on the co-operative movement between
that they be widely distributed. Follow-up activities            countries of the region. In that regard, the USSR
on small fanner development programmes were also                 delegation indicated that country's willingness to
endorsed, especially as related to facilitating the              contribute by assisting in research, training of
exchange of experience 'and TCDC activities                      personnel, and holding seminars on the development
between countries of the region. In that regard,                 of co-operatives.
several delegations urged the secretariat to establish
                                                                 314. The Commission adopted resolution 216
a programme for the visit by policy makers and                   (XXXVII) on the role of the co-operative movement
planners to small fanner development projects in the             in the social and economic development of the
region.                                                          developing countries of Asia and the Pacific.
309. Several delegations stressed the need to focus
on the role of women in rural development. Special               Development planning, projections and policies
mention was made of the joint ESCAP/FAO project
aimed at improving the socio-economic conditions of              315. The Commission considered documents E/
women in fisheries, which was expected to make a                 ESCAP/213 and E/ESCAP/225.
significant contribution in that field.
                                                                 316. It endorsed the report of the Committee on
310. The Commission also took note of the                        Development Planning on its third session. The
progress made in the project on the changing role of             activities undertaken by the secretariat in the field of
women in agriculture and recommended                             development planning, projections and policies were
continuation of that project. The representative of              commended, and there was general agreement that
Malaysia confirmed the offer of his Government to                the secretariat's activities in that field should be
                                                                 intensified.
host a workshop on women's participation in paddy
production and processing towards the end of 1981                317. Several delegations referred to General
during the paddy transplanting season. The                       Assembly resolution 35/56 containing the
Commission was informed of the offers of the                     International Development Strategy for the Third
Governments of Pakistan and Sri Lanka to host                    United Nations Development Decade and pointed
similar activities on the established pattern of the             out that ESCAP had an important role to play
Anand workshop relating to the specific agricultural             inasmuch as the Strategy entrusted to it the
activities most relevant to their respective countries.          responsibility of review and appraisal at the regional
The Commission urged the donor agencies to                       level. They referred to the decision of the
continue their financial support to those activities.            Commission at its thirty-sixth session that it would
                                                                 consider the question of the elaboration of regional
Co-operative movement                                            and sub-regional strategies in the light of finalization
                                                                 of the new Strategy as a matter of priority at its
311. The Commission commended the secretariat                    thirty-seventh session. Yet that item had not found a
on the implementation of resolution 196 (XXXV) on                place on the agenda of the thirty-seventh session.
the role of the co-operative movement in the social
                                                                 318. The secretariat noted that it had already
and economic development of the developing                       initiated in-depth studies of the situation in the
countries of Asia and the Pacific. It noted the                  region with respect to specific issues raised in the
important role played by co-operatives in economic               Strategy. It pointed out that the study on short-term
and social development in the developing member                  economic policy aspects of the energy situation in
countries of the ESCAP region. It also noted the role            the ESCAP region, contained in a major document
of the co-operatives in agricultural reform, and the             before the Commission, constituted one such
part they played in the life of rural communities in             exercise. As the Strategy had been adopted by the
the member countries.                                            General Assembly on 5 December 1980, too brief a
                                                                 time had elapsed prior to the thirty-seventh
312. Some delegations requested the Executive                    Commission session to permit a meaningful review
Secretary to continue the study of the co-operative              and appraisal of the region's performance under the
movement especially in areas which were thought                  new Strategy.
under-explored, as reported in the document on the
implementation of resolution 196 (XXXV). Those                   319. Many delegations emphasized that the
areas included the analysis of the trend towards                 Executive Secretary Should present to the
production co-operatives, the role of co-operatives in           Commission for consideration at its thirty-eighth
                                                                 session a report: (a) elaborating regional and
agrarian reform and the analysis of the social                   subregional strategies in the light of the Strategy as a
composition of co-operatives. The secretariat was                matter of priority, and (b) proposing regional action
requested to initiate with FAO and ILD the co-                   programmes towards achieving the goals and
ordination of an evaluation of United Nations-                   objectives of the Strategy.
sponsored projects for co-operative development, in
order to obtain information which would facilitate               320. The Executive Secretary should also prepare,
further improvement of co-operatives within the                  as part of the regular activity of the Commission,
region        for       general        dissemination.            reviews
                                                          (37)
of major aspects of development in different sectors,           ment planners in the region in their task of shaping
identifying the progress and appraising the factors             and guiding the process of national economic and
which accounted for shortfalls. The first of such               social development. The activities undertaken by the
reviews should be presented at the thirty-ninth                 secretariat with respect to the analysis of methods of
session of the Commission.                                      annual planning and regional (subnational) planning
                                                                over the previous two years were underlined.
321. It was suggested, in that connexion, that the              Appreciation was also voiced of the seminars and
proposed terms of reference of the Committee on                 training courses for middle-level development
Development Planning as amended by the                          planning personnel administered by the secretariat in
Committee at its previous session should be further             recent years.
amended by revising the Committee's first function
to read as follows: "1. To review and appraise the              325. A number of countries suggested additional
progress of development in the region and to make               topics within the field of development planning for
recommendations on developmental strategies and                 the Commission's consideration. One delegation felt
policies of importance to the region in the light of the        that, while future work on planning methods should
International Development Strategy for the Third                continue to focus on all the major aspects' of
United Nations Development Decade."                             planning, namely, plan formulation, implementation,
                                                                monitoring and appraisal, special attention might
322. The secretariat's initiative towards the                   well be devoted to improving monitoring and
establishment and operation of a regional                       implementation techniques at the national level in
information system on development planning was                  the light of the work currently being carried out by
commended by the Commission. It was expected that               the United Nations with respect to the International
the exchange of development information to be                   Development Strategy. Several other delegations
accomplished through that system would serve as an              suggested that work should be expanded with respect
essential means of bringing about the adoption or               to the relationship between development planning
adaptation by various countries of the development              and fiscal planning and between the physical and
planning methods, practices and procedures which                fiscal aspects of planning. Other areas noted as
had been found successful means of improving the                deserving of special attention were the issue of
development planning capabilities of other countries.           modalities of popular participation in the
It was pointed out with satisfaction that that system           development process and the processes and
would foster further co-operation among the member              techniques of planning "from the bottom up". It was
countries of the region in the field of development             also suggested that the secretariat might usefully
planning.                                                       examine methods whereby developing countries of
                                                                the region might plan the absorption of development
323. The Commission noted with approval the                     assistance so as best to pursue their growth and
secretariat's activities in the area of economic and            equity objectives. As a complement to planning work
social development policies and strategies. The                 at the national level, it was proposed that work to
suggestion was offered by one delegation that future            improve implementation planning, including
activities in that area might focus on four major               budgetary planning, at the sectoral level would serve
topics, namely, the means of generating an                      a valuable purpose in reducing the degree of
acceleration in economic growth, the means of                   abstraction too frequently encountered in
satisfying the community needs of the people, the               development plans and their application to actual
appropriate international structural and institutional          planning situations. Several delegations emphasized
changes for promoting growth in the countries of the            that activities should be expanded in the field of
region, and such issues as the role of public                   energy planning within the context of over-all
enterprises in development and the means of                     development planning, with the added suggestion
combining growth with equity. Another delegation                that such studies should be incorporated into work on
suggested that the secretariat's study of the domestic          integrated planning. It was noted that that array of
policy implications of the external trade instability of        activities would substantially increase the scope of
the South Pacific countries might usefully be                   the secretariat's activities in the area of development
reframed to consider appropriate domestic policies              planning methods and it was therefore recommended
under conditions of severe resource constraints, such           that the staff of the Development Planning Division,
as were faced by small island countries, as that was            the secretariat unit responsible for that component. of
the fundamental issue confronting those economies.              the work programme, should be reinforced.
It was further recommended that seminars and
studies addressing the problem of how to improve                326. The Commission adopted resolution 213
the performance of public enterprises should play an            (XXXVII) on a unified approach to economic and
important role in the secretariat's work, particularly          social development and planning.
because of the often inefficient performance of
public enterprises.                                             327. One delegation recommended that the
                                                                Conference of Asian and Pacific Development
324. The Commission welcomed the work                           Planners should be reinstituted on a recurrent basis
undertaken by the secretariat in the field of                   beginning in 1982. It was considered that
development planning. It noted with appreciation the            examination of the results of various studies recently
secretariat's proposals for further work in that area,          undertaken, such as those on the relationship
which          would           assist        develop-           between development planning             and fiscal

                                                           37
of major aspects of development in different sectors,           ment planners in the region in their task of shaping
identifying the progress and appraising the factors             and guiding the process of national economic and
which accounted for shortfalls. The first of such               social development. The activities undertaken by the
reviews should be presented at the thirty-ninth                 secretariat with respect to the analysis of methods of
session of the Commission.                                      annual planning and regional (subnational) planning
                                                                over the previous two years were underlined.
321. It was suggested, in that connexion, that the              Appreciation was also voiced of the seminars and
proposed terms of reference of the Committee on                 training courses for middle-level development
Development Planning as amended by the                          planning personnel administered by the secretariat in
Committee at its previous session should be further             recent years.
amended by revising the Committee's first function
to read as follows: "1. To review and appraise the              325. A number of countries suggested additional
progress of development in the region and to make               topics within the field of development planning for
recommendations on developmental strategies and                 the Commission's consideration. One delegation felt
policies of importance to the region in the light of the        that, while future work on planning methods should
International Development Strategy for the Third                continue to focus on all the major aspects' of
United Nations Development Decade."                             planning, namely, plan formulation, implementation,
                                                                monitoring and appraisal, special attention might
322. The secretariat's initiative towards the                   well be devoted to improving monitoring and
establishment and operation of a regional                       implementation techniques at the national level in
information system on development planning was                  the light of the work currently being carried out by
commended by the Commission. It was expected that               the United Nations with respect to the International
the exchange of development information to be                   Development Strategy. Several other delegations
accomplished through that system would serve as an              suggested that work should be expanded with respect
essential means of bringing about the adoption or               to the relationship between development planning
adaptation by various countries of the development              and fiscal planning and between the physical and
planning methods, practices and procedures which                fiscal aspects of planning. Other areas noted as
had been found successful means of improving the                deserving of special attention were the issue of
development planning capabilities of other countries.           modalities of popular participation in the
It was pointed out with satisfaction that that system           development process and the processes and
would foster further co-operation among the member              techniques of planning "from the bottom up". It was
countries of the region in the field of development             also suggested that the secretariat might usefully
planning.                                                       examine methods whereby developing countries of
                                                                the region might plan the absorption of development
323. The Commission noted with approval the                     assistance so as best to pursue their growth and
secretariat's activities in the area of economic and            equity objectives. As a complement to planning work
social development policies and strategies. The                 at the national level, it was proposed that work to
suggestion was offered by one delegation that future            improve implementation planning, including
activities in that area might focus on four major               budgetary planning, at the sectoral level would serve
topics, namely, the means of generating an                      a valuable purpose in reducing the degree of
acceleration in economic growth, the means of                   abstraction too frequently encountered in
satisfying the community needs of the people, the               development plans and their application to actual
appropriate international structural and institutional          planning situations. Several delegations emphasized
changes for promoting growth in the countries of the            that activities should be expanded in the field of
region, and such issues as the role of public                   energy planning within the context of over-all
enterprises in development and the means of                     development planning, with the added suggestion
combining growth with equity. Another delegation                that such studies should be incorporated into work on
suggested that the secretariat's study of the domestic          integrated planning. It was noted that that array of
policy implications of the external trade instability of        activities would substantially increase the scope of
the South Pacific countries might usefully be                   the secretariat's activities in the area of development
reframed to consider appropriate domestic policies              planning methods and it was therefore recommended
under conditions of severe resource constraints, such           that the staff of the Development Planning Division,
as were faced by small island countries, as that was            the secretariat unit responsible for that component. of
the fundamental issue confronting those economies.              the work programme, should be reinforced.
It was further recommended that seminars and
studies addressing the problem of how to improve                326. The Commission adopted resolution 213
the performance of public enterprises should play an            (XXXVII) on a unified approach to economic and
important role in the secretariat's work, particularly          social development and planning.
because of the often inefficient performance of
public enterprises.                                             327. One delegation recommended that the
                                                                Conference of Asian and Pacific Development
324. The Commission welcomed the work                           Planners should be reinstituted on a recurrent basis
undertaken by the secretariat in the field of                   beginning in 1982. It was considered that
development planning. It noted with appreciation the            examination of the results of various studies recently
secretariat's proposals for further work in that area,          undertaken, such as those on the relationship
which          would           assist        develop-           between development planning             and fiscal

                                                           38
planning and harmonization of the objectives of                   on the balance of payments and assessment of capital
economic growth with equity, deserved greater                     requirements already taking place in various
attention. A recurrent planners conference for the                multilateral and bilateral forums. The secretariat's
discussion of such important issues would provide a               assistance to ASEAN economic integration was
suitable venue for the exchange of views and                      welcomed by several delegations, and the proposed
experience on such important planning issues. It was              project to promote the subregion's industrial
suggested by another delegation that the proposal for             harmonization was endorsed, especially as that work
such a series of meetings was a very attractive one               might have a beneficial influence on economic co-
but that those meetings might more appropriately be               operation in other subregions. One delegation,
convened on an ad hoc basis or might be carried out               however, expressed the hope that the proposed
in combination with the recurrent sessions of the                 project to promote the subregion's industrial
Committee on Development Planning.                                harmonization would not impede economic co-
                                                                  operation in other subregions.
328. The Commission commended the secretariat's
efforts in the field of macro-economic modelling and              331. Several delegations voiced concern that
projections and recommended that activities in that               insufficient time had intervened between the third
field should continue to be pursued with vigour. The              session of the Committee on Development Planning
project to develop an interlinked country model                   and the thirty-seventh session of the Commission to
system for forecasting and planning economic                      permit proper consideration of the report of the
relations among ESCAP member countries and                        Committee. In accordance with the Commission's
between the region and the rest of the world was                  conference structure, the Committee on
strongly endorsed. The secretariat's proposal to                  Development Planning was scheduled to hold its
convene a conference on input-output modelling was                fourth and fifth sessions in 1982 and 1984. It was
favourably received. The work on long-term                        proposed that the 1984 session should be convened
projections for the ESCAP countries initiated in                  well in advance of the Commission session so that
1977 was considered useful in formulating                         the Committee's recommendations might be properly
development policies for the region as a whole. More              reflected in the documentation for the annual session
important, however, was the need to assist the                    of the Commission. That procedure would facilitate
developing countries of the region in designing                   consideration of the secretariat's work with respect to
disaggregated macro models suited to their                        review and appraisal of the implementation of the
individual conditions and including all major                     Strategy at the 1984 Commission session and thus
economic sectors, in order to permit policy                       provide the fullest input into the deliberations on that
simulations and the application of control theory for             subject scheduled to take place in the General
use in the preparation of medium- and long-term                   Assembly that year.
national development plans. The growing access of
those countries to computer facilities was making
such a project increasingly viable.                               Industry, human settlements and technology

329. It was recommended that the effects of inter-                332. The Commission considered documents E/
national economic changes on the domestic                         ESCAP/190, E/ESCAP/210, E/ESCAP/221 and E/
economies of the region could be explored through                 ESCAP/222.
foreign sector variables of such disaggregated macro
models. The examination of macro models currently                 333. It fully endorsed the report of the Committee
existing in a few countries suggested that there was a            on Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and the
deficiency in research on the linkages through which              Environment on its fourth session and commended
domestic and international economies were                         the pragmatic approach adopted by the Committee in
interrelated. The effects of changes in commercial                dealing with the subjects within its purview.
policies, such as those in the petroleum industry, on,
domestic activity and in international linkages were              Industry
seen to be highly sensitive to the empirical estimates
of those elasticities. Very few estimates of such                 334. The Commission, in particular, commended
elasticities were currently available for developing              the approach on industrial development, which had
countries, and it was hoped that the secretariat's                been the main theme for discussion at the fourth
activities in that field might provide a very useful              session. The approach defined by the Committee was
breakthrough.                                                     balanced and comprehensive. As had been urged by
                                                                  the ESCAP ministers of industry at their respective
330. In the area of ECDC, the work programme                      meetings, the approach elaborated by the Committee
was also favourably received. Several delegations                 had focused on the building up of the national
mentioned that activities to promote co-operation                 manufacturing capacities. It had also sought to
among developing countries of the region were                     expand the base of industrialization through
already under way, for instance, in the area of energy            intersectoral linkages and wider spatial dispersal.
resource transfers, supply priorities, joint exploration          Wider participation of people was sought through
and downstream development activities. There was a                larger industrial employment and appropriate choice
need for the secretariat to avoid duplication of such             of the product mix so as to cater for the needs of the
work, particularly with respect to issues related to              masses. The approach attached due weight to the
the          impact             of               energy           development

                                                           (39)
of basic industries and their linkages with medium-              and, in particular, recalled with appreciation the
and small-scale industries. It also pointed out the              study on agro-industrial terms of trade in the sugar
imperative need for socio-economic reforms which                 sector. It urged that similar studies be undertaken for
could prepare the developing societies for modern                the other agro-industrial sectors of interest to the
growth. The Commission was of the opinion that the               ESCAP member countries, such as cotton, oil seeds
stream of work relating to industrial policies and               and rubber.
strategies undertaken through the successive
meetings of the ESCAP ministers of industry and the              339. The Commission took note of the institutional
fourth session of the Committee constituted a distinct           arrangements which had been made in some of the
contribution to the subject. That work ought to be               member countries to study matters relating to
continued with full vigour. The Commission                       intersectoral linkages. A national panel had been
expressed the hope that the meeting of the Ad Hoc                constituted for that purpose in Thailand and a
Group of Ministers of Industry scheduled for July                production council had been established in Indonesia
1981 would be a further landmark in that regard.                 to serve as a forum for consultation between the
                                                                 ministers of industry, agri-culture, mines and energy,
335. The Commission pointed out the several                      labour etc. The Commission urged that suitable
adverse elements in the current global environment               arrangements should also be envisaged in the other
for industrial growth in the developing countries.               countries to ensure the consideration of the issues
Reference was made in particular to the instability in           relating to intersectoral linkages on a continuing and
the monetary system, growing protectionism in some               co-ordinated basis.
of the industrialized countries against the import of
manufactured products from the developing                        340. The Commission recalled the observation of
countries, problems relating to the supply and price             the Ad Hoc Group of Ministers of Industry that
of energy, and the balance-of-trade and balance-of-              certain new and non-traditional agro-industries could
payments problems of the developing countries. It                provide excellent scope for fostering intersectoral
was felt that the documentation to be submitted to               linkages through sound institutional and exchange
the Ad Hoc Group of Ministers of Industry at its                 arrangements. As pointed out by the
forthcoming meeting should take full account of                  Intergovernmental Meeting on Agro-industries, with
those problems and bring out their implications for              Emphasis on Production of Energy and New
                                                                 Resources, held at Tokyo in October 1980, energy
national policies.
                                                                 crops and their processing into alcohol constituted
                                                                 one such promising sector. The Commission strongly
336. The Commission, however, emphasized that                    endorsed the recommendation of the Meeting that a
the current difficulties in the global environment               regional study should be carried out to assess the
must not deter the developing countries from                     feasibility of raising energy crops in the countries of
proceeding with their efforts to achieve rapid rates of          the region and of their processing into energy
industrial development. In fact, that was the very               liquids. It noted with appreciation the deputation of
time when the policy makers had to concentrate upon              an expert by the Government of Japan as a non-
the development of the manufacturing and                         reimbursable contribution to ESCAP to assist in such
processing capacity of their countries. There could              a study. It also noted that, if requested by the
be no justification for dilution of their growth                 secretariat, the Government of Japan would be
targets.                                                         prepared to extend financial and technical assistance
                                                                 for a regional programme of information on biomass
337. The Commission recalled the decision of the                 and biogas energy, the need for which had been
Third General Conference of UNIDO on the                         expressed by most of the member countries.
disaggregation of the Lima target into regional,
sectoral and time targets so that specific strategies            341. The Commission took note of the various
could be evolved for their realization. It noted that            activities of the secretariat in the field of agro-
the Industrial Development Board of UNIDO had so                 industries. Referring to a further recommendation
far not accorded priority to that item of work and that          made by the Intergovernmental Meeting, it saw the
funds had not been allocated for that purpose. It also           utility of a regional development council for leather
noted, however, that the studies being undertaken by             and leather products. It recommended, however, that
the UNIDO modelling group for the development of                 before undertaking the establishment of such a
alternative scenarios for the achievement of the Lima            council, the financial implications should be clearly
target were being expanded and that the relevant                 worked out, and that the proposed regional pesticides
branch of UNIDO would hold consultations in that                 development programme should take into account
regard with the ESCAP secretariat.                               the programme already being undertaken by the
                                                                 ASEAN countries with financial assistance from
338. The Commission reiterated the continued                     UNDP.
validity of the directions of reorientation of industrial
policies indicated by the ESCAP ministers of                     342. The Commission emphasized the need for
industry. Of the utmost importance was the extent                mutually reinforcing linkages between the basic and
and quality of linkages between agriculture and                  large-scale industries and the medium- and small-
industry. The Commission commended the various                   scale industries so that manufacturing capacity could
studies that had been ,undertaken by the ESCAP                   be generated on an extensive scale. In that regard,
secretariat           on          the            subject         the                   secretariat                had

                                                            39
of basic industries and their linkages with medium-              and, in particular, recalled with appreciation the
and small-scale industries. It also pointed out the              study on agro-industrial terms of trade in the sugar
imperative need for socio-economic reforms which                 sector. It urged that similar studies be undertaken for
could prepare the developing societies for modern                the other agro-industrial sectors of interest to the
growth. The Commission was of the opinion that the               ESCAP member countries, such as cotton, oil seeds
stream of work relating to industrial policies and               and rubber.
strategies undertaken through the successive
meetings of the ESCAP ministers of industry and the              339. The Commission took note of the institutional
fourth session of the Committee constituted a distinct           arrangements which had been made in some of the
contribution to the subject. That work ought to be               member countries to study matters relating to
continued with full vigour. The Commission                       intersectoral linkages. A national panel had been
expressed the hope that the meeting of the Ad Hoc                constituted for that purpose in Thailand and a
Group of Ministers of Industry scheduled for July                production council had been established in Indonesia
1981 would be a further landmark in that regard.                 to serve as a forum for consultation between the
                                                                 ministers of industry, agri-culture, mines and energy,
335. The Commission pointed out the several                      labour etc. The Commission urged that suitable
adverse elements in the current global environment               arrangements should also be envisaged in the other
for industrial growth in the developing countries.               countries to ensure the consideration of the issues
Reference was made in particular to the instability in           relating to intersectoral linkages on a continuing and
the monetary system, growing protectionism in some               co-ordinated basis.
of the industrialized countries against the import of
manufactured products from the developing                        340. The Commission recalled the observation of
countries, problems relating to the supply and price             the Ad Hoc Group of Ministers of Industry that
of energy, and the balance-of-trade and balance-of-              certain new and non-traditional agro-industries could
payments problems of the developing countries. It                provide excellent scope for fostering intersectoral
was felt that the documentation to be submitted to               linkages through sound institutional and exchange
the Ad Hoc Group of Ministers of Industry at its                 arrangements. As pointed out by the
forthcoming meeting should take full account of                  Intergovernmental Meeting on Agro-industries, with
those problems and bring out their implications for              Emphasis on Production of Energy and New
                                                                 Resources, held at Tokyo in October 1980, energy
national policies.
                                                                 crops and their processing into alcohol constituted
                                                                 one such promising sector. The Commission strongly
336. The Commission, however, emphasized that                    endorsed the recommendation of the Meeting that a
the current difficulties in the global environment               regional study should be carried out to assess the
must not deter the developing countries from                     feasibility of raising energy crops in the countries of
proceeding with their efforts to achieve rapid rates of          the region and of their processing into energy
industrial development. In fact, that was the very               liquids. It noted with appreciation the deputation of
time when the policy makers had to concentrate upon              an expert by the Government of Japan as a non-
the development of the manufacturing and                         reimbursable contribution to ESCAP to assist in such
processing capacity of their countries. There could              a study. It also noted that, if requested by the
be no justification for dilution of their growth                 secretariat, the Government of Japan would be
targets.                                                         prepared to extend financial and technical assistance
                                                                 for a regional programme of information on biomass
337. The Commission recalled the decision of the                 and biogas energy, the need for which had been
Third General Conference of UNIDO on the                         expressed by most of the member countries.
disaggregation of the Lima target into regional,
sectoral and time targets so that specific strategies            341. The Commission took note of the various
could be evolved for their realization. It noted that            activities of the secretariat in the field of agro-
the Industrial Development Board of UNIDO had so                 industries. Referring to a further recommendation
far not accorded priority to that item of work and that          made by the Intergovernmental Meeting, it saw the
funds had not been allocated for that purpose. It also           utility of a regional development council for leather
noted, however, that the studies being undertaken by             and leather products. It recommended, however, that
the UNIDO modelling group for the development of                 before undertaking the establishment of such a
alternative scenarios for the achievement of the Lima            council, the financial implications should be clearly
target were being expanded and that the relevant                 worked out, and that the proposed regional pesticides
branch of UNIDO would hold consultations in that                 development programme should take into account
regard with the ESCAP secretariat.                               the programme already being undertaken by the
                                                                 ASEAN countries with financial assistance from
338. The Commission reiterated the continued                     UNDP.
validity of the directions of reorientation of industrial
policies indicated by the ESCAP ministers of                     342. The Commission emphasized the need for
industry. Of the utmost importance was the extent                mutually reinforcing linkages between the basic and
and quality of linkages between agriculture and                  large-scale industries and the medium- and small-
industry. The Commission commended the various                   scale industries so that manufacturing capacity could
studies that had been ,undertaken by the ESCAP                   be generated on an extensive scale. In that regard,
secretariat           on          the            subject         the                   secretariat                had

                                                            40
undertaken some studies to bring out the role that the             offered by the Government of Indonesia, would
manufacturing undertakings in the public sector                    prove to be extremely useful.
could play in stimulating ancillary growth of small-
scale units and in providing them with management,                 346. The Commission pointed out the importance
technological and financial support. The                           of national planning and of the role of the
recommendations made in the studies deserved to be                 Government in evolving and implementing the
considered for implementation by the member                        strategic approach to industrial development, as
Governments and there was a need for appropriate                   defined by the Committee at its fourth session. The
arrangements at the national level to consider                     public sector, in particular, had a vital role to play in
measures for the promotion of intra-industrial                     the building-up of the national manufacturing
linkages. The Commission took note of the recent                   capacity and as an instrument for policy
initiative taken in Indonesia aimed at assigning a                 reorientation. That had been amply brought out by
"foster father" role to large-scale industry, promoting            the studies undertaken by the ESCAP secretariat in
subcontracting and reserving certain lines of                      recent months with the assistance of Soviet experts.
production for the small-scale sector. The outcome                 It was felt that those studies should be published and
of that initiative would be of considerable interest to            disseminated widely. The Commission was pleased
the member countries.                                              that, with financial support provided by UNDP, an
                                                                   adviser had been appointed in the secretariat to
343. With regard to the spatial dispersal of                       interact with the member Governments with regard
industry within the countries, the Commission                      to the policies and measures for enhancing the role
reiterated its appreciation of the project on                      of the public sector industries. The Commission also
industrialization in non-metropolitan areas which                  noted the usefulness of the seminar which had been
had been undertaken with financial support from                    held in November 1980 at RCTT, in collaboration
Japan and India. Some good pilot projects had been                 with the International Centre for Public Enterprises,
evolved, the implementation of which could                         to consider the problems of technology transfer in
stimulate industrial growth in the areas concerned. It             public enterprises. It also noted with interest the
was noted that the implementation of those pilot                   proposed inter-country project on the study of the
projects would be approached through bilateral                     role of public enterprises in the economic
arrangements between the developing countries                      development of the developing countries of the
                                                                   ESCAP region and expressed the hope that the study
concerned and the potential donor countries. It was
                                                                   would be carried out as early as possible.
urged, however, that the ESCAP secretariat continue
to make efforts with a view to securing the early                  347. While the Commission expressed satisfaction
implementation of the pilot projects, either through               with the aforesaid activities relating to
bilateral arrangements or by attracting the interest of            manufacturing undertakings in the public sector, it
the multilateral financing agencies, such as ADB.                  called upon the secretariat to submit a
                                                                   comprehensive report on the implementation of
344. The Commission agreed with the emphasis                       resolution 197 (XXXV) relating generally to the role
placed by the Committee on the development of                      of the public sector.
infrastructure to facilitate industrial growth. It agreed
that to ensure due allocation of resources for that                348. The Commission also drew attention to the
purpose, it was desirable to evolve differentiated                 important role of private enterprises and the need to
viability criteria for infrastructure projects which               encourage entrepreneurship on the widest possible
would go beyond mere considerations of commercial                  scale.
viability and would also reflect the development
spin-off of the infrastructure projects. The                       349. For the maximization of industrial
Commission called upon the secretariat to undertake                investments, the Commission recognized the need
work in that sphere by involving experts from the                  for increased domestic savings and the significant
member countries as well as from the financing                     supplementary role of direct foreign investments.
agencies.                                                          The Commission endorsed the activities of the
                                                                   secretariat aimed at improving the availability of
345. It was agreed that indigenous capabilities to                 information on investment opportunities and the
generate and implement industrial projects were a                  relevant regulations and assisting in the improvement
prerequisite for the developing countries in                       of the general climate for foreign investments. It
accelerating the pace of their industrial growth. The              observed, however, that in the conduct of those
Commission noted with appreciation the                             activities the interests of the host countries must
appointment of an adviser in the ESCAP secretariat                 receive the highest consideration, and regulation of
for a period of six months, with financial support                 the foreign investors should be given due attention,
provided by UNIDO, to render advice to the member                  so as to conform to the interests of the host countries.
countries for the development of local engineering,                The Commission noted the value of the successive
design and consultancy professions. Keeping in view                meetings and seminars on foreign investment and tax
the requirements of the member countries, his                      administration, the most recent being that held at
services needed to be extended over a longer period.               RCTT in October 1980. It was also hoped that the
The Commission was confident that the seminar on                   regional bureau of fiscal documentation, which was
engineering, design and consultancy services, to be                being set up at Colombo, would prove useful to the
held later in 1981, for which host facilities had been             member                                           coun-

                                                            (41)
tries as well as to the potential foreign investors. The        354. The Commission noted that the next solidarity
Commission noted the offer by the Government of                 meeting in the region would be held at Kathmandu in
Japan to provide expert services to assist the member           the first quarter of 1982 and that the ESCAP
countries in rationalizing their regulatory                     secretariat would be extending assistance to UNIDO
arrangements in respect of foreign investments.                 through its various stages, including the preparation
                                                                of the assistance projects.
350. With regard to investment promotion and tax
administration, the Commission felt that the                    355. T h e C o m m i s s i o n e n d o r s e d t h e
activities in that area should follow a holistic                recommendations of the Committee that the scope of
approach, reflecting the concern not only to promote            the "club" as a mechanism for co-operation should
investments but also to regulate the foreign                    be expanded. It noted with appreciation the offer by
investments, so as to conform to the national                   the Government of Australia to provide the services
interests of the host countries. In order to ensure such        of an expert to assist the secretariat in that area.
an approach, it was suggested that if any
rearrangement of work within the secretariat relating           356. Mention was made of the positive
to foreign investments was required, so as to avoid             achievements of the New Zealand scheme to
duplication, it could be considered by the Executive            encourage joint ventures between New Zealand and
Secretary.                                                      the neighbouring island countries through a package
                                                                of incentives. UNIDO proposed to study the scheme
351. The Commission endorsed the emphasis in                    to ascertain whether it could be adopted as a model
the activities of the secretariat on promoting regional         for industrial co-operation between other countries.
and subregional co-operation in the field of
industralization. It commended the proposal that                357. It was observed that the activities of the
specific subregional projects should be evolved, with           secretariat in the promotion of industrial
the involvement of development banks and the                    development in the least developed countries needed
national authorities concerned. It noted with                   a sharper focus. The secretariat should undertake
appreciation the offer of the Government of India to            regular studies of the prospects and problems of
provide the services of an expert, as a non-                    industrial development in those countries and
reimbursable contribution, to undertake desk studies            provide assistance in the formulation of their
on the subject. It also noted the suggestion that               development plans. It should, in particular, assist in
studies should be conducted on basic engineering                the development of small-scale industry and
and capital goods industries with the objective of              industrial co-operatives and in the generation of
strengthening co-operation between the countries of             technical skills.
the region in those industrial sectors.
                                                                358. The success of the prime-mover industry
352. The proposed South Pacific industrial survey               project was highly appreciated. It was noted that
would be extremely useful in identifying the                    work on the industrial estate in west Nepal, which
potential in the subregion and in disclosing concrete           had been designed under that project, would be
opportunities for subregional industrial projects. The          carried out with bilateral assistance from the
Commission expressed regret that, owing to the lack             Netherlands. The prime-mover project would now
of a decision on the choice of the team leader for the          concentrate on activities in Bangladesh. The
survey, it could not yet be commenced. It noted the             representative of Afghanistan urged that the project
statement of the representative of Australia that a             which had been initiated earlier in his country should
                                                                now be resumed.
team leader had now been nominated and that his
services would be offered with Australian financial
                                                                359. The Commission appreciated the excellent
support. It was hoped that his appointment would be
                                                                collaboration between UNIDO and the ESCAP
finalized quickly in consultation with ADB and that             secretariat and expressed the hope that in the coming
the survey would commence without further delay.                years it would be further deepened and diversified.
353. The Commission reiterated the value of the                 Technology
ESCAP "club" as a mechanism to promote inter-
country co-operation for industrial development,                360. The Commission noted that since the United
particularly for the benefit of the least developed             Nations Conference on Science and Technology for
countries. The solidarity meetings organized by                 Development, held in August 1979, the role of
UNIDO at Kabul in May 1979 and at Dacca in                      ESCAP in the field of technology had been
December 1980, in collaboration with the "club", had            considerably expanded. It was functioning as the
been extremely useful in securing commitments of                regional nodal point for the implementation of the
assistance from the participating countries in respect          Vienna Programme of Action. Through regional
of specific industrial projects. It was of the utmost           meetings and other mechanisms, it had sought to
importance to pursue the implementation of those                provide interaction between the policy makers in the
commitments. The Commission noted the steps                     member countries and to assist them in evolving
which UNIDO proposed to take in that regard, in co-             institutional and policy initiatives for building up
operation with the ESCAP secretariat, to implement              their technological capabilities. The Commission
the decisions taken at the Dacca meeting. It called             commended, in particular, the value of the two
for similar steps to be taken to implement the                  meetings held at Beijing in August and December
pledges of assistance made at the Kabul meeting.                1980.
                                                           41
tries as well as to the potential foreign investors. The        354. The Commission noted that the next solidarity
Commission noted the offer by the Government of                 meeting in the region would be held at Kathmandu in
Japan to provide expert services to assist the member           the first quarter of 1982 and that the ESCAP
countries in rationalizing their regulatory                     secretariat would be extending assistance to UNIDO
arrangements in respect of foreign investments.                 through its various stages, including the preparation
                                                                of the assistance projects.
350. With regard to investment promotion and tax
administration, the Commission felt that the                    355. T h e C o m m i s s i o n e n d o r s e d t h e
activities in that area should follow a holistic                recommendations of the Committee that the scope of
approach, reflecting the concern not only to promote            the "club" as a mechanism for co-operation should
investments but also to regulate the foreign                    be expanded. It noted with appreciation the offer by
investments, so as to conform to the national                   the Government of Australia to provide the services
interests of the host countries. In order to ensure such        of an expert to assist the secretariat in that area.
an approach, it was suggested that if any
rearrangement of work within the secretariat relating           356. Mention was made of the positive
to foreign investments was required, so as to avoid             achievements of the New Zealand scheme to
duplication, it could be considered by the Executive            encourage joint ventures between New Zealand and
Secretary.                                                      the neighbouring island countries through a package
                                                                of incentives. UNIDO proposed to study the scheme
351. The Commission endorsed the emphasis in                    to ascertain whether it could be adopted as a model
the activities of the secretariat on promoting regional         for industrial co-operation between other countries.
and subregional co-operation in the field of
industralization. It commended the proposal that                357. It was observed that the activities of the
specific subregional projects should be evolved, with           secretariat in the promotion of industrial
the involvement of development banks and the                    development in the least developed countries needed
national authorities concerned. It noted with                   a sharper focus. The secretariat should undertake
appreciation the offer of the Government of India to            regular studies of the prospects and problems of
provide the services of an expert, as a non-                    industrial development in those countries and
reimbursable contribution, to undertake desk studies            provide assistance in the formulation of their
on the subject. It also noted the suggestion that               development plans. It should, in particular, assist in
studies should be conducted on basic engineering                the development of small-scale industry and
and capital goods industries with the objective of              industrial co-operatives and in the generation of
strengthening co-operation between the countries of             technical skills.
the region in those industrial sectors.
                                                                358. The success of the prime-mover industry
352. The proposed South Pacific industrial survey               project was highly appreciated. It was noted that
would be extremely useful in identifying the                    work on the industrial estate in west Nepal, which
potential in the subregion and in disclosing concrete           had been designed under that project, would be
opportunities for subregional industrial projects. The          carried out with bilateral assistance from the
Commission expressed regret that, owing to the lack             Netherlands. The prime-mover project would now
of a decision on the choice of the team leader for the          concentrate on activities in Bangladesh. The
survey, it could not yet be commenced. It noted the             representative of Afghanistan urged that the project
statement of the representative of Australia that a             which had been initiated earlier in his country should
                                                                now be resumed.
team leader had now been nominated and that his
services would be offered with Australian financial
                                                                359. The Commission appreciated the excellent
support. It was hoped that his appointment would be
                                                                collaboration between UNIDO and the ESCAP
finalized quickly in consultation with ADB and that             secretariat and expressed the hope that in the coming
the survey would commence without further delay.                years it would be further deepened and diversified.
353. The Commission reiterated the value of the                 Technology
ESCAP "club" as a mechanism to promote inter-
country co-operation for industrial development,                360. The Commission noted that since the United
particularly for the benefit of the least developed             Nations Conference on Science and Technology for
countries. The solidarity meetings organized by                 Development, held in August 1979, the role of
UNIDO at Kabul in May 1979 and at Dacca in                      ESCAP in the field of technology had been
December 1980, in collaboration with the "club", had            considerably expanded. It was functioning as the
been extremely useful in securing commitments of                regional nodal point for the implementation of the
assistance from the participating countries in respect          Vienna Programme of Action. Through regional
of specific industrial projects. It was of the utmost           meetings and other mechanisms, it had sought to
importance to pursue the implementation of those                provide interaction between the policy makers in the
commitments. The Commission noted the steps                     member countries and to assist them in evolving
which UNIDO proposed to take in that regard, in co-             institutional and policy initiatives for building up
operation with the ESCAP secretariat, to implement              their technological capabilities. The Commission
the decisions taken at the Dacca meeting. It called             commended, in particular, the value of the two
for similar steps to be taken to implement the                  meetings held at Beijing in August and December
pledges of assistance made at the Kabul meeting.                1980.
                                                           42
361. The Commission observed that the objective                  the representative of UNESCO that it would be
of the ESCAP activities in the field of technology               possible to establish arrangements whereby the two
should continue to be to assist the member countries             meetings would be complementary.
in building up their national capabilities. The
activities should therefore continue to focus on the             367. The Commission welcomed the revival of
institutional and policy frameworks, exchange of                 ESCAP activities with regard to standardization. The
information and experiences, generation of                       Inter-governmental Meeting of Heads of Standards
technological manpower and skills and strengthening              Institutions in the Region, held in November 1980,
of research and development, particularly through                had correctly identified the focus of regional
inter-country and inter-institutional co-operation.              activities to be on generating consciousness of
                                                                 standards and on promoting the adoption of
362. The Commission noted that the draft                         international standards. The Commission expressed
operational plan for the implementation of the                   the hope that UNDP, UNIDO and the International
Vienna Programme of Action, which had been                       Organization for Standardization would extend the
prepared at the United Nations Centre for Science                assistance required for the implementation of the
and Technology for Development and copies of                     activities recommended by that Meeting.
which had been provided to the participants in the
Preparatory Meeting, was under examination in the                368. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
member countries. The reactions of the member                    impressive progress achieved by RCTT, which,
countries would be made available at the                         though functioning on a tight budget, had undertaken
forthcoming session of the Intergovernmental                     a wide array of activities. By following the network
Committee on Science and Technology for                          approach it had sought to assist in building up the
Development. The representatives of two countries                capabilities of the national institutions. It had
stated that, on the basis of a preliminary                       received excellent support from the United Nations
examination, the draft plan had been found to be                 bodies concerned with different aspects of
worthy of endorsement. It was observed that, to                  technology. The contribution already made by RCTT
facilitate systematic implementation, the various                in improving institutional and policy frameworks in
programmes included in the plan ought to be ranked               the field of science and technology, in generating
in order of weightage.                                           network activities in relation to specific
363. The Commission urged that, in keeping with                  technological sectors, in providing interaction
the global plan and the requirements of the member               between policy makers and experts in different
countries, a regional operational plan should be                 countries, in arranging for technological training etc.
evolved by the ESCAP secretariat. Thereafter,                    had been appreciated by the member countries. The
discussions could be arranged at the regional level in           Commission was pleased to note that the merit of
respect of each of the programme areas so that                   that unique institution had been recognized by the
specific measures could be determined. The                       United Nations Interim Fund for Science and
Commission noted that a congress for exchange of                 Technology for Development, which had sanctioned
technological experience as well as a technology fair            a regional project involving an outlay of $US
would be held in Sri Lanka in April 1981 as a                    1,242,000. It was also pleased to note that UNDP
follow-up of the Vienna Programme of Action.                     proposed to provide an amount of $US 2,000,000 for
                                                                 programme support to RCTT during the 1982-1986
364. The Commission noted that the United                        programming cycle. With the recent appointment of
Nations Scientific and Technological Advisory                    the Director of the Centre and of some other staff, it
Committee had now been appointed at the global                   was expected that the implementation of the RCTT
level and that a decision on the establishment of                work programme would receive a fresh stimulus.
similar regional bodies would be taken by the
Intergovernmental Committee.                                     369. The Commission noted, however, the
                                                                 growing imbalance in the institutional strength of
365. T h e C o m m i s s i o n e n d o r s e d t h e             RCTT and the spread of its activities. It was realized
recommendation of the Committee on Industry,                     that, in due course, the institutional expenditure of
Technology, Human Settlements and the                            the Centre would have to be borne largely by the
Environment that a biennial survey of science and                member countries. However, until the Centre became
technology should be undertaken in the region. The               a self-supporting institution, it was essential that
content of that survey had to be carefully devised so            UNDP provide a reasonable amount of institutional
as to ensure that it would prove to be of significant            support; otherwise, the capacity of the Centre to
operational interest to the policy makers in the                 implement the tasks entrusted to it would remain
member countries.                                                limited. It was proposed, therefore, that in the
                                                                 allocation of its support during the 1982-1986
366. With regard to the forthcoming ESCAP                        programming cycle, UNDP should exercise
Meeting of Ministers of Science and Technology, the              flexibility and permit a portion of its support to be
Commission emphasized the importance of adequate                 used for institutional purposes.
preparations so that it could produce concrete results.
It recommended in particular that, in consultation               370. At the same time, the Commission appealed
with UNESCO, an appropriate mechanism should be                  to the member countries to increase their
devised so as to avoid undue duplication with CAST               contributions to RCTT and repeat them on a yearly
ASIA II, scheduled for March 1982. The                           basis. It noted with appreciation the pledges of
Commission        noted      the    statement       of           financial        support        made          for
                                                          (43)
the year 1981 by the representatives of Australia, the         375. The Commission took note of the programme
Netherlands, Pakistan and the Republic of Korea. It            of RCTT with regard to new and renewable sources
was hoped that similar pledges would soon be made              of energy, which would be implemented with
by other countries. The Commission acknowledged                financial support provided by the Interim Fund. The
the assistance rendered to RCTT by experts deputed             recent Symposium on Solar Science and Technology
by the USSR. It welcomed the offer made by the                 had been successful in bringing together leading
representative of France to depute two short-term              experts and generating further interest in that subject
experts on the production of alcohol from agro-                in the region.
products and on mini hydro plants.
                                                               376. The representative of Fiji expressed the
371. The Commission observed that one of the                   gratitude of his Government to RCTT for having
most important functions of RCTT was the                       organized a training workshop at Suva on matters
collection, evaluation and dissemination of                    relating to technology transfer. It was stated that a
technological information. It was noted that work for          similar workshop would soon be organized for the
the establishment of a regional technological                  benefit of the other island countries in the South
information service had already been initiated and             Pacific. It was suggested that some funds should be
that the Interim Fund project provided for the                 earmarked from the Interim Fund for assessment of
acquisition of the requisite hardware material. The            technology policies in the Pacific island countries.
Commission expressed the hope that the
establishment of the service would be expedited and            377. The Commission noted with satisfaction that
that it would be fully linked, on the one hand, with           the UNDP review mission had reaffirmed the
the proposed global information system and, on the             importance and usefulness of RNAM. The Network
other, with the national institutions concerned. An            had successfully organized subnetworks around pre-
important regional service should be to provide                identified agricultural machinery and implements
clearing-house facilities on industrial property and           and carried out surveys and studies on farm
licensing arrangements and on technology transfer              mechanization in several of the participating
agreements.                                                    countries. It had supplied prototypes for testing and
                                                               evaluation and promoted their evaluation and
372. Another important function of RCTT was to                 adoption. It had also provided training fellowships,
promote research and development, through inter-               arranged study tours and rendered support services to
institutional linkages. The Expert Group Meeting               strengthen the capabilities of the national
held on the subject at Beijing in December 1980 had            institutions. It had functioned as a clearing-house for
provided excellent guidelines in that regard, which            information through the regular publication of
should be actively followed up. A major effort                 newsletters, technical bulletins and digests.
should be devoted to the establishment of institutions
of excellence which would also playa regional role.            378. The Commission further noted that the
In that connexion, the Commission appreciated the              Governing Body of RNAM, at its third session in
proposal to establish an industrial tribology centre in        November 1980, had recommended the extension of
China and supported the assignment of a regional               the current phase of the project until the end of 1981
role to such a centre. It noted that the preparatory           and the implementation of the second phase from the
work had already been initiated. The ESCAP                     beginning of 1982. That recommendation had
secretariat was assisting in the formulation of the            received the endorsement of UNDP and the
design of the centre and in the elaboration of its             participating agencies as well as the donor countries.
                                                               The Commission noted in particular the statements
regional functions. The Commission expressed the
                                                               made by the representatives of Australia and Japan
hope that the Interim Fund and UNDP would extend
                                                               that the contributions of those countries to RNAM
their support for the building-up of the centre.
                                                               would be continued through the proposed second
                                                               phase.
373. The Commission also commended the
proposal to organize a visit of selected managers of           379. The Commission endorsed the extension of
research and development establishments to some                the current phase of RNAM until the end of 1981
developed and developing countries to enable them              and the implementation of its second phase
to acquire higher management skills and to promote             beginning in January 1982 and called upon UNDP to
the relationship of the research and development               provide adequate financial support for that purpose.
institutions with the production sectors.                      It further recommended that, while implementing the
                                                               second phase, the membership of the network should
374. The Commission noted the value of the                     be expanded, keeping in view the interest expressed
discussions that the special adviser to RCTT had had           by several member countries. In view of the
with policy makers in some of the member countries.            experience during the first phase, the work
It was hoped that in the future RCTT would assist              programme of the network should also be
some of the countries in the establishment of their            strengthened and improved.
national centres for technology transfer. The
Commission urged, in particular, that the project for          Human settlements
the establishment of the national centre in
Afghanistan, to be funded from the UNDP country                380. The Commission expressed great concern
indicative planning figure, should be implemented              over the continuing deterioration in the living
without further delay.                                         conditions
                                                          43
the year 1981 by the representatives of Australia, the         375. The Commission took note of the programme
Netherlands, Pakistan and the Republic of Korea. It            of RCTT with regard to new and renewable sources
was hoped that similar pledges would soon be made              of energy, which would be implemented with
by other countries. The Commission acknowledged                financial support provided by the Interim Fund. The
the assistance rendered to RCTT by experts deputed             recent Symposium on Solar Science and Technology
by the USSR. It welcomed the offer made by the                 had been successful in bringing together leading
representative of France to depute two short-term              experts and generating further interest in that subject
experts on the production of alcohol from agro-                in the region.
products and on mini hydro plants.
                                                               376. The representative of Fiji expressed the
371. The Commission observed that one of the                   gratitude of his Government to RCTT for having
most important functions of RCTT was the                       organized a training workshop at Suva on matters
collection, evaluation and dissemination of                    relating to technology transfer. It was stated that a
technological information. It was noted that work for          similar workshop would soon be organized for the
the establishment of a regional technological                  benefit of the other island countries in the South
information service had already been initiated and             Pacific. It was suggested that some funds should be
that the Interim Fund project provided for the                 earmarked from the Interim Fund for assessment of
acquisition of the requisite hardware material. The            technology policies in the Pacific island countries.
Commission expressed the hope that the
establishment of the service would be expedited and            377. The Commission noted with satisfaction that
that it would be fully linked, on the one hand, with           the UNDP review mission had reaffirmed the
the proposed global information system and, on the             importance and usefulness of RNAM. The Network
other, with the national institutions concerned. An            had successfully organized subnetworks around pre-
important regional service should be to provide                identified agricultural machinery and implements
clearing-house facilities on industrial property and           and carried out surveys and studies on farm
licensing arrangements and on technology transfer              mechanization in several of the participating
agreements.                                                    countries. It had supplied prototypes for testing and
                                                               evaluation and promoted their evaluation and
372. Another important function of RCTT was to                 adoption. It had also provided training fellowships,
promote research and development, through inter-               arranged study tours and rendered support services to
institutional linkages. The Expert Group Meeting               strengthen the capabilities of the national
held on the subject at Beijing in December 1980 had            institutions. It had functioned as a clearing-house for
provided excellent guidelines in that regard, which            information through the regular publication of
should be actively followed up. A major effort                 newsletters, technical bulletins and digests.
should be devoted to the establishment of institutions
of excellence which would also playa regional role.            378. The Commission further noted that the
In that connexion, the Commission appreciated the              Governing Body of RNAM, at its third session in
proposal to establish an industrial tribology centre in        November 1980, had recommended the extension of
China and supported the assignment of a regional               the current phase of the project until the end of 1981
role to such a centre. It noted that the preparatory           and the implementation of the second phase from the
work had already been initiated. The ESCAP                     beginning of 1982. That recommendation had
secretariat was assisting in the formulation of the            received the endorsement of UNDP and the
design of the centre and in the elaboration of its             participating agencies as well as the donor countries.
                                                               The Commission noted in particular the statements
regional functions. The Commission expressed the
                                                               made by the representatives of Australia and Japan
hope that the Interim Fund and UNDP would extend
                                                               that the contributions of those countries to RNAM
their support for the building-up of the centre.
                                                               would be continued through the proposed second
                                                               phase.
373. The Commission also commended the
proposal to organize a visit of selected managers of           379. The Commission endorsed the extension of
research and development establishments to some                the current phase of RNAM until the end of 1981
developed and developing countries to enable them              and the implementation of its second phase
to acquire higher management skills and to promote             beginning in January 1982 and called upon UNDP to
the relationship of the research and development               provide adequate financial support for that purpose.
institutions with the production sectors.                      It further recommended that, while implementing the
                                                               second phase, the membership of the network should
374. The Commission noted the value of the                     be expanded, keeping in view the interest expressed
discussions that the special adviser to RCTT had had           by several member countries. In view of the
with policy makers in some of the member countries.            experience during the first phase, the work
It was hoped that in the future RCTT would assist              programme of the network should also be
some of the countries in the establishment of their            strengthened and improved.
national centres for technology transfer. The
Commission urged, in particular, that the project for          Human settlements
the establishment of the national centre in
Afghanistan, to be funded from the UNDP country                380. The Commission expressed great concern
indicative planning figure, should be implemented              over the continuing deterioration in the living
without further delay.                                         conditions
                                                          44
in human settlements and stressed the importance of             urbanization, sites and services, low-cost housing,
the programmes in that sector. That deterioration had           upgrading of slums and squatter settlements,
occurred despite the development efforts made to                standards for and the provision of shelter and
improve the situation, which, if not remedied, could            infrastructure, energy issues, rural settlements,
have severe economic and social consequences. It                migration and urbanization at the country,
emphasized that the issues of human settlements                 subregional and regional levels.
should be dealt with through comprehensive policy
adjustments in almost every sector of socio-                    385. In order to promote action-oriented projects
economic development and should be given high                   and programmes, the Commission emphasized the
priority in the formulation of national development             relevance of providing suitable means for exchange
policies.                                                       of experience and information in the field of human
                                                                settlements. It noted that some countries had
381. The Commission noted that some of the                      established national information centres to be linked
countries in the region had, in keeping with their              with a regional information system. More countries
own situation, perceptions and needs, developed and             would need to take similar action to give the system
undertaken a wide range of activities relating to the           a truly regional scope.
improvement of human settlements. It recognized the
                                                                386. With regard to the study and review of the
resource constraints and inadequacy of mechanisms
                                                                human settlements situation in the region, the
among developing countries in the region, which                 Commission noted with satisfaction the progress
were further accentuated by mass poverty, excessive             made in the implementation of the project. In that
population growth and uneven distribution of                    connexion, it stressed the need to involve the
population.                                                     countries in the region and the various United
                                                                Nations specialized agencies concerned with human
382. The Commission reiterated the importance of                settlements. It expressed its gratitude to the
reviewing human settlements policies and the need               Government of Japan for providing long-term expert
to adopt a human settlements policy in each country             services and other assistance in connexion with the
as an integral part of the over-all development                 study and review.
policy. In that respect, it endorsed the
recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting                     387. The Commission recognized the importance
convened by the secretariat with the assistance of              of technology for the provision of shelter,
UNCHS, which had emphasized the need for                        infrastructure and services and noted with interest
evolving effective policies, programmes and                     that the development of the construction industry
strategies based on the concept of integration of               was being given proper attention in the programme
physical planning with economic and social                      of work. It urged .donor countries and funding
planning.                                                       agencies to give those activities favourable
                                                                consideration in their allocation of assistance. In that
383. The Commission endorsed the secretariat sub-               connexion, it appreciated the progress made on the
mission that the major issues in the field of human             UNIDO-supported regional TCDC project for the
settlements were: (a) integration of physical and               development of building materials and construction
economic planning in the field of human settlements;            industries and reiterated the importance of such
(b) urbanization and balanced distribution of                   TCDC initiatives.
population; (c) strengthening of local governments
and authorities to enable them to perform their role            388. It welcomed the offer by the USSR to provide
and functions more effectively in human settlement              programme support through UNDP for convening a
activities; (d) land issues, including land control             seminar in the USSR on low-cost housing in 1983 or
measures and land tenure systems; and (e) human                 later and to make available an English-language
settlements technology and construction and building            version of a publication on standards for public
materials industries. The Commission referred to the            housing for distribution through ESCAP to interested
importance of the formulation and implementation of             countries.
projects and programmes in the field of human
settlements based on common issues and problems at              389. The Commission observed that the
the regional level, taking into full account the                secretariat's guidelines on human settlement
urgency, priorities and needs of the developing                 standards had been well received in the member
                                                                countries and noted with satisfaction that the
countries in the region. Attention should be given to
                                                                Regional Housing Centre at New Delhi was
tangible and area-specific programmes which would               following them up by organizing local roving
yield concrete results and should be responsive to the          seminars.
priority requirements of the countries concerned.
                                                                390. The Commission supported ESCAP activities
384. In view of the diversity and magnitude of the              on strengthening the institutional and managerial
problems in human settlements, the Commission                   capabilities of the organizations concerned in the
stressed the need to undertake studies, research                field of human settlements and was of the opinion
activities and training programmes in the areas of              that local authorities could play an important role in
building and construction technology, land use,                 such aspects of human settlements as regional and
settlement planning and policies, restraining the use           city planning, improvement of infrastructure and
of          agricultural         land             for           services and people's participation.
                                                         (45)
391. The Commission noted with appreciation that                conserve energy through pragmatic measures. It
a regional congress of local authorities for                    stressed the need for development, exploitation and
development of human settlements in Asia and the                further studies of renewable energy resources for
Pacific would be convened at Yokohama, Japan, in                human settlements.
June 1982, organized by the City of Yokohama in
co-operation with ESCAP and UNCHS. The                          398. The Commission appreciated the continuing
Commission also noted with interest the proposal by             financial assistance of the Government of the
the USSR that a study tour/seminar/workshop on the              Netherlands in the activities of the secretariat
activities of local housing authorities should be               relating to human settlements. It noted that a roving
conducted in 1983 or later.                                     seminar on rural centre planning would be held in
                                                                July-August 1981 to assist member countries in
392. The Commission recognized the usefulness of                identifying approaches and techniques as well as
early implementation of the proposed roving seminar             evaluating experiences on the planning of rural
on human settlements management when financial                  centres and rural settlements in the region. It
assistance became available.                                    expressed general satisfaction with the progress
                                                                made by the secretariat in its preparatory work for
393. The Commission was pleased to learn of the                 the seminar. The Commission welcomed the offer of
continuing expansion of ESCAP activities and the                the Governments of China and the Republic of Korea
useful work undertaken during the year in the field             to provide host facilities for the roving seminar on
of human settlements with the financial assistance              rural centre planning.
and co-operation of UNCHS. It noted the
arrangements that had been worked out between the               399. The Commission noted that, in keeping with
Centre and ESCAP on the regionalization of                      the mandate at its thirty-sixth session, the main
programmes and recruitment of the two Professional              theme for the fifth session of the Committee on
staff members who had been made responsible for                 Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and the
executing the work programme elements of the                    Environment would be human settlements. The
Centre under the administration of the ESCAP                    theme recommended by the Interagency Task Force
secretariat. It noted with appreciation the completion          on Human Settlements was "The role and functions
of activities, with the assistance of UNCHS,                    of local authorities in human settlements
involving studies on various aspects of human                   programmes and development, with special emphasis
settlements, including energy issues in human                   on policy issues, co-ordination and public
settlements development.                                        participation".

394. The Commission emphasized the need for                     International trade, raw materials and
continued co-operation with global and regional                 commodities and special measures for the least
organizations and various specialized agencies of the           developed, land-locked and developing island
United Nations system in activities relating to human           countries
settlements. It appreciated the efforts made by the
secretariat in that direction and the role of the Inter-        400. The Commission considered documents E/
agency Task Force on Human Settlements which had                ESCAP/191, E/ESCAP/195 and E/ESCAP/207.
been constituted by ESCAP to effect joint action and
harmonization of programmes on human settlements.               401. In reviewing the current economic situation,
                                                                the Commission noted that the growth of
395. The Commission recognized the value of the                 international trade had been slow and uneven. The
two United Nations regional housing centres at                  world economy continued to suffer from spreading
Bandung and New Delhi and felt that they could                  recession. Most delegations expressed the view that
playa more effective regional role in the field of              protectionism, high rates of inflation, unemployment
human settlements. It urged that the necessary                  and balance-of-payments difficulties remained
financial and technical assistance should be provided           serious problems, particularly for non-oil-producing
by donor countries and UNCHS.                                   developing countries. Many developing countries
                                                                had to bear severe strains on their fragile economies
396. The Commission appreciated the useful                      brought about by the high cost of energy and
publication on policies towards urban slums which               accelerating prices of capital goods. The
had been prepared with the assistance of                        deteriorating terms of trade and the problem of
Bouwcentrum International Education, Netherlands.               restricted access to markets in the developed
In view of the inherent problems existing in the                countries continued to prevent them from gaining an
urban slums, the Commission considered it                       equitable share in the world trade.
necessary to conduct further studies and research in
that field.                                                     402. The Commission noted that structural
                                                                problems continued to hinder the achievement of
397. It noted with concern that the energy crisis               effective international division of labour based on
had adversely affected the socio-economic growth of             dynamic comparative advantage. It appreciated the
both developed and developing countries throughout              efforts of some developed countries to restructure
the world and considered it necessary for the                   their uneconomic industries. It also noted the
Governments in the region to make serious efforts to            affirmation of some developed countries of their
cope with the energy supply problems in human                   intention to refrain from having recourse to trade
settlements                  and                 to             restrictive measures.
                                                           45
391. The Commission noted with appreciation that                conserve energy through pragmatic measures. It
a regional congress of local authorities for                    stressed the need for development, exploitation and
development of human settlements in Asia and the                further studies of renewable energy resources for
Pacific would be convened at Yokohama, Japan, in                human settlements.
June 1982, organized by the City of Yokohama in
co-operation with ESCAP and UNCHS. The                          398. The Commission appreciated the continuing
Commission also noted with interest the proposal by             financial assistance of the Government of the
the USSR that a study tour/seminar/workshop on the              Netherlands in the activities of the secretariat
activities of local housing authorities should be               relating to human settlements. It noted that a roving
conducted in 1983 or later.                                     seminar on rural centre planning would be held in
                                                                July-August 1981 to assist member countries in
392. The Commission recognized the usefulness of                identifying approaches and techniques as well as
early implementation of the proposed roving seminar             evaluating experiences on the planning of rural
on human settlements management when financial                  centres and rural settlements in the region. It
assistance became available.                                    expressed general satisfaction with the progress
                                                                made by the secretariat in its preparatory work for
393. The Commission was pleased to learn of the                 the seminar. The Commission welcomed the offer of
continuing expansion of ESCAP activities and the                the Governments of China and the Republic of Korea
useful work undertaken during the year in the field             to provide host facilities for the roving seminar on
of human settlements with the financial assistance              rural centre planning.
and co-operation of UNCHS. It noted the
arrangements that had been worked out between the               399. The Commission noted that, in keeping with
Centre and ESCAP on the regionalization of                      the mandate at its thirty-sixth session, the main
programmes and recruitment of the two Professional              theme for the fifth session of the Committee on
staff members who had been made responsible for                 Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and the
executing the work programme elements of the                    Environment would be human settlements. The
Centre under the administration of the ESCAP                    theme recommended by the Interagency Task Force
secretariat. It noted with appreciation the completion          on Human Settlements was "The role and functions
of activities, with the assistance of UNCHS,                    of local authorities in human settlements
involving studies on various aspects of human                   programmes and development, with special emphasis
settlements, including energy issues in human                   on policy issues, co-ordination and public
settlements development.                                        participation".

394. The Commission emphasized the need for                     International trade, raw materials and
continued co-operation with global and regional                 commodities and special measures for the least
organizations and various specialized agencies of the           developed, land-locked and developing island
United Nations system in activities relating to human           countries
settlements. It appreciated the efforts made by the
secretariat in that direction and the role of the Inter-        400. The Commission considered documents E/
agency Task Force on Human Settlements which had                ESCAP/191, E/ESCAP/195 and E/ESCAP/207.
been constituted by ESCAP to effect joint action and
harmonization of programmes on human settlements.               401. In reviewing the current economic situation,
                                                                the Commission noted that the growth of
395. The Commission recognized the value of the                 international trade had been slow and uneven. The
two United Nations regional housing centres at                  world economy continued to suffer from spreading
Bandung and New Delhi and felt that they could                  recession. Most delegations expressed the view that
playa more effective regional role in the field of              protectionism, high rates of inflation, unemployment
human settlements. It urged that the necessary                  and balance-of-payments difficulties remained
financial and technical assistance should be provided           serious problems, particularly for non-oil-producing
by donor countries and UNCHS.                                   developing countries. Many developing countries
                                                                had to bear severe strains on their fragile economies
396. The Commission appreciated the useful                      brought about by the high cost of energy and
publication on policies towards urban slums which               accelerating prices of capital goods. The
had been prepared with the assistance of                        deteriorating terms of trade and the problem of
Bouwcentrum International Education, Netherlands.               restricted access to markets in the developed
In view of the inherent problems existing in the                countries continued to prevent them from gaining an
urban slums, the Commission considered it                       equitable share in the world trade.
necessary to conduct further studies and research in
that field.                                                     402. The Commission noted that structural
                                                                problems continued to hinder the achievement of
397. It noted with concern that the energy crisis               effective international division of labour based on
had adversely affected the socio-economic growth of             dynamic comparative advantage. It appreciated the
both developed and developing countries throughout              efforts of some developed countries to restructure
the world and considered it necessary for the                   their uneconomic industries. It also noted the
Governments in the region to make serious efforts to            affirmation of some developed countries of their
cope with the energy supply problems in human                   intention to refrain from having recourse to trade
settlements                  and                 to             restrictive measures.
                                                           46
403. Most delegations were of the opinion that                    countries in implementing the decisions of the Sub-
intensified protectionist measures were being                     groups. The Commission noted with appreciation the
directed at competitive products such as garments,                financial assistance provided by UNDP and hoped
textiles, leather and footwear, which were important              that it would continue its assistance in the 1982-1986
foreign exchange earners for developing countries.                programming cycle.
The negotiation for the future of the Multi-Fibre
Arrangement beyond 1981 had begun and the                         407. The suggestion was made that studies on
developing countries exporters of textiles had                    industries requiring structural readjustments owing
already expressed their views at their meeting at                 to changing comparative advantage should be made
Bogota, Colombia. It was important that the new                   for consideration by TCG. It was further suggested
Arrangement should appropriately reflect the                      that continuous action should be taken to arrest and
concerns of the developing countries. The ESCAP                   then reverse the growth of trade restrictive measures
secretariat was requested to play an important role in            and that the Commission should review at every
assisting developing countries in formulating their               annual session the patterns of production and trade
position for the negotiations.                                    within the region in the light of the dynamics of
                                                                  comparative advantage and should highlight
404. The Commission noted that the outcome of                     problems inhibiting the attainment of optimum over-
the multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) still left              all growth. That could include a review of the
some important problems of trade liberalization                   protectionist measures of developed countries in the
unresolved. However, some delegations stressed the                region affecting imports from developing countries
positive results obtained. In that connexion, mention             in the light of the provisions of part IV of GATT.
was made of the lack of agreement on two important                The view was expressed that such a study should
aspects of the negotiations relating to quantitative              include an assessment of the dynamics of
restrictions and safeguards. While note was taken of              comparative advantage. The Commission noted that,
the achievements in the negotiations on the reduction             in accordance with the International Development
of tariffs, developing countries pointed out that the             Strategy, exports and imports of goods and services
use of non-tariff barriers as trade policy instruments            in developing countries should expand at an annual
was increasing. Some developed countries                          rate of not less than 7.5 and 8 per cent respectively.
highlighted the tariff cuts obtained. It was also                 There was a need to intensify and strengthen the
pointed out that in certain sectors, such as agriculture          activities of TCG in order to make it function as an
and tropical products, there was a need for continued             effective instrument for expansion of trade among
efforts in the post-MTN era to secure liberalization.             the countries of the region for the attainment of the
With regard to the Codes, it was urged that countries             goals and objectives of the Strategy. It was further
that had not done so should accede to the Codes so                suggested that studies and reports of seminars of the
as to maximize the benefits of the achievements of                various Subgroups should be distributed to all
MTN.                                                              members of TCG. The view was expressed that the
                                                                  existing list of commodities under study with regard
405. The Commission recognized that GSP had
                                                                  to long-term contracts should be expanded. The
contributed positively to the promotion of trade.
                                                                  Commission noted the decision of the Government
While appreciating the decision of one developed
                                                                  of Indonesia to join the Subgroup for Trade-creating
country of the region to extend its scheme for
                                                                  Joint Ventures. It appreciated the offer of that
another 10 years, developing countries felt that
further improvement, by making all the GSP                        Government to host the fourth session of the
schemes permanent and non-discriminatory in                       Subgroup for Commodities.
character, would help the developing countries to
plan their exports effectively. In that connexion,                408. The Commission recognized the importance
representatives of some developed countries stated                of economic co-operation among the developing
that their GSP schemes would be extended and                      countries as a key element in the establishment of the
administrative procedures simplified. Special                     new international economic order. In that connexion,
benefits for the least developed countries had been               it welcomed the second round of negotiations among
incorporated into the schemes.                                    the members of the Bangkok Agreement scheduled
                                                                  to be held in 1981. The members of the Agreement
406. The Commission noted the progress made by                    urged other developing countries of the region to
the Trade Co-operation Group (TCG) and its Sub-                   participate in the negotiations.
groups in implementing the programme of trade co-
operation and expansion approved at the Ministerial               409. Developing countries reiterated their support
Conference on Co-operation in Trade for Asia and                  for priority areas in the Action Plan for Global
the Pacific. While expressing its continuing support              Priorities on Economic Co-operation among
for the programme, the Commission requested that                  Developing Countries adopted by the Fourth
outstanding studies should be completed early and                 Ministerial Meeting of the Group of Seventy-seven,
that the Subgroups which had not held their third                 held at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. They
sessions should be convened as soon as possible. It               urged the developed countries and United Nations
was recognized that the success of the programme                  agencies to assist them in promoting economic co-
depended on the follow-up action taken by the                     operation among themselves. In that connexion, the
member                                                            Commission           was      informed         that
                                                           (47)
the Government of Indonesia was prepared to host a            out its activities, TPC had paid special attention to
meeting on State trading organizations among the              the needs of the least developed, land-locked and
Group of Seventy-seven in September/October 1981.             island developing countries of the region. It was
Some developing countries were of the opinion that            noted that over 25 developing countries of the region
TNG could play an important role in promoting trade           and a number of organizations in those countries had
among developing countries. They also suggested               availed themselves of the services provided by TPC.
that linkages should be established between                   The Commission urged the Centre further to
groupings such as ASEAN, Regional Cooperation                 intensify its assistance to the developing countries.
for Development, the Bangkok Agreement and
SPEC. The Commission noted that subregional and               415. The Commission was pleased to note the
regional groupings of the region should be                    services provided by the UNDP-financed project on
strengthened.                                                 regional advisory services in trade information to
                                                              developing countries of the region in matters related
410. The Commission noted that the Asian                      to the establishment, strengthening or improvement
Reinsurance Corporation (ARC) had been making                 of national trade information services/trade libraries
good progress and that its underwriting business had          and the necessary systems and techniques for the
increased significantly. Recognizing the importance           acquisition and dissemination of trade data. Several
of self-reliance in the field of insurance and                developing countries of the region reiterated the need
reinsurance, it urged other developing countries of           for TPC assistance in the trade information process
the region to join the Corporation in order to obtain         to enable them to participate effectively in the
the maximum benefit for all participants. The                 regional trade information network. They urged
Commission took note of the developmental                     UNDP to continue to provide financial support for
activities of ARC and requested UNDP to provide               that activity .
the financial assistance needed for their
implementation.                                               416. The suggestion was made that the secretariat
411. The Commission was informed of the
                                                              should undertake the identification of products of
comprehensive training programme on insurance
                                                              export interest to the developing countries,
education for developing countries of the region and
                                                              particularly manufactured products, in consultation
of the four seminars which had been held jointly by
ESCAP and UNCTAD with the financial assistance                with the ministries of trade of the countries
of UNDP. In view of the importance of professional            concerned.
training in the development of national insurance
markets, the Commission urged the secretariat to              417. The Commission expressed its thanks to the
implement the programme proposed by the UNCT                  Government of Japan for providing financial support
AD/ESCAP Roundtable Meeting on Insurance                      to ESCAP for the UNCTAD/ESCAP Regional
Education in Asia and the Pacific held in 1979 and            Seminar on GSP held at Bangkok in January 1981
requested UNDP to provide financial assistance for            and to the Government of Finland for assistance in
that purpose.                                                 connexion with the Regional Seminar on Import
                                                              Management held at Pattaya, Thailand, in February
412. The Commission noted the progress made by                1981. The Commission noted with appreciation the
the Asian Clearing Union. The developing countries            offer of the Government of Indonesia to host the
were urged to join the Union so that monetary co-             Asian trade fair at Jakarta. The Commission also
operation could be strengthened and trade expansion           welcomed the offer of Japan to provide an expert to
facilitated.                                                  TPC if a request was made for such services.

413. The Commission was informed that a                       418. The Commission noted that preparations were
preliminary draft agreement on the establishment of           under way for a seminar for trainers of the ASEAN
a multinational export credit insurance scheme had            countries on export/import techniques, to be held in
been prepared by the secretariat. It took note of the         co-operation with the Canadian International
progress made and urged the secretariat to finalize           Development Agency and the Foundation for
the draft agreement expeditiously. In that regard, the        International Training for Third World Countries at
suggestion was made that the secretariat should               Bangkok in March/April 1981, to be financed by the
consult member Governments before finalizing the              Government of Canada. The Commission
agreement. The Commission urged UNDP to provide               appreciated the offers made by China to host a
the financial assistance required for completion of           seminar-cum-study tour on trade promotion
the work.                                                     techniques/institutions in China in April/May 1981,
                                                              and by the USSR to host a seminar on foreign trade
414. The Commission noted the useful assistance               in that country in 1981. It further noted that the
provided by the Trade Promotion Centre (TPC)                  secretariat was pursuing its efforts to secure financial
during the previous year to the developing countries          assistance from the Governments of Australia and
of the region in their trade promotion and                    New Zealand to organize a mobile seminar on trade
development efforts, as reflected in the activities           promotion for certain South Pacific countries.
carried out under the Centre's four categorized
services, namely, trade information, professional             419. The Commission was pleased to learn of the
development, market and product development and               new agreement concluded between ITC and ESCAP
trade promotion advisory services. In carrying                on                                          17
                                                         47
the Government of Indonesia was prepared to host a            out its activities, TPC had paid special attention to
meeting on State trading organizations among the              the needs of the least developed, land-locked and
Group of Seventy-seven in September/October 1981.             island developing countries of the region. It was
Some developing countries were of the opinion that            noted that over 25 developing countries of the region
TNG could play an important role in promoting trade           and a number of organizations in those countries had
among developing countries. They also suggested               availed themselves of the services provided by TPC.
that linkages should be established between                   The Commission urged the Centre further to
groupings such as ASEAN, Regional Cooperation                 intensify its assistance to the developing countries.
for Development, the Bangkok Agreement and
SPEC. The Commission noted that subregional and               415. The Commission was pleased to note the
regional groupings of the region should be                    services provided by the UNDP-financed project on
strengthened.                                                 regional advisory services in trade information to
                                                              developing countries of the region in matters related
410. The Commission noted that the Asian                      to the establishment, strengthening or improvement
Reinsurance Corporation (ARC) had been making                 of national trade information services/trade libraries
good progress and that its underwriting business had          and the necessary systems and techniques for the
increased significantly. Recognizing the importance           acquisition and dissemination of trade data. Several
of self-reliance in the field of insurance and                developing countries of the region reiterated the need
reinsurance, it urged other developing countries of           for TPC assistance in the trade information process
the region to join the Corporation in order to obtain         to enable them to participate effectively in the
the maximum benefit for all participants. The                 regional trade information network. They urged
Commission took note of the developmental                     UNDP to continue to provide financial support for
activities of ARC and requested UNDP to provide               that activity .
the financial assistance needed for their
implementation.                                               416. The suggestion was made that the secretariat
411. The Commission was informed of the
                                                              should undertake the identification of products of
comprehensive training programme on insurance
                                                              export interest to the developing countries,
education for developing countries of the region and
                                                              particularly manufactured products, in consultation
of the four seminars which had been held jointly by
ESCAP and UNCTAD with the financial assistance                with the ministries of trade of the countries
of UNDP. In view of the importance of professional            concerned.
training in the development of national insurance
markets, the Commission urged the secretariat to              417. The Commission expressed its thanks to the
implement the programme proposed by the UNCT                  Government of Japan for providing financial support
AD/ESCAP Roundtable Meeting on Insurance                      to ESCAP for the UNCTAD/ESCAP Regional
Education in Asia and the Pacific held in 1979 and            Seminar on GSP held at Bangkok in January 1981
requested UNDP to provide financial assistance for            and to the Government of Finland for assistance in
that purpose.                                                 connexion with the Regional Seminar on Import
                                                              Management held at Pattaya, Thailand, in February
412. The Commission noted the progress made by                1981. The Commission noted with appreciation the
the Asian Clearing Union. The developing countries            offer of the Government of Indonesia to host the
were urged to join the Union so that monetary co-             Asian trade fair at Jakarta. The Commission also
operation could be strengthened and trade expansion           welcomed the offer of Japan to provide an expert to
facilitated.                                                  TPC if a request was made for such services.

413. The Commission was informed that a                       418. The Commission noted that preparations were
preliminary draft agreement on the establishment of           under way for a seminar for trainers of the ASEAN
a multinational export credit insurance scheme had            countries on export/import techniques, to be held in
been prepared by the secretariat. It took note of the         co-operation with the Canadian International
progress made and urged the secretariat to finalize           Development Agency and the Foundation for
the draft agreement expeditiously. In that regard, the        International Training for Third World Countries at
suggestion was made that the secretariat should               Bangkok in March/April 1981, to be financed by the
consult member Governments before finalizing the              Government of Canada. The Commission
agreement. The Commission urged UNDP to provide               appreciated the offers made by China to host a
the financial assistance required for completion of           seminar-cum-study tour on trade promotion
the work.                                                     techniques/institutions in China in April/May 1981,
                                                              and by the USSR to host a seminar on foreign trade
414. The Commission noted the useful assistance               in that country in 1981. It further noted that the
provided by the Trade Promotion Centre (TPC)                  secretariat was pursuing its efforts to secure financial
during the previous year to the developing countries          assistance from the Governments of Australia and
of the region in their trade promotion and                    New Zealand to organize a mobile seminar on trade
development efforts, as reflected in the activities           promotion for certain South Pacific countries.
carried out under the Centre's four categorized
services, namely, trade information, professional             419. The Commission was pleased to learn of the
development, market and product development and               new agreement concluded between ITC and ESCAP
trade promotion advisory services. In carrying                on                                          17
                                                         48
November 1980 to foster and strengthen the co-                  426. The Commission noted with concern the
operation between the two organizations in the field            deteriorating economic and social situation of the
of trade promotion and export development. The                  least developed countries during the previous two
close co-operation between TPC and ITC was                      decades. It urged developed countries, developing
commended and ITC was urged to intensify its                    countries in a position to do so and multilateral
support to TPC.                                                 financial institutions to provide adequate assistance
                                                                to enable the least developed countries to accelerate
420. The Commission expressed its gratitude to the              their social and economic development.
Governments of Australia, Canada, Finland, the
Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the                         427. The Commission noted the activities of the
Netherlands and Sweden, as well as to UNDP, ITC                 UNCTAD and ESCAP secretariats in connexion
and UNCTAD, for their assistance to TPC. It urged               with the preparations for the United Nations
that such assistance be continued and expanded so               Conference on the Least Developed Countries, to be
that TPC could meet the growing demand for its                  held in Paris from I to 14 September 1981.
services.                                                       Preparatory to the Conference, review meetings
                                                                between the least developed countries of the Asian
421. The Commission welcomed the successful
                                                                and Pacific grouping and their aid partners were
conclusion of the United Nations Negotiating
Conference on a Common Fund under the Integrated                scheduled to be held at Vienna from 30 March to 10
Programme for Commodities. It urged countries that              April 1981. The Commission urged all the members
had not yet done so to ratify the Agreement                     and associate members of ESCAP to take the
Establis1ling the Common Fund for Commodities as                measures necessary for the success of the
early as possible. The Commission noted the offer of            Conference. In that connexion, the secretariat was
the Philippine Government to provide host facilities            requested to take follow-up action on the decisions
for the headquarters of the Common Fund when it                 of tile Conference relating to the region.
came into operation. It welcomed the adoption of the
International Natural Rubber Agreement and hoped                428. The Commission adopted resolution 214
that agreements for other commodities would be                  (XXXVII) on the United Nations Conference on the
concluded soon. In that regard, some countries                  Least Developed Countries.
expressed the view that ESCAP had a role to play in
providing regional inputs into the global                       429. The Commission noted with appreciation the
negotiations, particularly on those commodities of              technical assistance programme of the Philippines in
socio-economic importance to countries in the                   favour of the least developed countries, which had
region.                                                         become fully operational in January 1980. It also
                                                                noted with appreciation the substantial contribution
422. The Commission emphasized that assistance                  of Thailand to the United Nations Special Fund for
should be continued to tl1e regional commodities/               Land-locked Developing Countries. It was hoped
communities and associations, namely, ANRPC,                    that similar facilities would be extended by other
APCC and IPC. It welcomed the initiative taken by               developing countries which were in a position to do
the secretariat in organizing consultative missions on          so, to promote the professional skills of the
jute, s1lrimpS and tapioca. It was suggested tl1at in           personnel in the least developed countries.
implementing those activities due attention should be
given to the diversification of export markets for              430. The representatives of the land-locked
those commodities.                                              countries expressed disappointment at the poor
                                                                response to the Special Fund. They urged the
423. The representative of ANRPC informed the                   international community to increase its support to
Commission of the assistance being provided to the              enable the Fund to meet its desired objectives.
Association by the secretariat.
                                                                431. The Commission noted with appreciation the
424. The Commission urged tl1at the secretariat be              services rendered under the UNDP-funded project on
strengthened to enable it to implement activities               assistance to the least developed land-locked
related to raw materials and commodities. It
                                                                countries of the region, which was being executed by
appreciated the continuing financial assistance of the
Government of the Netherlands and UNDP and                      the secretariat in co-operation with UNCTAD. It
welcomed the offer by the Government of Japan to                urged UNDP to continue its financial assistance to
provide assistance for the promotion of supply and              the project in its next programming cycle.
marketing of commodities in the ESCAP region. The
Commission urged other donor countries to provide               432. The inclusion in the programme of work and
similar assistance to facilitate the implementation of          priorities for 1982-1983 of the programme element
those activities.                                               aimed at the expansion of trade between developing
                                                                ESCAP countries and socialist countries of Eastern
425. The Commission noted the assistance                        Europe was commended and the USSR delegation
rendered by the secretariat and developed and                   expressed readiness to assist the secretariat in
developing countries to the least developed, land-              implementing that activity. It was noted that the
locked and island developing countries in their                 USSR was prepared to send its experts on a short-
efforts towards over-all economic advancement.                  term                                         basis
                                                         (49)
to render assistance to the secretariat in the                 ing Group Meeting on Energy in the South Pacific,
implementation of the programme of work.                       which had indicated the essential needs of the
                                                               countries. It noted that the final project document
433. The Commission endorsed the report of the                 was being prepared by the secretariat. In that respect,
Committee on Trade on its twenty-third session.                caution should be exercised in order to avoid
                                                               duplicating activities being carried out by SPEC, and
Natural resources                                              projects selected should be practical, taking into
                                                               account the fact that conventional energy sources
434. The Commission considered documents E/                    would continue to meet the major part of the world's
ESCAP/189 and E/ESCAP/220 and Corr.1.                          requirements for a considerable time. The
                                                               Commission noted that SPEC was undertaking a
435. It endorsed the report of the Committee on                study of the institutional requirements necessary to
Natural Resources on its seventh session, which                implement the programme and suggested that the
contained a number of recommendations that could               results should be taken into account. Some of the
be used as substantial bases for specific activities at        important areas indicated were as follows: energy
both the regional and the national levels. Among the           planning, the use of alternative energy such as
proposed changes in the 1981 programme of work in              coconut waste, investigation into ocean energy and
that sector, only tile following activities were               the substitution of diesel oil by other fuels. The
endorsed: support to CCOP; and a meeting of experts            project should include training and advisory services.
from interested countries to consider the feasibility          It was hoped that the programme would be finalized
of a committee for co-ordination of joint prospecting          and approved at an early date so that it could be
for mineral resources in Indian Ocean offshore areas           included in the programme of work, 1982-1983, and
(CCOP/IO).                                                     that the required resources would be made available
                                                               by UNDP and donor countries so that the programme
436. The Commission noted with appreciation the                could be implemented as soon as possible.
co-operation and assistance extended by a number of
countries in organizing and hosting seminars,                  440. The Commission noted that ESCAP had
working groups and study groups on various aspects             maintained close contact with the secretariat of, and
of natural resources during 1980 and their readiness
                                                               had already made a substantial contribution to, the
to extend such co-operation in 1981 and beyond.
                                                               United Nations Conference on New and Renewable
                                                               Sources of Energy, which was scheduled to be held
437. There was a suggestion that the Committee on
Natural Resources should take up the development               at Nairobi in August 1981. The Commission
of tropical forests. It was pointed out, however, that         appreciated the efforts of the secretariat in helping
unless the terms of reference of the Committee were            the countries in the preparation of country papers and
amended to include the subject of forestry resources           hoped that it would provide further support to the
management and tile necessary financial and staff              Conference.
resources were provided, it did not appear feasible
for the secretariat to include that subject in its             441. The Commission noted that the report of the
programme of work and priorities.                              Regional Preparatory Meeting for the United Nations
                                                               Conference on New and Renewable Sources of
Energy                                                         Energy was comprehensive. It endorsed, in general,
                                                               the conclusions and recommendations of the
438. he Commission commended the activities                    Meeting. It felt, however, that the extent of
undertaken by the secretariat in the energy field since        interregional co-operation in the development of
the thirty-sixth session of the Commission and noted           certain sources of energy, such as geothermal and
with appreciation the following assistance given to            ocean energy, should take into account the site-
the secretariat: the financial support of the                  specific nature of resources; that sub-regional co-
Government of Japan in the holding of the Regional             operation should be promoted by strengthening the
Preparatory Meeting for the United Nations                     existing institutes rather than establishing new ones;
Conference on New and Renewable Sources of                     and that the establishment of a centralized energy
Energy; the financial and technical support of the             planning agency should be considered with due
Government of New Zealand in holding the Seminar               regard for the structure of the Government
on Geothermal Energy; and the financial support of             concerned. Further-more, the Commission felt that
UNDP in the holding of the Working Group Meeting               after the Conference tile secretariat would be able to
on Energy in the South Pacific. The Commission                 elaborate, in co-operation with member countries,
also appreciated the fact that China was prepared to           tile issues identifying new areas for regional and
host a seminar and study tour on planning,                     subregional co-operation. In that case, the
management and economy of energy in rural areas.               Government of the Netherlands would be willing to
The Commission stressed that the activities in the             participate, within the context of an extra-budgetary
energy field should be expanded and the secretariat's          allocation for 1981, in projects aiming at promoting
staff and financial resources strengthened.                    co-operative arrangements in tile field of renewable
                                                               energy sources.
439. The Commission endorsed, in general, tile                 442. The Commission was also informed of the
Pacific regional energy programme recommended by               status of the energy and developments plans of
the                                       Work-                Bangladesh,
                                                          49
to render assistance to the secretariat in the                 ing Group Meeting on Energy in the South Pacific,
implementation of the programme of work.                       which had indicated the essential needs of the
                                                               countries. It noted that the final project document
433. The Commission endorsed the report of the                 was being prepared by the secretariat. In that respect,
Committee on Trade on its twenty-third session.                caution should be exercised in order to avoid
                                                               duplicating activities being carried out by SPEC, and
Natural resources                                              projects selected should be practical, taking into
                                                               account the fact that conventional energy sources
434. The Commission considered documents E/                    would continue to meet the major part of the world's
ESCAP/189 and E/ESCAP/220 and Corr.1.                          requirements for a considerable time. The
                                                               Commission noted that SPEC was undertaking a
435. It endorsed the report of the Committee on                study of the institutional requirements necessary to
Natural Resources on its seventh session, which                implement the programme and suggested that the
contained a number of recommendations that could               results should be taken into account. Some of the
be used as substantial bases for specific activities at        important areas indicated were as follows: energy
both the regional and the national levels. Among the           planning, the use of alternative energy such as
proposed changes in the 1981 programme of work in              coconut waste, investigation into ocean energy and
that sector, only tile following activities were               the substitution of diesel oil by other fuels. The
endorsed: support to CCOP; and a meeting of experts            project should include training and advisory services.
from interested countries to consider the feasibility          It was hoped that the programme would be finalized
of a committee for co-ordination of joint prospecting          and approved at an early date so that it could be
for mineral resources in Indian Ocean offshore areas           included in the programme of work, 1982-1983, and
(CCOP/IO).                                                     that the required resources would be made available
                                                               by UNDP and donor countries so that the programme
436. The Commission noted with appreciation the                could be implemented as soon as possible.
co-operation and assistance extended by a number of
countries in organizing and hosting seminars,                  440. The Commission noted that ESCAP had
working groups and study groups on various aspects             maintained close contact with the secretariat of, and
of natural resources during 1980 and their readiness
                                                               had already made a substantial contribution to, the
to extend such co-operation in 1981 and beyond.
                                                               United Nations Conference on New and Renewable
                                                               Sources of Energy, which was scheduled to be held
437. There was a suggestion that the Committee on
Natural Resources should take up the development               at Nairobi in August 1981. The Commission
of tropical forests. It was pointed out, however, that         appreciated the efforts of the secretariat in helping
unless the terms of reference of the Committee were            the countries in the preparation of country papers and
amended to include the subject of forestry resources           hoped that it would provide further support to the
management and tile necessary financial and staff              Conference.
resources were provided, it did not appear feasible
for the secretariat to include that subject in its             441. The Commission noted that the report of the
programme of work and priorities.                              Regional Preparatory Meeting for the United Nations
                                                               Conference on New and Renewable Sources of
Energy                                                         Energy was comprehensive. It endorsed, in general,
                                                               the conclusions and recommendations of the
438. he Commission commended the activities                    Meeting. It felt, however, that the extent of
undertaken by the secretariat in the energy field since        interregional co-operation in the development of
the thirty-sixth session of the Commission and noted           certain sources of energy, such as geothermal and
with appreciation the following assistance given to            ocean energy, should take into account the site-
the secretariat: the financial support of the                  specific nature of resources; that sub-regional co-
Government of Japan in the holding of the Regional             operation should be promoted by strengthening the
Preparatory Meeting for the United Nations                     existing institutes rather than establishing new ones;
Conference on New and Renewable Sources of                     and that the establishment of a centralized energy
Energy; the financial and technical support of the             planning agency should be considered with due
Government of New Zealand in holding the Seminar               regard for the structure of the Government
on Geothermal Energy; and the financial support of             concerned. Further-more, the Commission felt that
UNDP in the holding of the Working Group Meeting               after the Conference tile secretariat would be able to
on Energy in the South Pacific. The Commission                 elaborate, in co-operation with member countries,
also appreciated the fact that China was prepared to           tile issues identifying new areas for regional and
host a seminar and study tour on planning,                     subregional co-operation. In that case, the
management and economy of energy in rural areas.               Government of the Netherlands would be willing to
The Commission stressed that the activities in the             participate, within the context of an extra-budgetary
energy field should be expanded and the secretariat's          allocation for 1981, in projects aiming at promoting
staff and financial resources strengthened.                    co-operative arrangements in tile field of renewable
                                                               energy sources.
439. The Commission endorsed, in general, tile                 442. The Commission was also informed of the
Pacific regional energy programme recommended by               status of the energy and developments plans of
the                                       Work-                Bangladesh,
                                                          50
Nepal, Pakistan and the Philippines, as well as the             448. It reiterated the need to give priority to the
current and future activities of UNESCO in the                  studies on the environmental management of mineral
energy field.                                                   exploration and development activities, the
                                                                promotion and application of modem technologies
443. The Commission considered the work                         and know-how for the exploration and development
programme, 1982-1983, in the energy field proposed              of minerals, including coal and petroleum, the
by the secretariat and noted that the programme was             promotion of training and higher education within
tentative and might be amended with due                         the region and in developed countries, and the
consideration of the outcome of the deliberations at            collection and dissemination of information on
the current session of the Commission, the final
                                                                mineral resources development in the region.
decisions of UNDP concerning the regional energy
development programme and the Pacific regional
energy programme, and the outcome of the United                 449. The representative of France agreed with the
Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources                 importance of the programmes for the mineral sector
of Energy. The Commission suggested that the                    and noted that resource allocations made for
amendment of the work programme, 1982-1983,                     implementing the programmes were low. The
should be considered by the ESCAP Committee on                  Commission noted with appreciation that France
Natural Resources at its eighth session, to be held             would consider providing assistance for some of the
late in 1981.                                                   mineral programmes.

444. The Commission appreciated the inclusion in                450. The Commission expressed its support for the
the work programme of a study on rice husk and a                holding of an expert group meeting on the
newsletter on rural energy. It suggested, however,              preparation of the third edition of the Oil and Natural
that the feasibility of the inclusion of the following          Gas Map of Asia in 1981 and for the continuation of
topics in the programme for 1982-1983 and the sub-              the work on the stratigraphic correlation of the
sequent period should be considered, taking into                sedimentary basins of the region.
account the availability of staff and financial
resources: (a) the improvement of efficiency in the             451. It noted with appreciation the financial
use of energy such as in transport and industry; (b)            support given by UNDP and the co-operation and
the development of oil shale and some other energy              host facilities extended by the Government of the
sources; (c) research on energy planning; (d) national          USSR for the Seminar on Modem Methods of
energy balance; (e) the use of compressed natural
gas; (f) technical assistance in energy planning and            Mineral Prospecting and endorsed its
programming; (g) a survey of non-conventional                   recommendations. It expressed appreciation to the
energy; (h) the conservation of energy in industry,             Governments of India, Iran, Japan and New Zealand
agriculture, the domestic sector and energy                     for their assistance in the preparation of regional
production; and (i) the development of small-scale              maps. It also expressed appreciation of the assistance
hydroelectricity.                                               provided by the Government of Australia to the
                                                                project on stratigraphic correlation and urged it to
445. T h e C o m m i s s i o n s u p p o r t e d t h e          continue such assistance. The Commission was
recommendation of the Committee on Natural                      informed by China that under the auspices of
Resources at its seventh session that the publication           ESCAP , the Ministry of Geology, in co-operation
Electric Power in Asia and the Pacific should be                with UNDP and RMRDC, would be holding a
expanded to include information on other sources of             seminar on the geology of tungsten deposits in
energy. It hoped that the Committee on Natural                  Jiangxi Province, China, late in 1981. The
Resources would strengthen its role in the flow of              representative of the USSR informed the
information. It also suggested that the programme of            Commission that his Government would be prepared
work should be considered carefully with a view to              to host and support a seminar on drilling, sampling
avoiding duplication of the work carried out by other           and borehole logging during 1981. UNDP was urged
organizations.                                                  to provide support for the seminar. The Commission
                                                                noted with appreciation that China would support the
446. The Commission appreciated the fact that                   establishment of a regional centre for Quaternary
several countries had offered to provide assistance to
                                                                geology in China.
the secretariat in undertaking its work programme,
such as the USSR in a seminar or study on oil-
bearing shale, peat and oil.                                    452. As to the proposal for the establishment of a
                                                                committee for co-ordination of joint prospecting for
Mineral resources                                               mineral resources in Indian Ocean areas, along the
                                                                lines of the highly successful CCOP and CCOP/
447. The Commission commended the valuable                      SOPAC, one delegation expressed its support while
work undertaken by the secretariat in the field of              another expressed the view that a careful
mineral resources development and in particular the             examination should be made of the full implications
studies on geology, mineral distribution,                       before reaching a decision to set up such a
stratigraphic correlation of the sedimentary basins in          committee. The Commission noted that a meeting of
the region, and the compilation and publication of              experts from interested countries might be held to
regional geological and thematic maps and atlases.              consider the feasibility of a CCOP/IO.
                                                         (51)
453. The Commission was pleased to note the                    of services of consultants in that field, including two
activities of UNESCO in the natural resources sector           experts for the meeting.
and its collaboration with the secretariat on projects
of mutual interest, such, as the stratigraphic                 461. The Commission commended the efforts
correlation project, which was led by the Natural              made by the secretariat in the field of remote
Resources Division of the secretariat.                         sensing. It noted with appreciation that funding
                                                               would be provided by UNDP to meet part of the
Remote sensing, surveying and mapping                          proposed three-year regional co-operation
                                                               programme recommended by the preparatory
454. The Commission was pleased to note that,                  mission. However, the countries of the region would
with the assistance of UNDP, in mid-1980 a                     need further substantial assistance, particularly for
preparatory mission on remote sensing had consulted            expert services, modem remote sensing equipment
nine member countries and formulated a three-year              and advanced training. It urged potential donor
multidisciplinary programme for regional co-                   countries to inform the secretariat of the nature and
operation in the field of remote sensing; the report           scope of their assistance.
and recommendations of that mission had been
distributed to all ESCAP countries.                            Water resources

455. In that connexion, one delegation expressed               462. The importance of water resources to the
the view that, in addition to the recommendations of           economic and social development of developing
the mission, the regional remote sensing programme             countries was recognized, and therefore the need for
should include the provision of education and                  the accelerated development and proper management
training facilities and expert advisory services to the        of water resources was emphasized.
countries.
                                                               463. The Commission noted that the main thrust
456. The Commission noted with appreciation the                during the previous year had concerned improvement
Philippines' reiteration of its offer of three-week            in the efficiency of irrigation projects and in the
training courses on digital processing of Landsat              rational utilization of water resources. Much
data. The Government would bear the costs of                   attention was also paid to follow-up of the United
training fees and materials.                                   Nations Water Conference and to preparations for
                                                               the International Drinking Water Supply and
457. The USSR delegation informed the                          Sanitation Decade, which had been launched by the
Commission of the urgent need for the wider                    United Nations General Assembly on 10 November
application of remote sensing methods in the                   1980.
exploration and assessment of natural resources and
indicated that, as expertise was available in the              464. In that connexion, among the activities
Soviet Union, his Government would consider                    carried out for the benefit of the member countries
giving support to the organization and holding of a            were an Expert Group Meeting on Water Pricing, a
seminar on that subject in the USSR.                           Training Course on Flood Loss Prevention and
                                                               Management, a Study Tour on Methods of Flood
458. The Commission noted with appreciation the                Control and a Seminar on the Improvement of
assistance extended by Japan to a number of                    Irrigation Performance at the Project Level. In
countries in the region by sponsoring training                 addition, two sessions of the Interagency Task Force
courses in the application of remote sensing methods           on Water for Asia and the Pacific had been
for resources assessment and organizing jointly with           convened.
the United Nations a seminar on remote sensing at
Tokyo late in 1980.                                            465. The recommendations of the Committee on
                                                               Natural Resources at its seventh session concerning
459. The delegation of France informed the                     water resources which were specifically endorsed
Commission that the promotion of the application of            were: (a) those concerning the development of the
remote sensing methods for mapping and inventories             upland deltaic portions of river basins; (b) the
of natural resources should include satellite and              organization of a symposium on the mechanisms and
airborne remote sensing techniques. The economies              effects of salt-water intrusion in surface and ground
of ESCAP developing countries were primarily                   water and on measures to control such intrusion; (c)
based on the development of their natural resources.           the recommendations of the Seminar on the
                                                               Improvement of Irrigation Performance at the Project
460. Although remote sensing methods alone                     Level; (d) the criteria for setting water prices as
would not lead directly to the discovery of new                recommended by the Expert Group Meeting on
mineral deposits, remote sensing was particularly              Water Pricing; (e) the organization of groups of
important to developing countries. The Commission              experts from the region to visit countries and discuss
noted with satisfaction that a regional meeting on             their problems in water resources development; (f)
remote sensing in south-east Asia, organized by                the need to adopt a strategy to provide adequate
India, Japan and Thailand, would be held at Bangkok            coverage of water supply and sanitation for the rural
on 23 and 24 March 1981. It noted with appreciation            population of the region by 1990; and (g) that
that France would be providing assistance to ESCAP             referring to assistance in water resources
in                      the                    form            development

                                                          51
453. The Commission was pleased to note the                    of services of consultants in that field, including two
activities of UNESCO in the natural resources sector           experts for the meeting.
and its collaboration with the secretariat on projects
of mutual interest, such, as the stratigraphic                 461. The Commission commended the efforts
correlation project, which was led by the Natural              made by the secretariat in the field of remote
Resources Division of the secretariat.                         sensing. It noted with appreciation that funding
                                                               would be provided by UNDP to meet part of the
Remote sensing, surveying and mapping                          proposed three-year regional co-operation
                                                               programme recommended by the preparatory
454. The Commission was pleased to note that,                  mission. However, the countries of the region would
with the assistance of UNDP, in mid-1980 a                     need further substantial assistance, particularly for
preparatory mission on remote sensing had consulted            expert services, modem remote sensing equipment
nine member countries and formulated a three-year              and advanced training. It urged potential donor
multidisciplinary programme for regional co-                   countries to inform the secretariat of the nature and
operation in the field of remote sensing; the report           scope of their assistance.
and recommendations of that mission had been
distributed to all ESCAP countries.                            Water resources

455. In that connexion, one delegation expressed               462. The importance of water resources to the
the view that, in addition to the recommendations of           economic and social development of developing
the mission, the regional remote sensing programme             countries was recognized, and therefore the need for
should include the provision of education and                  the accelerated development and proper management
training facilities and expert advisory services to the        of water resources was emphasized.
countries.
                                                               463. The Commission noted that the main thrust
456. The Commission noted with appreciation the                during the previous year had concerned improvement
Philippines' reiteration of its offer of three-week            in the efficiency of irrigation projects and in the
training courses on digital processing of Landsat              rational utilization of water resources. Much
data. The Government would bear the costs of                   attention was also paid to follow-up of the United
training fees and materials.                                   Nations Water Conference and to preparations for
                                                               the International Drinking Water Supply and
457. The USSR delegation informed the                          Sanitation Decade, which had been launched by the
Commission of the urgent need for the wider                    United Nations General Assembly on 10 November
application of remote sensing methods in the                   1980.
exploration and assessment of natural resources and
indicated that, as expertise was available in the              464. In that connexion, among the activities
Soviet Union, his Government would consider                    carried out for the benefit of the member countries
giving support to the organization and holding of a            were an Expert Group Meeting on Water Pricing, a
seminar on that subject in the USSR.                           Training Course on Flood Loss Prevention and
                                                               Management, a Study Tour on Methods of Flood
458. The Commission noted with appreciation the                Control and a Seminar on the Improvement of
assistance extended by Japan to a number of                    Irrigation Performance at the Project Level. In
countries in the region by sponsoring training                 addition, two sessions of the Interagency Task Force
courses in the application of remote sensing methods           on Water for Asia and the Pacific had been
for resources assessment and organizing jointly with           convened.
the United Nations a seminar on remote sensing at
Tokyo late in 1980.                                            465. The recommendations of the Committee on
                                                               Natural Resources at its seventh session concerning
459. The delegation of France informed the                     water resources which were specifically endorsed
Commission that the promotion of the application of            were: (a) those concerning the development of the
remote sensing methods for mapping and inventories             upland deltaic portions of river basins; (b) the
of natural resources should include satellite and              organization of a symposium on the mechanisms and
airborne remote sensing techniques. The economies              effects of salt-water intrusion in surface and ground
of ESCAP developing countries were primarily                   water and on measures to control such intrusion; (c)
based on the development of their natural resources.           the recommendations of the Seminar on the
                                                               Improvement of Irrigation Performance at the Project
460. Although remote sensing methods alone                     Level; (d) the criteria for setting water prices as
would not lead directly to the discovery of new                recommended by the Expert Group Meeting on
mineral deposits, remote sensing was particularly              Water Pricing; (e) the organization of groups of
important to developing countries. The Commission              experts from the region to visit countries and discuss
noted with satisfaction that a regional meeting on             their problems in water resources development; (f)
remote sensing in south-east Asia, organized by                the need to adopt a strategy to provide adequate
India, Japan and Thailand, would be held at Bangkok            coverage of water supply and sanitation for the rural
on 23 and 24 March 1981. It noted with appreciation            population of the region by 1990; and (g) that
that France would be providing assistance to ESCAP             referring to assistance in water resources
in                      the                    form            development

                                                          52
in the South Pacific. One delegation stated that it was           a seminar on catchment management for the
its understanding that the preparation of master plans            optimum use of land and water resources, contingent
for upland and deltaic river basins related to national           upon the interest of the countries in participating in
master plans to be prepared by each country and not               such a seminar and upon the identification of specific
to an integrated over-all master plan for all the                 topics.
countries concerned.
                                                                  472. With respect to the programme of work and
466. In the context of urgent problems of food and                priorities for 1982-1983 on the evaluation,
energy and the enormous potential offered by the                  development, use and management of water
common development of river basins through co-                    resources, some delegations stressed the importance
operative endeavours, one delegation stated that                  of subprogramme 16.02 on policy, planning and
equitable and fair sharing of waters of international             management and, in particular, programme elements
rivers such as the Ganges and the Brahmaputra                     16.02.01, 16.02.02, 16.02.03 and 16.02.04.
among the riparian States was essential. It also
pointed out that master plans for international rivers,           473. In that connexion, the Commission noted with
while taking into consideration national plans, must              appreciation the offer of the USSR Government to
also safeguard the rights and interests of the lower              host a seminar on water resources development
riparians.                                                        planning in 1982 and a study tour on the capital
                                                                  investment aspects of water resources development
467. The Commission noted that the problems                       in 1983.
confronting the countries in the implementation of
the Mar del Plata Action Plan were ineffective co-                Population
ordination of water resources activities fragmented
among several agencies; lack of an integrated water               474. The Commission considered document E/
code; insufficient framework, river basin plans and               ESCAP/228.
project proposals; inadequate data; limited
processing and storage systems; inadequate staffing               475. It commended the activities of the secretariat
and compensation; and marked deficiencies in                      in the field of population during the previous year. It
manpower development, appropriate technology,                     noted with satisfaction that those activities were be-
applied research, training and public information.                coming increasingly complementary to those in the
                                                                  countries and of greater relevance and direct benefit
468. In the context of its activities concerning the              to country programmes.
International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation
Decade, the Commission called upon the secretariat                476. The Commission observed that, although
to co-operate fully with the WHO International                    there had been some reduction in the rate of
Reference Centre for Community Water Supply                       population growth in several member and associate
through the Interagency Task Force on Water for                   member countries, demographic factors continued to
Asia and the Pacific.                                             influence national development processes and were
                                                                  of considerable concern to policy makers and
469. A few members expressed support for the                      planners. A growing number of countries recognized
establishment of a regional water resources                       that population policies and programmes formed an
development centre for research, training and                     integral part of the development process and, in view
advisory services, but the view was also expressed                of the magnitude of the population problem, current
by some members that, while any activity to improve
                                                                  and prospective, the secretariat should expand and
and accelerate water resources development was
                                                                  enlarge its programme so as to strengthen its
welcomed, there was no need to establish a new
                                                                  leadership role in population activities.
institution and, if such an institution was established,
it should not require additional resources. One
delegation suggested that the availability of facilities          477     In expressing its support for the various
within the region should be examined with a view to               components of the secretariat's work programme for
upgrading them to the desired level of excellence to              1982-1983, and the programme included in the
enable them to function as regional centres.                      medium-term plan, 1984-1989, the Commission
                                                                  stressed the need for the secretariat to initiate studies
470. The Commission noted the information                         relating to the methodology and techniques for the
furnished concerning the activities of the WMO/                   collection, analysis and evaluation of population and
ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones and expressed                    related data. It emphasized the importance of
its appreciation to the Government of India for                   multisectoral approaches to and studies on
having provided host facilities for the Technical                 population, resources, environment and development
Support Unit and to the Government of Sri Lanka for               in general and on the interrelationships between
offering host facilities for the Unit starting in August          socio-economic factors and fertility and mortality in
1981.                                                             particular. Such activities would assist national
                                                                  planners and policy makers in formulating integrated
471. The Commission noted with appreciation that                  population and development policies and strategies.
the Government of New Zealand was prepared to                     The Commission stressed the need to continue the
consider a request from the secretariat for assistance            ongoing project on country monographs on the
in                                         organizing             population situation and to            launch         the

                                                           (53)
second phase of the comparative study on migration,              power development programme. It further noted that
urbanization and development in the ESCAP region.                in some countries facilities were not available for
It further emphasized the importance of advisory                 training in population matters, and even where they
services and technical assistance and support to                 did exist it was not always possible to provide
countries in evaluating and analysing data as well as            comprehensive training.
deriving national and subnational estimates and
projections of demographic indices.                              483. While expressing its appreciation of the
                                                                 assistance provided by the secretariat through the
478. The Commission noted that, although fertility               United Nations fellowship programme for training at
had been declining in several countries in recent                the International Institute for Population Studies at
years, the level generally was still high and could              Bombay, the Commission observed that training in
jeopardize development efforts. It further noted that            institutions abroad would greatly facilitate the
the high priority accorded by Governments to                     establishment or strengthening of training within
strengthening population policies and programmes in              countries. It recommended that that fellowship
                                                                 programme should not only be continued for training
the area of family planning had contributed
                                                                 in demography but should also be enlarged to
significantly to a reduction in fertility. While
                                                                 provide training in integrated population and
recognizing that a number of countries were actively             development planning.
implementing innovative population and family
planning programmes, the Commission stressed the                 484. The Commission recognized the importance
need for the secretariat to augment its efforts in the           of study tours in strengthening training activities
exchange of such experiences among the countries of              within countries and recommended that opportunities
the region.                                                      for such tours should be expanded.
479. The Commission emphasized the need for                      485. It felt that training opportunities provided by
studies on the impact of integrated family planning              the secretariat through seminars, scientific meetings,
programmes and their operational efficiency as well              technical workshops and training courses had been
as on strategies for integrating family planning with            invaluable in helping to strengthen population
other development programmes at different                        manpower in several member countries through
administrative levels in the countries. It also stressed         organized exchange of experience and knowledge
the need for more analytical studies of fertility levels         among the countries as well as by direct training
and trends based on data collected through censuses              exercises. Nevertheless, the secretariat should
and surveys, including the national components of                intensify and expand its population training
the World Fertility Survey. The Commission                       programmes on a continuing basis so that countries
expressed the opinion that studies on the                        most needing such assistance could profit therefrom.
consequences of population change, especially in                 Particular mention was made of the need for training
respect of its qualitative and distributive aspects,             opportunities in the analysis of population data, with
would also be useful for planning and policy making.             due emphasis on efforts to strengthen vital
                                                                 registration systems.
480. The Commission recognized the usefulness of
exchange of experience and information on                        486. In endorsing the recommendations of the
population and related development matters and                   Preparatory Committee for the Third Asian and
proposed that high priority should be accorded to                Pacific Population Conference, the Commission
organizing activities further to enhance such                    noted that the main theme proposed for the
exchange. It urged the secretariat to utilize to the full        Conference, “An integrated approach to population
the information available in the countries of the                and related development issues”, was appropriate
                                                                 and relevant to the countries of the region, and that
region, which would be of immense help in finding
                                                                 the provisional agenda recommended was
solutions to population problems at the global level.            comprehensive. The Commission also endorsed the
                                                                 proposal to organize pre-Conference seminars to
481. It commended the secretariat's efforts in                   allow for detailed consideration of some of the more
providing technical support for establishing national            important agenda topics by groups of selected
population information centres and clearing-houses               experts from countries of the region. In view of the
as well as organizing correspondents workshops,                  importance of the issues to be discussed and the
which had led to more effective national, subregional            length of the agenda, the Commission was of the
and regional networks. It felt that the secretariat              opinion that the duration of the Conference should be
should continue to assist member Governments in                  at least 12 calendar days.
the collection, processing, retrieval, dissemination
and utilization of population information, including             487. Recalling its resolution 210 (XXXVI), the
that provided by the countries themselves.                       Commission noted that the Third Asian and Pacific
                                                                 Population Conference would have to be convened
482. The Commission noted that in some countries                 in lieu of a session of the Committee on Population.
of the region there was an acute shortage of                     In that connexion, it considered the proposal of the
adequately trained personnel in the field of                     secretariat to convene the Conference in Sri Lanka in
population, and therefore stressed the need for and              1982 in lieu of the session of the Committee on
importance          of            a           man-               Population                                 scheduled

                                                            53
second phase of the comparative study on migration,              power development programme. It further noted that
urbanization and development in the ESCAP region.                in some countries facilities were not available for
It further emphasized the importance of advisory                 training in population matters, and even where they
services and technical assistance and support to                 did exist it was not always possible to provide
countries in evaluating and analysing data as well as            comprehensive training.
deriving national and subnational estimates and
projections of demographic indices.                              483. While expressing its appreciation of the
                                                                 assistance provided by the secretariat through the
478. The Commission noted that, although fertility               United Nations fellowship programme for training at
had been declining in several countries in recent                the International Institute for Population Studies at
years, the level generally was still high and could              Bombay, the Commission observed that training in
jeopardize development efforts. It further noted that            institutions abroad would greatly facilitate the
the high priority accorded by Governments to                     establishment or strengthening of training within
strengthening population policies and programmes in              countries. It recommended that that fellowship
                                                                 programme should not only be continued for training
the area of family planning had contributed
                                                                 in demography but should also be enlarged to
significantly to a reduction in fertility. While
                                                                 provide training in integrated population and
recognizing that a number of countries were actively             development planning.
implementing innovative population and family
planning programmes, the Commission stressed the                 484. The Commission recognized the importance
need for the secretariat to augment its efforts in the           of study tours in strengthening training activities
exchange of such experiences among the countries of              within countries and recommended that opportunities
the region.                                                      for such tours should be expanded.
479. The Commission emphasized the need for                      485. It felt that training opportunities provided by
studies on the impact of integrated family planning              the secretariat through seminars, scientific meetings,
programmes and their operational efficiency as well              technical workshops and training courses had been
as on strategies for integrating family planning with            invaluable in helping to strengthen population
other development programmes at different                        manpower in several member countries through
administrative levels in the countries. It also stressed         organized exchange of experience and knowledge
the need for more analytical studies of fertility levels         among the countries as well as by direct training
and trends based on data collected through censuses              exercises. Nevertheless, the secretariat should
and surveys, including the national components of                intensify and expand its population training
the World Fertility Survey. The Commission                       programmes on a continuing basis so that countries
expressed the opinion that studies on the                        most needing such assistance could profit therefrom.
consequences of population change, especially in                 Particular mention was made of the need for training
respect of its qualitative and distributive aspects,             opportunities in the analysis of population data, with
would also be useful for planning and policy making.             due emphasis on efforts to strengthen vital
                                                                 registration systems.
480. The Commission recognized the usefulness of
exchange of experience and information on                        486. In endorsing the recommendations of the
population and related development matters and                   Preparatory Committee for the Third Asian and
proposed that high priority should be accorded to                Pacific Population Conference, the Commission
organizing activities further to enhance such                    noted that the main theme proposed for the
exchange. It urged the secretariat to utilize to the full        Conference, “An integrated approach to population
the information available in the countries of the                and related development issues”, was appropriate
                                                                 and relevant to the countries of the region, and that
region, which would be of immense help in finding
                                                                 the provisional agenda recommended was
solutions to population problems at the global level.            comprehensive. The Commission also endorsed the
                                                                 proposal to organize pre-Conference seminars to
481. It commended the secretariat's efforts in                   allow for detailed consideration of some of the more
providing technical support for establishing national            important agenda topics by groups of selected
population information centres and clearing-houses               experts from countries of the region. In view of the
as well as organizing correspondents workshops,                  importance of the issues to be discussed and the
which had led to more effective national, subregional            length of the agenda, the Commission was of the
and regional networks. It felt that the secretariat              opinion that the duration of the Conference should be
should continue to assist member Governments in                  at least 12 calendar days.
the collection, processing, retrieval, dissemination
and utilization of population information, including             487. Recalling its resolution 210 (XXXVI), the
that provided by the countries themselves.                       Commission noted that the Third Asian and Pacific
                                                                 Population Conference would have to be convened
482. The Commission noted that in some countries                 in lieu of a session of the Committee on Population.
of the region there was an acute shortage of                     In that connexion, it considered the proposal of the
adequately trained personnel in the field of                     secretariat to convene the Conference in Sri Lanka in
population, and therefore stressed the need for and              1982 in lieu of the session of the Committee on
importance          of            a           man-               Population                                 scheduled

                                                            54
for 1983. However, in view of the fact that data from            resulted in rising sea transport costs with adverse
the 1980s round of censuses would become available               effects on trade. There were also other factors which
for consideration by 1983 in most countries of the               had caused freight rates to increase and those should
region, the Commission decided that the 1981                     be analysed. The Commission further noted that the
session of the Committee on Population should be                 shipping lines were frequently raising the freight
cancelled and that its next session should be                    rates, which adversely affected the developing
convened in 1983.                                                countries. It urged the secretariat to liaise with other
                                                                 organizations involved in research on low energy
488. The Commission expressed its appreciation of                consumption for sea transport and alternative sea
the extrabudgetary support provided to the                       transport systems.
secretariat's work programme in the field of
population, particularly that provided by UNFP A                 494. The Commission observed that, although the
and by the Governments of Australia, France, India,              region's share of the world shipping tonnage was
Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. It              small and had improved marginally, the region's
took note of the intended contribution of the                    share of the world's container vessels under
Government of Japan to UNFPA in fiscal year 1981                 construction was greater than its share of existing
and strongly endorsed the hope of that Government                container tonnage. The problems of bunker costs and
that UNFP A would further expand its financial                   supply and the move of maritime transport
allocations and programme support to the population              technology towards unitization, particularly
activities of the secretariat and member countries. It           containerization, would necessitate larger
also welcomed the Government of India's pledge of a              investments and organizational adaptations.
further contribution of $US 10,000 to the
secretariat's population activities. The Commission              495. Several delegations outlined the
acknowledged the continuing assistance by member                 developments of the maritime industry in their
Governments to the secretariat in providing                      respective countries during the period. The
information and materials essential for its activities.          Commission was also informed that as a result of the
                                                                 high, often discriminatory freight rates and frequent
489. In view of the fact that an increasing number               increases in those rates accompanied by inadequate
of Governments were according high priority to                   shipping services, the balance-of-payments position
                                                                 of many developing countries had been adversely
population questions, the Commission urged the
                                                                 affected. In that connexion, many delegations urged
Executive Secretary to take early action to ensure
                                                                 the secretariat to undertake a comprehensive study
that that priority was adequately reflected in the
                                                                 on the level and structure of freight rates and
secretariat's programme of work and priorities.                  surcharges imposed by liner conferences, including
                                                                 the bunker and currency surcharges.
490. Recalling its resolution 185 (XXXIV), in
which it had stressed the need to strengthen the                 496. Recalling its decision at its thirty-sixth
capacity of the secretariat to contribute more                   session on a mechanism for co-ordinating efforts to
effectively to the solution of the population problems           assist member countries on a subregional or inter-
of the region and to respond to country requests for             country basis, the Commission was pleased to note
assistance in the formulation and implementation of              that a group of countries had requested the
population policies and programmes, the                          establishment of an inter-country programme in
Commission urged donor Governments and agencies                  shipping in the secretariat with the support of UNDP
to increase their contributions to the secretariat's             inter-country programme funds. It was hoped that
programmes and activities in the field of population.            such a programme would be established soon.
491. The Commission was informed by the                          497. Several delegations from developing maritime
representative of the International Planned                      countries stated that the secretariat's work
Parenthood Federation that the Federation would be               programme should continue to emphasize
participating in the Third Asian and Pacific                     containerization and multimodal transportation.
Population Conference and in the pre-Conference
activities at the highest possible level and that it             498. In commending the secretariat on its
would assist the secretariat by preparing relevant               initiative, resourcefulness and dedication in the
background papers and case studies. Shipping, ports              implementation of the programme of work during
and inland waterways                                             the period under review, the Commission endorsed
                                                                 the report of the Committee on Shipping, and
492. The Commission considered documents E/                      Transport and Communications: Shipping, Ports and
ESCAP/215 and Corr.1 and E/ESCAP/226.                            Inland Waterways Wing, on its fourth session. It
                                                                 urged the secretariat to mobilize resources aimed at
493. It noted with interest the region's progress in             intensifying the activities in the field of shipping,
shipping development and that in 1980 the freight                ports and inland waterways. In ex-pressing gratitude
market had made a marginal recovery. The over-all                to the Governments of France, Japan, the
situation in the near future was still uncertain. It             Netherlands, Norway, the USSR and the United
further .noted that the continuing escalation of fuel            Kingdom and to international organizations such as
prices                                           had             UNDP for their very generous financial support and

                                                          (55)
expert assistance, the Commission urged the                    assistance in the organizational and methodological
Governments to continue to increase their support to           aspects of training of maritime personnel and the
the secretariat for the early implementation of the            management of State-owned shipping enterprises. It
recommendations and ongoing projects of                        noted that China would be able to strengthen its co-
importance to the developing member countries. The             operation with ESCAP and join in more of its
Commission specifically urged UNDP to increase its             training activities. It appreciated the offer of the
assistance to the secretariat for the projects in the          Government of China to make its experience
field of shipping, ports and inland waterways.                 available to the region with respect to inland water
                                                               transport, dredging and ferro-cement shipbuilding
Manpower development                                           and to provide expertise in the field of inland water
                                                               transport and ports.
499. The Commission welcomed the continued
emphasis on the manpower development programme                 504. The representative of Bangladesh commended
in the field of shipping, ports and inland waterways.          the secretariat on its feasibility study on an inland
It considered that programme as essential for self-            water transport centre in his country and reported
reliant development and effective utilization of all           that his Government had already established the
forms of financial and technical assistance. It noted          basic infrastructure for the proposed centre. The
                                                               Commission appreciated the offer of facilities at the
that there was still a pressing need for training of
                                                               marine academy of Bangladesh for fellows from
maritime personnel in the region, especially in view           regional countries in the context of Bangladesh's
of the wish of a number of developing countries to             policy of expanding TCDC.
improve and develop their national merchant
marines, ports and maritime institutions. In                   Development of maritime policy and institutions
commending the secretariat on the realistic nature
and broad range of its training activities, which also         505. In view of the urgent need to strengthen
covered improvement in training methods and                    maritime policy and institutions, the Commission
quality of training materials and training of trainers,        urged the secretariat to continue assisting developing
it placed great importance on the continuation of that         member countries in establishing and strengthening
programme on a high priority basis.                            their national freight study units to function as
                                                               effective research and advisory bodies to the
500. The programme should include the                          Governments in policy matters relating to shipping.
management of container services and of multimodal             While endorsing the recommendations and
transport and analysis of the economic aspects of              observations made in that regard in document E/
ocean transportation, as the new shipping technology           ESCAP/2I5 and Corr.1, the Commission urged the
was acquiring increased importance in the carriage             secretariat to organize further workshops and
of the international trade of the region.                      seminars on freight study units and UNDP to render
                                                               the necessary assistance.
501. The Commission noted that the secretariat,
jointly with IMCO, had organized a Regional                    506. The Commission stressed that the availability of
Meeting of Experts in Maritime Training and                    adequate, regular and reliable shipping data was a
Certification and endorsed the recommendations                 pre-requisite for (a) the formulation of sound
made by that Meeting. One delegation expressed the             shipping policies; (b) rational planning of shipping
view that global standards, especially those                   and port capacities; and (c) serving as a basic tool in
contained in the 1978 Standards of Training and                the effective implementation of the Code of Conduct
Certification for Watch-keepers Convention, should             for liner Conferences when it came into operation. It
provide the basis for regional standards. The                  recognized that the project undertaken by the
Commission also noted the activities of UNCTAD,                secretariat had proved to be of great benefit to the
ILO and IMCO in manpower development in that                   developing countries in the region. In that
field. It stressed the need for continuing co-operation        connexion, the Commission fully endorsed the work
and co-ordination between those bodies and the                 performed by the secretariat in assisting the
ESCAP secretariat.                                             developing countries in implementing the project on
                                                               the economic statistics of shipping (known as the L.2
502. The Commission expressed appreciation to                  scheme) as it formed a very useful basis for long-
the Government of Norway for its generous financial            term development of a comprehensive system of
                                                               ship, port and commodity cargo statistics in the
support to the secretariat's training programme on
                                                               ESCAP region. The Commission expressed its
shippers' co-operation, and to the Governments of              gratitude to UNDP for continuing to provide
Bangladesh, China, France, Hong Kong, India,                   financial support to that important project on a long-
Japan, the Philippines and the United States for               term basis.
hosting various study tours, seminars and workshops.
                                                               Merchant marine and shipping services
503. The Commission welcomed the offers made
by the Governments of China, France, Thailand and              507. The Commission commended the secretariat
the USSR to host seminars and workshops on                     on its efforts in merchant shipping activities,
subjects related to shipping, ports and inland                 including the implementation of the long-term
waterways. The Government of the USSR had also                 programme on merchant shipping development. It
offered                to                 provide              considered        that        in         view
                                                          55
expert assistance, the Commission urged the                    assistance in the organizational and methodological
Governments to continue to increase their support to           aspects of training of maritime personnel and the
the secretariat for the early implementation of the            management of State-owned shipping enterprises. It
recommendations and ongoing projects of                        noted that China would be able to strengthen its co-
importance to the developing member countries. The             operation with ESCAP and join in more of its
Commission specifically urged UNDP to increase its             training activities. It appreciated the offer of the
assistance to the secretariat for the projects in the          Government of China to make its experience
field of shipping, ports and inland waterways.                 available to the region with respect to inland water
                                                               transport, dredging and ferro-cement shipbuilding
Manpower development                                           and to provide expertise in the field of inland water
                                                               transport and ports.
499. The Commission welcomed the continued
emphasis on the manpower development programme                 504. The representative of Bangladesh commended
in the field of shipping, ports and inland waterways.          the secretariat on its feasibility study on an inland
It considered that programme as essential for self-            water transport centre in his country and reported
reliant development and effective utilization of all           that his Government had already established the
forms of financial and technical assistance. It noted          basic infrastructure for the proposed centre. The
                                                               Commission appreciated the offer of facilities at the
that there was still a pressing need for training of
                                                               marine academy of Bangladesh for fellows from
maritime personnel in the region, especially in view           regional countries in the context of Bangladesh's
of the wish of a number of developing countries to             policy of expanding TCDC.
improve and develop their national merchant
marines, ports and maritime institutions. In                   Development of maritime policy and institutions
commending the secretariat on the realistic nature
and broad range of its training activities, which also         505. In view of the urgent need to strengthen
covered improvement in training methods and                    maritime policy and institutions, the Commission
quality of training materials and training of trainers,        urged the secretariat to continue assisting developing
it placed great importance on the continuation of that         member countries in establishing and strengthening
programme on a high priority basis.                            their national freight study units to function as
                                                               effective research and advisory bodies to the
500. The programme should include the                          Governments in policy matters relating to shipping.
management of container services and of multimodal             While endorsing the recommendations and
transport and analysis of the economic aspects of              observations made in that regard in document E/
ocean transportation, as the new shipping technology           ESCAP/2I5 and Corr.1, the Commission urged the
was acquiring increased importance in the carriage             secretariat to organize further workshops and
of the international trade of the region.                      seminars on freight study units and UNDP to render
                                                               the necessary assistance.
501. The Commission noted that the secretariat,
jointly with IMCO, had organized a Regional                    506. The Commission stressed that the availability of
Meeting of Experts in Maritime Training and                    adequate, regular and reliable shipping data was a
Certification and endorsed the recommendations                 pre-requisite for (a) the formulation of sound
made by that Meeting. One delegation expressed the             shipping policies; (b) rational planning of shipping
view that global standards, especially those                   and port capacities; and (c) serving as a basic tool in
contained in the 1978 Standards of Training and                the effective implementation of the Code of Conduct
Certification for Watch-keepers Convention, should             for liner Conferences when it came into operation. It
provide the basis for regional standards. The                  recognized that the project undertaken by the
Commission also noted the activities of UNCTAD,                secretariat had proved to be of great benefit to the
ILO and IMCO in manpower development in that                   developing countries in the region. In that
field. It stressed the need for continuing co-operation        connexion, the Commission fully endorsed the work
and co-ordination between those bodies and the                 performed by the secretariat in assisting the
ESCAP secretariat.                                             developing countries in implementing the project on
                                                               the economic statistics of shipping (known as the L.2
502. The Commission expressed appreciation to                  scheme) as it formed a very useful basis for long-
the Government of Norway for its generous financial            term development of a comprehensive system of
                                                               ship, port and commodity cargo statistics in the
support to the secretariat's training programme on
                                                               ESCAP region. The Commission expressed its
shippers' co-operation, and to the Governments of              gratitude to UNDP for continuing to provide
Bangladesh, China, France, Hong Kong, India,                   financial support to that important project on a long-
Japan, the Philippines and the United States for               term basis.
hosting various study tours, seminars and workshops.
                                                               Merchant marine and shipping services
503. The Commission welcomed the offers made
by the Governments of China, France, Thailand and              507. The Commission commended the secretariat
the USSR to host seminars and workshops on                     on its efforts in merchant shipping activities,
subjects related to shipping, ports and inland                 including the implementation of the long-term
waterways. The Government of the USSR had also                 programme on merchant shipping development. It
offered                to                 provide              considered        that        in         view
                                                          56
of the rapid technological changes affecting the                 were far apart from each other and from the world
shipping industry, the secretariat should accelerate             markets for their products. The existence of a small
efforts to assist those countries which required                 volume of cargo and the inadequacy of sea transport
assistance. A number of developing member                        infrastructure complicated the problem of
countries were experiencing problems relating to the             establishing viable and reliable shipping services.
application of containerization and multimodal                   The New Zealand delegation stated that its
transportation suitable to their needs and conditions            Government had provided financial and technical
owing to the lack of adequate infrastructure and                 assistance to the regional shipping services,
trained personnel.                                               including the Pacific Forum Line.

508. The Commission recognized the need for                      Ports and port management
positive efforts in implementing recent international
maritime conventions, namely, the Code of Conduct                512. The Commission recognized that the
for liner Conferences, the United Nations                        development of ports and port management was of
Convention on International Multimodal Transport                 special interest to the developing countries of the
of Goods and the Hamburg Rules. Expressing their                 region and that the effects of containerization
difficulties in undertaking measures for the                     continued to be the single most important factor
ratification and effective implementation of those               influencing port development. Fast turn-round of
conventions, several delegations requested the                   cargoes and vessels through ports was becoming
secretariat, jointly with the organizations that were            crucial as the cost of transportation continued to
responsible for introducing the conventions, to                  escalate. Ports were now recognized as an important
organize seminars or workshops to facilitate better              part of an integrated transport system for the carriage
understanding of their implications and application.             of trade and could no longer be viewed in isolation.
The Netherlands delegation informed the                          Although, in the early stages of containerization,
Commission that its Government had provided funds                innovation and adaptation of existing port facilities
for an ongoing project of the secretariat on maritime            could result in impressive increases in cargo-
legislation, which would also cover problems                     handling performance, the Commission noted that
relating to the implementation of international                  improvement in port infrastructure was of
conventions.                                                     fundamental importance in the longer term. The
                                                                 Commission endorsed the high priority that was
509. The Commission supported the secretariat's                  being given to the problems of ports in adapting to
work in organizing activities to promote co-operation            containerization and multimodal transport in the
among shipowners at the subregional and regional                 region.
levels. It noted that such co-operation had extended
to shipowners' relations with shippers and port                  513. It was suggested that a comprehensive study
operators. Those activities were conducive to future             should be undertaken by the secretariat to evaluate
joint efforts among those three maritime sectors on              and compare the different types of machinery and
technical and economic matters.                                  equipment that might be used for container handling.

510. The Commission noted with appreciation the                  514. Documentation in many ports of the region
advisory services rendered by the secretariat to a               was overly complex, to the degree where it impeded
number of developing countries in the field of                   cargo flow. That was particularly true where
merchant shipping. It welcomed the offers for the                containerization and multimodal transportation had
continuation of financial support and services of                been adopted. The Commission was pleased to learn
experts for the preparation of specific shipping                 of the ongoing work of the secretariat in that field,
studies, seminars and workshops from the                         which would lead to an improvement in port
Governments of Japan, the Netherlands and the                    effectiveness without excessive capital investment.
USSR. Specifically, the Japanese delegation said that
its Government would provide financial support for a             515. The Commission, noting that efficient
seminar on coastal shipping management to be                     management was of special concern to developing
conducted in 1981; the Netherlands delegation                    countries, commended the secretariat on its efforts to
announced the willingness of its Government to                   upgrade port management skills through seminars,
finance the first phase of a survey to compile an                workshops, scholarships and study tours. It noted
inventory of maritime capacities and activities of the           that the secretariat was implementing a project on
ASEAN sub-region; and the USSR delegation said                   port management information systems with the
that its Government was willing to provide                       technical and financial assistance of the Government
assistance in the areas of optimum vessel types for              of the United Kingdom and UNDP. In that
the carriage of commodities and the compilation of a             connexion, it welcomed the offer of the Government
freight rate index which would relate shipowners'                of France to organize a seminar on port development
production costs to freight rates and to train maritime          and economics.
personnel and managers of State enterprises.
                                                                 516. The Commission noted with appreciation that
511. The Commission noted that in the South                      instruction packages on port management training
Pacific subregion, sea transportation was vital to the           based on video tapes prepared by the secretariat
economies of several island countries because                    would be made available to member countries, which
geographically                                   they            could                                         then

                                                          (57)
usefully carry out their own training programmes                of the riparian countries and peoples owing to the
without relying on outside assistance. It was noted             instability prevailing in the area. It was suggested
that the programme, which currently concentrated on             that technical and economic studies would have to be
containerization, would be expanded to cover other              undertaken. Before undertaking any work of
fields of special interest to ports in the region.              improvement of the Mekong, it was stressed that the
                                                                consent of the Governments of countries situated at
517. The delegation of Sri Lanka expressed its                  the lower reach of the river must be obtained in order
gratitude to the port authorities of the Philippines and        to avoid any adverse effects on such countries.
Singapore, and to ILO, in connexion with the
establishment of a port training centre in Sri Lanka            523. The Commission welcomed the offer of the
with the assistance of the ESCAP secretariat.                   Government of China to hold a first regional
                                                                seminar-cum-study tour on inland water transport in
518. The Commission noted the practical work                    1981 and of the Government of the USSR to hold a
recently undertaken by the Government of New                    seminar-cum-study tour on the utilization of inland
Zealand in upgrading the channel approaches to                  waterways.
some Pacific island countries. The usefulness of that
work might increase demand beyond New Zealand's                 524. The Commission appreciated the offer of the
financing ability and ESCAP assistance might be                 Government of France to continue to provide the
requested.                                                      services of an expert on inland waterways. It also
                                                                welcomed the offer of the Government of China to
519. The Commission expressed appreciation to                   share its experience and expertise with other
donor Governments, in particular those of France,               countries and of the Government of USSR to share
Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and the United                   the experience of its specialists with the countries of
Kingdom, as well as to UNDP and ILO, for their                  the region.
technical and financial assistance.
                                                                Shippers' organization and co-operation
Inland water transport
                                                                525. The Commission commended the secretariat
520. The Commission recognized that the                         on its effective performance in the implementation of
development of inland water transport with a view to            the ship users' co-operation project (SUCOP). It
maximizing the benefits of that energy-efficient                underscored the importance of that project for the
mode of transport had assumed great importance in               development of the foreign trade of ESCAP member
the context of the continuing energy crisis. It noted           countries and for the general development of
that the work in that field was not only instrumental           international trade and shipping. It recognized that
in solving the problems of river navigation but also            the project would result in building up well-
affected rural development. The concept of a basin              established and self-reliant shippers and shippers co-
and multipurpose approach in planning the                       operation institutions in the region. In that
development of inland waterways was advocated and               connexion, it expressed its deep gratitude to the
the desirability of compiling an inventory of rivers of         Government of Norway for continuing its support for
the countries of the region was also stressed. The              that project with another generous grant for the
Commission recognized that greater attention needed             period 1981-1984.
to be given in the 1980s to developing innovative
and economically sound systems of inland water                  526. The Commission expressed continuing
transport. It further stressed the practical problems of        concern over the fact that shippers in the ESCAP
operation and administrative requirements as well as            region had constantly faced a number of problems,
the need to establish a training centre for the region          including escalating freight rates and surcharges,
in that sector.                                                 especially bunker and currency surcharges, which
                                                                adversely affected the marketability of their products
521. The Commission took note of the proposal                   and their balance-of payments position. Moreover,
made in the Committee on Shipping, and Transport                the Commission noted that many shippers still
and Communications: Shipping, Ports and Inland                  lacked adequate knowledge and skills relating to
Water-ways Wing at its fourth session, concerning               maritime matters. The Commission was therefore
the establishment of a regional centre in Bangladesh            pleased to note that the secretariat, through study
for the development of appropriate technology for               tours, country- and regional-level seminars and
inland water transport in the developing countries. It          workshops, and advisory services under SUCOP, had
also noted that Bangladesh possessed the necessary              intensified its activities to enhance the knowledge
infrastructure for such a centre and was willing to             and skills of shippers. It agreed that while the
place it at the disposal of the member countries of             secretariat's sphere of activity was to assist in the
the region. It therefore urged the secretariat to take          establishment and strengthening of shippers'
follow-up action as a matter of priority.                       institutions and to facilitate communication and
                                                                better understanding between shippers and
522. The Commission noted that the great potential              shipowners, any participation in actual negotiation or
of the Mekong could still not be put to full use for            consultation between commercial parties or
the development of inland water transport for the               intervention in commercial dealings was definitely
benefit                                                         outside the purview of the secretariat.

                                                           57
usefully carry out their own training programmes                of the riparian countries and peoples owing to the
without relying on outside assistance. It was noted             instability prevailing in the area. It was suggested
that the programme, which currently concentrated on             that technical and economic studies would have to be
containerization, would be expanded to cover other              undertaken. Before undertaking any work of
fields of special interest to ports in the region.              improvement of the Mekong, it was stressed that the
                                                                consent of the Governments of countries situated at
517. The delegation of Sri Lanka expressed its                  the lower reach of the river must be obtained in order
gratitude to the port authorities of the Philippines and        to avoid any adverse effects on such countries.
Singapore, and to ILO, in connexion with the
establishment of a port training centre in Sri Lanka            523. The Commission welcomed the offer of the
with the assistance of the ESCAP secretariat.                   Government of China to hold a first regional
                                                                seminar-cum-study tour on inland water transport in
518. The Commission noted the practical work                    1981 and of the Government of the USSR to hold a
recently undertaken by the Government of New                    seminar-cum-study tour on the utilization of inland
Zealand in upgrading the channel approaches to                  waterways.
some Pacific island countries. The usefulness of that
work might increase demand beyond New Zealand's                 524. The Commission appreciated the offer of the
financing ability and ESCAP assistance might be                 Government of France to continue to provide the
requested.                                                      services of an expert on inland waterways. It also
                                                                welcomed the offer of the Government of China to
519. The Commission expressed appreciation to                   share its experience and expertise with other
donor Governments, in particular those of France,               countries and of the Government of USSR to share
Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and the United                   the experience of its specialists with the countries of
Kingdom, as well as to UNDP and ILO, for their                  the region.
technical and financial assistance.
                                                                Shippers' organization and co-operation
Inland water transport
                                                                525. The Commission commended the secretariat
520. The Commission recognized that the                         on its effective performance in the implementation of
development of inland water transport with a view to            the ship users' co-operation project (SUCOP). It
maximizing the benefits of that energy-efficient                underscored the importance of that project for the
mode of transport had assumed great importance in               development of the foreign trade of ESCAP member
the context of the continuing energy crisis. It noted           countries and for the general development of
that the work in that field was not only instrumental           international trade and shipping. It recognized that
in solving the problems of river navigation but also            the project would result in building up well-
affected rural development. The concept of a basin              established and self-reliant shippers and shippers co-
and multipurpose approach in planning the                       operation institutions in the region. In that
development of inland waterways was advocated and               connexion, it expressed its deep gratitude to the
the desirability of compiling an inventory of rivers of         Government of Norway for continuing its support for
the countries of the region was also stressed. The              that project with another generous grant for the
Commission recognized that greater attention needed             period 1981-1984.
to be given in the 1980s to developing innovative
and economically sound systems of inland water                  526. The Commission expressed continuing
transport. It further stressed the practical problems of        concern over the fact that shippers in the ESCAP
operation and administrative requirements as well as            region had constantly faced a number of problems,
the need to establish a training centre for the region          including escalating freight rates and surcharges,
in that sector.                                                 especially bunker and currency surcharges, which
                                                                adversely affected the marketability of their products
521. The Commission took note of the proposal                   and their balance-of payments position. Moreover,
made in the Committee on Shipping, and Transport                the Commission noted that many shippers still
and Communications: Shipping, Ports and Inland                  lacked adequate knowledge and skills relating to
Water-ways Wing at its fourth session, concerning               maritime matters. The Commission was therefore
the establishment of a regional centre in Bangladesh            pleased to note that the secretariat, through study
for the development of appropriate technology for               tours, country- and regional-level seminars and
inland water transport in the developing countries. It          workshops, and advisory services under SUCOP, had
also noted that Bangladesh possessed the necessary              intensified its activities to enhance the knowledge
infrastructure for such a centre and was willing to             and skills of shippers. It agreed that while the
place it at the disposal of the member countries of             secretariat's sphere of activity was to assist in the
the region. It therefore urged the secretariat to take          establishment and strengthening of shippers'
follow-up action as a matter of priority.                       institutions and to facilitate communication and
                                                                better understanding between shippers and
522. The Commission noted that the great potential              shipowners, any participation in actual negotiation or
of the Mekong could still not be put to full use for            consultation between commercial parties or
the development of inland water transport for the               intervention in commercial dealings was definitely
benefit                                                         outside the purview of the secretariat.

                                                           58
527. The Commission noted with satisfaction the                  operating subsidies, marine insurance requirements
progress made by the project in enhancing co-                    and preferential treatment provided in tied-up loans,
operation among national shippers' organizations and             grants and suppliers' or production contracts. It
between them and shipowners' associations and port               therefore believed that to exclude the Governments
authorities in the region as well as with their                  of developing countries entirely from their national
counterparts in other regions. It stressed that the              shipping picture would be to abandon their emerging
programme should continue to be implemented with                 shipping and shippers' interests entirely to the mercy
greater vigour in order that understanding and co-
                                                                 of powerful commercial forces which exercised
operation, rather than confrontation, could be
effected for the mutual benefit of all parties                   significant control of the industry.
concerned in a new international order on shipping.
                                                                 531. It also pointed out that Governments of
528. In that connexion, the Committee noted that                 developed countries had been co-operating in the
in subregional co-operation ASEAN had developed                  maritime field through long and well-established
increasingly close relations in shipping among other             mechanisms. Among those were EEC; the
fields. That was manifested by the establishment of,             Consultative Shipping Group (CSG), an informal
and co-operation among, the Federation of ASEAN                  intergovernmental organization of 12 European
Shippers' Councils, the Federation of ASEAN                      countries and Japan; and OECD, an inter-
Shipowners' Associations and the ASEAN Port                      governmental organization composed of CSG
Authorities' Association. The Commission was                     countries and eight other countries in Europe,
informed that those ASEAN organizations looked                   America and Australasia. Those formal and informal
forward to co-operative linkages with other                      intergovernmental organizations considered common
subregional groupings in Asia and the Pacific, such              positions on the Liner Code and other global
as the Association of Shippers' Councils of                      shipping issues. They also took up with the
Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, which
                                                                 Governments concerned problems affecting their
had been established in July 1980, as well as with
those outside the region.                                        commercial shipping interests.

529. One delegation expressed the view that                      532. The Commission noted that the legitimate
commercial dealings such as negotiations of freight              aspirations of developing countries for their vessels
rates should be free from government intervention                to carry a fair share of cargoes and for their shippers
and be left to the decisions of the commercial parties           to obtain adequate shipping services at reasonable
directly involved. It believed that consultations                freight rates from the conferences were recognized in
among shippers, shipowners and port authorities on               the Liner Code. At the same time, the Code provided
matters of common interest were essential to                     a mechanism by which meaningful consultation/
facilitate an orderly expansion of world shipping and            negotiation and co-operation could be achieved
sea-borne trade. However, it felt that it was not the            among shipping lines in conferences and between
role of a Government to intervene in commercial                  conferences and shippers' interests. In that
dealings or to participate in the preparation and                connexion, the Commission urged the secretariat to
conduct of consultations or negotiations at the other            accelerate measures to help to bring about the
side of the table.                                               effective implementation of the Code.
530. Another delegation expressed the view that
the basic role of Governments was to generate and                533. The representative of ANRPC expressed
maintain a climate favourable to the establishment               gratitude to the ESCAP secretariat for the assistance
and maintenance of fair competition and trade                    and co-operation given to the member countries of
practices among shipping lines and co-operation                  the Association in several areas of common interest,
between shippers and liner conferences. The Code of              including the studies on alternative modes of ocean
Conduct for Liner Conferences and other relevant                 transportation of bulk latex to European destinations,
international instruments provided for the role of               shipping statistics and cargo consolidation schemes.
Governments in the relationship between the trade
and shipping sector. That principle was also reflected           534. The representative of ILO informed the
in certain laws and agreements in a number of                    Commission that his Organisation, in co-operation
countries such as Australia and the United States,               with the ESCAP secretariat, had completed a survey
and in Europe. That delegation pointed out that while            of the port facilities and requirements for the training
it would be ideal for commercial relationships in the            of port personnel in Sri Lanka, and that it hoped to
shipping industry to be left to the interplay of market          obtain more resources to extend such co-operation to
forces, imperfect competition often prevailed in the             other activities.
market, requiring Governments, even of the highly
developed countries, to "intervene" in the market in
order to ensure observance of fair competition and               535. The representative of IMCO informed the
trade practices. It further pointed out that some                Commission of the activities of his Organization,
developed countries had been assisting their                     whose two main objectives were the enhancement of
shipyards and shipowners, directly or indirectly,                maritime safety and the prevention of marine
through               construction                 and           pollution from ships.

                                                          (59)
536. The Commission noted that greater co-                    people's participation in development, manpower
operation was being effected between the secretariat          training, TCDC and the reassessment of policies
and other United Nations bodies and specialized               relating to ongoing social welfare programmes. It
agencies such as ILO, IMCO and the United Nations             was urged that the Conference's recommendations be
Statistical Office. It recognized the importance of           adequately reflected in the Commission's programme
maintaining co-ordination between the two wings of            of work and priorities in the social development field
the Committee in respect of multimodal transport              and that they be effectively monitored. While there
systems.                                                      was adequate justification in principle for convening
                                                              the Ministerial Conference at four-year intervals,
Social development                                            some representatives suggested a more flexible
                                                              approach to timing, so as to take into consideration
537. The Commission considered documents E/                   the expressed needs and priorities of member
ESCAP/192 and E/ESCAP/208.                                    Governments.
538. It commended and endorsed the steadily in-               541. The Commission commended the secretariat's
creasing and action-oriented activities of the                activities during the previous 18 months to assist
secretariat in the areas of people's participation,           member countries in promoting the role of women in
integration of women and youth in development,
                                                              development and in raising their status. The specific
social welfare and social work education, and TCDC
in social development. It noted the secretariat's             projects undertaken with the assistance of, inter alia,
efforts to promote exchange of information and                the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade
clearing-house activities in social development               for Women were considered as directly benefiting
among member countries and urged that the                     women at the village level. The Pacific Subregional
resources available for such work be strengthened. In         Meeting was considered valuable as a follow-up of
that connexion, attention was drawn to the need to            the World Conference held at Copenhagen. The
exchange information on the experience of socialist           Commission, while endorsing the Meeting's
countries in the region in their solution of social           conclusions and recommendations, drew the
problems. It was recommended that papers and other            secretariat's attention to the Programme of Action
documents produced for seminars, workshops etc.               adopted at the Copenhagen Conference and the
and country case studies on various aspects of social         specific proposals for implementing the strategies it
development should be regularly published and                 contained at the international, regional and national
disseminated to the member countries. The                     levels. The need for systematic reporting on the
publication of the Social Development Newsletter              implementation of the world Programme of Action
was commended and its wide circulation within the             in the region was emphasized. Particular concern
region should be continued.                                   was expressed regarding the fact that institutional
                                                              arrangements had not yet been made in the
539. The Commission felt that, generally, social              Commission for handling women's issues. Since
development was still lagging behind in the                   regular institutional arrangements played a
development scene of the majority of the developing           fundamental role in bringing about progress in the
countries in the region. Mass poverty, inequity of            integration of women in development, it was urged
income and wealth, unemployment,                              that at least one permanent women's affairs position
underemployment and high population growth were               at a senior level should be established within the
still considered major problems needing special               secretariat through transferring to ESCAP by 1982 a
priority attention during the 1980s. It was reiterated        post of a senior officer from within the regular
that social, cultural and human values should be              budget of the United Nations to be responsible for
safeguarded from being adversely affected by the              the programmes of the Commission on the
rapid socio-economic changes taking place as a                integration of women in the development process.
result of the process of development and                      That would enable the secretariat to provide effective
modernization.                                                technical support to national mechanisms in their
                                                              activities for the integration of women in
540. Human resource development in the broad                  development, including the formulation of action
sense was considered fundamental as a primary                 programmes and the establishment of national
strategy for social development and the improvement           clearing-houses for the collection and dissemination
of the quality of life of the common people.
                                                              of information. It was also urged that, pending
Moreover, unjust distribution of welfare and the
fruits of development could cause not only social             General Assembly approval, a senior-level post
disharmony but also national instability. The                 within the secretariat should be deployed
Commission therefore welcomed the timely                      immediately for that purpose, to enable, inter alia,
convening of the Second Asian and Pacific                     the maximum use of the resources of the Voluntary
Ministerial Conference on Social Welfare and Social           Fund available for programmes and projects. It was
Development and unanimously endorsed its main                 stressed that greater attention should be given to
conclusions and recommendations, including those              projects designed to increase the support of science
relating to the suggested measures dealing with               and technology to women's work at home and
integrated social development to promote total                outside, including support for studying health
human development and other specific                          hazards to women, especially in the unorganized
recommendations relating to perspectives, priorities          sector.
and strategies in social welfare and social
development during the 1980s,                                 542.   The Commission was informed that, in their

                                                         59
536. The Commission noted that greater co-                    people's participation in development, manpower
operation was being effected between the secretariat          training, TCDC and the reassessment of policies
and other United Nations bodies and specialized               relating to ongoing social welfare programmes. It
agencies such as ILO, IMCO and the United Nations             was urged that the Conference's recommendations be
Statistical Office. It recognized the importance of           adequately reflected in the Commission's programme
maintaining co-ordination between the two wings of            of work and priorities in the social development field
the Committee in respect of multimodal transport              and that they be effectively monitored. While there
systems.                                                      was adequate justification in principle for convening
                                                              the Ministerial Conference at four-year intervals,
Social development                                            some representatives suggested a more flexible
                                                              approach to timing, so as to take into consideration
537. The Commission considered documents E/                   the expressed needs and priorities of member
ESCAP/192 and E/ESCAP/208.                                    Governments.
538. It commended and endorsed the steadily in-               541. The Commission commended the secretariat's
creasing and action-oriented activities of the                activities during the previous 18 months to assist
secretariat in the areas of people's participation,           member countries in promoting the role of women in
integration of women and youth in development,
                                                              development and in raising their status. The specific
social welfare and social work education, and TCDC
in social development. It noted the secretariat's             projects undertaken with the assistance of, inter alia,
efforts to promote exchange of information and                the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade
clearing-house activities in social development               for Women were considered as directly benefiting
among member countries and urged that the                     women at the village level. The Pacific Subregional
resources available for such work be strengthened. In         Meeting was considered valuable as a follow-up of
that connexion, attention was drawn to the need to            the World Conference held at Copenhagen. The
exchange information on the experience of socialist           Commission, while endorsing the Meeting's
countries in the region in their solution of social           conclusions and recommendations, drew the
problems. It was recommended that papers and other            secretariat's attention to the Programme of Action
documents produced for seminars, workshops etc.               adopted at the Copenhagen Conference and the
and country case studies on various aspects of social         specific proposals for implementing the strategies it
development should be regularly published and                 contained at the international, regional and national
disseminated to the member countries. The                     levels. The need for systematic reporting on the
publication of the Social Development Newsletter              implementation of the world Programme of Action
was commended and its wide circulation within the             in the region was emphasized. Particular concern
region should be continued.                                   was expressed regarding the fact that institutional
                                                              arrangements had not yet been made in the
539. The Commission felt that, generally, social              Commission for handling women's issues. Since
development was still lagging behind in the                   regular institutional arrangements played a
development scene of the majority of the developing           fundamental role in bringing about progress in the
countries in the region. Mass poverty, inequity of            integration of women in development, it was urged
income and wealth, unemployment,                              that at least one permanent women's affairs position
underemployment and high population growth were               at a senior level should be established within the
still considered major problems needing special               secretariat through transferring to ESCAP by 1982 a
priority attention during the 1980s. It was reiterated        post of a senior officer from within the regular
that social, cultural and human values should be              budget of the United Nations to be responsible for
safeguarded from being adversely affected by the              the programmes of the Commission on the
rapid socio-economic changes taking place as a                integration of women in the development process.
result of the process of development and                      That would enable the secretariat to provide effective
modernization.                                                technical support to national mechanisms in their
                                                              activities for the integration of women in
540. Human resource development in the broad                  development, including the formulation of action
sense was considered fundamental as a primary                 programmes and the establishment of national
strategy for social development and the improvement           clearing-houses for the collection and dissemination
of the quality of life of the common people.
                                                              of information. It was also urged that, pending
Moreover, unjust distribution of welfare and the
fruits of development could cause not only social             General Assembly approval, a senior-level post
disharmony but also national instability. The                 within the secretariat should be deployed
Commission therefore welcomed the timely                      immediately for that purpose, to enable, inter alia,
convening of the Second Asian and Pacific                     the maximum use of the resources of the Voluntary
Ministerial Conference on Social Welfare and Social           Fund available for programmes and projects. It was
Development and unanimously endorsed its main                 stressed that greater attention should be given to
conclusions and recommendations, including those              projects designed to increase the support of science
relating to the suggested measures dealing with               and technology to women's work at home and
integrated social development to promote total                outside, including support for studying health
human development and other specific                          hazards to women, especially in the unorganized
recommendations relating to perspectives, priorities          sector.
and strategies in social welfare and social
development during the 1980s,                                 542.   The Commission was informed that, in their

                                                         60
national development plans and policies, many                   national funding agencies for giving generous
countries were placing special emphasis on the                  financial support for the implementation of the
increased participation of women in economic and                Commission's youth development programme and
social development. Assistance from external                    urged that such assistance be continued and
sources, especially the Voluntary Fund, continued to            augmented and the resources of the secretariat
be needed for effective implementation in that                  strengthened to enable it to plan and implement the
regard.                                                         programme effectively, keeping in view the priority
                                                                needs and requirements of the member countries in
543. The need for close interagency co-operation                the field of youth development.
in the area of women's development was reiterated
and it was agreed that appropriate mechanisms for               549. The Commission endorsed the conclusions
permanent and continued collaboration among                     and recommendations of the Technical Meeting and
United Nations agencies working for women's                     Regional Seminar on the Objectives and Plan of
development should be established.                              Action of the International Year of Disabled Persons.
                                                                The emphasis on preventive approaches in addition
544. The Commission adopted resolution 211                      to rehabilitative programmes was commended. The
(XXXVII) on strengthening the Commission in the
                                                                Commission reiterated the urgent need for regional
promotion of the integration of women in the
development process.                                            co-operation in the field of rehabilitation in the areas
                                                                identified in the Seminar's report and urged that the
545. The Commission generally commended the                     secretariat's capacity for promoting such co-
secretariat's activities for the mobilization of youth          operation be strengthened through the establishment
for national development, particularly the special              of a small organizational unit in the Social
emphasis given to rural youth. It endorsed the                  Development Division. One delegation informed the
recommendations of the various regional                         Commission that it was willing to negotiate with the
conferences, seminars and training courses,                     secretariat concerning the possibility of providing
including the ESCAP/OISCA Regional Forum on                     staffing assistance of one person to the programme if
Active Youth Participation in National Development              such a unit was established, and the need for
hosted by the Office of the Minister for Youth                  specialized short-term staffing support was clearly
Affairs of Indonesia and the Expert Group Meeting               identified. Some reservations were expressed about
concerning the development of relevant indicators               the establishment of a regional training and research
for youth development hosted by the Philippine                  institute for disabled persons as the functions to be
Government to guide the development of policy and               assumed by such an institute had not been agreed
programme directions for youth. In particular, the              upon by the Seminar. It was suggested, however, that
Commission expressed support for the establishment              the secretariat's activities could concentrate on the
of national co-ordinating committees on youth to                collection and dissemination of information and on
accelerate the active participation of youth in                 programme stimulation activities in connexion with
national development in the light of the objectives of          the Year. The Commission urged greater interagency
International Youth Year: Participation,                        co-ordination in dealing with those matters.
Development, Peace. Several delegations expressed
appreciation of and endorsed the national leadership            550. The Commission was informed of the various
training workshops held for their front-line youth              programme activities planned and under
leaders and workers and urged that they be followed             implementation in several member countries in the
up and continued.                                               region in connexion with the Year. The exchange of
                                                                information on the results of such activities among
546. The Commission called for the continued                    member countries could be of mutual benefit.
intensification of activities to maximize youth's role
in policy and decision making and to maximize their             551. The Commission welcomed the recent
contribution to constructive social change and                  convening of the Technical Meeting on Aging for the
development. In particular, the Commission urged                Asian and Pacific region, preparatory to the World
that special emphasis be given to enhancing the role
                                                                Assembly on Aging to be convened in 1982. The
of young women and rural youth in nation building,
in both the organized and the unorganized sectors.              Technical Meeting was to be followed by a
                                                                preparatory intergovernmental regional meeting in
547. The Commission noted with satisfaction the                 1981. The Commission was informed in that
secretariat's efforts at interagency co-ordination and          connexion that the Government of the Philippines,
collaboration as reflected, inter alia, in the                  through its Ministry of Social Services and
convening of the Ad Hoc Meeting with Interagency                Development, had offered host facilities for the
and Non-governmental Organizations Concerned                    regional meeting. The secretariat was requested to
with Youth Development in the Region and urged                  provide the member Governments with details on its
that the recommendations of that Meeting be                     scope and objectives as early as possible to enable
followed up so as to maximize efforts in the field of           them to prepare for their participation. It was
youth development.                                              recommended that, in view of the proneness of
                                                                elderly women to becoming more dependent and
548. The Commission expressed appreciation to                   vulnerable to poverty situations, they deserved
donor countries, non-governmental organizations                 special consideration at both the regional meeting
and                                      inter-                 and the World Assembly.
                                                         (61)
552. The Commission commended the initial                     and evaluation of national development policies and
achievements of the secretariat's TCDC activities in          programmes. In particular, it was recognized that the
social development and urged that the priority                successful implementation of the International
programmes and operational modes approved by the              Development Strategy for the Third Development
Consultative Meeting in February 1980 and endorsed            Decade would depend on the adequate and timely
by the Ministerial Conference be followed up and              availability of information for review and appraisal
implemented. It urged that the TCDC components of             purposes. The Commission expressed satisfaction
all the secretariat's social development and other            with the continuing plans of the secretariat to assist
activities should be systematically identified and            countries of the region in strengthening their
strengthened.                                                 statistical capabilities to provide the requisite data. It
                                                              also felt that future aid programming missions
553. The Commission, in considering the                       should take greater cognizance of, and allocate
programme of work and priorities in social                    appropriate resources to, statistical activities, which
development for the biennium 1982-1983 as                     were important for all phases of a development
contained in document E/ESCAP/217 (pages 227-                 project or programme.
249), suggested that: (a) workshops for developing
countries should be held periodically to consider             557. The importance of closer co-operation and
current issues in social development and to update
                                                              greater understanding between producers and users
the knowledge and experience of policy makers and
                                                              of statistics, at both the national and the global
top administrators involved in social welfare and
social development; (b) continuous evaluation of              levels, was strongly stressed by the Commission. It
existing social policies and programmes of different          accordingly recommended that official statistical co-
countries of the region should be undertaken and the          ordinating mechanisms at the national level should
results disseminated to member countries to guide             be revitalized where necessary; it was suggested that
them in reorganizing their policies and programmes            such bodies should be empowered to decide on
in the field of social welfare and social development;        statistical priorities as well as on the standardization
(c) a mechanism should be evolved to permit greater           of concepts, def1nitions and classifications and on
mobility of the surplus manpower of developing                the co-ordination of data collection. The
countries to countries in need of such manpower; (d)          Commission strongly endorsed the suggestion of the
exchange visits of personnel and experts in social            secretariat that a high-level meeting should be
development, at both the policy and the operational           organized to act as a forum in which national users
levels, should be encouraged and organized by the             and producers of statistics could discuss issues such
secretariat among the countries of the region at              as the identification of data requirements, the role of
regular intervals in the context of TCDC, so as to            statistical agencies in relation to national
enrich the experience of the personnel involved with          development strategies and the capacity of such
a view to the eventual application of their knowledge         agencies to discharge their responsibilities
to resolving the social problems of their respective          effectively.
countries; and (e) the United Nations and other
international agencies should increase their                  558. Recalling that energy was the major theme for
assistance to social development in the region to help        discussion at the current session, the Commission
to alleviate the funding constraints of the least             warmly welcomed the emphasis in the secretariat's
developed countries of the region in their                    activities and programme of work on the
development efforts.                                          development of reliable, comprehensive and
                                                              internationally comparable statistics on energy.
Statistics                                                    Further work on methodologies for collecting data
                                                              on traditional and newer non-conventional sources of
554. The Commission considered document E/                    energy, on which information was very scarce, was
ESCAP/209.                                                    thought to be particularly important, as was the
                                                              provision of training facilities in energy statistics.
555. It endorsed and commended the work of the                The Commission felt that the suggestions emanating
secretariat in the field of statistics and warmly             from the ESCAP/IEA/EEC Workshop on Energy
welcomed the continuation and strengthening of such           Statistics, held at Karachi in October 1980, formed a
activities in the proposed programme of work for              useful basis for further work in the region in the
1982.1983. In that connexion, however, one                    development of energy statistics. The Commission
delegation noted that there was room for further
                                                              encouraged countries to participate fully in the
improvement in the presentation of the work
                                                              planned activities and urged donor countries and
programme; indications should be given of priorities
and of resources actually allocated to specific               organizations to contribute the necessary resources to
programme elements. The Commission noted that                 the secretariat's work programme in that vitally
the work programme would be reviewed by the                   important field of statistical development. It also
Committee on Statistics at its fourth session in June         welcomed the secretariat's plan to convene a further
1981.                                                         workshop on energy statistics concentrating on non-
                                                              conventional energy sources, specifically for Pacific
556. The Commission emphasized the central role               countries, in October 1981, and felt that that
of reliable statistics in the effective planning,             workshop should provide a valuable input into the
monitoring                                                    Pacific energy programme, 1982-.1986.

                                                         61
552. The Commission commended the initial                     and evaluation of national development policies and
achievements of the secretariat's TCDC activities in          programmes. In particular, it was recognized that the
social development and urged that the priority                successful implementation of the International
programmes and operational modes approved by the              Development Strategy for the Third Development
Consultative Meeting in February 1980 and endorsed            Decade would depend on the adequate and timely
by the Ministerial Conference be followed up and              availability of information for review and appraisal
implemented. It urged that the TCDC components of             purposes. The Commission expressed satisfaction
all the secretariat's social development and other            with the continuing plans of the secretariat to assist
activities should be systematically identified and            countries of the region in strengthening their
strengthened.                                                 statistical capabilities to provide the requisite data. It
                                                              also felt that future aid programming missions
553. The Commission, in considering the                       should take greater cognizance of, and allocate
programme of work and priorities in social                    appropriate resources to, statistical activities, which
development for the biennium 1982-1983 as                     were important for all phases of a development
contained in document E/ESCAP/217 (pages 227-                 project or programme.
249), suggested that: (a) workshops for developing
countries should be held periodically to consider             557. The importance of closer co-operation and
current issues in social development and to update
                                                              greater understanding between producers and users
the knowledge and experience of policy makers and
                                                              of statistics, at both the national and the global
top administrators involved in social welfare and
social development; (b) continuous evaluation of              levels, was strongly stressed by the Commission. It
existing social policies and programmes of different          accordingly recommended that official statistical co-
countries of the region should be undertaken and the          ordinating mechanisms at the national level should
results disseminated to member countries to guide             be revitalized where necessary; it was suggested that
them in reorganizing their policies and programmes            such bodies should be empowered to decide on
in the field of social welfare and social development;        statistical priorities as well as on the standardization
(c) a mechanism should be evolved to permit greater           of concepts, def1nitions and classifications and on
mobility of the surplus manpower of developing                the co-ordination of data collection. The
countries to countries in need of such manpower; (d)          Commission strongly endorsed the suggestion of the
exchange visits of personnel and experts in social            secretariat that a high-level meeting should be
development, at both the policy and the operational           organized to act as a forum in which national users
levels, should be encouraged and organized by the             and producers of statistics could discuss issues such
secretariat among the countries of the region at              as the identification of data requirements, the role of
regular intervals in the context of TCDC, so as to            statistical agencies in relation to national
enrich the experience of the personnel involved with          development strategies and the capacity of such
a view to the eventual application of their knowledge         agencies to discharge their responsibilities
to resolving the social problems of their respective          effectively.
countries; and (e) the United Nations and other
international agencies should increase their                  558. Recalling that energy was the major theme for
assistance to social development in the region to help        discussion at the current session, the Commission
to alleviate the funding constraints of the least             warmly welcomed the emphasis in the secretariat's
developed countries of the region in their                    activities and programme of work on the
development efforts.                                          development of reliable, comprehensive and
                                                              internationally comparable statistics on energy.
Statistics                                                    Further work on methodologies for collecting data
                                                              on traditional and newer non-conventional sources of
554. The Commission considered document E/                    energy, on which information was very scarce, was
ESCAP/209.                                                    thought to be particularly important, as was the
                                                              provision of training facilities in energy statistics.
555. It endorsed and commended the work of the                The Commission felt that the suggestions emanating
secretariat in the field of statistics and warmly             from the ESCAP/IEA/EEC Workshop on Energy
welcomed the continuation and strengthening of such           Statistics, held at Karachi in October 1980, formed a
activities in the proposed programme of work for              useful basis for further work in the region in the
1982.1983. In that connexion, however, one                    development of energy statistics. The Commission
delegation noted that there was room for further
                                                              encouraged countries to participate fully in the
improvement in the presentation of the work
                                                              planned activities and urged donor countries and
programme; indications should be given of priorities
and of resources actually allocated to specific               organizations to contribute the necessary resources to
programme elements. The Commission noted that                 the secretariat's work programme in that vitally
the work programme would be reviewed by the                   important field of statistical development. It also
Committee on Statistics at its fourth session in June         welcomed the secretariat's plan to convene a further
1981.                                                         workshop on energy statistics concentrating on non-
                                                              conventional energy sources, specifically for Pacific
556. The Commission emphasized the central role               countries, in October 1981, and felt that that
of reliable statistics in the effective planning,             workshop should provide a valuable input into the
monitoring                                                    Pacific energy programme, 1982-.1986.

                                                         62
559. The Commission strongly reiterated its                       developing their industrial statistics would, it was
support for the National Household Survey                         hoped, encourage wider participation in the 1983
Capability Programme (NHSCP) in the region and                    Programme.
noted with satisfaction the progress made to date.
Two major aims of the Programme were to                           564. The Commission also noted the activities of
strengthen the indigenous survey-taking capabilities              the secretariat in other fields of economic statistics:
of national statistical offices and to provide a wide             national accounts, income distribution, international
range of social and economic data. Those were seen                trade, transport, shipping and prices. With regard to
as consistent with the need to provide regular and                price statistics, many countries in the region were
reliable statistics for monitoring and appraising                 compiling indices relating to wholesale, retail and
national development plans. While some countries                  producer prices. The Commission noted that a
were already planning to participate in NHSCP,                    number of countries were also participating in the
others also recognized the need for regular                       International Comparison Project (ICP). However,
household surveys and were considering the                        one delegation expressed the view that, in a situation
possibility of participation in the future.                       of limited resources, ICP should be accorded a lower
                                                                  priority.
560. The Commission urged that emphasis should
be given to the training aspects of NHSCP,                        565. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
particularly in the development of appropriate data
                                                                  assistance given to countries on various aspects of
collection methodologies and analytic techniques. In
that regard, it reiterated its appreciation of the offer          population statistics, such as demographic
of the Government of India to provide training                    projections, census planning and data processing and
facilities for the Programme. It noted that SIAP                  in the development of viable vital statistics and civil
could also play an important training role.                       registration systems. It highlighted additional areas
                                                                  which might be covered, for example, greater
561. The Commission noted that significant                        emphasis on detailed disaggregation of data for
changes in the environment owing to technological                 population subgroups and small geographic regions;
development and population growth were affecting                  on the development of methodological and analytic
the quality of life. The need to measure                          skills; and on assistance in the control and
environmental conditions and to monitor changes in                measurement of survey errors.
them was thus emphasized as important. In that
regard, the Commission welcomed the draft                         566. The Commission also appreciated the efforts
guidelines and the framework developed by the                     of the secretariat to expand its activitites in the field
United Nations Statistical Office, which had been                 of social statistics. In view of needs for technical
extensively discussed by the Pacific and Asian                    help in that area, the secretariat was urged to finalize
subregional workshops organized by the secretariat.               the recruitment of a social statistics expert as soon as
In endorsing the recommendations of those                         possible.
workshops, the Commission suggested that the
guidelines and the framework should initially be                  567. The importance of statistical training was
used, with suitable regional adaptations, to develop              reiterated by the Commission. In view of the vital
statistics relating to areas of particularly serious              roles that energy and rural development would play
environmental concern.                                            in the development strategy for the 1980s, the
                                                                  Commission stressed that special emphasis should be
562. The Commission emphasized that for rural                     given to training programmes in those fields.
development planning, adequate disaggregated,
micro-level data were essential. It therefore                     568. The Commission considered that SlAP had an
supported the secretariat's plans to develop                      important contribution to make to the training needs
guidelines for the preparation of data files on                   of the region. It strongly commended the Institute on
statistics for rural development. It also noted with              its work over the previous 10 years, during which it
satisfaction that a number of countries had already               had trained more than 1,200 statistical personnel.
begun work on rural development statistics and, in                The Commission heard with appreciation of the
that connexion, one representative requested expert               contributions of the Governments of Japan, the
guidance for case studies being undertaken in his                 Netherlands and the Republic of Korea to SIAP for
country. The Commission stressed the need for the                 its third phase and urged Governments and donor
services of an expert who could both provide such                 agencies to provide the necessary support for the
guidance to countries and assist in the development               Institute's programmes. The bilateral assistance
of the guidelines. Donor countries and agencies were              provided to SIAP was also appreciated.
urged to provide the necessary resources for that
work.
                                                                  569. The Commission noted with satisfaction that
563. The Commission took note of the secretariat's                the principle of TCDC continued to be practised in
preparatory activities in connexion with the 1983                 the field of statistics. In that connexion, it was noted
World Programme of Industrial Statistics, which was               that Malaysia had provided on-the-spot study
felt to be an important means of obtaining                        facilities to trainees from four developing countries;
internationally comparable information on the                     it had also provided a lecturer for a country course
structure and activity of the industrial sector. The              organized by SIAP and had indicated willingness to
"minimum programme" envisaged for countries in                    continue such assistance.. The- Commission further
the            earlier          stages            of              noted                      that                   TCDC

                                                           (63)
supplementary funding facilities- would enable two               Transport, communications and tourism
officials from a national statistical office to study
data compilation and dissemination in three                      575. The Commission considered document E/
developing countries and at ESCAP.                               ESCAP/227 and Add.l.

570. The Commission welcomed the emphasis on                     576. The Commission stressed the importance of
technical meetings and workshops. Such meetings                  the transport and communication sectors as being
were becoming increasingly necessary in order to                 essential for an orderly growth of trade, industry and
exchange up-to-date knowledge in various fields of               agriculture, and even for the proper functioning of
                                                                 social services. It noted that the 1980s called for
statistics and to promote a dialogue between users
                                                                 effective transport and communications programmes
and producers of statistics. The Commission noted
                                                                 which would be responsive to the changing needs
the programme of technical meetings of the                       and problems of the developing member countries.
secretariat and endorsed their organization on a                 The transport and communication infrastructures
subregional basis where appropriate. It also                     would need to be expanded at rates that fully
expressed satisfaction that the Government of the                supported those of the expansion of the economy as
USSR would be hosting a seminar on labour                        a whole, particularly to match the expansion in
productivity statistics in August 1981.                          agriculture, industrial production and trade flows.
                                                                 The Commission noted, however, that future
571. The Commission noted with appreciation the                  transport development had to be viewed in the
services provided to countries in various fields of              context of the energy situation. As the transport
statistics by the regional advisers attached to the              sector was one of the major consumers of energy,
secretariat. It considered the continuation of those             consuming between 30 and 60 per cent of the total
services essential and welcomed the secretariat's                energy supplies of petroleum in most of the ESCAP
plans to extend that type of assistance to other                 developing member countries, there was a need to
subject-matter areas.                                            reorient thinking towards the development and
                                                                 utilization of more energy-efficient modes of
572. The assistance provided by the secretariat in               transport and measures for energy conservation.
the field of data processing for statistical applications
was noted with appreciation. The Commission                      577. The Commission noted that some member
welcomed the continuation of the services of the                 countries had been adversely affected by the energy
                                                                 crises, which had made their transport industry less
regional adviser on data preparation and processing
                                                                 effective in its contribution to the economic and
of censuses and surveys, who had assisted several
                                                                 social development process. In view of that, it
countries with installation and instruction in the use           recommended that the secretariat should intensify its
of computer edit and tabulation packages. It noted               activities in the field of energy conservation
the secretariat's plans for further technical workshops          measures for all aspects of road and rail transport,
on various aspects of data processing.                           including the adoption of appropriate technology .
573. The Commission expressed satisfaction with
ESCAP efforts to reduce the burden on countries                  Railways and railway transport
regarding the reporting of data. It pointed out,
however, that the situation could be further alleviated          578. The Commission emphasized the increasing
by closer co-ordination with the data collection                 importance of railways and railway transport: that
activities of other international agencies and by a              mode was expected to playa dominant role in the
rationalization of, and a reduction in, the number of            future integrated transport system from the point of
international statistical publications. The                      view of energy conservation and environmental
Commission also noted the need for greater co-                   preservation, because of its intrinsic economy for
ordination in data collection and dissemination                  intercity traffic, rapid mass transit and movement of
procedures among the various divisions of ESCAP.                 bulk loads over long distances and because of its low
It nevertheless recognized the important uses of the             emission of pollutants.
data supplied to the secretariat and urged countries of
the region to continue to provide such data on a                 579. The Commission stressed the importance of
                                                                 railway electrification, especially in the current
timely basis and according to standardized United
                                                                 global energy crisis. In that connexion, it felt that as
Nations formats.
                                                                 the electric traction mode could made use of
                                                                 diversified energy sources such as hydraulic, natural
574. The Commission expressed its appreciation to                gas, coal, geothermal and atomic energy in addition
the Governments of France, the Federal Republic of               to petroleum, the countries in which those various
Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and                 energy sources were available should, as far as
the United States and to ILO, UNEP and UNFPA for                 practicable and economical, make use of them for
their contributions and support to the secretariat's             railway electrification in order to decrease
statistical activities. It hoped that such assistance            dependency on petroleum-based fuels and increase
would continue.                                                  operational efficiency. In that context, the
                                                            63
supplementary funding facilities- would enable two               Transport, communications and tourism
officials from a national statistical office to study
data compilation and dissemination in three                      575. The Commission considered document E/
developing countries and at ESCAP.                               ESCAP/227 and Add.l.

570. The Commission welcomed the emphasis on                     576. The Commission stressed the importance of
technical meetings and workshops. Such meetings                  the transport and communication sectors as being
were becoming increasingly necessary in order to                 essential for an orderly growth of trade, industry and
exchange up-to-date knowledge in various fields of               agriculture, and even for the proper functioning of
                                                                 social services. It noted that the 1980s called for
statistics and to promote a dialogue between users
                                                                 effective transport and communications programmes
and producers of statistics. The Commission noted
                                                                 which would be responsive to the changing needs
the programme of technical meetings of the                       and problems of the developing member countries.
secretariat and endorsed their organization on a                 The transport and communication infrastructures
subregional basis where appropriate. It also                     would need to be expanded at rates that fully
expressed satisfaction that the Government of the                supported those of the expansion of the economy as
USSR would be hosting a seminar on labour                        a whole, particularly to match the expansion in
productivity statistics in August 1981.                          agriculture, industrial production and trade flows.
                                                                 The Commission noted, however, that future
571. The Commission noted with appreciation the                  transport development had to be viewed in the
services provided to countries in various fields of              context of the energy situation. As the transport
statistics by the regional advisers attached to the              sector was one of the major consumers of energy,
secretariat. It considered the continuation of those             consuming between 30 and 60 per cent of the total
services essential and welcomed the secretariat's                energy supplies of petroleum in most of the ESCAP
plans to extend that type of assistance to other                 developing member countries, there was a need to
subject-matter areas.                                            reorient thinking towards the development and
                                                                 utilization of more energy-efficient modes of
572. The assistance provided by the secretariat in               transport and measures for energy conservation.
the field of data processing for statistical applications
was noted with appreciation. The Commission                      577. The Commission noted that some member
welcomed the continuation of the services of the                 countries had been adversely affected by the energy
                                                                 crises, which had made their transport industry less
regional adviser on data preparation and processing
                                                                 effective in its contribution to the economic and
of censuses and surveys, who had assisted several
                                                                 social development process. In view of that, it
countries with installation and instruction in the use           recommended that the secretariat should intensify its
of computer edit and tabulation packages. It noted               activities in the field of energy conservation
the secretariat's plans for further technical workshops          measures for all aspects of road and rail transport,
on various aspects of data processing.                           including the adoption of appropriate technology .
573. The Commission expressed satisfaction with
ESCAP efforts to reduce the burden on countries                  Railways and railway transport
regarding the reporting of data. It pointed out,
however, that the situation could be further alleviated          578. The Commission emphasized the increasing
by closer co-ordination with the data collection                 importance of railways and railway transport: that
activities of other international agencies and by a              mode was expected to playa dominant role in the
rationalization of, and a reduction in, the number of            future integrated transport system from the point of
international statistical publications. The                      view of energy conservation and environmental
Commission also noted the need for greater co-                   preservation, because of its intrinsic economy for
ordination in data collection and dissemination                  intercity traffic, rapid mass transit and movement of
procedures among the various divisions of ESCAP.                 bulk loads over long distances and because of its low
It nevertheless recognized the important uses of the             emission of pollutants.
data supplied to the secretariat and urged countries of
the region to continue to provide such data on a                 579. The Commission stressed the importance of
                                                                 railway electrification, especially in the current
timely basis and according to standardized United
                                                                 global energy crisis. In that connexion, it felt that as
Nations formats.
                                                                 the electric traction mode could made use of
                                                                 diversified energy sources such as hydraulic, natural
574. The Commission expressed its appreciation to                gas, coal, geothermal and atomic energy in addition
the Governments of France, the Federal Republic of               to petroleum, the countries in which those various
Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and                 energy sources were available should, as far as
the United States and to ILO, UNEP and UNFPA for                 practicable and economical, make use of them for
their contributions and support to the secretariat's             railway electrification in order to decrease
statistical activities. It hoped that such assistance            dependency on petroleum-based fuels and increase
would continue.                                                  operational efficiency. In that context, the
                                                            64
Commission commended the secretariat on its                        urged the secretariat to intensify its activities in that
constructive efforts, particularly the assistance                  field with regard to regional and intraregional inland
extended to Burma for a feasibility study on the                   traffic, including transit requirements for land-locked
electrification of its railways at Kyangin. It also                countries. The Commission stressed the need for
noted with appreciation that the secretariat had                   close co-operation between the Shipping, Ports and
initiated the preparatory work for a feasibility study             Inland Waterways Division and the Transport,
on the electrification of the Bangkok-Chiang Mai                   Communications and Tourism Division in the field
main line of the State Railway of Thailand. It noted               of multimodal transport.
with satisfaction that the secretariat had organized
training programmes in that new technology, such as
                                                                   583. The Commission stressed the need to
the Seminar-cum-Study Tour on Railway
                                                                   intensify the development programme for the
Electrification in Belgium and fellowship training of
railway electrical engineers of Burma. It strongly                 rehabilitation, modernization and improvement of
urged the secretariat to intensify its activities in that          the railways of the region to increase their
important field.                                                   operational and managerial efficiency. In that
                                                                   context, it noted with appreciation that the secretariat
580. In endorsing the recommendations of the                       had made a survey/study on modernization of the Sri
Inter-governmental Railway Group Meeting, the                      Lanka Government Railways and had assisted the
Commission strongly appealed to the donor countries                Bangladesh Railways in (a) setting up a rolling stock
to provide the much-needed resources to accelerate                 standards institute and (b) trans-shipmen of goods
the pace of implementation of the Trans-Asian                      between broad gauge and metre gauge at Santahar. It
Railway network project with its reoriented scope. It              also noted with satisfaction that the secretariat had
noted, however, that the formulation of the Asian                  completed the preparatory work for the study on
Railway master plan should be carried out in close                 excessive rail wear and derailment in Bangladesh,
correlation with the Trans-Asian Railway network                   Malaysia and Thailand and had organized a Seminar-
project. It noted with gratitude the offer of the                  cum-Study Tour on Evolution and Trends in Design
Government of the USSR to provide host facilities                  and Modernization of Rolling Stock and Equipment
for a meeting of a working group of railway experts.               in France. The Commission emphasized the
                                                                   importance of developing railway statistics and
581. While reviewing the progress of steps taken                   information systems to serve as a tool for the
in pursuance of the decision of the Commission at its              development and improvement of railways.
thirty-sixth session in respect of the proposal to
establish an Asian railway union, one delegation
                                                                   584. In endorsing the request of the Government of
expressed the hope that the needs and aspirations of
the railways in the member countries would soon                    the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the
find expression in such an institution of regional co-             Commission noted that the secretariat had
operation under the auspices of ESCAP. It urged that               undertaken a pre-feasibility study for the
all the preparatory work be completed before the                   construction of a railway line from Savannakhet via
thirty-eighth session of the Commission so that a                  Viet Nam to Da Nang. It urged the secretariat to
decision could be taken then. Some delegations,                    undertake a feasibility study at an early date. It also
however, expressed the view that any decision on the               urged UNDP to provide ESCAP with the necessary
establishment of a railway union should be made                    funds to undertake that study.
only after the need for and the benefits of such a
body had been clearly identified and that ESCAP's                  585. The Commission noted the usefulness of the
30 years of experience in undertaking various                      activities of the joint roving teams of railway experts
activities relating to the modernization of railways of            and of seminars-cum-study tours and strongly
the region should be utilized. Unnecessary                         recommended their continuation. It also recognized
duplication should not be created by forming a                     the importance of the continuation of the training
separate entity. Before any decision was taken, there              programme for railway staff. In that context, the
should be careful examination to ensure that a new                 Commission noted with gratitude the offer of the
organization would not duplicate the existing                      Government of Japan to continue its support to those
functions of UIC, which had been doing useful work                 activities, and those of the Governments of France
to the satisfaction of its member railways of the                  and the USSR to host seminars on railway
region. The Commission noted in that connexion that
                                                                   electrification and railway track maintenance
a meeting of an expanded group of experts was
                                                                   respectively in 1982. It also noted with gratitude the
tentatively scheduled to be held at Bangkok in April
1981.                                                              offer of the Government of China to host a seminar-
                                                                   cum-study tour on new railway construction,
582. The Commission, recognizing the major role                    including tunnelling, bridging and operations, in
that railways could play in intermodal surface                     May 1981 and the offer of the Government of India
transport systems through the introduction of freight              to host a seminar-cum-study tour on operational
unitization, including containerization, which would               innovations and technological research leading to
overcome the trans-shipment problems on different                  increased productivity with less capital investment in
railway                                      gauges,               the development of the railway system in 1982-1983.

                                                            (65)
586. The Commission noted with gratitude the                    into road construction projects and road transport
offer of the Government of India to share that                  and limiting air and noise pollution.
country's managerial and technical expertise in the
field of railways with the member countries of the              593. While commending the secretariat's efforts to
region, and that of the USSR to provide assistance in           improve rural road planning, design, construction
undertaking studies on the modernization of freight             and maintenance and in endorsing the valuable study
transport and on automation in the technical aspects            on that subject undertaken by the secretariat in six
of railway transport.                                           countries of the region, and in view of the continued
                                                                emphasis of member countries on the improvement
                                                                of rural transport, the Commission urged the
                                                                secretariat to organize similar studies in other
Highways and highway transport                                  countries of the region and the first training course
                                                                for trainers at the local level on the basis of the
587. The Commission emphasized the need to                      manual under preparation. It noted with appreciation
adopt all possible energy conservation measures to              the recent initiative of the secretariat in undertaking
make road transport more energy-efficient. The                  jointly with ILO a study to improve construction
secretariat was urged to collect and disseminate                tools and equipment for labour-intensive rural road
information on the development and use of                       construction.
alternative sources of energy, and alternative types of
fuel, particularly the use of natural gas and biomass,          594. It endorsed the proposal to publish a review
and regarding the development of improved non-                  report indicating trends in the development of roads
mechanized means of transport.                                  and road transport in the region every two years, and
                                                                emphasized the need for techno-economic studies on
588. It was suggested that the secretariat should               the implications of the overloading of trucks for road
formulate general policy guidelines for the                     networks.
development of roads and road transport in the
region on the basis of an integrated and co-ordinated           595. It urged the secretariat to continue its efforts
approach to major/important problems, including                 to organize seminars/workshops on crucial aspects of
planning of road transport, in correlation with the             road and road transport development, including new
development of other transport modes, the                       techniques and low-cost road construction methods.
development of the Asian Highway network and
                                                                596. It emphasized the need to organize regular
local roads, the creation of a road transport network           training courses in the transport sector and
in land.locked countries and its integration with the           appreciated the collaboration that had developed
transport systems of other countries in the region.             between ESCAP, the Economic Development
                                                                Institute of the World Bank and other institutions in
589. The Commission emphasized the importance                   that respect.
of road maintenance to achieve substantial savings in
vehicle operating costs. The secretariat should                 597. It noted the request of Bangladesh for
undertake a series of case studies to establish                 assistance under TCDC, in improving the efficiency
conclusively the economic importance of road                    of bullock carts; of Afghanistan, in completion of its
maintenance, the findings of which could be used to             Asian Highway network; and of the South Pacific
organize a seminar-cum-workshop.                                island countries, in a study on strengthening local
                                                                coral materials for road construction.
590. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
useful purpose served by the Asian Highway                      598. It noted with appreciation the offer of the
guidemaps and commended the secretariat's initiative            USSR to provide host facilities for the proposed
in publishing the new map of the Asian Highway                  seminar on road maintenance in 1982 and joint
with interregional links to the road networks of the            studies relating to roads; of Bangladesh to provide
Middle East and Europe.                                         host facilities for the regional transport course; of
                                                                France to provide' publications and reading materials
591. It urged early completion of studies on the                on road construction and energy conservation
                                                                measures; and of the United States to provide copies
development of technical standards for dimensions,
                                                                of road inventory procedures suitable for computer
weights and safety devices of vehicles plying the               storage and processing. It also noted that the
Asian Highway, which could lead to the possible                 Seventeenth World Road Congress would be held at
emergence of a regional convention.                             Sydney, Australia, in 1983 and hoped that ESCAP
                                                                member countries would participate.
592. The Commission recognized the urgent need
to improve traffic safety in the region and suggested
increasing public awareness and introducing traffic             Air transport
accident recording and analysis systems. It urged the
member countries gradually to implement the 1968                599. The Commission noted that many developing
Vienna Conventions on Road Traffic and on Road                  countries of the region continued to face a variety of
Signs and Signals. It also appreciated the secretariat's        problems and handicaps in the development of their
efforts in introducing environmental impact analysis            rapidly growing air cargo transport and consequently

                                                           65
586. The Commission noted with gratitude the                    into road construction projects and road transport
offer of the Government of India to share that                  and limiting air and noise pollution.
country's managerial and technical expertise in the
field of railways with the member countries of the              593. While commending the secretariat's efforts to
region, and that of the USSR to provide assistance in           improve rural road planning, design, construction
undertaking studies on the modernization of freight             and maintenance and in endorsing the valuable study
transport and on automation in the technical aspects            on that subject undertaken by the secretariat in six
of railway transport.                                           countries of the region, and in view of the continued
                                                                emphasis of member countries on the improvement
                                                                of rural transport, the Commission urged the
                                                                secretariat to organize similar studies in other
Highways and highway transport                                  countries of the region and the first training course
                                                                for trainers at the local level on the basis of the
587. The Commission emphasized the need to                      manual under preparation. It noted with appreciation
adopt all possible energy conservation measures to              the recent initiative of the secretariat in undertaking
make road transport more energy-efficient. The                  jointly with ILO a study to improve construction
secretariat was urged to collect and disseminate                tools and equipment for labour-intensive rural road
information on the development and use of                       construction.
alternative sources of energy, and alternative types of
fuel, particularly the use of natural gas and biomass,          594. It endorsed the proposal to publish a review
and regarding the development of improved non-                  report indicating trends in the development of roads
mechanized means of transport.                                  and road transport in the region every two years, and
                                                                emphasized the need for techno-economic studies on
588. It was suggested that the secretariat should               the implications of the overloading of trucks for road
formulate general policy guidelines for the                     networks.
development of roads and road transport in the
region on the basis of an integrated and co-ordinated           595. It urged the secretariat to continue its efforts
approach to major/important problems, including                 to organize seminars/workshops on crucial aspects of
planning of road transport, in correlation with the             road and road transport development, including new
development of other transport modes, the                       techniques and low-cost road construction methods.
development of the Asian Highway network and
                                                                596. It emphasized the need to organize regular
local roads, the creation of a road transport network           training courses in the transport sector and
in land.locked countries and its integration with the           appreciated the collaboration that had developed
transport systems of other countries in the region.             between ESCAP, the Economic Development
                                                                Institute of the World Bank and other institutions in
589. The Commission emphasized the importance                   that respect.
of road maintenance to achieve substantial savings in
vehicle operating costs. The secretariat should                 597. It noted the request of Bangladesh for
undertake a series of case studies to establish                 assistance under TCDC, in improving the efficiency
conclusively the economic importance of road                    of bullock carts; of Afghanistan, in completion of its
maintenance, the findings of which could be used to             Asian Highway network; and of the South Pacific
organize a seminar-cum-workshop.                                island countries, in a study on strengthening local
                                                                coral materials for road construction.
590. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
useful purpose served by the Asian Highway                      598. It noted with appreciation the offer of the
guidemaps and commended the secretariat's initiative            USSR to provide host facilities for the proposed
in publishing the new map of the Asian Highway                  seminar on road maintenance in 1982 and joint
with interregional links to the road networks of the            studies relating to roads; of Bangladesh to provide
Middle East and Europe.                                         host facilities for the regional transport course; of
                                                                France to provide' publications and reading materials
591. It urged early completion of studies on the                on road construction and energy conservation
                                                                measures; and of the United States to provide copies
development of technical standards for dimensions,
                                                                of road inventory procedures suitable for computer
weights and safety devices of vehicles plying the               storage and processing. It also noted that the
Asian Highway, which could lead to the possible                 Seventeenth World Road Congress would be held at
emergence of a regional convention.                             Sydney, Australia, in 1983 and hoped that ESCAP
                                                                member countries would participate.
592. The Commission recognized the urgent need
to improve traffic safety in the region and suggested
increasing public awareness and introducing traffic             Air transport
accident recording and analysis systems. It urged the
member countries gradually to implement the 1968                599. The Commission noted that many developing
Vienna Conventions on Road Traffic and on Road                  countries of the region continued to face a variety of
Signs and Signals. It also appreciated the secretariat's        problems and handicaps in the development of their
efforts in introducing environmental impact analysis            rapidly growing air cargo transport and consequently

                                                           66
of their international airborne trade. It felt that, the          the transportation of their products to the world
secretariat should playa more active role in the                  markets and felt that activities in that field should be
economic development of air cargo transport. It                   strengthened as early as possible. It noted that in
recommended that l:lrgent attention should be given               developing archipelagic countries, consisting of
to the need to expand and improve air freight, as                 many thousands of islands, air transport was of great
appropriate, for the development of interregional and             importance as an efficient and alternative means for
intraregional trade in the ESCAP region. The                      the carriage of cargoes.
Commission was of the opinion that since air
transport was by nature global, ESCAP activities                  603. The Commission noted that the ESCAP
should be conducted in close co-operation with those              region in general and the South Pacific island
of ICAO and other international organizations.                    countries in particular constituted a potential high-
                                                                  growth area for air cargo transport. It urged the
600. It noted that the international development                  secretariat to undertake in 1982-1983, in close co-
strategy for the transport sector provided that                   operation with ICAO, a cost-benefit-oriented study
developing countries would be enabled, through                    of sea and air cargo, as a first step towards
various measures, to make major advances in air                   implementing a regional transport survey in the
transport, particularly in air cargo transport. It                South Pacific.
recalled that the Commission had supported a
package of activities proposed at its thirty-sixth                General transport planning, research and
session in the field of air cargo transport. It noted             urban transport
that that package had included studies of trade flows
of the ESCAP region to identify commodities                       604. The Commission recognized the need to
capable of being air-freighted advantageously and to              provide for a long-term strategy for the integrated
establish areas of air traffic complementarities;                 development of inland transport. It noted that the
workshops to increase awareness among the                         trend which had been outlined in recent years and
interested governmental and private parties to take               duly reflected in the secretariat's documents towards
advantage of the economic aspects of air cargo                    an integrated approach to transport problems should
transport; other studies on the possible establishment            be further strengthened. It commended the secretariat
of air cargo complexes, cargo consolidation,                      on having sent a roving mission of transport experts
improved packaging for goods and the air freight rate             to Bangladesh recently to assist in the development
structure; and the launching of a programme for                   of an integrated rural/feeder transport system. It
institutionalizing shippers' co-operation with regard             supported the secretariat's role as a clearing-house in
to air cargo transport. With regard to the proposed               disseminating continuous and regular information in
seminar on the economic aspects of air cargo                      all fields of transport, communications and tourism
transport, the Commission noted with gratitude the                through its bulletin. It noted with gratutude the offers
renewed and extensive offer of the Government of                  made by several delegations to provide information
India to provide the necessary funds and host                     for publication.
facilities for holding the seminar in 1981 or early in
1982. It also noted with gratitude the offer of the               605. The Commission strongly supported the
Government of the USSR to prepare studies on the                  research programmes of the secretariat and, in
elaboration of analytical methods applicable to the               particular, the ongoing programme on improvement
marketing of air cargo and passenger transportation               of access to isolated communities in the context of
in the region. It further noted that the study entitled           integrated rural development. Several countries
"International air passenger and freight transport,               expressed interest in participating in those
Asia and the Pacific" had been issued by ICAO at                  programmes. The Commission took note of the
the end of 1980 and would be used as one of the                   request of Nepal for assistance from the secretariat in
major inputs for the seminar.                                     introducing container transport by rail and road for
                                                                  its international trade and requested the secretariat to
601. The Commission noted with satisfaction the                   cover that activity in its studies on containerization.
continued co-operation between ESCAP and ICAO,
the exchange of all information, particularly on                  606. The Commission expressed its serious
facilitation measures, and the implementation of the              concern over the fact that rapid and uncontrolled
combined ICAO/UNCTAD/ESCAP/FAO study on                           urbanization had complicated urban transport
air freight development in Afghanistan, Bangladesh,               problems. It regretted that the secretariat had not
Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal.                                       been able, for lack of resources, to undertake an in-
                                                                  depth comparative study of existing transport
602. The Commission took note of the need to                      conditions and problems in a number of large cities
develop further the air cargo transport of the land-              in the region in order to identify specific and
locked, least developed and island countries. It also             common problems, with a view to drawing up a set
noted the need of some countries to link remote                   of relevant guidelines to assist planners in the region
mountainous and other parts of their territories by air           in planning their urban transport systems. It urged
in order to promote tourism and foreign trade. It                 prospective donor countries to support that crucial
recognized that the main problem of land-locked and               and important activity in the 1982-1983 biennium
island                  countries                 was             work programme.
                                                           (67)
607. The Commission noted with satisfaction,                    tioning of national facilitation committees. It felt that
however, that, within the context of energy                     such bodies at the national level would go a long
conservation, the secretariat had given due attention           way towards devising and developing facilitation
to the improvement of public transport systems.                 measures to overcome the bottle-necks and attaining
Urban traffic congestion caused by the' ever-                   a smooth flow of international trade and traffic. To
increasing use of private passenger cars might be               that effect, it considered that a model constitution
resolved only by gradually switching individual                 being prepared by the secretariat for national
passenger traffic to public transportation systems or           facilitation committees would provide the needed
by improving integrated urban development with the              guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of those
aim of minimizing the need for motorized trip-                  committees.
making and/or optimizing the use of public
transportation facilities. The Commission                       612      It noted with appreciation the close working
recommended the reappraisal of rail public transport            relationship between ESCAP and UNCTAD on trade
as the most suitable mode of mass rapid transit,                facilitation and felt that the achievements of other
particularly in those larger cities of the region where
                                                                international organizations in the field of facilitation
substantial railway facilities already existed within
                                                                of international traffic should be duly taken into
the urban area, and with respect to intercity transport.
It noted with gratitude the offer of the Government             account by the secretariat in carrying out its activities
of the USSR to make available its considerable                  in that area.
experience in the development of public transport
and its readiness to share that experience with                 Telecommunication
developing countries through the convening of a
seminar in the USSR.                                            613. The Commission, in emphasizing the role of
                                                                telecommunication as a vital economic sector, urged
Facilitation of international traffic                           developing member countries to adopt appropriate
                                                                technology in that important field. It also recognized
608. The Commission felt that the secretariat                   that an efficient system of telecommunication
should intensify its efforts to provide the necessary           contributed to energy conservation and the
guidance to the member countries on developing                  development of trade and commerce and provided
facilitation measures for the international movement            the essential infra-structure for health and education.
of their goods and traffic. In that context, emphasis
was laid on standardization of technical                        614. It noted that ITU, in close co-operation with
specifications of transport equipment, vehicles and             ESCAP and the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT),
infrastructure, and harmonization of transport                  had provided assistance to countries of the region in
legislation, customs regulations and other border-              the planning, maintenance and introduction of new
crossing formalities.                                           technologies in the telecommunication sector, and in
                                                                manpower development. It further noted that the new
609. The Commission noted with appreciation that                area of assistance, namely, broadcasting and
the study to be undertaken by the secretariat on                television planning and training, had been intensified
frontier formalities and procedures would be very               through the placing of a planning expert in the
useful to the countries in terms of formulating                 ESCAP/ITU Unit, and a training expert at the Asian
measures to remove transport and trade bottle-necks.            Institute of Broadcasting Development at Kuala
It felt that the seminar on the subject to be held              Lumpur. Several delegations expressed the hope that
towards the end of 1981 would provide a useful                  ESCAP would take steps to facilitate the accession to
forum in which particularly the officers involved in            APT of non-member countries and that ESCAP
the application of frontier formalities could discuss           would carry out its activities in close co-ordination
the factors currently inhibiting , them and formulate
                                                                with APT.
recommendations that could be implemented easily.

610. The Commission stressed the benefits                       615. The Commission emphasized the importance
accruing from the acceptance and application of                 of rural telecommunication and telecommunication
international instruments relative to the promotion of          maintenance to the least developed, land-locked and
international traffic and urged the secretariat to              island countries of the region. It noted with
continue to take the necessary promotional steps in             satisfaction that the activities of the ESCAP/ITU
that regard. It also felt that the secretariat should           Unit would be intensified in that vital area.
provide the necessary assistance to the countries in
the implementation of the United Nations                        Postal services
Convention on International Multimodal Transport
of Goods after its entry into force. To that effect, the        616. The Commission noted with regret that
Commission considered that a seminar on the                     ESCAP's activities in the postal field had remained
international multimodal transport of goods would be            suspended for quite some time. It urged the
of great advantage to the countries of the region.              secretariat to increase its efforts to reactivate postal
                                                                activities. It urged UNDP and donor countries to
611. It noted with satisfaction the steps being                 provide financial support, technical assistance and
undertaken by the countries in the establishment and            postal experts so that ESCAP could revive its
func-                                                           activities in postal services to meet the
                                                           67
607. The Commission noted with satisfaction,                    tioning of national facilitation committees. It felt that
however, that, within the context of energy                     such bodies at the national level would go a long
conservation, the secretariat had given due attention           way towards devising and developing facilitation
to the improvement of public transport systems.                 measures to overcome the bottle-necks and attaining
Urban traffic congestion caused by the' ever-                   a smooth flow of international trade and traffic. To
increasing use of private passenger cars might be               that effect, it considered that a model constitution
resolved only by gradually switching individual                 being prepared by the secretariat for national
passenger traffic to public transportation systems or           facilitation committees would provide the needed
by improving integrated urban development with the              guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of those
aim of minimizing the need for motorized trip-                  committees.
making and/or optimizing the use of public
transportation facilities. The Commission                       612      It noted with appreciation the close working
recommended the reappraisal of rail public transport            relationship between ESCAP and UNCTAD on trade
as the most suitable mode of mass rapid transit,                facilitation and felt that the achievements of other
particularly in those larger cities of the region where
                                                                international organizations in the field of facilitation
substantial railway facilities already existed within
                                                                of international traffic should be duly taken into
the urban area, and with respect to intercity transport.
It noted with gratitude the offer of the Government             account by the secretariat in carrying out its activities
of the USSR to make available its considerable                  in that area.
experience in the development of public transport
and its readiness to share that experience with                 Telecommunication
developing countries through the convening of a
seminar in the USSR.                                            613. The Commission, in emphasizing the role of
                                                                telecommunication as a vital economic sector, urged
Facilitation of international traffic                           developing member countries to adopt appropriate
                                                                technology in that important field. It also recognized
608. The Commission felt that the secretariat                   that an efficient system of telecommunication
should intensify its efforts to provide the necessary           contributed to energy conservation and the
guidance to the member countries on developing                  development of trade and commerce and provided
facilitation measures for the international movement            the essential infra-structure for health and education.
of their goods and traffic. In that context, emphasis
was laid on standardization of technical                        614. It noted that ITU, in close co-operation with
specifications of transport equipment, vehicles and             ESCAP and the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT),
infrastructure, and harmonization of transport                  had provided assistance to countries of the region in
legislation, customs regulations and other border-              the planning, maintenance and introduction of new
crossing formalities.                                           technologies in the telecommunication sector, and in
                                                                manpower development. It further noted that the new
609. The Commission noted with appreciation that                area of assistance, namely, broadcasting and
the study to be undertaken by the secretariat on                television planning and training, had been intensified
frontier formalities and procedures would be very               through the placing of a planning expert in the
useful to the countries in terms of formulating                 ESCAP/ITU Unit, and a training expert at the Asian
measures to remove transport and trade bottle-necks.            Institute of Broadcasting Development at Kuala
It felt that the seminar on the subject to be held              Lumpur. Several delegations expressed the hope that
towards the end of 1981 would provide a useful                  ESCAP would take steps to facilitate the accession to
forum in which particularly the officers involved in            APT of non-member countries and that ESCAP
the application of frontier formalities could discuss           would carry out its activities in close co-ordination
the factors currently inhibiting , them and formulate
                                                                with APT.
recommendations that could be implemented easily.

610. The Commission stressed the benefits                       615. The Commission emphasized the importance
accruing from the acceptance and application of                 of rural telecommunication and telecommunication
international instruments relative to the promotion of          maintenance to the least developed, land-locked and
international traffic and urged the secretariat to              island countries of the region. It noted with
continue to take the necessary promotional steps in             satisfaction that the activities of the ESCAP/ITU
that regard. It also felt that the secretariat should           Unit would be intensified in that vital area.
provide the necessary assistance to the countries in
the implementation of the United Nations                        Postal services
Convention on International Multimodal Transport
of Goods after its entry into force. To that effect, the        616. The Commission noted with regret that
Commission considered that a seminar on the                     ESCAP's activities in the postal field had remained
international multimodal transport of goods would be            suspended for quite some time. It urged the
of great advantage to the countries of the region.              secretariat to increase its efforts to reactivate postal
                                                                activities. It urged UNDP and donor countries to
611. It noted with satisfaction the steps being                 provide financial support, technical assistance and
undertaken by the countries in the establishment and            postal experts so that ESCAP could revive its
func-                                                           activities in postal services to meet the
                                                           68
urgent requirements of developing member                        620. The Commission appreciated the assistance
countries. The Commission noted with satisfaction               provided by the secretariat for the Lumbini project.
that the secretariat's close co-operation with UPU,
the Asian Oceanic Postal Union (AOPU) and the                   621. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
Asian Oceanic Postal Training School had been                   successful completion of the ESCAP/WTO Seminar-
intensified and would continue to be broadened in               cum-Workshop on Investment and Financing of
the future. It took note of and supported the UPU               Tourism Development Projects and Related
projects for the development of postal services, such           Infrastructures in February 1980 and hoped that its
as the extension of the ongoing project for the                 recommendations would be implemented. It also
development of postal services in east Asia and the             noted with appreciation the assistance provided by
Pacific, the new project with the same objectives for           the secretariat to Pakistan, for identification of the
the least developed countries of western and south              basic problems in tourism development and studies
Asia, the training of experts in the region within the          on development methodology of mountain resorts in
framework of TCDC and the establishment of a                    northern Pakistan, and to Sri Lanka, on the problems
study and research centre which would assist the                of tourism development. It further noted that the
countries of the region in postal planning. It also             secretariat had undertaken a study relating to the
took note of the request by AOPU that ESCAP                     introduction of the TCDC mechanism in tourism.
should assist in the provision of funds for
fellowships.                                                    622. The Commission supported the efforts of the
                                                                secretariat to develop a core-group capacity through
617. The Commission noted the increasing                        intrasecretariat co-ordination to combine expertise in
importance of postal services in the region along               relevant disciplines and through co-operation with
with the growing rates of literacy and of migration             international agencies such as UNEP, ILO and
from rural to urban areas. It also noted that the               WTO.
secretariat had not been able to hold the ESCAP/
UPU/AOPU symposium on postal strategies for the                 623. One delegation expressed its reservations as
1980s as directed by the Commission at its thirty-              to the expansion of the tourism activities at a time
sixth session owing to the budgetary constraints of             when programme costs were rising and budgetary
UNDP. It urged that the symposium be held in 1981               expansion was of concern to Governments and
or early 1982 and requested UNDP or donor
                                                                stressed the need to co-operate fully with existing
countries to provide the necessary resources for that
                                                                tourism organizations in the region, especially WTO,
important activity. It appreciated the offer of the
Government of India to share its managerial and                 to prevent duplication of effort. To that end and to
technical expertise with member countries of the                attain a sharper focus on tourism activities, the
region and noted with gratitude the offer of the                Commission urged the secretariat to work closely
Government of the USSR to host a seminar on postal              with and avail itself of the resources of WTO, which,
technology.                                                     by virtue of a WTO-UNDP agreement, had become
                                                                the executing agency for the implementation of all
                                                                UNDP financial and technical assistance projects and
Tourism                                                         programmes in tourism.

618. The Commission, while recognizing that                     624. It noted with satisfaction that the secretariat
tourism was a new economic activity for most                    planned to organize a seminar-cum-workshop on
developing member countries of the region,                      tourism manpower development in 1981, jointly with
emphasized the need for ESCAP to give increased                 ILO and WTO.
assistance to the member countries in that field. It
noted that, to meet the urgent requirements of those            625. It noted with gratitude the financial support of
countries, the secretariat should compile relevant              the Government of Japan, which would strengthen
data and information and initiate policy-oriented               ESCAP tourism activities, and the offer of the
research covering all the relevant parameters in the            Government of India to accept trainees from other
social, economic and environmental aspects. It                  member countries on a preferential basis in its hotel
further recognized that the problems of tourism                 training courses in both the public and the private
research were not only multidisciplinary and                    sectors.
complex in character but deserved to be looked at
and studied from regional and subregional                       626. In reviewing the proposed programme of
perspectives.                                                   work and priorities, 1982-1983, in the fields of
                                                                transport, communications and tourism, the
619. The Commission recognized that in the                      Commission noted that there were some important
context of Pacific island countries, while assessing            projects which required financial assistance. It noted
the economic impacts of tourism on other sectors of             with appreciation the offer made by the USSR to
the economy, due account should be taken of their               assist the secretariat in the implementation of its
peculiar development environment. It also noted that            activities, particularly in the modernization of freight
for the land-locked countries, the integration of               transport and a study on automation in technical
transport and other elements of infrastructures and             aspects of railway transport. It was felt that the
facilitation measures was a prerequisite for the                secretariat should also hold consultations with
effective promotion of international tourism.                   interested donor member Governments to ensure

                                                         (69)
that a correct assessment was made of the relative            that regard, the essential elements of the secretariat's
priorities of its activities.                                 programme on environmental awareness as outlined
                                                              in document E/ESCAP/205 were generally endorsed.
627. The Commission, in stressing the crucial
importance of air cargo transport to developing               633. The Commission noted the progress made at
countries of the region' as stipulated in the new             the national level for the development and
International Development Strategy, noted that                strengthening of institutional and legislative
activities in those fields were not adequately                frameworks for environmental protection and
reflected in the proposed programme of work and               management. However, in view of the scope and
priorities, 1982-1983, or in the draft medium-term            extent of the work involved, it was suggested that
plan, 1984-1989. It recommended that more action-             efforts should be continued, particularly in the field
oriented activities, as already endorsed by the               of development and enforcement of environmental
Commission at its thirty-sixth session, should be             protection legislation in specific areas of concern to
included in the programme of work and priorities,             the region. In that connexion, the need to develop
1982-1983.                                                    environmental quality standards and environmental
                                                              impact assessment guidelines was emphasized.
628. The Commission expressed its gratitude for
the generous assistance provided to the secretariat by        634. Environmental management of terrestrial eco-
member Governments and various organizations for              systems, particularly of arid and semi-arid lands, was
the implementation of its programmes in the fields of         considered to be an important area of concern which
transport, communications and tourism. In particular,         needed further attention at the national as well as the
it acknowledged the assistance rendered by the                regional level. In that regard, the secretariat's effort
Governments of Bangladesh, Belgium, France, the               in organizing a regional technical workshop on the
Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, the                implementation of the Plan of Action to Combat
Netherlands, Pakistan, the USSR and the United                Desertification, scheduled to be held late in
Kingdom. It hoped that such assistance would                  September 1981 with extra budgetary assistance
continue to be provided for future activities in those        provided by the Government of Australia, was
vital sectors.                                                commended. The Commission also expressed its
                                                              appreciation to the Government of the USSR for its
                                                              offer to assist the secretariat in the collection and
Environment                                                   dissemination of information on the management of
                                                              terrestrial ecosystems.
629  The Commission considered documents E/
ESCAP/190 and E/ESCAP/205.                                    635. The Commission expressed its concern
                                                              regarding the problem of deforestation in the region,
630. It noted with satisfaction the progress made             which was proceeding at an alarming rate, and
so far in implementing resolution 202 (XXXVI) and
                                                              suggested that the secretariat should undertake a
suggested that the secretariat should continue its
                                                              special study on the problem with a view to assisting
efforts by ensuring that environmental considerations
were taken into account in the activities of the              the countries of the region in minimizing the
Commission and implementing its programme of                  environmental hazards associated with deforestation
work on the environment in the priority areas as              in an integrated context of watershed management.
identified by the Commission. The Commission                  The Commission endorsed the secretariat's proposal
reiterated its support for the establishment of the           to undertake a study on mountain ecosystems of the
Environmental Co-ordinating Unit in the Office of             region, for which the necessary technical and
the Executive Secretary and expressed its                     extrabudgetary assistance was under consideration
appreciation to UNEP and other bilateral donors for           by the Government of New Zealand.
providing extrabudgetary assistance to fulfil the
environmental objectives of the Commission.                   636. With regard to the protection of the marine
                                                              environment and related ecosystems, the
631. With respect to legislative arrangements, the            Commission expressed its appreciation to the
Commission noted that the theme of the Committee              Government of Sweden for the assistance being
on Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and the            provided to the secretariat for the development and
Environment at its fifth session, to be held in               implementation of a regional project. The
September 1981, would be human settlements and                Commission noted the essential components of that
the environment. The Commission endorsed the idea             regional project: (a) development of master plans;
of convening an ad hoc working group of experts on            (b) education and training programmes in the field of
the environment every alternate year and suggested            marine environmental protection; (c) provision of
that the first session of that group should be                consultancy services on technological and legislative
convened in 1982.                                             aspects; and (d) development of a programme of
                                                              public information. In view of the severe
632. The Commission emphasized the importance                 deterioration of the marine environment and related
and usefulness of the secretariat's programme in              ecosystems in the region, the Commission felt that
enhancing environmental awareness in the region               such a project, which was designed to provide
through dissemination and exchange of information             specific assistance to the countries, would be very
and publication of bulletins and feature articles on          useful. The Commission also noted with satisfaction
the                environment.                   In          the         progress         made       in        the
                                                         69
that a correct assessment was made of the relative            that regard, the essential elements of the secretariat's
priorities of its activities.                                 programme on environmental awareness as outlined
                                                              in document E/ESCAP/205 were generally endorsed.
627. The Commission, in stressing the crucial
importance of air cargo transport to developing               633. The Commission noted the progress made at
countries of the region' as stipulated in the new             the national level for the development and
International Development Strategy, noted that                strengthening of institutional and legislative
activities in those fields were not adequately                frameworks for environmental protection and
reflected in the proposed programme of work and               management. However, in view of the scope and
priorities, 1982-1983, or in the draft medium-term            extent of the work involved, it was suggested that
plan, 1984-1989. It recommended that more action-             efforts should be continued, particularly in the field
oriented activities, as already endorsed by the               of development and enforcement of environmental
Commission at its thirty-sixth session, should be             protection legislation in specific areas of concern to
included in the programme of work and priorities,             the region. In that connexion, the need to develop
1982-1983.                                                    environmental quality standards and environmental
                                                              impact assessment guidelines was emphasized.
628. The Commission expressed its gratitude for
the generous assistance provided to the secretariat by        634. Environmental management of terrestrial eco-
member Governments and various organizations for              systems, particularly of arid and semi-arid lands, was
the implementation of its programmes in the fields of         considered to be an important area of concern which
transport, communications and tourism. In particular,         needed further attention at the national as well as the
it acknowledged the assistance rendered by the                regional level. In that regard, the secretariat's effort
Governments of Bangladesh, Belgium, France, the               in organizing a regional technical workshop on the
Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, the                implementation of the Plan of Action to Combat
Netherlands, Pakistan, the USSR and the United                Desertification, scheduled to be held late in
Kingdom. It hoped that such assistance would                  September 1981 with extra budgetary assistance
continue to be provided for future activities in those        provided by the Government of Australia, was
vital sectors.                                                commended. The Commission also expressed its
                                                              appreciation to the Government of the USSR for its
                                                              offer to assist the secretariat in the collection and
Environment                                                   dissemination of information on the management of
                                                              terrestrial ecosystems.
629  The Commission considered documents E/
ESCAP/190 and E/ESCAP/205.                                    635. The Commission expressed its concern
                                                              regarding the problem of deforestation in the region,
630. It noted with satisfaction the progress made             which was proceeding at an alarming rate, and
so far in implementing resolution 202 (XXXVI) and
                                                              suggested that the secretariat should undertake a
suggested that the secretariat should continue its
                                                              special study on the problem with a view to assisting
efforts by ensuring that environmental considerations
were taken into account in the activities of the              the countries of the region in minimizing the
Commission and implementing its programme of                  environmental hazards associated with deforestation
work on the environment in the priority areas as              in an integrated context of watershed management.
identified by the Commission. The Commission                  The Commission endorsed the secretariat's proposal
reiterated its support for the establishment of the           to undertake a study on mountain ecosystems of the
Environmental Co-ordinating Unit in the Office of             region, for which the necessary technical and
the Executive Secretary and expressed its                     extrabudgetary assistance was under consideration
appreciation to UNEP and other bilateral donors for           by the Government of New Zealand.
providing extrabudgetary assistance to fulfil the
environmental objectives of the Commission.                   636. With regard to the protection of the marine
                                                              environment and related ecosystems, the
631. With respect to legislative arrangements, the            Commission expressed its appreciation to the
Commission noted that the theme of the Committee              Government of Sweden for the assistance being
on Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and the            provided to the secretariat for the development and
Environment at its fifth session, to be held in               implementation of a regional project. The
September 1981, would be human settlements and                Commission noted the essential components of that
the environment. The Commission endorsed the idea             regional project: (a) development of master plans;
of convening an ad hoc working group of experts on            (b) education and training programmes in the field of
the environment every alternate year and suggested            marine environmental protection; (c) provision of
that the first session of that group should be                consultancy services on technological and legislative
convened in 1982.                                             aspects; and (d) development of a programme of
                                                              public information. In view of the severe
632. The Commission emphasized the importance                 deterioration of the marine environment and related
and usefulness of the secretariat's programme in              ecosystems in the region, the Commission felt that
enhancing environmental awareness in the region               such a project, which was designed to provide
through dissemination and exchange of information             specific assistance to the countries, would be very
and publication of bulletins and feature articles on          useful. The Commission also noted with satisfaction
the                environment.                   In          the         progress         made       in        the
                                                         70
development of the South Pacific regional                        resolution 202 (XXXVI), in which it had called upon
environmental programme being implemented by                     the Executive Secretary to promote and support
SPC, SPEC, UNEP and ESCAP.                                       regional co-operation in the area of the environment.
                                                                 The Commission also noted with satisfaction the
637. Several' delegations expressed concern over                 subregional co-operation on the environment
environmental hazards due to the increased use of                constituted by the establishment of the South Asia
agro-chemicals, pesticides and mineral exploration               Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP) at
and exploitation. With regard to the exploration and             the high-level meeting held at Colombo in February
exploitation of mineral resources, the attention of the          1981, the formal acceptance of the articles of
Commission was drawn to the need to provide                      association of the Programme and the adoption of a
assistance in environmental impact assessment of                 common declaration on the subject. The Commission
such activities. The Commission further noted the
concern expressed by a number of delegations over                was pleased to note that the secretariat's programme
the possible environmental hazards of nuclear waste              of work in the field of the environment had so far
disposal on the marine environment in the Pacific                been implemented in close co-operation with other
subregion.                                                       agencies and in particular with UNEP. In that regard,
                                                                 the joint programming exercise between ESCAP and
638. The Commission supported the idea of                        UNEP and the joint annual review between ESCAP
undertaking a study and convening an expert group                and FAO were particularly noted and the
meeting on the methods and cost of industrial                    continuation of such practices was recommended.
pollution control in 1981, for which the Government              The representative of UNEP emphasized the role and
of Japan had decided to provide extrabudgetary                   functions of his organization at the regional level,
funds.                                                           which were primarily carried out through four
                                                                 subprogrammes : (a) SACEP; (b) the South Pacific
639. With regard to environmental monitoring and                 regional environment programme; (c) the ASEAN
assessment, the Commission welcomed the offer of                 environment programme; and (d) the environment
the Government of France to provide two short-term               programme of the Mekong Committee. He also
experts and one long-term regional expert on the                 referred to the statement made by the representative
application of remote sensing technology to                      of UNEP concerning the financial assistance
environmental monitoring, particularly in the fields             extended to ESCAP since 1976, totaling more than
of desertification and the marine environment. The               $US 1.4 million, of which $US 286,000 had been
Commission also suggested that the secretariat                   provided in 1980-1981. The representative of FAO
should maintain close co-operation and co-ordination             stressed the need for further collaboration between
with the United Nations Statistical Office, which was            ESCAP and FAO in the field of the environmental
currently engaged in developing a framework on
environmental statistics.                                        aspects of food and agriculture, particularly since the
                                                                 four priority areas decided on by the Commission at
640. The Commission supported the idea of                        its thirty-fifth session had relevance to the FAO
undertaking a study on eco-development                           programme of work at the regional level.
methodology and suggested that the secretariat
should take the lead in establishing a group of
experts on eco-development.                                      Information systems and documentation services

641. The Commission noted with satisfaction the                  644. The Commission, which had before it
training courses on environmental management and                 document E/ESCAP/229, recognized the need for
development in the USSR conducted jointly by                     Governments to make the best use of existing
APDI and the Higher Economic Courses of the                      information, through well-organized information
USSR State Planning Committee in collaboration                   systems, as a means of promoting social and
with UNEP. The Commission also noted the offer of                economic development. It therefore welcomed the
the USSR to developing countries to take part in a               steps taken by the secretariat to strengthen its role as
number of USSR/UNEP projects as well as its                      a clearing-house for information in the region and to
intention to provide the Commission with relevant                promote the management of information within
project documents to facilitate co-operation between             member Governments through its regional
ESCAP and the USSR in the field of the                           programme.
environment.
                                                                 645. The Commission recognized that the main
642. The Commission, in considering the                          obstacle hindering the wider use of existing
programme of work for 1982-1983 and the medium-
term plan for 1984-1989, as presented in documents               information in government lay in the lack of
E/ESCAP/217 and E/ESCAP/218 respectively, was                    centralized high-level co-ordination of information.
of the opinion that readjustment of the programme of             Although at both its first and second sessions the
work and the medium-term plan might be necessary,                Study Group on the Co-ordination of Government
depending upon the availability of resources or in the           Information Systems had urged the establishment of
light of changed conditions calling for a revision of            the necessary co-ordinating mechanisms, it was
priorities.                                                      noted that little progress had so far been made in that
                                                                 respect. The Commission urged that a high-level
643. As to the question of co-operation with other               decision be taken by member Governments to set up
agencies, the Commission noted the relevant part of              the       necessary         central        mechanism,

                                                          (71)
in accordance with the recommendations of the                   strengthen its traditional role as a focal point for the
Study Group.                                                    exchange of information pertinent to the economic
                                                                and social development of the region.
646. In that context, the offer of the Government
of Japan to host later in 1981 an intergovernmental             652. The Commission stressed the need for the
meeting on information systems in the ESCAP                     wider dissemination of ESCAP-generated
region was particularly appreciated. Such a meeting             information to member countries. For that purpose,
would make it possible to discuss major issues such             the ESCAP library should establish closer contact
as policies for future direction and fundamental                with the national libraries and libraries dealing with
technical problems relating to government                       socio-economic subjects, to make sure that the
information systems.                                            maximum use was made of its documentation
                                                                services, and also to avoid unnecessary duplication
647. The Commission noted with appreciation the                 of work in developing future systems and services.
continuation of the substantial support from the
Government of France for the regional programme in              653. The contribution made by the Federal
government information systems through the funding              Republic of Germany through the provision of the
of two sessions of the Study Group on the subject in            services of a computer systems analyst for the
1979 and 1981 and the provision of a regional
                                                                development of bibliographic indexing methods was
adviser on administrative information systems and
data processing, whose services had been widely                 noted with appreciation. His design of a "single-
requested by member States.                                     search" system for the retrieval of information
                                                                covering all classes of internally held documents
648. The Commission also welcomed the co-                       would greatly improve documents management.
operation received from the Data for Development
International Association and the Spatial-Oriented              654. It was observed that the installation of
Referencing System Association, which had                       computers in the secretariat and in some of the main
provided valuable guidance and consulting services              libraries of the region would permit the exchange of
in the design of the regional programme in                      bibliographic data in machine-readable form and that
government information systems and geocoding.                   on-line linkages should be considered at a later stage.

649. The contribution of a computer systems                     655. The Commission took note of the growing
analyst through funding in the context of the project           exchange of trade information between member
on integrated rural development by the Government               States, in which national centres would form links to
of the Netherlands for strengthening the information            sources of external trade data and serve as the core of
aspects of the secretariat's rural development                  trade information for export promotion and market
programme was noted with appreciation. That expert              research types of activities. It welcomed the
would help to improve the accessibility of externally           facilitation of the transfer of those data through the
held information on rural development to member                 mechanism of the secretariat.
countries through development of a regional
mechanism for the exchange of information.
Additionally, he would assist in improving the co-              Integrated rural development
ordination of information on rural development
within member States and also promote the                       656. The Commission considered document E/
establishment of a data system at the district level for        ESCAP/224.
decision making and planning as a pilot project in a
selected member State. Those activities would be                657. The Commission was informed of the latest
closely co-ordinated with the programme on                      position with regard to the implementation of the
government information systems.                                 ESCAP integrated programme on rural development
                                                                (06) for the biennium 1980-1981 as well as the
650. The Commission commended the                               regional interagency programme on integrated rural
establishment of an Advisory Board on Information               development. It was reported that of the 45 activities
Systems within the secretariat, under the                       included in the ESCAP programme in that field, 3
chairmanship of the Deputy Executive Secretary, to              had been completed, 28 were at various stages of
set general guidelines for the development, co-                 execution and another 13 awaited funding. One
ordination and operation of the various information
                                                                project relating to the mobile training scheme had
systems within the secretariat. It felt that the wider
involvement of high-level decision makers at the                already been proposed for deletion. It was further
central level in the over-all management of                     reported that in addition to the guidelines given by
information would lead to much better information               the legislative committees concerning various
management practices and that that principle was                sectoral activities related to rural development, the
applicable not only to the secretariat but also to              recommendations of the World Conference on
member States.                                                  Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (July
                                                                1979) and of the regional Ad Hoc Intergovernmental
651. The Commission expressed its warmest                       Meeting on Integrated Rural Development
appreciation of the generosity of the Government of             (December 1979) had provided the broad framework
Japan in presenting a computer system to the                    within which individual activities were being
secretariat                                      to             planned         and         implemented.        With

                                                           71
in accordance with the recommendations of the                   strengthen its traditional role as a focal point for the
Study Group.                                                    exchange of information pertinent to the economic
                                                                and social development of the region.
646. In that context, the offer of the Government
of Japan to host later in 1981 an intergovernmental             652. The Commission stressed the need for the
meeting on information systems in the ESCAP                     wider dissemination of ESCAP-generated
region was particularly appreciated. Such a meeting             information to member countries. For that purpose,
would make it possible to discuss major issues such             the ESCAP library should establish closer contact
as policies for future direction and fundamental                with the national libraries and libraries dealing with
technical problems relating to government                       socio-economic subjects, to make sure that the
information systems.                                            maximum use was made of its documentation
                                                                services, and also to avoid unnecessary duplication
647. The Commission noted with appreciation the                 of work in developing future systems and services.
continuation of the substantial support from the
Government of France for the regional programme in              653. The contribution made by the Federal
government information systems through the funding              Republic of Germany through the provision of the
of two sessions of the Study Group on the subject in            services of a computer systems analyst for the
1979 and 1981 and the provision of a regional
                                                                development of bibliographic indexing methods was
adviser on administrative information systems and
data processing, whose services had been widely                 noted with appreciation. His design of a "single-
requested by member States.                                     search" system for the retrieval of information
                                                                covering all classes of internally held documents
648. The Commission also welcomed the co-                       would greatly improve documents management.
operation received from the Data for Development
International Association and the Spatial-Oriented              654. It was observed that the installation of
Referencing System Association, which had                       computers in the secretariat and in some of the main
provided valuable guidance and consulting services              libraries of the region would permit the exchange of
in the design of the regional programme in                      bibliographic data in machine-readable form and that
government information systems and geocoding.                   on-line linkages should be considered at a later stage.

649. The contribution of a computer systems                     655. The Commission took note of the growing
analyst through funding in the context of the project           exchange of trade information between member
on integrated rural development by the Government               States, in which national centres would form links to
of the Netherlands for strengthening the information            sources of external trade data and serve as the core of
aspects of the secretariat's rural development                  trade information for export promotion and market
programme was noted with appreciation. That expert              research types of activities. It welcomed the
would help to improve the accessibility of externally           facilitation of the transfer of those data through the
held information on rural development to member                 mechanism of the secretariat.
countries through development of a regional
mechanism for the exchange of information.
Additionally, he would assist in improving the co-              Integrated rural development
ordination of information on rural development
within member States and also promote the                       656. The Commission considered document E/
establishment of a data system at the district level for        ESCAP/224.
decision making and planning as a pilot project in a
selected member State. Those activities would be                657. The Commission was informed of the latest
closely co-ordinated with the programme on                      position with regard to the implementation of the
government information systems.                                 ESCAP integrated programme on rural development
                                                                (06) for the biennium 1980-1981 as well as the
650. The Commission commended the                               regional interagency programme on integrated rural
establishment of an Advisory Board on Information               development. It was reported that of the 45 activities
Systems within the secretariat, under the                       included in the ESCAP programme in that field, 3
chairmanship of the Deputy Executive Secretary, to              had been completed, 28 were at various stages of
set general guidelines for the development, co-                 execution and another 13 awaited funding. One
ordination and operation of the various information
                                                                project relating to the mobile training scheme had
systems within the secretariat. It felt that the wider
involvement of high-level decision makers at the                already been proposed for deletion. It was further
central level in the over-all management of                     reported that in addition to the guidelines given by
information would lead to much better information               the legislative committees concerning various
management practices and that that principle was                sectoral activities related to rural development, the
applicable not only to the secretariat but also to              recommendations of the World Conference on
member States.                                                  Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (July
                                                                1979) and of the regional Ad Hoc Intergovernmental
651. The Commission expressed its warmest                       Meeting on Integrated Rural Development
appreciation of the generosity of the Government of             (December 1979) had provided the broad framework
Japan in presenting a computer system to the                    within which individual activities were being
secretariat                                      to             planned         and         implemented.        With

                                                           72
regard to the interagency programme, the                           under the project on developing a regional
Commission was informed that the report on the                     information network for rural development might
Pangasinan IRD project in the Philippines had been                 overlap the functions of the regional
finalized and submitted to the Government; that a                  intergovernmental body, namely, the Centre for
mission from the International Fund for Agricultural               Integrated Rural .Development for Asia and the
Development (IFAD) in Rome had recently visited                    Pacific (CIRDAP) at Comilla, Bangladesh.
Bangkok and held discussions with the Interagency                  Accordingly, the Commission stressed the need for
Task Force on IRD regarding the financing of the                   adequate consultations with CIRDAP with a view to
integrated atoll development project in Maldives                   avoiding duplication and encouraging
which had been formulated with interagency                         complementarity. The view was also expressed that
assistance; and that further consultations with the                greater attention should be given in future activities
Government and with IFAD were envisaged.                           to the role of agrarian reform and co-operatives in
                                                                   integrated rural development and the need to analyse
658. In the discussions that followed, several                     concrete country experience in that regard and make
delegations referred to the priority attached to rural             it available for the benefit of developing countries.
development in their national development and the
application of the concept of integrated development               660. The Commission expressed appreciation of
of rural areas through concrete action programmes                  the arrangements that had been developed for
and appropriate institutional frameworks. In that                  interagency collaboration and co-ordination among
context, emphasis was given to certain specific                    the United Nations agencies at the regional level in
elements, including decentralization of planning to                the field of rural development. It also welcomed the
local levels, the effective involvement of the                     activities sponsored during the year on an
intended beneficiaries in the entire process of                    interagency basis through the institutionalized
planning, implementation, monitoring and                           mechanism of the Interagency Committee and its
evaluation, a multisectoral approach with balanced                 Task Force. Those included an integrated atoll
                                                                   development planning project in Maldives and an
attention to economic as well as social development,
                                                                   integrated provincial planning project in the
and progressive self-reliance. The Commission noted
                                                                   Philippines. The Commission noted with interest that
that several countries were already pursuing policies
                                                                   preparations were in progress for undertaking two
and implementing programmes incorporating those                    other similar projects, one in Sri Lanka and the other
elements. It felt that while basic responsibility for              in Thailand. The Commission noted with
designing and executing rural development policies                 appreciation the increasing field orientation given to
and programmes rested with the countries                           the programmes through such country-specific
themselves, there was considerable scope for                       projects. It also expressed support for the proposed
developed countries to assist and support the efforts              work on promoting inter-country exchange of
of the developing countries in that regard and for the             information and experience in the field of monitoring
developing countries themselves to learn from and                  and evaluation of rural development programmes
support each other, technically and economically, in               and projects with reference to their involvement of
that process.                                                      and impact on low-income and socially
                                                                   disadvantaged groups. The need to continue and
659. The Commission emphasized that the                            strengthen institutional arrangements that had
usefulness of the activities pursued under the IRD                 already been developed for interagency collaboration
programme by ESCAP and by the Interagency                          in rural development among the concerned United
Committee would be related primarily to the extent                 Nations agencies was underlined.
to which they supported national action and
strengthened national capabilities. In that context,               661. As to the question of resources, one
several countries participating in the ongoing                     representative emphasized the need for ESCAP to
projects under the ESCAP integrated programme                      review the allocation of resources to priority
related to case studies of socio-economic disabilities             programmes, including the integrated programme on
of low-income groups and interaction and                           rural development, vis-à-vis the non-priority
accountability of public agencies involved in rural                programmes, in the context of the freezing of the
development vis-à-vis such groups welcomed that                    level of regular budget allocations from
initiative and expressed the hope that the outcome of              Headquarters for the next biennium. Several
the studies and the comparative analysis of their                  delegations, while expressing appreciation of the
findings would contribute to an improvement of                     support which donors had so far extended to the IRD
national programmes in that area. Similarly                        activities of ESCAP and of the Interagency
appreciation was expressed of the ongoing activities               Committee, emphasized the need for increased
in the field of local-level planning for rural                     financial support by way of extrabudgetary
development as well as organization of small-farmer                contributions for such activities in coming years. In
groups for income-generating activities. The                       that connexion, the Commission welcomed efforts to
Commission emphasized the need for close and                       establish collaboration with funding institutions in
effective interdivisional co-ordination within the                 the Maldives project and appealed to international
secretariat so as to ensure effective use of the limited           development financing agencies to assist through the
resources available and to enhance the over-all                    provision of resources to activities of ESCAP and of
impact of the programme. The view was expressed                    the Interagency Committee in integrated rural
that                                           activities          development in the region.

                                                            (73)
662. The Commission was informed of the steps that               669. The Commission recommended that
had been initiated by FAO to follow up the                       appropriate attention should be given to increasing
recommendations of the World Conference on                       national capacities and facilities of the developing
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. In the                    countries for the training of qualified national
ESCAP region, they included intensification of                   personnel.
programmes for small-fanner development,
development of socio-economic indicators for                     670. The Commission adopted resolution 217
monitoring rural development and a high-level                    (XXXVII) on the role of qualified national personnel
mission to Sri Lanka. The Commission was also                    in the social and economic development of
informed of FAO's participation in and contribution              developing countries.
to the work of the Interagency Committee and its
Task Force. It was further informed of the objectives            The Commission's activities in the Pacific
and scope of work of CIRDAP, the activities it had
undertaken so far and its future plans.                          671. The Commission considered the information
                                                                 contained in document E/ESCAP/201 and was
663. The Commission. noted with appreciation the                 pleased with the tangible progress achieved in the
offer of the USSR to hold a seminar in 1982 through              implementation of resolutions 173 (XXXIII), 188
UNDP on the effects of agricultural development on               (XXXIV) and 208 (XXXVI).
irrigation projects.
                                                                 672. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
Progress report on the implementation of                         establishment of the ESCAP Liaison Office for the
resolution 205 (XXXVI) on the role of qualified                  Pacific in Nauru and welcomed the pending
national personnel in the social and economic                    appointment of an incumbent from the Pacific to the
development of developing countries                              position of permanent liaison Officer. The
                                                                 Commission stressed that sound and practicable
664. The Commission considered document E/                       working arrangements were essential if the
ESCAP/211 and Corr.l.                                            responsibilities of the Office were to be carried out
                                                                 effectively, and the Executive Secretary was to
665. It generally endorsed the secretariat's proposal            ensure that the Pacific Liaison Officer received full
to intensify its training activities, particularly within        support in that respect.
the framework of TCDC, with a view to
implementing the relevant recommendations                        673. The Commission reiterated the importance of
contained in the report of the Administrator of                  co-operation and co-ordination between ESCAP and
UNDP and adopted by the General Assembly in its                  the subregional organizations, such as SPC and
resolution 35/80. It also endorsed the suggestion that           SPEC, so as to avoid duplication of activities and
in view of resource constraints the intensification of           further intensify the participation of the
training activities should be in such priority areas             Governments of Pacific island countries in the
within the ESCAP work programme as energy                        expanding activities of ESCAP. The Commission
planning, trade promotion and development, science               noted that SPC had a mandate from the Pacific island
and technology, integrated rural development,                    countries to implement an atoll self. sufficiency
maritime development and co-operation, public                    programme.
administration and economic development and
planning in general. In that connexion, the                      674. The Commission expressed deep appreciation
Commission emphasized the important role which                   of the numerous consultancy services carried out by
APDC could play in increasing the pool of trained                the United Nations Development Advisory Team
personnel particularly from the least developed,                 (UNDAT) for the South Pacific and commended its
land-locked and island developing countries in the               Team leader on those activities as well as on
ESCAP region, both through the provision of                      discharging the functions of Pacific Liaison Officer
training and through an upgrading of national                    ad interim.
training institutions.
                                                                 675. The Commission noted with appreciation the
666. The Commission urged the secretariat to                     facilities offered for orientation visits to the ESCAP
utilize effectively all available resources to finance           secretariat for officials of the developing Pacific
the intensification of training activities in specified          island countries. In addition to the earlier attachment
priority areas.                                                  of an officer from Fiji, one officer from Tonga had
                                                                 made such a visit early in 1981. The Commission
667. It supported the secretariat's suggestion that              noted that provision had been made for four
the developing countries should consider the                     attachments during 1981 and expressed the hope that
possibility of financing the training of their own               those would be filled. Several delegations from the
nationals in a spirit of self-help.                              Pacific countries indicated that they hoped to avail
                                                                 themselves of those opportunities in 1981. The
668. It welcomed the secretariat's efforts to utilize            Commission suggested that consideration should be
the expertise of developing countries in the                     given by Pacific countries to the possibility of co-
implementation of regional projects as it was felt that          ordinating such attachments and to making their
such an approach would ensure further enhancement                tenure flexible in order to facilitate their release by
of qualified personnel from developing countries.                their Governments.

                                                            73
662. The Commission was informed of the steps that               669. The Commission recommended that
had been initiated by FAO to follow up the                       appropriate attention should be given to increasing
recommendations of the World Conference on                       national capacities and facilities of the developing
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. In the                    countries for the training of qualified national
ESCAP region, they included intensification of                   personnel.
programmes for small-fanner development,
development of socio-economic indicators for                     670. The Commission adopted resolution 217
monitoring rural development and a high-level                    (XXXVII) on the role of qualified national personnel
mission to Sri Lanka. The Commission was also                    in the social and economic development of
informed of FAO's participation in and contribution              developing countries.
to the work of the Interagency Committee and its
Task Force. It was further informed of the objectives            The Commission's activities in the Pacific
and scope of work of CIRDAP, the activities it had
undertaken so far and its future plans.                          671. The Commission considered the information
                                                                 contained in document E/ESCAP/201 and was
663. The Commission. noted with appreciation the                 pleased with the tangible progress achieved in the
offer of the USSR to hold a seminar in 1982 through              implementation of resolutions 173 (XXXIII), 188
UNDP on the effects of agricultural development on               (XXXIV) and 208 (XXXVI).
irrigation projects.
                                                                 672. The Commission noted with satisfaction the
Progress report on the implementation of                         establishment of the ESCAP Liaison Office for the
resolution 205 (XXXVI) on the role of qualified                  Pacific in Nauru and welcomed the pending
national personnel in the social and economic                    appointment of an incumbent from the Pacific to the
development of developing countries                              position of permanent liaison Officer. The
                                                                 Commission stressed that sound and practicable
664. The Commission considered document E/                       working arrangements were essential if the
ESCAP/211 and Corr.l.                                            responsibilities of the Office were to be carried out
                                                                 effectively, and the Executive Secretary was to
665. It generally endorsed the secretariat's proposal            ensure that the Pacific Liaison Officer received full
to intensify its training activities, particularly within        support in that respect.
the framework of TCDC, with a view to
implementing the relevant recommendations                        673. The Commission reiterated the importance of
contained in the report of the Administrator of                  co-operation and co-ordination between ESCAP and
UNDP and adopted by the General Assembly in its                  the subregional organizations, such as SPC and
resolution 35/80. It also endorsed the suggestion that           SPEC, so as to avoid duplication of activities and
in view of resource constraints the intensification of           further intensify the participation of the
training activities should be in such priority areas             Governments of Pacific island countries in the
within the ESCAP work programme as energy                        expanding activities of ESCAP. The Commission
planning, trade promotion and development, science               noted that SPC had a mandate from the Pacific island
and technology, integrated rural development,                    countries to implement an atoll self. sufficiency
maritime development and co-operation, public                    programme.
administration and economic development and
planning in general. In that connexion, the                      674. The Commission expressed deep appreciation
Commission emphasized the important role which                   of the numerous consultancy services carried out by
APDC could play in increasing the pool of trained                the United Nations Development Advisory Team
personnel particularly from the least developed,                 (UNDAT) for the South Pacific and commended its
land-locked and island developing countries in the               Team leader on those activities as well as on
ESCAP region, both through the provision of                      discharging the functions of Pacific Liaison Officer
training and through an upgrading of national                    ad interim.
training institutions.
                                                                 675. The Commission noted with appreciation the
666. The Commission urged the secretariat to                     facilities offered for orientation visits to the ESCAP
utilize effectively all available resources to finance           secretariat for officials of the developing Pacific
the intensification of training activities in specified          island countries. In addition to the earlier attachment
priority areas.                                                  of an officer from Fiji, one officer from Tonga had
                                                                 made such a visit early in 1981. The Commission
667. It supported the secretariat's suggestion that              noted that provision had been made for four
the developing countries should consider the                     attachments during 1981 and expressed the hope that
possibility of financing the training of their own               those would be filled. Several delegations from the
nationals in a spirit of self-help.                              Pacific countries indicated that they hoped to avail
                                                                 themselves of those opportunities in 1981. The
668. It welcomed the secretariat's efforts to utilize            Commission suggested that consideration should be
the expertise of developing countries in the                     given by Pacific countries to the possibility of co-
implementation of regional projects as it was felt that          ordinating such attachments and to making their
such an approach would ensure further enhancement                tenure flexible in order to facilitate their release by
of qualified personnel from developing countries.                their Governments.

                                                            74
676. The Commission noted that difficulties had                  Transnational corporations
been encountered in seeking ways and means of
mitigating the financial and geographical constraints            683. The Commission considered documents E/
which restricted the ability of representatives of               ESCAP/213 and E/ESCAP/223. It endorsed the
Governments of developing Pacific island countries               conclusions and recommendations pertaining to
to attend the Commission session. The Commission                 TNCs in the report of the Committee on
regarded it as important, however, that the matter               Development Planning on its third session, including
should not be lost from sight and requested the                  its recommendation that high-level
                                                                 intergovernmental consultative meetings on TNCs
secretariat to keep it under continuing review.                  should be held in order to promote sharing of
                                                                 experience and regional awareness of TNC issues.
677. The Commission welcomed the various
technical and advisory services, including workshops             684. The Commission observed that the
and seminars, organized by the secretariat in the                involvement of TNCs in the Asian and Pacific region
Pacific in the fields of agriculture, development                had increased both in absolute terms and relative to
planning, industry, housing and technology,                      other developing regions of the world. In addition,
international trade, natural resources, population,              that recent increase in TNC involvement in the
shipping, ports and inland waterways, statistics,                region had been accompanied by a proliferation of
transport, communications and tourism, integrated                new and more complex forms of interface between
rural development, transnational corporations and                TNCs and host developing countries. Joint-venture
women in development.                                            agreements as well as numerous forms of non-equity
                                                                 arrangements such as licensing agreements,
678. The Commission noted that the negotiations                  management and marketing contracts, production
on the law of the sea convention were of vital                   sharing agreements and project financing involving
importance to the developing island countries of the             several transnational banks had rendered the needs of
                                                                 developing countries for greater understanding,
Pacific region and urged the early adoption of the               technical support and information even more
convention. The need for advice and assistance in                pressing if they were to strengthen their negotiating
that connexion was noted.                                        capacities with TNCs.
679. The Commission stressed the importance of                   685. Against that background, the Commission
the proposed regional energy programme to be                     commended the Joint CTC/ESCAP Unit for its work
funded by UNDP, and special emphasis was placed                  in the areas of research, technical co-operation and
on the need to ensure that it was properly co-                   information and strongly endorsed its principal
ordinated with other energy programmes. In that                  objective of increasing the negotiating capacities of
context, reference was made to a study under way by              host developing countries with TNCs. The
SPEC on an appropriate co-ordinating mechanism.                  Commission also emphasized that the Joint Unit's
The Commission agreed that a decision on measures                work should promote regional and subregional co-
of implementation should await the results of the                operation among developing countries so as to
SPEC study.                                                      strengthen their bargaining position with TNCs. The
                                                                 Commission felt that TNC activities should be in
680. The Commission also welcomed the fact that                  conformity with the development requirements and
                                                                 interests of developing countries. The Commission
the Netherlands Government, within its annual grant
                                                                 also stressed that there should be no unnecessary
for the implementation of the ESCAP programme of                 duplication between the work of the Joint Unit and
work, had allocated a special amount for TCDC                    other divisions of ESCAP or with any other United
activities under which it could' well be possible to             Nations or non-United Nations agencies.
support the participation of Pacific experts in
seminars and workshops organized by ESCAP.                       686. The Commission acknowledged that the work
Furthermore, the Netherlands Government expressed                of the Joint Unit in the areas of research, technical
its willingness to consider proposals for funding of             co-operation and information had been carried out on
ECDC projects of a pragmatical nature in the Pacific.            the basis of an extremely modest regular budget,
                                                                 permitting only three Professional staff members.
681. The Commission felt that there was scope for                The Commission therefore expressed its appreciation
increased participation of the Pacific island countries          of the extrabudgetary assistance provided by the
in its activities and that more of its meetings should           Governments of Australia, the Federal Republic of
be held in the Pacific subregion. It noted the                   Germany and the Netherlands as well as UNDP. The
extremely low number of Pacific island nationals in              contribution of many developing countries in the
the secretariat, there being only one among the                  region in providing host facilities for technical
secretariat's permanent staff, and reiterated the                workshops was also noted. The Commission
                                                                 expressed the hope that such funding and co-
desirability of giving further consideration to                  operation would continue, along with an increase in
recruiting more Pacific islanders.                               the allocation of regular budgetary funding to the
                                                                 Joint Unit, by reallocation either within ESCAP or
682. The Commission approved the application of                  from other United Nations regular budgetary
the United States Government for Guam to become                  sources, on the condition that the over-all regular
an associate member of ESCAP.                                    budget
                                                          (75)
of the United Nations should not increase. In that            much appreciated and the Commission
regard, the Commission was pleased to acknowledge             recommended that more regional and country
the announcement by the Netherlands Government                workshops should be held on negotiating with TNCs,
that discussions were currently under way for                 particularly in the area of technology transfer. The
granting extrabudgetary funds to the Joint Unit for           Commission also suggested that such technical co-
work in the fields of information, negotiating issues         operation activities should make use of existing
and research.                                                 national and regional institutions in the field of
687. In the field of research, the Commission noted           technology. In that area of the Joint Unit's work, the
with approval the practicality of the Joint Unit's            Commission recalled that it was the policy of the
work, especially in the area of primary export                Commission on Transnational Corporations that
commodities. Several delegations noted the success            United Nations Secretariat staff and experts should
of the recent Expert Group Meeting on Transnational           not enter into the direct negotiating process between
Corporations in Primary Commodity Export                      Governments and TNCs.
Industries sponsored by the Joint Unit and
recommended that the report of that Meeting should            691. The Commission acknowledged that the Joint
be used as a basis for further research on the topic.         Unit's efforts in collecting, cataloguing and
The Commission also suggested that the Joint Unit's           disseminating information on TNCs and on national
research on TNCs and primary commodity export                 legislation and policies were of direct importance to
industries should focus more on the transfer pricing          the negotiating capacities of host developing
practices of TNCs.                                            countries. It also recognized that the Joint Unit's
                                                              research on the cost of technology transferred from
688. In its deliberations on the Joint Unit's work            TNCs would provide valuable information on TNC
programme, the Commission strongly endorsed the               technology. The Commission therefore
shift in emphasis from primary commodities to the             recommended that serious consideration should be
role of TNCs in transferring technology to                    given to the establishment of a regional or
manufacturing industries and to their involvement in          subregional clearing-house for licensing and
service sectors. The Commission recommended that              technology agreements. The Commission further
particular attention should be given to the role of           emphasized that such information activities of the
State enterprises in international banking and                Joint Unit should avoid unnecessary duplication of
                                                              existing United Nations and non-United Nations
transport and strongly supported the Joint Unit's
                                                              systems.
planned research in the following areas: the cost of
technology transferred from TNCs; the restrictive             692. The view was expressed that the information
business and transfer pricing practices of TNCs; the          activities of the Joint Unit should place priority on
costs and benefits of TNC involvement in export               national legislation and policies pertaining to TNCs
processing zones; the host country linkage effects of         and on information on sources of information.
TNCs; and research on general trading companies.              Proprietary business information should be handled
The Commission noted that the ASEAN component                 so as to protect confidentiality. Furthermore,
of the Joint Unit's research on the cost of technology        information which was not comparable should be so
transferred from TNCs had recently received support           identified and permission should be sought from all
in an ASEAN Boards of Investment forum and                    parties concerned before releasing information on
recognized that such work would contribute                    contracts and agreements with TNCs. The
significantly to subregional co-operation among               Commission noted that CTC had agreed to provide
developing countries.                                         the name of a United States Government official
                                                              whom United States TNCs should contact for
689. The Commission further recommended that                  guidance when approached for information by the
the Joint Unit should undertake the following                 United Nations. The view was expressed that
research: studies on TNCs based within developing             ESCAP should follow a similar procedure.
countries of the region; analysis of the newer forms
of non-equity relationships between TNCs and host             693. The Commission noted that negotiations at
country entities; and the comparison of net capital           the global level for a code of conduct on TNCs were
inflows to developing countries from TNCs with                making rapid progress. However, it suggested that
outflows from such countries due to TNC operations.           the Joint Unit should prepare a paper explaining the
                                                              salient issues of the global negotiations for a code of
690. The Commission commended the Joint Unit                  conduct. That paper should serve as a basis for
on the usefulness of its role, in close collaboration         stimulating a regional dialogue aimed at contributing
with the United Nations Centre on Transnational               to the elimination of the remaining bottle-necks in
Corporations (CTC), in providing direct advisory              those negotiations.
services and technical workshops on TNCs. It
acknowledged that many developing countries in the
region had an insufficient core of trained
professional manpower to permit adequate                      Programme changes, 1981
understanding of the complex operations of TNCs.
The specialized knowledge and negotiating skills              694. The Commission endorsed the following
provided by such advisory and technical services              programme changes for 1981 to the programme of
were                                                          work      and        priorities,    1980-1981 :

                                                         75
of the United Nations should not increase. In that            much appreciated and the Commission
regard, the Commission was pleased to acknowledge             recommended that more regional and country
the announcement by the Netherlands Government                workshops should be held on negotiating with TNCs,
that discussions were currently under way for                 particularly in the area of technology transfer. The
granting extrabudgetary funds to the Joint Unit for           Commission also suggested that such technical co-
work in the fields of information, negotiating issues         operation activities should make use of existing
and research.                                                 national and regional institutions in the field of
687. In the field of research, the Commission noted           technology. In that area of the Joint Unit's work, the
with approval the practicality of the Joint Unit's            Commission recalled that it was the policy of the
work, especially in the area of primary export                Commission on Transnational Corporations that
commodities. Several delegations noted the success            United Nations Secretariat staff and experts should
of the recent Expert Group Meeting on Transnational           not enter into the direct negotiating process between
Corporations in Primary Commodity Export                      Governments and TNCs.
Industries sponsored by the Joint Unit and
recommended that the report of that Meeting should            691. The Commission acknowledged that the Joint
be used as a basis for further research on the topic.         Unit's efforts in collecting, cataloguing and
The Commission also suggested that the Joint Unit's           disseminating information on TNCs and on national
research on TNCs and primary commodity export                 legislation and policies were of direct importance to
industries should focus more on the transfer pricing          the negotiating capacities of host developing
practices of TNCs.                                            countries. It also recognized that the Joint Unit's
                                                              research on the cost of technology transferred from
688. In its deliberations on the Joint Unit's work            TNCs would provide valuable information on TNC
programme, the Commission strongly endorsed the               technology. The Commission therefore
shift in emphasis from primary commodities to the             recommended that serious consideration should be
role of TNCs in transferring technology to                    given to the establishment of a regional or
manufacturing industries and to their involvement in          subregional clearing-house for licensing and
service sectors. The Commission recommended that              technology agreements. The Commission further
particular attention should be given to the role of           emphasized that such information activities of the
State enterprises in international banking and                Joint Unit should avoid unnecessary duplication of
                                                              existing United Nations and non-United Nations
transport and strongly supported the Joint Unit's
                                                              systems.
planned research in the following areas: the cost of
technology transferred from TNCs; the restrictive             692. The view was expressed that the information
business and transfer pricing practices of TNCs; the          activities of the Joint Unit should place priority on
costs and benefits of TNC involvement in export               national legislation and policies pertaining to TNCs
processing zones; the host country linkage effects of         and on information on sources of information.
TNCs; and research on general trading companies.              Proprietary business information should be handled
The Commission noted that the ASEAN component                 so as to protect confidentiality. Furthermore,
of the Joint Unit's research on the cost of technology        information which was not comparable should be so
transferred from TNCs had recently received support           identified and permission should be sought from all
in an ASEAN Boards of Investment forum and                    parties concerned before releasing information on
recognized that such work would contribute                    contracts and agreements with TNCs. The
significantly to subregional co-operation among               Commission noted that CTC had agreed to provide
developing countries.                                         the name of a United States Government official
                                                              whom United States TNCs should contact for
689. The Commission further recommended that                  guidance when approached for information by the
the Joint Unit should undertake the following                 United Nations. The view was expressed that
research: studies on TNCs based within developing             ESCAP should follow a similar procedure.
countries of the region; analysis of the newer forms
of non-equity relationships between TNCs and host             693. The Commission noted that negotiations at
country entities; and the comparison of net capital           the global level for a code of conduct on TNCs were
inflows to developing countries from TNCs with                making rapid progress. However, it suggested that
outflows from such countries due to TNC operations.           the Joint Unit should prepare a paper explaining the
                                                              salient issues of the global negotiations for a code of
690. The Commission commended the Joint Unit                  conduct. That paper should serve as a basis for
on the usefulness of its role, in close collaboration         stimulating a regional dialogue aimed at contributing
with the United Nations Centre on Transnational               to the elimination of the remaining bottle-necks in
Corporations (CTC), in providing direct advisory              those negotiations.
services and technical workshops on TNCs. It
acknowledged that many developing countries in the
region had an insufficient core of trained
professional manpower to permit adequate                      Programme changes, 1981
understanding of the complex operations of TNCs.
The specialized knowledge and negotiating skills              694. The Commission endorsed the following
provided by such advisory and technical services              programme changes for 1981 to the programme of
were                                                          work      and        priorities,    1980-1981 :

                                                         76
Additions                                                      15.02.10        Meeting of experts from interested
                                                                               countries to consider the feasibility of
04.01.05    Regional advisory group on science                                 a CCOP/Indian Ocean
            and technology
                                                               16.02.06        Meeting      on water resources
05.05.17    Evaluation of free trade zones:                                    development in the South Pacific
            performance and prospects
05.05.18    Comparative      studies leading to                18.01.05        Preparations for the United Nations
            regional and subregional co-operation                              Conference on the Least Developed
            on specific issues regarding the                                   Countries, 1981: organization of
            activities of TNCs: transfer pricing,                              review meetings
            technology     transfer and restrictive
            business practices                                 19.02.07        International symposium of experts on
                                                                               technical     co-operation      among
05.05.19    Preparation of a paper explaining the                              developing countries and technical
            salient issues of the global negotiations                          assistance for disabled persons
            for a code of conduct on TNCs aimed
            at stimulating a regional dialogue                 19.02.08        Regional preparatory meeting for the
            contributing to the solution of the
            remaining      bottle-necks in those                               World Assembly on Aging (1982)
            negotiations
                                                               19.03.03        Substantive backstopping of APDC
05.08.05    Assistance to the regional bureau of                               relating to its training and research
            fiscal documentation                                               programmes in social development
05.08.06    Country studies on development                     20.01.04        Preparatory activities for the Third
            progress and problems of foreign                                   Asian and        Pacific Population
            investment                                                         Conference 20.02.13 Regional seminar
                                                                               on approaches to integrated population
07.03.05    Studies in     development planning                                and development activities in planning
            methods                                                            in ESCAP countries
07.04.05    Regional     meeting on input-output
            analysis                                           20.02.14        Improvement      of vital registration
                                                                               systems
08.01.09    Information network on development
            of energy and new resources from                   20.02.15        Demographic, social and economic
            agro-products                                                      con-sequences of fertility decline at
                                                                               the national level
08.01.10    Special measures for the least
            developed     countries    in the                  20.03.12        Study on a mechanism for the
            development of energy and new                                      evaluation       of     integrated
            resources from agro-products                                       programmes of food, nutrition and
08.01.11    Expert group meeting on the                                        health    services and population
            development     of energy and new                                  programmes
            resources from agro-products
                                                               20.04.08        Specific information and clearing-
08.01.12    Regional study on production of                                    house activities for the Third Asian
            alcohol from agro-products                                         and Pacific Population Conference
09.03.14    Meeting of directors of building and               Modifications
            human settlements research institutes
                                                               04.01.02        Implementation    of      the   Vienna
09.06.08    Review and study on the human                                      Programme of Action
            settlements situation
10.02.05    Ad hoc working group meeting of                    05.08.03        Meeting of a panel of eminent persons
            experts on the environment                                         on foreign investment

11.02.09    Assistance to member countries in the              07.01.04        Preparation of the Economic and
            establishment and operation of freight                             Social Survey, 1980
            forwarders' organizations
                                                               07.02.03        Other activities in connexion with the
11.05.08    Meeting of chief executives of inland                              regional input into the development
            waterway authorities                                               strategy for the 1980s
                                                               07.03.02        Training programme on planning
11.06.10    Assistance to member countries in the                              techniques with special reference to
            establishment     of    computer-based                             the Soviet experience
            services for rationalization of shipping           08.01.06        Development of small-scale industries
            space utilization
                                                                               in the long-term perspective
12.03.02(v) Regional seminar          on  urban
            transportation systems with emphasis               09.02.03        Study on rural settlement planning
            on railway transportation
                                                               09.03.09        Study on indigenous construction
15.02.09    Support to CCOP                                                    industries in urban and rural areas
                                                        (77)
09.06.05    Regional congress of local authorities          09.03.12      Financing shelter, infrastructure and
            for development of human settlements                          services for the informal sector in
            in Asia and the Pacific                                       urban and rural areas
                                                            09.03.13      Development of a regional information
10.01.01    Study and expert group meeting on                             system
            methods and costs of industrial
            pollution control                               09.04.02      Recapture of plus land values
                                                            09.06.06      Guidelines for establishing          and
10.01.03    Management of terrestrial ecosystems                          strengthening      institutions       for
                                                                          upgrading low-income settlements in
10.02.03    Expert group meeting on creation and                          urban and rural settings
            enhancement       of    environmental           09.06.07      Strengthening the institutions and
            awareness in the region                                       management component in the
                                                                          information      systems of regional
10.02.04    Protection of the marine environment                          commissions
            and related ecosystems in Asia and the          12.03.15      Studies and investigations to obtain
            Pacific, phase II
                                                                          suitable substitutes for pitching stones
12.03.28    In-depth study of the cost-benefit                            to meet the requirements of the
            aspects of containerization in relation                       Bangladesh Railways where there is an
            to surface      transport,   including                        absolute lack of such materials for
            intermodal aspects 19.01.06 Workshop                          railway bridge and embankment
            on social problems of low-income                              protection works
            urban groups: some legal approaches             19.01.02      Mobile training scheme for the
                                                                          training of trainers, supervisors and
19.02.03    Strengthening the socio-economic                              field-level development personnel in
            aspects of family planning and
            population policies: self-employment                          the developing countries, including the
            and family-life education programme                           least developed, land-locked and sea-
            for young women in rural areas                                locked     countries (corresponds to
                                                                          06.02.08)

                                                            Programme of work and priorities, 1982-1983
Deletions
                                                            695. The Commission considered document E/
06.02.08    Mobile training scheme for the                  ESCAP/ 217, presenting the proposed programme of
            training of trainers, supervisors and           work and priorities, 1982-1983, in a revised format
            field-level development personnel in
            the developing countries, including the         containing annotations for each programme element.
            least developed, land-locked and sea-           It noted that the work programme had been
            locked countries (corresponds to                formulated in consultation with ACPR and
            19.01.02)                                       incorporated the recommendations of the legislative
                                                            committees which had met since the thirty-sixth
07.01.07    Eighth session of the Expert Group on           session. It further noted that the programmes for
            Development Policy and Planning                 which the legislative committees had not met since
                                                            that session would be reviewed in detail by those
07.04.02    Regional seminars       on   long-term          committees in the course of 1981.
            projections
07.04.04    Regional seminars on medium-term                696. The Commission expressed its appreciation of
            projections                                     the improvement in the presentation of the work
                                                            programme but felt that there was still room for
08.01.04    Workshop on export promotion, with              improvement. It also felt that there should be some
            special reference to export processing          indication of the relative priorities accorded to
            zones                                           different programme elements. It was suggested that
                                                            the legislative committees were the most appropriate
08.02.06    Establishment of facilities for training        bodies to set priorities within their sectors of the
            in welding on a subregional basis               work programme. The Commission observed that the
09.03.05    Support to Governments for the                  scarce resources were spread increasingly thin over
            adoption and implementation of                  many diverse activities and therefore stressed the
            housing policies and programmes                 need for further streamlining of the work programme
                                                            to make it more realistic and practical so that it could
09.03.07    Demonstration projects on upgrading             be implemented effectively.
            slums and squatter and         rural
            settlements                                     697. The Commission recommended the following
                                                            changes to the proposed programme of work and
09.03.08    Development of building materials and           priorities, 1982-1983.
            construction industries
09.03.10    Pilot projects on           appropriate         698. In the field of transfer of technology (04), the
            technologies     and standards for              Commission recommended that the following
            infrastructure and services                     specific

                                                       77
09.06.05    Regional congress of local authorities          09.03.12      Financing shelter, infrastructure and
            for development of human settlements                          services for the informal sector in
            in Asia and the Pacific                                       urban and rural areas
                                                            09.03.13      Development of a regional information
10.01.01    Study and expert group meeting on                             system
            methods and costs of industrial
            pollution control                               09.04.02      Recapture of plus land values
                                                            09.06.06      Guidelines for establishing          and
10.01.03    Management of terrestrial ecosystems                          strengthening      institutions       for
                                                                          upgrading low-income settlements in
10.02.03    Expert group meeting on creation and                          urban and rural settings
            enhancement       of    environmental           09.06.07      Strengthening the institutions and
            awareness in the region                                       management component in the
                                                                          information      systems of regional
10.02.04    Protection of the marine environment                          commissions
            and related ecosystems in Asia and the          12.03.15      Studies and investigations to obtain
            Pacific, phase II
                                                                          suitable substitutes for pitching stones
12.03.28    In-depth study of the cost-benefit                            to meet the requirements of the
            aspects of containerization in relation                       Bangladesh Railways where there is an
            to surface      transport,   including                        absolute lack of such materials for
            intermodal aspects 19.01.06 Workshop                          railway bridge and embankment
            on social problems of low-income                              protection works
            urban groups: some legal approaches             19.01.02      Mobile training scheme for the
                                                                          training of trainers, supervisors and
19.02.03    Strengthening the socio-economic                              field-level development personnel in
            aspects of family planning and
            population policies: self-employment                          the developing countries, including the
            and family-life education programme                           least developed, land-locked and sea-
            for young women in rural areas                                locked     countries (corresponds to
                                                                          06.02.08)

                                                            Programme of work and priorities, 1982-1983
Deletions
                                                            695. The Commission considered document E/
06.02.08    Mobile training scheme for the                  ESCAP/ 217, presenting the proposed programme of
            training of trainers, supervisors and           work and priorities, 1982-1983, in a revised format
            field-level development personnel in
            the developing countries, including the         containing annotations for each programme element.
            least developed, land-locked and sea-           It noted that the work programme had been
            locked countries (corresponds to                formulated in consultation with ACPR and
            19.01.02)                                       incorporated the recommendations of the legislative
                                                            committees which had met since the thirty-sixth
07.01.07    Eighth session of the Expert Group on           session. It further noted that the programmes for
            Development Policy and Planning                 which the legislative committees had not met since
                                                            that session would be reviewed in detail by those
07.04.02    Regional seminars       on   long-term          committees in the course of 1981.
            projections
07.04.04    Regional seminars on medium-term                696. The Commission expressed its appreciation of
            projections                                     the improvement in the presentation of the work
                                                            programme but felt that there was still room for
08.01.04    Workshop on export promotion, with              improvement. It also felt that there should be some
            special reference to export processing          indication of the relative priorities accorded to
            zones                                           different programme elements. It was suggested that
                                                            the legislative committees were the most appropriate
08.02.06    Establishment of facilities for training        bodies to set priorities within their sectors of the
            in welding on a subregional basis               work programme. The Commission observed that the
09.03.05    Support to Governments for the                  scarce resources were spread increasingly thin over
            adoption and implementation of                  many diverse activities and therefore stressed the
            housing policies and programmes                 need for further streamlining of the work programme
                                                            to make it more realistic and practical so that it could
09.03.07    Demonstration projects on upgrading             be implemented effectively.
            slums and squatter and         rural
            settlements                                     697. The Commission recommended the following
                                                            changes to the proposed programme of work and
09.03.08    Development of building materials and           priorities, 1982-1983.
            construction industries
09.03.10    Pilot projects on           appropriate         698. In the field of transfer of technology (04), the
            technologies     and standards for              Commission recommended that the following
            infrastructure and services                     specific

                                                       78
programme element should be added under the                     tions of overloaded two-axle trucks on different
approppriate subprogramme: "Assistance in the                   types of highways; and (d) a regional workshop on
establishment of an industrial tribology centre in              the environmental aspects of the design and
China".                                                         construction of roads and road transport operations.
                                                                It also noted with appreciation the offer of the USSR
699. The Commission requested the secretariat to                to host a seminar on public transport in 1982 and of
incorporate in the programme on international trade             France to host a seminar-cum-study tour on railway
(05, part A) an additional specific activity to assist          electrification in 1982. The Commission, while
developing countries in formulating their positions             stressing the urgent need to expand and improve air
with regard to negotiations for the future of the               cargo transport in the ESCAP region, also
Multi-Fibre Arrangement beyond 1981. The                        recommended the inclusion of: (a) a study on air
modalities should be in accordance with the rules               cargo consolidation and packaging for goods moving
and procedures of the United Nations.                           by air, in order to promote airborne trade; (b) a study
                                                                on air freight rate structures with regard to carriers,
700. The Commission recommended inclusion of                    ground handling within airports, collection and
the following studies: research on non-equity                   distribution by shippers and forwarders and
agreements between TNCs and host developing                     administrative charges (the first phase in south Asia
countries; research to compare the net capital inflows          and the second in the Pacific); (c) a regional
to developing countries from TNCs with outflows                 transport survey for the South Pacific with a view to
from such countries due to TNC operations; research             identifying key areas for the promotion of air cargo
on the pricing policies of TNCs (including transfer             services in the region and undertaking, in co-
pricing); research on TNC territorial market                    operation with other related agencies, such as ICAO,
allocation arrangements; and research on merger and             regional comparative transport studies covering,
take-over activities of TNCs, emphasizing analysis              inter alia, the cost-benefit aspects of air/sea cargo
of the negative effects with a view to their                    development; and (d) a seminar on the promotion of
elimination by host Governments.                                international air freight transport at international
                                                                airports in developing countries, with special
701. In the field of development planning (07), the             emphasis on the management and operation of air
Commission, recognizing the importance of energy                freight, air cargo infrastructure and handling
planning, recommended that studies on development               facilities.
planning methods (07.03.03) should also include
planning for the energy sector.
                                                                705. In the field of communications (13), the
                                                                Commission expressed its concern at the size of the
702. In the field of human settlements (09), the
Commission recommended that the following                       proposed increase in programmes. It was suggested
specific programme elements should be added under               that further consultations between ESCAP, ITU and
the appropriate subprogrammes: (a) seminar/                     the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity should be held to
workshop in the USSR on low-cost housing; and (b)               co-ordinate activities and to assist in determining
study tour/seminar/workshop in the USSR on the                  priorities.
activities of local housing authorities, both in 1983
or later. The Commission also recommended that the              706. In the field of tourism (14), the Commission
title of programme element 09.02.02 should be                   recommended the addition of subregional research
changed to "Regional congress of local authorities              and studies for the promotion of tourism in south
for development of human settlements in Asia and                Asia and the Pacific, in view of the increasing need
the Pacific".                                                   for tourism research and studies in the developing
                                                                member countries to serve as analytical tools for the
703. In the field of the environment (10), the                  formulation of tourism policies.
Commission recommended that a study of mountain
eco-systems in the ESCAP region should be added                 707. In the field of ECDC and TCDC activities
under subprogramme 10.03 and that the title of                  (23), while recognizing that ECDC and TCDC
programme element 10.04.03 should be changed to                 should be initiated and formulated by participating
"Study and expert group meeting on methods and                  developing countries, the Commission emphasized
costs of industrial pollution control". The                     the need to strengthen the capability of national focal
Commission noted the offer of extrabudgetary                    points of      respective Governments in the area of
assistance to be provided by the Swedish                        training in TCDC project formulation exercises.
International Development Authority for programme               ESCAP was thus urged to attempt to organize in-
element 10.04.01.                                               service training in TCDC project formulation
                                                                exercises for national officials in the developing
704. In the field of transport (12), the Commission             ESCAP countries.
recommended the inclusion of: (a) a feasibility study
for the construction of a railway line from                     708. The Commission endorsed the programme of
Savannakhet, Lao People's Democratic Republic, via              work and priorities, 1982-1983, incorporating the
Viet Nam to Da Nang; (b) the formulation and                    above changes. A summary of the programme is
organization of a model teacher training programme              given in annex I to the present report. The
for local-level officials/leaders on rural road                 Commission requested the secretariat to review the
construction and maintenance; (c) a study on the                deliberations during its current session to see if any
techno-economic                             implica-            further                                       changes
                                                         (79)
were necessary and to propose such changes, through            sources there was a need to integrate higher
the legislative committees and in consultation with            technology and sophisticated know-how with
ACPR, to the Commission at its thirty-eighth                   conventional methods. It urged the inclusion of
session.                                                       programmes for disseminating more advanced know-
                                                               how through practical training of the experts/
Medium-term plan, 1984-1989                                    specialists/geoscientists and engineers of developing
                                                               countries at recognized advanced centres in the
709. The Commission considered document E/                     developed countries or at such centres within the
ESCAP/218.                                                     region. Such activities should include training of
                                                               technical specialists of developing countries in
710. It noted that the draft medium-term plan, if              management concepts and methodologies of
approved by the General Assembly, would become a               evolving systems suitable for their respective
policy directive of that body and would provide the            environments and conditions. The Commission
framework for the biennial programme budgets of                decided to delete paragraph (b) (ill) e on page 143,
the Commission falling within the period covered by            relating to the establishment of a regional water
the plan.                                                      resources development centre, and the corresponding
                                                               reference to such a centre in lines 9 and 10 on page
711. With regard to major programme 11,                        146. The Commission also decided to replace the last
"Energy", the Commission felt that energy                      two lines of the first paragraph on page 141 by
conservation and demand management and                         "CCOP and CCOP/SOPAC as well as CCOP/IO,
development of alternative sources of energy were of           should the meeting of experts consider it feasible"
vital importance. It noted the current energy problem          and to replace the second sentence of the second
of the ESCAP region and felt that urgent action was            paragraph on page 140 by "It is expected that the
called for to mitigate the problems of the developing          feasibility of a Committee for Co-ordination of Joint
countries through increased capital inflows for the            Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Indian Ocean
maximum exploitation of the conventional sources of            Offshore Areas (CCOP/IO) will have been
energy. Since conventional energy would be the                 considered".
principal energy source in the 1980s, the solution of
the current problem was considered vital during the            715. Under major programme 24, comments were
transition to the stage of using alternative sources of        made on the various modes of transport. The view
energy. The importance of energy statistics was                was expressed that activities relating to regional co-
stressed.                                                      operation among the railways of the member
                                                               countries, including the convening of a meeting of
712. With reference to major programme 10,                     the Asian ministers to formulate policy guidelines
"Development issues and policies", the view was                regarding railways, should be adequately reflected in
expressed that the elaboration of regional and                 the plan. The Commission felt that it might be
subregional strategies in the light of the finalization        appropriate to include a long-term strategy for the
of the International Development Strategy for the              integrated development of inland transport in the
Third United Nations Development Decade had yet                region. It noted that only a general reference was
to be completed and presented to the Commission.               made in the plan to air cargo transport, without
Action programmes for achieving the goals and                  indicating activities of a specific nature. Air transport
objectives of the Strategy were also still to be               had merely been touched upon along with general
formulated. The need to modify the plan in keeping             transport planning and facilitation of international
with the action programmes to be developed had                 traffic, although that area of activity was sufficiently
therefore to be borne in mind. The view was also               important to merit treatment as a separate
expressed that particular importance should be                 subprogramme. In the field of shipping and ports, it
attached to the review and appraisal at the regional           was felt that: (a) greater importance should be given
level of the implementation of the Strategy and to             to manpower development activities in the
reviews of major aspects of development in different           management of container services and multimodal
sectors identifying and appraising factors accounting          transport operations; (b) the plan should provide for
for shortfalls. Preparations needed to be made for the         assistance to member countries in the establishment
first major review in 1984. Action to be undertaken            of multimodal transport operations; (c) the data
prior to 1984 should accordingly be included in                information system should include measures for
section (d) (i) of subprogramme 1.                             provision of information relating to container traffic;
                                                               and (d) the plan should include strategies for the
713. With regard to major programme 15,                        promotion and establishment of freight study units.
"Industrial development", the view was expressed               The plan should also make provision for training and
that ESCAP had to elaborate development strategies             technical assistance with regard to containerization
aimed at the achievement of the Lima target of 25              and multimoda1 transport in relation to the
per cent of production by developing countries by              development and modernization of ports.
the year 2000. Such strategies, and activities to be
taken up in support of them, should be reflected in            716. The Commission, while approving the draft
the plan.                                                      plan in the light of the views expressed in the
                                                               foregoing paragraphs, felt that for the purposes of
714. As to major programme 17, "Natural                        allocation of priorities among subprogrammes within
resources", the Commission felt that in the area of            a programme, it would have been most appropriate if
mineral                                         re-            the                      plan                   had
                                                          79
were necessary and to propose such changes, through            sources there was a need to integrate higher
the legislative committees and in consultation with            technology and sophisticated know-how with
ACPR, to the Commission at its thirty-eighth                   conventional methods. It urged the inclusion of
session.                                                       programmes for disseminating more advanced know-
                                                               how through practical training of the experts/
Medium-term plan, 1984-1989                                    specialists/geoscientists and engineers of developing
                                                               countries at recognized advanced centres in the
709. The Commission considered document E/                     developed countries or at such centres within the
ESCAP/218.                                                     region. Such activities should include training of
                                                               technical specialists of developing countries in
710. It noted that the draft medium-term plan, if              management concepts and methodologies of
approved by the General Assembly, would become a               evolving systems suitable for their respective
policy directive of that body and would provide the            environments and conditions. The Commission
framework for the biennial programme budgets of                decided to delete paragraph (b) (ill) e on page 143,
the Commission falling within the period covered by            relating to the establishment of a regional water
the plan.                                                      resources development centre, and the corresponding
                                                               reference to such a centre in lines 9 and 10 on page
711. With regard to major programme 11,                        146. The Commission also decided to replace the last
"Energy", the Commission felt that energy                      two lines of the first paragraph on page 141 by
conservation and demand management and                         "CCOP and CCOP/SOPAC as well as CCOP/IO,
development of alternative sources of energy were of           should the meeting of experts consider it feasible"
vital importance. It noted the current energy problem          and to replace the second sentence of the second
of the ESCAP region and felt that urgent action was            paragraph on page 140 by "It is expected that the
called for to mitigate the problems of the developing          feasibility of a Committee for Co-ordination of Joint
countries through increased capital inflows for the            Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Indian Ocean
maximum exploitation of the conventional sources of            Offshore Areas (CCOP/IO) will have been
energy. Since conventional energy would be the                 considered".
principal energy source in the 1980s, the solution of
the current problem was considered vital during the            715. Under major programme 24, comments were
transition to the stage of using alternative sources of        made on the various modes of transport. The view
energy. The importance of energy statistics was                was expressed that activities relating to regional co-
stressed.                                                      operation among the railways of the member
                                                               countries, including the convening of a meeting of
712. With reference to major programme 10,                     the Asian ministers to formulate policy guidelines
"Development issues and policies", the view was                regarding railways, should be adequately reflected in
expressed that the elaboration of regional and                 the plan. The Commission felt that it might be
subregional strategies in the light of the finalization        appropriate to include a long-term strategy for the
of the International Development Strategy for the              integrated development of inland transport in the
Third United Nations Development Decade had yet                region. It noted that only a general reference was
to be completed and presented to the Commission.               made in the plan to air cargo transport, without
Action programmes for achieving the goals and                  indicating activities of a specific nature. Air transport
objectives of the Strategy were also still to be               had merely been touched upon along with general
formulated. The need to modify the plan in keeping             transport planning and facilitation of international
with the action programmes to be developed had                 traffic, although that area of activity was sufficiently
therefore to be borne in mind. The view was also               important to merit treatment as a separate
expressed that particular importance should be                 subprogramme. In the field of shipping and ports, it
attached to the review and appraisal at the regional           was felt that: (a) greater importance should be given
level of the implementation of the Strategy and to             to manpower development activities in the
reviews of major aspects of development in different           management of container services and multimodal
sectors identifying and appraising factors accounting          transport operations; (b) the plan should provide for
for shortfalls. Preparations needed to be made for the         assistance to member countries in the establishment
first major review in 1984. Action to be undertaken            of multimodal transport operations; (c) the data
prior to 1984 should accordingly be included in                information system should include measures for
section (d) (i) of subprogramme 1.                             provision of information relating to container traffic;
                                                               and (d) the plan should include strategies for the
713. With regard to major programme 15,                        promotion and establishment of freight study units.
"Industrial development", the view was expressed               The plan should also make provision for training and
that ESCAP had to elaborate development strategies             technical assistance with regard to containerization
aimed at the achievement of the Lima target of 25              and multimoda1 transport in relation to the
per cent of production by developing countries by              development and modernization of ports.
the year 2000. Such strategies, and activities to be
taken up in support of them, should be reflected in            716. The Commission, while approving the draft
the plan.                                                      plan in the light of the views expressed in the
                                                               foregoing paragraphs, felt that for the purposes of
714. As to major programme 17, "Natural                        allocation of priorities among subprogrammes within
resources", the Commission felt that in the area of            a programme, it would have been most appropriate if
mineral                                         re-            the                      plan                   had
                                                          80
been considered by the sectoral legislative                      $US 12.4 million in additional resources during
committees of the Commission. It was regretted that              1980. The Commission was informed that the
the timetable for the preparation of the draft plan for          Interim Mekong Committee now had a portfolio of
ESCAP had not permitted that.                                    project data sheets and plans of operation covering a
                                                                 total immediate foreign exchange input requirement
717. Several delegations considered that particular              of almost $US 400 million.
importance should be attached to the provisions in
the draft plan which related to assistance to                    720. The Commission welcomed the declarations
developing countries in comprehensive planning,                  of support voiced by representatives of various
programming and implementation, both State and                   countries and organizations in the course of the
sectoral, in various fields; the role of the public              session, including, in particular: Japan, which had
sector; exchange of experience in the field of co-               praised the role of the Committee in developing the
operatives; and the development of the scientific and            lower Mekong basin area and which had promised to
technological base of the developing countries.                  continue the support which it had been providing
Accordingly, in their view, the following deserved               since the Committee's inception - the Japanese
priority: subprogrammes 1 and 2 in major                         delegation pledged $US 30,000 for 1981, subject to
programme 10, subprogramme 2 in major                            the approval of the Diet, as well as the services of
programme 11, subprogramme 2 in major                            two technical assistance experts on a non-
programme 12, subprogrammes 2 and 3 in major                     reimbursable basis; the Netherlands, which since
programme 13, subprograil1me 6 in major                          1971 had contributed over $US 26.6 million and
programme 15, subprogramme 1 in major                            which pledged support of $US 4.5 million in 1981;
programme 20 and sub programmes 1 and 2 in major                 and New Zealand, which pledged support of $US
programme 21. The USSR delegation also referred to               45,000 for the 1979, 1980 and 1981 editions of the
long-term arrangements between its Government and                Committee's Hydrologic Yearbook.
the secretariat under which seminars were being held
in the USSR during 1978-1983 for nationals of                    721. The delegation of Democratic Kampuchea
developing countries and felt that such arrangements             stated that it welcomed any work of the Interim
should be reflected in the draft plan.                           Mekong Committee which was really for the service
                                                                 of the peoples and of peace and stability in the
   Progress reports on special regional projects                 region. It regretted, however, that its country's
             and regional institutions                           application to join the Interim Mekong Committee
                                                                 had not been approved and reiterated the desire of
Special regional projects                                        Democratic Kam-puchea to be a member of the
                                                                 Interim Mekong Committee.
Interim Committee for Co-ordination                 of
                                                                 722. It further informed the Commission that it had
Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin                         delivered a formal protest to the Chairman of the
                                                                 thirty-seventh session of the Commission against the
718. The Commission considered the annual report                 omission of the name of Democratic Kampuchea on
of the Interim Committee for Co-ordination of                    four maps of the area which formed part of the
Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin (E/                     Committee's annual report for 1980. The
ESCAP/231 and Corr.1) and took note of the                       Commission registered the protest of Democratic
achievements during 1980, including the expansion                Kampuchea and took note of the delegation's
of the hydrologic and meteorologic network over a                representations.
large part of the lower Mekong basin, four irrigation
reservoirs in the Vientiane Plain, resettlement at Pak           Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting
Cheng, the Tha Ngone fish farm in the Lao People's               for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas
Democratic Republic, the preparation of crop
'suitability maps for the entire basin, the study and            723. he Commission considered the report of
assessment of environmental problems and                         CCOP on its seventeenth session (E/ESCAP/193 and
numerous other projects involving flood protection               Corr.1).
and pump irrigation, agricultural experimental
stations, pilot farms, pioneer agricultural projects,            724. The Commission was informed that, in 1980,
agricultural production and fisheries projects, and              the third year in which UNDP had supported phase II
river navigation. The Commission also noted that                 of the project with expanded funds, CCOP had
much of that work had been carried out in                        continued to make significant achievements,
preparation for developments on the mainstream, in               including the implementation of important
particular the proposed Pa Mong scheme between                   recommendations made during the sixteenth session
the Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand,               of the Committee.
which would have an initial installed capacity of
4,800 MW .                                                       725. The Commission considered the CCOP
                                                                 member countries' activities in the field of
719. In that connexion, the Commission welcomed                  hydrocarbon resources and was pleased to note that
the continuing support being given by various co-                significant discoveries continued to be made in
operating countries and organizations to projects                China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and
sponsored by the Interim Mekong Committee,                       Thailand. As to the project's activities in the field of
amounting                to                 some                 hydrocarbon                                  resources,
                                                          (81)
the Commission was also pleased to note that a                 heavy minerals had been completed in Indonesia,
Standing Working Group on Petroleum Data had                   Malaysia and Thailand. Investigations of off-shore
been established and that two. workshops had been              and coastal detrital heavy minerals, silica sands and
convened, one at Manila, on standardization of                 construction materials had been made in China,
terminology and formats for energy data, and the               Japan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the
other at Bangkok, on resource-data handling. A                 Republic of Korea and Singapore. The survey in
seminar on hydrocarbon assessment methodology,                 Malaysia had been made under a bilateral technical
which had been successfully held at Kuala Lumpur               aid programme between the Federal Republic of
in March 1980 and attended by 108 participants from            Germany and Malaysia, with support from the
CCOP member and other countries, with strong                   Project Office, and gratitude was expressed to the
participation by representatives of industry, had              Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for
concentrated on assessment methodology, area                   its continuing assistance.
reports and case histories. A hydrocarbon assessment
programme for south-east Asia had been started in              728. An off-shore survey for detrital heavy
the area of the shelves adjacent to the South China            minerals in Surigao Strait and Leyte Gulf in the
Sea, which in the future would be expanded to                  Philippines would be made by the Bureau of Mines
include the areas of the Andaman Sea, the Strait of            and Geosciences and the Bureau of Coast and
Ma1acca, the Sulu Sea and the Makassar Strait. A               Geodetic Survey, with the Project Office providing
workshop on the geology and hydrocarbon potential              its marine geophysical and navigation equipment and
of the South China Sea, held at Honolulu in August             the services of its experts. Requests for Project
1980, had been organized by the East-West Center               Office assistance in future off-shore investigations
and sponsored jointly with the CCOP Project Office.            for detrital heavy minerals and in other off-shore
A long. range programme on heat. flow and                      surveys had been made by China, Indonesia and
geothermal gradient studies had been approved,                 Malaysia.
consisting of the collection of information from
mineral water and oil boreholes from the land as well          729. The Commission was pleased to note that,
as from the off-shore areas, and a marine programme            owing to the contribution of the Netherlands
which would involve collection of heat-flow data               Government, the project's Quaternary geology
from the off-shore areas by means of conventional              programme had been expanded. It was also informed
and newly devised probe techniques. In the pre-                that the Project Office had organized a fact-finding
Tertiary hydrocarbon assessment programme, it was              mission which had visited nine member countries of
recommended that the available information should              CCOP, and Bangladesh, to ascertain the feasibility of
be compiled .on the Mesozoic sediments of the Indo-            establishing a regional centre for Quaternary
Chinese peninsula and adjacent off-shore areas.                geology. There was unanimous agreement on the
                                                               establishment of such a centre, for which the
726. The Commission was informed that a Joint                  assistance of the Netherlands and other developed
ASCOPE (ASEAN Council on Petroleum)/CCOP                       countries was expected. The offer of China to house
Intersecretariat Steering Committee had been formed            the centre was accepted with appreciation. A mission
to co-ordinate joint projects of CCOP and ASCOPE.              would be organized by the Project Office, in co-
A fact-finding mission on the establishment of an              operation with ESCAP, to visit China to discuss,
east Asian off-shore training centre had visited the           inter alia, details for the establishment of the centre
area during February 1980 and its recommendations              and to ascertain the extent of outside assistance
were to be referred to the Steering Committee for              required. Appreciation was expressed to the
further advice. Appreciation was expressed to the              Governments of the Federal Republic of Germany,
Government of Norway for its interest in the matter            the Netherlands and the United Kingdom for having
and for having financed the work of the fact-finding           financed the work of the fact-finding mission.
mission.
                                                               730. The Commission was also informed about
727. The Commission was impressed by the                       CCOP activities in remote sensing, manganese
continuing high level of activity in the member                nodules, Project MAGNET and isotopic dating. In
countries in investigations of off-shore and coastal           the field of remote sensing, it was recommended that
detrital tin and heavy minerals and near-shore                 a workshop on remote sensing mainly related to
surveys, and by the amount and level of support                CCOP activities in connexion with SEATAR
given to those activities by the Project Office,               (programme for Studies of East Asia Tectonics and
particularly through the provision of its equipment            Resources) activities and on off-shore applications
for surveys and on-the-job training and the services           should be held at Manila from 21 to 25 November
of its experts to advise and assist in such work and           1981. A new project on the compilation of gravity
give relevant lecture/workshop courses, especially in          and magnetic anomalies in relation to regional
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The               tectonics and distribution of mineral resources was
Commission considered that that programme was                  recommended and a CCOP working group
particularly important and effective in training               associated with the project should be set up under the
technical personnel from the member countries and              leadership of the senior geophysicist provided by the
in the transfer of technology, as well as regional co-         Government of Japan. Thanks were expressed to the
operation and TCDC. Major off-shore surveys for tin            Government of Japan for its promise of continuing
and                     other                  detrital        support for the new project.

                                                          81
the Commission was also pleased to note that a                 heavy minerals had been completed in Indonesia,
Standing Working Group on Petroleum Data had                   Malaysia and Thailand. Investigations of off-shore
been established and that two. workshops had been              and coastal detrital heavy minerals, silica sands and
convened, one at Manila, on standardization of                 construction materials had been made in China,
terminology and formats for energy data, and the               Japan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the
other at Bangkok, on resource-data handling. A                 Republic of Korea and Singapore. The survey in
seminar on hydrocarbon assessment methodology,                 Malaysia had been made under a bilateral technical
which had been successfully held at Kuala Lumpur               aid programme between the Federal Republic of
in March 1980 and attended by 108 participants from            Germany and Malaysia, with support from the
CCOP member and other countries, with strong                   Project Office, and gratitude was expressed to the
participation by representatives of industry, had              Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for
concentrated on assessment methodology, area                   its continuing assistance.
reports and case histories. A hydrocarbon assessment
programme for south-east Asia had been started in              728. An off-shore survey for detrital heavy
the area of the shelves adjacent to the South China            minerals in Surigao Strait and Leyte Gulf in the
Sea, which in the future would be expanded to                  Philippines would be made by the Bureau of Mines
include the areas of the Andaman Sea, the Strait of            and Geosciences and the Bureau of Coast and
Ma1acca, the Sulu Sea and the Makassar Strait. A               Geodetic Survey, with the Project Office providing
workshop on the geology and hydrocarbon potential              its marine geophysical and navigation equipment and
of the South China Sea, held at Honolulu in August             the services of its experts. Requests for Project
1980, had been organized by the East-West Center               Office assistance in future off-shore investigations
and sponsored jointly with the CCOP Project Office.            for detrital heavy minerals and in other off-shore
A long. range programme on heat. flow and                      surveys had been made by China, Indonesia and
geothermal gradient studies had been approved,                 Malaysia.
consisting of the collection of information from
mineral water and oil boreholes from the land as well          729. The Commission was pleased to note that,
as from the off-shore areas, and a marine programme            owing to the contribution of the Netherlands
which would involve collection of heat-flow data               Government, the project's Quaternary geology
from the off-shore areas by means of conventional              programme had been expanded. It was also informed
and newly devised probe techniques. In the pre-                that the Project Office had organized a fact-finding
Tertiary hydrocarbon assessment programme, it was              mission which had visited nine member countries of
recommended that the available information should              CCOP, and Bangladesh, to ascertain the feasibility of
be compiled .on the Mesozoic sediments of the Indo-            establishing a regional centre for Quaternary
Chinese peninsula and adjacent off-shore areas.                geology. There was unanimous agreement on the
                                                               establishment of such a centre, for which the
726. The Commission was informed that a Joint                  assistance of the Netherlands and other developed
ASCOPE (ASEAN Council on Petroleum)/CCOP                       countries was expected. The offer of China to house
Intersecretariat Steering Committee had been formed            the centre was accepted with appreciation. A mission
to co-ordinate joint projects of CCOP and ASCOPE.              would be organized by the Project Office, in co-
A fact-finding mission on the establishment of an              operation with ESCAP, to visit China to discuss,
east Asian off-shore training centre had visited the           inter alia, details for the establishment of the centre
area during February 1980 and its recommendations              and to ascertain the extent of outside assistance
were to be referred to the Steering Committee for              required. Appreciation was expressed to the
further advice. Appreciation was expressed to the              Governments of the Federal Republic of Germany,
Government of Norway for its interest in the matter            the Netherlands and the United Kingdom for having
and for having financed the work of the fact-finding           financed the work of the fact-finding mission.
mission.
                                                               730. The Commission was also informed about
727. The Commission was impressed by the                       CCOP activities in remote sensing, manganese
continuing high level of activity in the member                nodules, Project MAGNET and isotopic dating. In
countries in investigations of off-shore and coastal           the field of remote sensing, it was recommended that
detrital tin and heavy minerals and near-shore                 a workshop on remote sensing mainly related to
surveys, and by the amount and level of support                CCOP activities in connexion with SEATAR
given to those activities by the Project Office,               (programme for Studies of East Asia Tectonics and
particularly through the provision of its equipment            Resources) activities and on off-shore applications
for surveys and on-the-job training and the services           should be held at Manila from 21 to 25 November
of its experts to advise and assist in such work and           1981. A new project on the compilation of gravity
give relevant lecture/workshop courses, especially in          and magnetic anomalies in relation to regional
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The               tectonics and distribution of mineral resources was
Commission considered that that programme was                  recommended and a CCOP working group
particularly important and effective in training               associated with the project should be set up under the
technical personnel from the member countries and              leadership of the senior geophysicist provided by the
in the transfer of technology, as well as regional co-         Government of Japan. Thanks were expressed to the
operation and TCDC. Major off-shore surveys for tin            Government of Japan for its promise of continuing
and                     other                  detrital        support for the new project.

                                                          82
731. Several member countries had undertaken                     personnel in off-shore drilling techniques with Perta-
geological mapping of the ocean floor and related                mina. An Indonesian specialist had been provided to
off-shore studies under their national programmes, as            the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to advise on
a result of which several types of significant sea-              oil and gas licensing. Technical personnel from
floor geological maps had already been completed.                Thailand had participated in the recently concluded
CCOP efforts to compile a generalized ocean-floor                off-shore tin survey and sent a geologist to Indonesia
and continental margin geological map of eastern                 and Malaysia for training in tin exploration and
Asia on the scale 1 :50 million, in co-operation with            development.
the Commission for the Geological Map of the
World, would strengthen and accelerate related                   736. The Commission expressed its appreciation to
programmes of member countries.                                  UNDP for its continuing support of the CCOP
                                                                 project, to UNEP for its support of the Committee's
732. UNEP and the Intergovernmental                              marine environment programme and to IOC/
Oceanographic Commission (IOC) had provided                      UNESCO for its support of and co-operation in the
support and assistance to CCOP on its marine                     IDOE/SEATAR programme. The Commission also
environmental programme The following project had                noted with appreciation that close contact had been
been endorsed on future joint CCOP/UNEP                          maintained between the Project Office and
undertakings: (a) assessment of the impact of off-               ASCOPE, the International Union of Geological
shore sea-bed exploration and exploitation on the                Sciences, the East-West Center, the Circum-Pacific
non-living marine environment, (b) utilization of                Council on Energy and Mineral Resources, UNEP,
marine environmental data on east Asian waters and               UNESCO and ESCAP, particularly its three regional
(c) environmental protection, safety regulation and              resources projects, namely, RMRDC, SEATRADC
pollution control.                                               and CCOP/SOPAC. The Commission also expressed
                                                                 its appreciation to co-operating countries for the
733. The Commission was informed that from I                     extensive assistance given to the member countries
January 1981, the CCOP-IOC Working Group on                      within the CCOP work programme.
IDOE (International Decade of Ocean Exploration)
Programme for Studies of East Asia Tectonics and                 737. Effective CCOP contributions to the
Resources was to be known as the Joint CCOP-IOC                  discoveries of hydrocarbon and mineral potential
Working Group on Post-IDOE Studies on Asian                      were cited by the delegation of Indonesia, which
Tectonics and Resources. The Commission was                      recommended continued UNDP support to the
pleased to note that the results of the second SEA               project. In their statements, the delegations of the
TAR workshop in 1978 had been published as                       Republic of Korea and Thailand separately expressed
ESCAP/CCOP Technical Publication .7, entitled                    their endorsement of the continued support of UNDP
Studies in East Asian Tectonics and Resources. The               to CCOP projects under the original organizational
Project Office was encouraged to issue a second                  structure. The representative of Japan noted the
printing of the SEATAR report, in corrected form                 Committee's achievement in raising technical
and in greater numbers, to be suitably advertised and            standards in the field of exploration activities of oil
sold. The Commission endorsed the recommendation                 and gas and pledged continued co-operation in its
of the CCOP-IOC Working Group that continuing                    activities and the provision of experts, training and
research within the SEA TAR programme should be                  other support activities.
reviewed in future SEATAR reports.
                                                                 738. The USSR was pleased to note the initiatives
734. The Commission was pleased to note the                      undertaken by CCOP in its fields of activity and
efforts of the Committee to keep its members                     recommended endorsement of its work in geology/
informed on the progress of the Third United Nations             geophysics, studies of oil and gas, detrital minerals,
Conference on the Law of the Sea, particularly with              the SEATAR project and its other activities.
regard to the subjects of deep-sea mining, the
continental shelf, scientific research, protection and           739. The Commission was pleased to note that the
preservation of the marine environment and the                   USSR would organize an integrated geological and
interest generated in the possible future participation          geophysical cruise in the Andaman Sea and the Bay
of CCOP and the member countries in the                          of Bengal in 1982. The cruise could carry out work
forthcoming convention on the law of the sea.                    on geological transects under the SEATAR
                                                                 programme and could also take on board experts and
735. The Commission was also pleased to note that                trainees from member countries of CCOP. Scientists
during the previous year TCDC activities had                     from member countries would take part in the
increased, and included (a) exchange of technical                subsequent processing of the data collected in the
personnel, (b) participation in off-shore surveys, (c)           scientific centres of the USSR.
exchange of equipment, (d) hosting of workshops
and seminars, (e) exchange of information, (f) joint             740. The United States commended the ambitious
research and (g) co-operation with ASCOPE. Since                 but realistic and well-organized CCOP programme
mid-1976 there had been close co-operation between               of activities on behalf of member countries and the
Indonesia and the Philippines on studies of reservoir            outstanding achievements reflected in its technical
stimulation in the Nido field and the training of                publications and training and consultancy
Philippine                                  technical            programmes,               and             reiterated

                                                          (83)
its continued interest in and support of those and             for the three-year period 1982.1984, thus making the
other vital activities.                                        CCOP /SOP AC programme of activities viable for
                                                               that period.
741. The representative of UNESCO reported on
the joint activities with CCOP, particularly on the            749. It expressed appreciation to Australia, France,
Joint Working Group in the IDOE/SEATAR                         Japan, New Zealand, the United States and IOC/
programme and the IOC/UNESCO Working Group                     UNESCO for the assistance .provided to the project
on the Western Pacific.                                        during the previous year.

742. The Commission was aware of the draft                     750. The Commission noted the generous offer by
project document for UNDP support to phase III of              the USSR to organize a two-month co-operative
the project, covering the period 1982-1986, to                 cruise under CCOP/SOPAC auspices in the south-
coincide with the next UNDP programming cycle,                 west Pacific late in 1981, which would represent an
which had been prepared by the Project Office in               in-kind contribution to CCOP/SOPAC of
consultation with member countries of CCOP. The                approximately $US 1.5 million on the part of the
Commission was informed that at that stage UNDP                USSR.
would consider the period from 1982 to 1984, and a
review would be made in 1984 to determine future               751. The Commission was informed that the two
needs. The Executive Secretary of ESCAP had                    countries in whose waters the proposed cruise would
recommended to UNDP that its support for 1982-                 take place had expressed reservations as to the
1984 should be $2,778,000 including provisions for             proposal and it was doubtful that the cruise would
project personnel, travel, subcontracting, training,           proceed. The Commission noted that, as usual in
equipment and miscellaneous expenses. A revised                relation to offers of technical assistance, the
project document to incorporate the proposal made              implementation of activities was subject to the
by the Executive Secretary for the three-year period           official concurrence of the Governments concerned.
would be prepared and submitted to UNDP through
ESCAP.                                                         752. The Commission noted with appreciation the
                                                               support of New Zealand for the earth science training
743. The Commission was informed that the                      programmes conducted by CCOP/SOPAC at the
eighteenth session of CCOP and its associated                  University of the South Pacific and endorsed the
meetings of SEATAR, the Technical Advisory                     Committee's recommendation that New Zealand
Group and the Circum-Pacific Map Project would be              should continue its support to that activity.
held at Seoul from 21 September to 2 October 1981.
                                                               753. It urged the countries and supporting bodies
                                                               to maintain, and where appropriate enhance, their
                                                               participation in scientific research and training
Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting               activities under the auspices of CCOP/SOPAC.
for Mineral Resources in South Pacific
Offshore Areas                                                 Regional Mineral Resources Development Centre
744. The Commission considered document E/                     754. he Commission considered document E/
ESCAP/194.                                                     ESCAP/200 and was pleased to note the continued
                                                               expansion of the activities of the Centre and the
745. It welcomed the admission of Vanuatu as a                 services it had rendered to the developing countries
new member of the Committee and looked forward                 of the region.
to its continued participation in the programme.
                                                               755. It endorsed the report of the Governing
746. The Commission noted with interest the                    Council of RMRDC, together with the
importance of the activities described in the                  recommendations and the programme of work
Committee's report on its ninth session and the                adopted for 1981.1982.
related activities reported by the secretariat. Of
particular interest were the facts that the project was        756. The Commission expressed its appreciation of
now fully staffed and that the training of nationals           the excellent host facilities provided to the Centre by
from the countries of the region in mineral                    the Government of Indonesia.
exploration methods and techniques had been
intensified.                                                   757. It noted with appreciation the generous
                                                               assistance provided by the Governments of Finland,
747. It also noted with interest the increase in               France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India,
advisory consultancy services to member                        Japan, the Republic of Korea and the United
Governments on matters related to mineral                      Kingdom in the form of specialists and training
exploration and exploitation and in the publications           facilities.
generated on the geology and mineral resources
potential of the South Pacific.                                758. It also expressed appreciation of the support
                                                               provided by UNDP, particularly with respect to the
748. The Commission noted with appreciation the                substantially increased allocations for seminars and
continuing financial support of UNDP to the project            workshops. It urged UNDP to continue to support
and its stated intention of providing $US 2.5 million          the Centre for the next five-year cycle.
                                                          83
its continued interest in and support of those and             for the three-year period 1982.1984, thus making the
other vital activities.                                        CCOP /SOP AC programme of activities viable for
                                                               that period.
741. The representative of UNESCO reported on
the joint activities with CCOP, particularly on the            749. It expressed appreciation to Australia, France,
Joint Working Group in the IDOE/SEATAR                         Japan, New Zealand, the United States and IOC/
programme and the IOC/UNESCO Working Group                     UNESCO for the assistance .provided to the project
on the Western Pacific.                                        during the previous year.

742. The Commission was aware of the draft                     750. The Commission noted the generous offer by
project document for UNDP support to phase III of              the USSR to organize a two-month co-operative
the project, covering the period 1982-1986, to                 cruise under CCOP/SOPAC auspices in the south-
coincide with the next UNDP programming cycle,                 west Pacific late in 1981, which would represent an
which had been prepared by the Project Office in               in-kind contribution to CCOP/SOPAC of
consultation with member countries of CCOP. The                approximately $US 1.5 million on the part of the
Commission was informed that at that stage UNDP                USSR.
would consider the period from 1982 to 1984, and a
review would be made in 1984 to determine future               751. The Commission was informed that the two
needs. The Executive Secretary of ESCAP had                    countries in whose waters the proposed cruise would
recommended to UNDP that its support for 1982-                 take place had expressed reservations as to the
1984 should be $2,778,000 including provisions for             proposal and it was doubtful that the cruise would
project personnel, travel, subcontracting, training,           proceed. The Commission noted that, as usual in
equipment and miscellaneous expenses. A revised                relation to offers of technical assistance, the
project document to incorporate the proposal made              implementation of activities was subject to the
by the Executive Secretary for the three-year period           official concurrence of the Governments concerned.
would be prepared and submitted to UNDP through
ESCAP.                                                         752. The Commission noted with appreciation the
                                                               support of New Zealand for the earth science training
743. The Commission was informed that the                      programmes conducted by CCOP/SOPAC at the
eighteenth session of CCOP and its associated                  University of the South Pacific and endorsed the
meetings of SEATAR, the Technical Advisory                     Committee's recommendation that New Zealand
Group and the Circum-Pacific Map Project would be              should continue its support to that activity.
held at Seoul from 21 September to 2 October 1981.
                                                               753. It urged the countries and supporting bodies
                                                               to maintain, and where appropriate enhance, their
                                                               participation in scientific research and training
Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting               activities under the auspices of CCOP/SOPAC.
for Mineral Resources in South Pacific
Offshore Areas                                                 Regional Mineral Resources Development Centre
744. The Commission considered document E/                     754. he Commission considered document E/
ESCAP/194.                                                     ESCAP/200 and was pleased to note the continued
                                                               expansion of the activities of the Centre and the
745. It welcomed the admission of Vanuatu as a                 services it had rendered to the developing countries
new member of the Committee and looked forward                 of the region.
to its continued participation in the programme.
                                                               755. It endorsed the report of the Governing
746. The Commission noted with interest the                    Council of RMRDC, together with the
importance of the activities described in the                  recommendations and the programme of work
Committee's report on its ninth session and the                adopted for 1981.1982.
related activities reported by the secretariat. Of
particular interest were the facts that the project was        756. The Commission expressed its appreciation of
now fully staffed and that the training of nationals           the excellent host facilities provided to the Centre by
from the countries of the region in mineral                    the Government of Indonesia.
exploration methods and techniques had been
intensified.                                                   757. It noted with appreciation the generous
                                                               assistance provided by the Governments of Finland,
747. It also noted with interest the increase in               France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India,
advisory consultancy services to member                        Japan, the Republic of Korea and the United
Governments on matters related to mineral                      Kingdom in the form of specialists and training
exploration and exploitation and in the publications           facilities.
generated on the geology and mineral resources
potential of the South Pacific.                                758. It also expressed appreciation of the support
                                                               provided by UNDP, particularly with respect to the
748. The Commission noted with appreciation the                substantially increased allocations for seminars and
continuing financial support of UNDP to the project            workshops. It urged UNDP to continue to support
and its stated intention of providing $US 2.5 million          the Centre for the next five-year cycle.
                                                          84
759. The Commission was pleased to learn of the                 Typhoon Operational Experiment (TOPEX);
offers of assistance on a funds-in-trust and non                continue efforts to obtain the services of a flood
reimbursable loan basis to the Centre by the                    control expert for the Typhoon Committee secretariat
Governments of the Federal Republic of Germany,                 (TCS); prepare, in co-operation with WMO, a new
for the services of a senior hydrogeologist and an              project document for UNDP support for 1982-1984;
economic geologist, India, for the 'services of three           and organize training seminars on various subjects in
experts, and the USSR, for a short-term consultant              accordance with the long-term programme of work
and for the offer of 10 fellowships annually in                 of the Committee.
geology, geophysics and mining.

760. It expressed appreciation to the Government                767. The Commission commended the Committee
of the Republic of Korea for hosting the third session          on the assistance it had extended to its various
of the Governing Council at Seoul in September                  members, and in particular to Malaysia, in the
1980 and to the Government of Bangladesh for                    training of personnel in the calibration of radar
offering to host the fourth session at Dacca in                 equipment and the calibration and maintenance of
November 1981.                                                  telemetric equipment and in flood forecasting.

761. The Commission noted the programme of                      768. It was gratified to note that TOPEX would
work for 1981-1982 adopted by the Governing                     soon be launched by the Committee and noted with
Council at its third session and expressed the hope             satisfaction the developments in that regard. It
that developed countries would provide additional               welcomed the affirmation by China, Japan,
support for the continued expansion of activities.              Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand of their
                                                                participation in TOPEX, the establishment of a
762. The Commission was pleased to learn that the               Management Board for TOPEX and the principal
Centre had carried out 51 technical advisory                    and pivotal role that Japan was playing in TOPEX.
missions to 16 developing member countries during
the period 1980-1981, that one workshop in mining
planning had been organized in 1980 and that two                769, The Commission was informed that it was
additional workshops were planned for 1981.                     essential to formulate an appropriate implementation
                                                                programme for TOPEX. It was proposed that further
763. It noted that the Centre had intensified its               discussions should be held and the necessary
activities in regional co-operation, including a study          amendments made to the relevant parts of the
on rock magnetism sponsored by the Government of                implementation programme, particularly those
Japan.                                                          concerning the number of typhoons to be included in
                                                                the experiment and improvement in the collection of
764. It also noted that the cash contributions                  observed data.
hitherto made by the developing countries were
insufficient to meet the local operational expenditure          770. The representative of WMO explained the
and therefore urged those developing countries that             objectives of TOPEX in terms of the economic and
were not already doing so to participate by making              social benefits that might be expected to result from
financial contributions, including token                        its successful execution. He called for support for
contributions, and those already contributing to                TOPEX within the programmes being carried out by
increase their current financial contributions                  the Commission in order that those benefits might
substantially.
                                                                become available to the population of the typhoon-
Typhoon Committee                                               threatened areas of Asia and the Pacific. In that
                                                                connexion, the Commission urged ESCAP and
765. The Commission commended the Typhoon                       WMO to seek financial support for TOPEX from
Committee on its work during the previous year and              international organizations such as UNDP and
endorsed its report on its thirteenth session (E/               UNEP.
ESCAP/197), which reflected not only the progress
in the Committee's work programme but also the                  771. The Commission noted with appreciation the
activities of ESCAP in support of the Committee.                offer of the USSR to provide, within the framework
Those included the organization of a training                   of the temporary voluntary fund for TOPEX, modern
seminar on the principles of flood loss prevention              meteorological equipment, as well as experts on a
and management and a group study visit to China on              non-reimbursable basis, to assist in the planning and
methods of flood control. ESCAP had also                        implementation of the TOPEX scientific programme.
collaborated with UNESCO and WMO in the
organization of a training seminar on urban                     772. It urged the Committee to continue to
hydrology.                                                      distribute information on its activities and findings
                                                                regularly to countries in the region which were not
766. It noted and endorsed the decisions adopted
by the Committee at its thirteenth session, in which            members of the Committee.
ESCAP had been requested to: organize a study
group visit to China under the hydrological                     773. The Commission noted with appreciation the
component in 1981; approach, together with WMO,                 intention expressed by the Philippine Government to
Governments of Committee members to urge their                  continue providing a Co-ordinator for TCS. It also
full       participation           in            the            noted that Government's request that Committee
                                                         (85)
members take turns in providing the services of a              stressed once again that an immediate solution
Co-ordinator.                                                  should be found by the members and associate
                                                               members of the Commission to the financial
774. It called upon UNDP and other concerned                   problems faced by SIAP. The Commission also
agencies to provide the necessary financial support            reaffirmed the importance of SIAP receiving support
to enable the Committee to implement its work                  from all members and associate members so that its
programme. In that connexion, it was suggested that            international character as an instrument of TCDC
more training programmes and seminars should be                was maintained.
organized on various aspects of the Committee's
activities. It also recommended that UNDP should               781. It noted with appreciation the continuing
provide modern meteorological equipment as well as             support received by SlAP from donor sources,
short-term fellowships for technicians in the                  including the Governments of Australia, France, the
operation and maintenance of such equipment.                   Netherlands and the United Kingdom, as well as
                                                               UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA and ADB, and the
775. It noted with appreciation that at the                    contribution which such extrabudgetary funds had
thirteenth session of the Committee, the USSR had              made to the work of the Institute.
offered to assist in implementing its scientific
programme.                                                     782. It expressed its deep satisfaction at the work
                                                               done by SIAP during its first 10 years of existence.
776. The Commission welcomed with appreciation                 Many delegations expressed the hope that SIAP
the offer of the Philippine Government to provide              would expand its programme of work during the
host facilities at Manila for the fourteenth session of        third phase and welcomed its entry into such fields
the Committee, to be held from 10 to 16 November               of activity as training in automatic data processing.
1981.
                                                               783. The Commission acknowledged with deep
777. It expressed appreciation of the support for              appreciation and gratitude the continuing generosity
the work of the Committee provided by UNDP,                    shown by the Government of Malaysia in the
UNDRO, WMO and LRCS and by China, Japan and                    provision of host facilities and other operational
the Philippines.                                               support to APDC, which had facilitated its
                                                               establishment. It also expressed its appreciation of
Regional institutions                                          the work done by the secretariat with .regard to the
                                                               establishment of the Centre. It took note of the report
778. The Commission considered documents E/                    of the Management Board and the transitional as
ESCAP/196 and Corr.l, E/ESCAP/198 , E/                         well as the long-term work programme being
ESCAP/203 and E/ESCAP/230 and Corr.1-3 and                     developed for the Centre. The Commission was in
heard the reports of the Directors of SlAP and APDC            general agreement with the areas selected for the
as well as of the Director of the United Nations               transitional research programme, namely, strategies
Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD).                       for rural employment, access planning for target
                                                               groups, and environmental aspects of development,
779. It took note of the progress achieved by SIAP             with special reference to problems relating to the
during 1980 and also recognized that SIAP faced                deterioration of the environment resulting from acute
continuing financial problems in meeting its                   poverty. The Commission welcomed the emphasis
recurrent expenditure. It expressed its great                  placed by the Management Board on training within
                                                               the transitional programme. One delegation
appreciation of the significant steps taken by the host
                                                               suggested that the Management Board might
Government of Japan in increasing its cash
                                                               consider the inclusion of agrarian reform and the co-
contributions to SIAP several times to enable it to
                                                               operative organization of small-scale agriculture as
meet its mounting expenditure. Nevertheless, the               an additional programme area.
Commission recognized that there was still a gap
between the resources made available by the host               784. The Commission also generally endorsed the
Government and other participating Governments                 four areas selected by the Board for inclusion in the
and the recurrent funding requirements of the                  long-term programme, namely, energy planning and
Institute, most immediately for 1981.                          management, food security, human resources
                                                               mobilization and integration of women in
780. The Commission therefore urged all its                    development.
members and associate members to re-examine their
commitments of contributions for the financial                 785. The Commission noted the action taken by
support of SIAP and to take urgent and effective               the Director in response to the decisions of the
steps to ensure that the gap, which was affecting the          Management Board with regard to both the
quality of SIAP and its work, was bridged. The                 implementation of the transitional programme and
Commission recognized that the uncertainty of the              the development of the long-term programme.
future of the staff and the prospect of having to
layoff Professional staff were detrimental to the              786. The Commission reiterated its earlier
smooth progress of SIAP and the effective                      instructions with regard to the maintenance of a
implementation of the expanded programme of work               judicious balance between training and research.
which was expected of it in the third phase (October           While recognizing that debate and discussion on the
1980-September 1985). Thus, the Commission                     relative         weightage          to           be
                                                          85
members take turns in providing the services of a              stressed once again that an immediate solution
Co-ordinator.                                                  should be found by the members and associate
                                                               members of the Commission to the financial
774. It called upon UNDP and other concerned                   problems faced by SIAP. The Commission also
agencies to provide the necessary financial support            reaffirmed the importance of SIAP receiving support
to enable the Committee to implement its work                  from all members and associate members so that its
programme. In that connexion, it was suggested that            international character as an instrument of TCDC
more training programmes and seminars should be                was maintained.
organized on various aspects of the Committee's
activities. It also recommended that UNDP should               781. It noted with appreciation the continuing
provide modern meteorological equipment as well as             support received by SlAP from donor sources,
short-term fellowships for technicians in the                  including the Governments of Australia, France, the
operation and maintenance of such equipment.                   Netherlands and the United Kingdom, as well as
                                                               UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA and ADB, and the
775. It noted with appreciation that at the                    contribution which such extrabudgetary funds had
thirteenth session of the Committee, the USSR had              made to the work of the Institute.
offered to assist in implementing its scientific
programme.                                                     782. It expressed its deep satisfaction at the work
                                                               done by SIAP during its first 10 years of existence.
776. The Commission welcomed with appreciation                 Many delegations expressed the hope that SIAP
the offer of the Philippine Government to provide              would expand its programme of work during the
host facilities at Manila for the fourteenth session of        third phase and welcomed its entry into such fields
the Committee, to be held from 10 to 16 November               of activity as training in automatic data processing.
1981.
                                                               783. The Commission acknowledged with deep
777. It expressed appreciation of the support for              appreciation and gratitude the continuing generosity
the work of the Committee provided by UNDP,                    shown by the Government of Malaysia in the
UNDRO, WMO and LRCS and by China, Japan and                    provision of host facilities and other operational
the Philippines.                                               support to APDC, which had facilitated its
                                                               establishment. It also expressed its appreciation of
Regional institutions                                          the work done by the secretariat with .regard to the
                                                               establishment of the Centre. It took note of the report
778. The Commission considered documents E/                    of the Management Board and the transitional as
ESCAP/196 and Corr.l, E/ESCAP/198 , E/                         well as the long-term work programme being
ESCAP/203 and E/ESCAP/230 and Corr.1-3 and                     developed for the Centre. The Commission was in
heard the reports of the Directors of SlAP and APDC            general agreement with the areas selected for the
as well as of the Director of the United Nations               transitional research programme, namely, strategies
Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD).                       for rural employment, access planning for target
                                                               groups, and environmental aspects of development,
779. It took note of the progress achieved by SIAP             with special reference to problems relating to the
during 1980 and also recognized that SIAP faced                deterioration of the environment resulting from acute
continuing financial problems in meeting its                   poverty. The Commission welcomed the emphasis
recurrent expenditure. It expressed its great                  placed by the Management Board on training within
                                                               the transitional programme. One delegation
appreciation of the significant steps taken by the host
                                                               suggested that the Management Board might
Government of Japan in increasing its cash
                                                               consider the inclusion of agrarian reform and the co-
contributions to SIAP several times to enable it to
                                                               operative organization of small-scale agriculture as
meet its mounting expenditure. Nevertheless, the               an additional programme area.
Commission recognized that there was still a gap
between the resources made available by the host               784. The Commission also generally endorsed the
Government and other participating Governments                 four areas selected by the Board for inclusion in the
and the recurrent funding requirements of the                  long-term programme, namely, energy planning and
Institute, most immediately for 1981.                          management, food security, human resources
                                                               mobilization and integration of women in
780. The Commission therefore urged all its                    development.
members and associate members to re-examine their
commitments of contributions for the financial                 785. The Commission noted the action taken by
support of SIAP and to take urgent and effective               the Director in response to the decisions of the
steps to ensure that the gap, which was affecting the          Management Board with regard to both the
quality of SIAP and its work, was bridged. The                 implementation of the transitional programme and
Commission recognized that the uncertainty of the              the development of the long-term programme.
future of the staff and the prospect of having to
layoff Professional staff were detrimental to the              786. The Commission reiterated its earlier
smooth progress of SIAP and the effective                      instructions with regard to the maintenance of a
implementation of the expanded programme of work               judicious balance between training and research.
which was expected of it in the third phase (October           While recognizing that debate and discussion on the
1980-September 1985). Thus, the Commission                     relative         weightage          to           be
                                                          86
assigned to training and research would naturally               the Executive Secretary to undertake a series of
continue within an institution such as APDC, it                 negotiations and consultations with interested
stressed that training remained a critical need of a            Governments, UNDP and the Office of Legal Affairs
large number of ESCAP countries, particularly the               of the United Nations, and to convene an
least developed, land-locked and developing island              intergovernmentel meeting, if deemed appropriate,
countries. It drew the attention of APDC to the                 with a view to resolving the outstanding issues so
specific training needs of those countries and the              that the final version of the Charter could be
need to mount special programmes to satisfy those               presented to the Commission at its thirty-eighth
needs and noted with appreciation the assurance of              session for consideration and adoption. The
the Director of the Centre that due attention would             Commission adopted resolution 215 (XXXVII) on
be given to the matter.                                         the Charter of APDC.
787. The Commission reiterated the importance of
ensuring that in the formulation and implementation             790. Addressing itself to the financial requirements
of its work programme, APDC avoided duplication                 of APDC, the Commission reaffirmed that the
with the ESCAP secretariat, international research              acceptance of the responsibility of providing the
institutions in the United Nations system and                   financial requirements of the Centre for its
national institutions. The taking of early action to            institutional costs by the members and associate
institutionalize substantive linkages between APDC              members of the Commission was a prerequisite for
and such development research and training                      the success of the Centre. The Commission
institutions was considered important and it was                recognized that, on the basis of the cost
stressed that steps in that direction should be taken           computations so far available, the members and
early. It was also stressed that in its work programme          associate members had the responsibility of
APDC should look for practical results and avoid an             providing an amount of $US 5.6 million towards the
over-academic bias in its approach.                             institutional costs over the first five-year period, July
                                                                1980-June 1985. The Commission took note of
788. The Commission took note of the progress so                possible criteria and computation formulae which
far made with regard to the finalization of the draft           might be taken into consideration by the members
Charter of APDC as an intergovernmental                         and associate members in determining the quantum
institution. It expressed its deep satisfaction at the          of their contributions to APDC. The Commission
measure of agreement so far reached with regard to              observed that the contributions so far announced for
the provisions of the draft Charter and indicated its           1980 and 1981 generally tended to follow the pattern
appreciation of the willingness of its members and              of contributions by Governments to the predecessor
associate members to reach the required compromise              institutions and that those amounts would be
and of the assistance rendered by the secretariat in
                                                                inadequate to provide the sum of $US 5.6 million
reaching such a compromise.
                                                                required by the Centre for the first five-year period.
789. The Commission noted that reservations still               The Commission therefore strongly hoped that the
continued in respect of two key issues related to the           Governments of its members and associate members
Charter, namely, the chairmanship of the                        would make a comprehensive review of their
Management Board and the adoption of a formula                  individual contributions to APDC so that the
for the determination of the contributions to be made           required adjustments would be made in time.
by the members of the Centre. On the first issue, it
noted the view of the delegation of Malaysia that if            791. The Commission took note of the continuing
the Charter provided for the appointment of the                 collaborative activities between UNCRD and the
representative of the host country, who was the sole            ESCAP regional institutions. It welcomed the
government representative, as Chairman of the                   emphasis placed by UNCRD on the Asian and
Management Board, he could then become the                      Pacific region as its main area of focus and felt that
intermediary not only between the Centre and the                that would provide a sound basis for future
host Government, but also between the Centre and                collaboration between APDC, SIAP and UNCRD.
other member Governments. Furthermore, as the
Management Board would meet every six months, or                792. The Commission noted with appreciation the
at least once every year, frequent changes in the               contribution made to the countries of the region by
chairmanship could mar its effectiveness and                    the ESCAP programme on health and society,
continuity as the Management Board was the body                 comprising projects on basic services and social
that formulated policies and recommended                        development, on training in planning, development
programmes to the General Council. On the second                and health and on the pharmaceutical industry in
issue, the Commission noted the view of the                     ASEAN countries. The Commission welcomed the
delegation of Malaysia that the current practice of
annual pledging of contributions might cause                    continuing support received by that programme from
planning, management and administrative difficulties            the Government of the Netherlands and UNIDO,
to the Centre as it did not have a constant assured             UNICEF, UNDP and WHO and the indications
flow of financial resources. A number of delegations            available of continuing support from those sources
proposed that APDC should follow the United                     for the future. The Commission was of the opinion
Nations formula for determining the amount of                   that in view both of the assistance provided by that
contributions by members of the Centre. The                     programme to its members and associate members
Commission                                    directed          and of its         interdisciplinary   and   multi-
                                                         (87)
faceted nature, the programme should continue to be              800. In introducing the discussion on the item, the
implemented by the secretariat.                                  Executive Secretary noted the expansion in the level
                                                                 and range of TCDC activities supported by the
                                                                 United Nations development system and outlined
    Mobilization of extrabudgetary resources                     further opportunities that existed for identification of
                                                                 concrete instances of relevant and appropriate
793. The Commission considered documents E/                      technology and interchange thereof. He referred to
ESCAP/202, E/ESCAP/204 and Corr.l, E/                            the ECDC/TCDC approaches which had permeated
ESCAP/232 and Corr.1 and 2 and E/ESCAP/233 and                   the inter-country programming exercise with regard
Corr.l.                                                          to the third UNDP programming cycle and looked
                                                                 forward to their continuance in the detailed
794. The Executive Secretary informed the                        formulation and implementation of co-operative
Commission that the current session would be the                 projects. There was a continuing need for systematic
fourth at which its members and associate members                identification of TCDC needs and capacities, through
and other donors announced their intended                        modalities recommended by the Commission and the
contributions to the work programmes of ESCAP                    first High-level Meeting on the Review of TCDC.
and the regional training and research institutions.             He outlined the strengthening of the secretariat's
                                                                 capability for centralizing its various information
795. The Commission was informed that the                        systems and providing links with national and global
announcements of intended contributions were for                 systems and stressed the orientation of its
the year 1981. The documentation provided to the                 information system for ECDC and TCDC towards
donors had been prepared in accordance with a                    specific emerging development issues. He submitted
format developed in consultation with ACPR The                   a possible format and list of desirable contents for
lists of projects submitted for the consideration of             periodic reports on United Nations-supported as well
donors were based upon the priorities of the                     as nationally initiated and implemented TCDC
Commission and represented only a portion of the                 activities. He outlined the continuing efforts to
over-all work programme to be undertaken in 1981.                expand the role of the regional commissions in
                                                                 ECDC and TCDC. Referring to the financial
796. The Commission noted with satisfaction that                 limitations on the expansion of activities to promote
ESCAP had just concluded an agreement with a                     and support ECDC and TCDC, he suggested an
donor country which for the first time provided for a            examination of the desirability of a separate fund for
three-year programme cycle of assistance to ESCAP.               promotion and support of TCDC, as distinct from the
Such multi-year programmes would help the                        concept of a specific allocation for TCDC activities
secretariat to plan its technical co-operation activities        as such. A TCDC supplementary funding facility
on a more rational basis.                                        established in the secretariat was in operation and
                                                                 had been reported on, and in that regard he recalled
797. Most of the delegations aru1ounced their                    paragraph 3 of Commission resolution 209 (XXXVI)
intended contributions to the work programmes of                 on a scheme for TCDC arrangements in respect of
ESCAP, APDC and SIAP amounting to $US 18.1                       disadvantaged ESCAP countries.
million, out of which $US 5.7 million was meant for
the Committee for Co-ordination of Investigations of             801. The Commission emphasized that, in the
the Lower Mekong Basin. The Commission noted                     wake of the numerous vicissitudes of the North-
the importance of extra-budgetary resources for                  South dialogue, the concept of self-help and
financing the programmes and projects of ESCAP                   collective self-reliance of developing countries had
so. that it could continue to assist the countries of the        assumed increased importance. It stressed the
region in their development efforts. One delegation              primary importance of ECDC and TCDC in
referred to resolution 195 (XXXV) on mobilization                achieving the objectives of collective self-reliance
of resources for the implementation of the                       and generally endorsed the analysis and conclusions
programme of work of ESCAP and requested the                     contained in the secretariat documentation.
secretariat to negotiate with United Nations
Headquarters in order to obtain more regular budget              802. The Commission noted the enhanced level
resources for the implementation of the ESCAP                    and widening range of TCDC activities supported by
work programme.                                                  the United Nations development system. It was
                                                                 informed of the TCDC activities initiated and
798. The Commission recognized the urgency of                    implemented by the member Governments at the
providing adequate funds for APDC and SIAP if                    national level and of their modalities. The
those regional institutions were to carry out the roles          Commission noted with appreciation that the
assigned to them by the countries of the region.                 Philippine Government had already implemented its
                                                                 pledge of $US 500,000 to UNCTAD for a
                                                                 programme of TCDC-related activities for the least
   Economic and technical co-operation among                     developed countries; under that programme, which
             developing countries                                had commenced on 1 January 1980, the Philippines
                                                                 had provided technical assistance in the form of
799. The Commission considered documents E/                      training in rural banking, tax research and
ESCAP/234 and E/ESCAP/238.                                       agricultural                              manage-

                                                            87
faceted nature, the programme should continue to be              800. In introducing the discussion on the item, the
implemented by the secretariat.                                  Executive Secretary noted the expansion in the level
                                                                 and range of TCDC activities supported by the
                                                                 United Nations development system and outlined
    Mobilization of extrabudgetary resources                     further opportunities that existed for identification of
                                                                 concrete instances of relevant and appropriate
793. The Commission considered documents E/                      technology and interchange thereof. He referred to
ESCAP/202, E/ESCAP/204 and Corr.l, E/                            the ECDC/TCDC approaches which had permeated
ESCAP/232 and Corr.1 and 2 and E/ESCAP/233 and                   the inter-country programming exercise with regard
Corr.l.                                                          to the third UNDP programming cycle and looked
                                                                 forward to their continuance in the detailed
794. The Executive Secretary informed the                        formulation and implementation of co-operative
Commission that the current session would be the                 projects. There was a continuing need for systematic
fourth at which its members and associate members                identification of TCDC needs and capacities, through
and other donors announced their intended                        modalities recommended by the Commission and the
contributions to the work programmes of ESCAP                    first High-level Meeting on the Review of TCDC.
and the regional training and research institutions.             He outlined the strengthening of the secretariat's
                                                                 capability for centralizing its various information
795. The Commission was informed that the                        systems and providing links with national and global
announcements of intended contributions were for                 systems and stressed the orientation of its
the year 1981. The documentation provided to the                 information system for ECDC and TCDC towards
donors had been prepared in accordance with a                    specific emerging development issues. He submitted
format developed in consultation with ACPR The                   a possible format and list of desirable contents for
lists of projects submitted for the consideration of             periodic reports on United Nations-supported as well
donors were based upon the priorities of the                     as nationally initiated and implemented TCDC
Commission and represented only a portion of the                 activities. He outlined the continuing efforts to
over-all work programme to be undertaken in 1981.                expand the role of the regional commissions in
                                                                 ECDC and TCDC. Referring to the financial
796. The Commission noted with satisfaction that                 limitations on the expansion of activities to promote
ESCAP had just concluded an agreement with a                     and support ECDC and TCDC, he suggested an
donor country which for the first time provided for a            examination of the desirability of a separate fund for
three-year programme cycle of assistance to ESCAP.               promotion and support of TCDC, as distinct from the
Such multi-year programmes would help the                        concept of a specific allocation for TCDC activities
secretariat to plan its technical co-operation activities        as such. A TCDC supplementary funding facility
on a more rational basis.                                        established in the secretariat was in operation and
                                                                 had been reported on, and in that regard he recalled
797. Most of the delegations aru1ounced their                    paragraph 3 of Commission resolution 209 (XXXVI)
intended contributions to the work programmes of                 on a scheme for TCDC arrangements in respect of
ESCAP, APDC and SIAP amounting to $US 18.1                       disadvantaged ESCAP countries.
million, out of which $US 5.7 million was meant for
the Committee for Co-ordination of Investigations of             801. The Commission emphasized that, in the
the Lower Mekong Basin. The Commission noted                     wake of the numerous vicissitudes of the North-
the importance of extra-budgetary resources for                  South dialogue, the concept of self-help and
financing the programmes and projects of ESCAP                   collective self-reliance of developing countries had
so. that it could continue to assist the countries of the        assumed increased importance. It stressed the
region in their development efforts. One delegation              primary importance of ECDC and TCDC in
referred to resolution 195 (XXXV) on mobilization                achieving the objectives of collective self-reliance
of resources for the implementation of the                       and generally endorsed the analysis and conclusions
programme of work of ESCAP and requested the                     contained in the secretariat documentation.
secretariat to negotiate with United Nations
Headquarters in order to obtain more regular budget              802. The Commission noted the enhanced level
resources for the implementation of the ESCAP                    and widening range of TCDC activities supported by
work programme.                                                  the United Nations development system. It was
                                                                 informed of the TCDC activities initiated and
798. The Commission recognized the urgency of                    implemented by the member Governments at the
providing adequate funds for APDC and SIAP if                    national level and of their modalities. The
those regional institutions were to carry out the roles          Commission noted with appreciation that the
assigned to them by the countries of the region.                 Philippine Government had already implemented its
                                                                 pledge of $US 500,000 to UNCTAD for a
                                                                 programme of TCDC-related activities for the least
   Economic and technical co-operation among                     developed countries; under that programme, which
             developing countries                                had commenced on 1 January 1980, the Philippines
                                                                 had provided technical assistance in the form of
799. The Commission considered documents E/                      training in rural banking, tax research and
ESCAP/234 and E/ESCAP/238.                                       agricultural                              manage-

                                                            88
ment. The Commission took note of the vitality of                sectors were not considered feasible, there could be
co-operative arrangements at the subregional level               ad hoc workshops on areas specifically identified;
and the recent initiatives in that regard in south Asia          the United Nations development system could assist
and in the Pacific basin. Areas for intensification of           through missions specifically geared to the
co-operation among developing countries were                     identification of opportunities for TCDC.
identified in various sectors, including the scope for
interchange of knowledge and experience in                       806. The Commission took note of the array of
comparatively successful instances of development                information services, covering various economic and
planning and progress and with respect to renewable              social sectors, which were functioning within the
sources of energy. Recording its appreciation of the             secretariat. It welcomed the proposal to strengthen
extrabudgetary support extended, the Commission                  and appropriately centralize them through the
called for continued "triangular arrangements" for               information processing equipment currently installed
contributions by the developed countries and for                 with extrabudgetary assistance and the secretariat's
increased initiatives by the secretariat in                      capability, subject to financial restrictions, to provide
identification of potential areas for co-operation and           linkages with information systems outside the
viable project formulation for funding.                          secretariat. The Commission expressed its
                                                                 appreciation of the orientation of the ESCAP TCDC
803. In general, the Commission felt that co-                    publications towards specific emerging development
operation among developing countries had to be                   issues and welcomed the latest publications,
increasingly in the form of interchange of relevant,             including the volumes on inter-country institutional
appropriate technology as embodied in designs,                   arrangements for ECDC and TCDC in Asia and the
prototypes, technical blueprints and agricultural                Pacific and the first volume, covering solar energy,
planting materials, thus fostering joint participation           in a projected series on renewable sources of energy.
in learning by doing. The process was already under              It underlined the role of the Commission as the
way and had to be accelerated. The view was                      regional focal point in the UNDP-proposed global
expressed that the numerous TCDC projects might                  project on a development information network and
not fall within the priority areas on which the                  called upon the secretariat to draw the attention of
secretariat had to concentrate and the suggestion was            the forthcoming second High-level Meeting on the
made that a meeting should be convened to elicit the             Review of TCDC to the role of the Commission.
views of the member countries on integrating project
proposals to match them against availability of                  807. T h e C o m m i s s i o n w e l c o m e d t h e
funds.                                                           improvements proposed by the secretariat in the
                                                                 coverage and contents of its annual reports on
804. The Commission noted with appreciation the                  promotion and support of ECDC and TCDC, so as to
year-long consultative process in formulating the                include TCDC activities carried out at the national
UNDP inter-country programme for 1982-1986 for                   level. While ECDC and TCDC were to be initiated,
Asia and the Pacific, in which ESCAP had been a                  formulated, implemented and evaluated by
partner with UNDP and which had culminated in the                participating developing countries themselves, the
Intergovernmental Meeting of Development                         Commission viewed the secretariat's submission of
Assistance Co-ordinators in Asia and the Pacific,                reports on such activities as a useful and wide
held at New Delhi from 23 to 28 February                         dissemination of national experience, particularly on
1981,atwhich the draft UNDP inter-country                        innovative and fruitful approaches, and not as an
programme for Asia and the Pacific for 1982-1986                 exercise in evaluation of TCDC activities at the
had been approved. The Commission further noted                  national level. It called upon the concerned
that the consultative process was in accordance with             Governments to co-operate in the establishment and
its resolution 194 (XXXV) concerning, inter alia, the            operation of appropriate reporting arrangements by
involvement of developing countries in determining               the secretariat.
collectively the priorities for the utilization of the
regional indicative planning figure. The                         808. With the experience gained in reviewing the
Intergovernmental Meeting's support for special                  advances in TCDC, the Commission called for the
attention to the least developed and land-locked                 presentation of indicators of such progress
countries, provision of projects for subregions and              expressed, to start with, in terms of financial outlay
endorsement of the use of ECDC/TCDC approaches                   by the United Nations development system and the
under the inter-country programme were in keeping                number of experts employed from developing
with the Commission's approach and the                           countries; there could be additional components such
Commission looked forward to their continuance in                as the engineering, design and consultancy firms
the detailed formulation and implementation of the               utilized and the equipment purchased, both having
co-operative projects identified.                                their source in developing countries. The
                                                                 Commission recommended that the secretariat
805. Recalling its recommendation at its thirty-                 should standardize the format and contents of the
fifth session and the decision at the first High-level           progress reports in co-operation with United Nations
Meeting on the Review of TCDC, the Commission                    Headquarters, UNDP and other regional,
noted the continuing need for systematic                         commissions. The suggestion was made that the
identification of their TCDC needs and capabilities              reporting could cover some critical areas such as the
by the developing countries. In cases where national             cost-effectiveness of the regional institutions and
seminars                 covering                  all           other

                                                          (89)
activities which were already operational and the                for TCDC activities as such. It reiterated its support
problems which United Nations agencies had in                    to the Executive Secretary in his continuing efforts,
agreeing on project execution.                                   in co-operation with other regional commissions, to
                                                                 make the regional commissions full partners in the
809. The Commission called for further                           joint UNDP/UNCTAD programme for economic and
acceleration of efforts towards promotion of and                 technical co-operation among developing countries.
support for ECDC and in that context welcomed
additions to its information services. It also called for
intensification of work on interregional co-operation.            Findings and recommendations of the Advisory
It noted the follow-up of the consultations between                  Committee of Permanent Representatives
the Government of India and Latin American                           and Other Representatives Designated by
Governments held at New Delhi in June 1979 and                             Members of the Commission
pointed out that the many provisions in the activities
and tasks suggested in the report on the consultations           814. The Commission considered document E/
could be of interest to developing member countries.             ESCAP/235, which was introduced by the liaison
It called for early implementation of the project
                                                                 Officer of Pakistan to ESCAP, who had been
proposal for industrial co-operation between
                                                                 designated by the Advisory Committee for that
developing countries of the ESCAP region and of the
ECWA region.                                                     purpose.

810. The Commission felt that ECDC was lagging                   815. In introducing the report, he stated that the
somewhat and that its potential needed to be                     major issues undertaken by the Advisory Committee
projected more forcefully and its activities                     included the question of the revised guidelines for
undertaken more vigorously. The functional                       the conduct of meetings, particularly paragraphs 10
committees of the Commission now appeared to                     and 14, which had not been resolved at the thirty-
have been consciously pursuing the TCDC                          sixth session of the Commission, the programme of
dimension of their activities. It was therefore                  work and priorities, 1982-1983, and the draft
recommended that more and more of the TCDC                       medium-term plan, 1984-1989. With reference to the
activities should be gradually delegated to the                  draft medium-term plan, 1984-1989, it was pointed
functional committees and that the existing                      out that the Advisory Committee had been unable to
secretariat unit responsible should concentrate more             set priorities among subprogrammes within
on the promotion and development of ECDC.                        programmes as there were divergent views within it
                                                                 as to whether it was in a position to do so. Some
811. It was suggested that in order to optimize                  members felt that it was outside the scope of ACPR,
utilization of the resources of the secretariat, the             while some others were of the opinion that it could
targets, plans and activities in the area of ECDC                make recommendations to the Commission. ACPR
among countries in the region should be pragmatic,               had deliberated on the format and the contents of the
realistic, flexible and feasible.                                work programme and felt that the programme of
                                                                 work and priorities, 1982-1983, presented in
812. The Commission expressed its appreciation of                document E/ESCAP/217, had achieved the objective
the establishment in the secretariat of a TCDC                   of providing one combined document for the entire
supplementary funding facility and of the                        work programme which included annotations and
extrabudgetary assistance extended to it by the                  important information on such matters as authority,
Netherlands Government. It noted with appreciation               description, problem addressed, output and potential
the multicountry and bilateral TCDC activities for               users, resources and the time frame for each activity.
which the facility had provided supplementary                    ACPR had also been able to consider the programme
funding, with due emphasis on the needs of                       of work and priorities with the object of avoiding
disadvantaged countries in accordance with its                   duplication.
resolution 209 (XXXVI). It further noted that the
facility was on a modest scale to start with and
                                                                 816. Other important issues taken up by the
recalled paragraph 3 of resolution 209 (XXXVI), in
                                                                 Advisory Committee during the year under review
which it had called upon Governments of its
developed member countries and multilateral                      were consideration of APDC and streamlining of the
financing agencies to make all efforts to support the            conference structure of the Commission. ACPR had
scheme through the timely provision of funds for.                taken a keen interest in the establishment of APDC
supplementary finance as well as other support.                  and had discussed its financial aspects in detail in
                                                                 order to indicate to member Governments their
813. It noted that financial constraints imposed                 financial responsibility to keep the Centre operating
restrictions on the expansion of promotional and                 effectively to enable it to meet the requirements of
supportive activities for ECDC and TCDC. Some                    the countries. As to the question of streamlining of
delegations felt that it would be worthwhile to pursue           the conference structure, ACPR had considered the
in appropriate forums the feasibility and desirability           terms of reference of those legislative committees
of a specific fund for activities to promote and                 which had met prior to the thirty-seventh session of
support TCDC, as conceptually distinct from a                    the Commission, and had decided to consider the
special                                           fund           terms of reference of the remaining ones

                                                            89
activities which were already operational and the                for TCDC activities as such. It reiterated its support
problems which United Nations agencies had in                    to the Executive Secretary in his continuing efforts,
agreeing on project execution.                                   in co-operation with other regional commissions, to
                                                                 make the regional commissions full partners in the
809. The Commission called for further                           joint UNDP/UNCTAD programme for economic and
acceleration of efforts towards promotion of and                 technical co-operation among developing countries.
support for ECDC and in that context welcomed
additions to its information services. It also called for
intensification of work on interregional co-operation.            Findings and recommendations of the Advisory
It noted the follow-up of the consultations between                  Committee of Permanent Representatives
the Government of India and Latin American                           and Other Representatives Designated by
Governments held at New Delhi in June 1979 and                             Members of the Commission
pointed out that the many provisions in the activities
and tasks suggested in the report on the consultations           814. The Commission considered document E/
could be of interest to developing member countries.             ESCAP/235, which was introduced by the liaison
It called for early implementation of the project
                                                                 Officer of Pakistan to ESCAP, who had been
proposal for industrial co-operation between
                                                                 designated by the Advisory Committee for that
developing countries of the ESCAP region and of the
ECWA region.                                                     purpose.

810. The Commission felt that ECDC was lagging                   815. In introducing the report, he stated that the
somewhat and that its potential needed to be                     major issues undertaken by the Advisory Committee
projected more forcefully and its activities                     included the question of the revised guidelines for
undertaken more vigorously. The functional                       the conduct of meetings, particularly paragraphs 10
committees of the Commission now appeared to                     and 14, which had not been resolved at the thirty-
have been consciously pursuing the TCDC                          sixth session of the Commission, the programme of
dimension of their activities. It was therefore                  work and priorities, 1982-1983, and the draft
recommended that more and more of the TCDC                       medium-term plan, 1984-1989. With reference to the
activities should be gradually delegated to the                  draft medium-term plan, 1984-1989, it was pointed
functional committees and that the existing                      out that the Advisory Committee had been unable to
secretariat unit responsible should concentrate more             set priorities among subprogrammes within
on the promotion and development of ECDC.                        programmes as there were divergent views within it
                                                                 as to whether it was in a position to do so. Some
811. It was suggested that in order to optimize                  members felt that it was outside the scope of ACPR,
utilization of the resources of the secretariat, the             while some others were of the opinion that it could
targets, plans and activities in the area of ECDC                make recommendations to the Commission. ACPR
among countries in the region should be pragmatic,               had deliberated on the format and the contents of the
realistic, flexible and feasible.                                work programme and felt that the programme of
                                                                 work and priorities, 1982-1983, presented in
812. The Commission expressed its appreciation of                document E/ESCAP/217, had achieved the objective
the establishment in the secretariat of a TCDC                   of providing one combined document for the entire
supplementary funding facility and of the                        work programme which included annotations and
extrabudgetary assistance extended to it by the                  important information on such matters as authority,
Netherlands Government. It noted with appreciation               description, problem addressed, output and potential
the multicountry and bilateral TCDC activities for               users, resources and the time frame for each activity.
which the facility had provided supplementary                    ACPR had also been able to consider the programme
funding, with due emphasis on the needs of                       of work and priorities with the object of avoiding
disadvantaged countries in accordance with its                   duplication.
resolution 209 (XXXVI). It further noted that the
facility was on a modest scale to start with and
                                                                 816. Other important issues taken up by the
recalled paragraph 3 of resolution 209 (XXXVI), in
                                                                 Advisory Committee during the year under review
which it had called upon Governments of its
developed member countries and multilateral                      were consideration of APDC and streamlining of the
financing agencies to make all efforts to support the            conference structure of the Commission. ACPR had
scheme through the timely provision of funds for.                taken a keen interest in the establishment of APDC
supplementary finance as well as other support.                  and had discussed its financial aspects in detail in
                                                                 order to indicate to member Governments their
813. It noted that financial constraints imposed                 financial responsibility to keep the Centre operating
restrictions on the expansion of promotional and                 effectively to enable it to meet the requirements of
supportive activities for ECDC and TCDC. Some                    the countries. As to the question of streamlining of
delegations felt that it would be worthwhile to pursue           the conference structure, ACPR had considered the
in appropriate forums the feasibility and desirability           terms of reference of those legislative committees
of a specific fund for activities to promote and                 which had met prior to the thirty-seventh session of
support TCDC, as conceptually distinct from a                    the Commission, and had decided to consider the
special                                           fund           terms of reference of the remaining ones

                                                            90
in 1982 with a view to presenting the entire set of the          the proposed revised paragraph 10 recommended by
terms of reference of the legislative committees in              ACPR and approved the revised guidelines annexed
one document to the Commission at its thirty-eighth              to document E/ESCAP/235. The Commission
session. The Executive Secretary had also sought the             pointed out that those guidelines should be seen as
advice of ACPR on a number of important issues,                  recommendations for the efficient conduct of
such as the Special Project on Energy, the operations            Commission sessions and meetings of legislative
evaluation system, the special study on food supply              bodies. It was felt that there should not be a strict
and the announcement of intended contributions.                  time limitation for country statements in the plenary
                                                                 as rule 30 of the rules of procedure of the
817. The liaison Officer expressed his deep                      Commission already contained a provision in that
appreciation to the secretariat, and particularly the            regard.
Executive Secretary, for their co-operation, which
had made it possible for ACPR to discharge the tasks             822. The Commission commended the Executive
described in its report to the Commission.                       Secretary on establishing an independent operations
                                                                 evaluation system in the secretariat and was pleased
818. The Commission commended ACPR on the                        to note that it had already started functioning. It
very useful work undertaken during the previous                  stressed the importance and essential aspects of the
year, which had assisted the Commission in its                   evaluation and monitoring of ESCAP activities. The
deliberations at the current session. It recognized the          Commission recommended that the evaluation
importance of the role of ACPR in advising the                   system should be strengthened to enable ESCAP
secretariat and in maintaining closer liaison between            programmes and projects to become more effective
the secretariat and member Governments and                       for countries of the region. The Commission also felt
expressed the hope that the Advisory Committee                   that to make them really useful the evaluation
would continue its useful activities in a more                   activities should be in adequate proportion to the
intensive manner. It was suggested that the question             work undertaken by the secretariat. The Commission
of strengthening or reorienting ACPR might be                    noted with appreciation the significant financial
considered within the context of the over-all                    contribution made by the Government of Australia.
response of ESCAP to restructuring as mandated by
the General Assembly. The Commission observed
                                                                    General Assembly resolution 35/116 on the
that ACPR had acted as a most efficient medium for
                                                                     Third United Nations Conference on the
conveying government views to the secretariat and
                                                                      Law of the Sea: consequences for the
for advising Governments on ESCAP thinking and
action at anyone time. It also observed that ACPR, as                 ESCAP region of a new legal regime
an advisory body, should be free to make
recommendations on any matter of interest to                     823. The Commission considered document E/
member Governments. The Commission urged all                     ESCAP/236.
member Governments to make full use of the
Advisory Committee.                                              824. It commended the Executive Secretary on
                                                                 having taken prompt action in bringing to the
819. The Commission noted that there had been                    attention of the Commission information on the
many informal meetings during the previous year                  latest developments concerning the Third United
which had been attended by a limited number of                   Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea and in
permanent representatives. One delegation suggested              particular General Assembly resolution 35/116, in
that the number of such informal meetings should be              which the Assembly, inter alia, requested the
kept to the minimum and that the results of such                 Secretary-General to prepare and submit to the tenth
meetings should be reported to ACPR at its formal                session of the Conference a study identifying (a) the
meetings.                                                        future functions of the Secretary-General under the
                                                                 draft convention; and (b) the needs of countries,
820. The Commission expressed its appreciation of                especially developing countries, for information,
the work performed by the Advisory Committee in                  advice and assistance under the new legal regime.
scrutinizing and examining the programme of work
and priorities, 1982-1983, and the draft medium-term             825. The Commission, recognizing and expressing
plan, 1984-1989. It appreciated the format of the                appreciation of the invaluable contribution made by
programme of work and priorities, 1982-1983, as it               the late Mr. Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe of Sri
provided useful information on each activity of the              Lanka, former President of the Third United Nations
programmes in one document. With reference to the                Conference on the Law of the Sea, expressed a deep
documentation for the draft medium-term plan,                    sense of loss over his demise. It welcomed the
1984-1989, the Commission felt that its volume and               election of Mr. Tommy T .B. Koh of Singapore as
the late circulation did not allow appropriate                   the new President of the Conference.
consideration and the suggestion was made that the
secretariat should consider attaching a summary to               826. Although some delegations expressed the
such bulky documents in the future.                              view that it was premature for the Commission to
                                                                 consider the implications of the law of the sea
821. With reference to the revised guidelines for                convention pending its finalization and adoption,
the conduct of meetings, the Commission generally                many delegations considered it timely and
endorsed                                                         appropriate to take up the subject.

                                                          (91)
827. The suggestion was made that the secretariat              as their needs for information, ad\ice and assistance
should identify areas of action and initiate proposals         in so far as they might affect the work of the
for inclusion in the work programme. Among the                 Commission.
activities in which ESCAP could playa useful role,
the following were mentioned: dissemination of                 832. The Commission noted with concern recent
information relating to the convention and its                 developments which threatened to undermine the
implications through seminars and workshops on a               optimism generated concerning the early finalization
regional or subregional basis involving both                   of the convention. It therefore appealed to all
governmental and non-governmental agencies,                    countries participating in the Conference to exert all
provision of a useful forum for exchange of views on           efforts to ensure that the convention was finalized
and promotion of interregional co-operation in the             during the tenth session of the Conference.
management and exploitation of marine resources;
training; preparation of model drafts of legislation on
subjects relevant to the convention; provision of                                 Other matters
technical assistance related to the protection and
                                                               Amendment of the term of reference of the
preservation of the marine environment; promotion              Commission: admission of Guam as an associate
of joint prospecting for sea-bed resources; fishery            member
research and conservation of fishery resources;
development of marine scientific capabilities; and             833. The Commission observed that the
prevention and control of marine pollution.                    Government of the United States of America had
                                                               informed the Executive Secretary, in accordance
828. The Commission suggested that countries                   with article 5 of the terms of reference of the
should avail themselves of the services of existing            Commission, of the request of Guam for admission
regional and international organizations to develop            as an associate member of the Commission and
their financial, technological and institutional               inclusion within its geographical scope. The request
capabilities for the rational exploitation and proper          of the Government concerned was contained in
management of their marine resources. It was further           document E/ESCAP/237, which included a statement
suggested that the Committees on Natural Resources             of the financial implications of the proposal. The
and on Industry, Technology, Human Settlements                 Commission unanimously recommended the
and the Environment could commence collaboration               admission of Guam as an associate member of the
on an interagency basis with existing United Nations           Commission and its inclusion within the
organizations, specialized agencies and                        geographical scope of the Commission. It further
intergovernmental bodies, particularly IOC/                    recommended that the Economic and Social Council
UNESCO, in initiating programmes for the                       should approve the consequential amendments to
utilization of marine resources and the preservation           paragraphs 2 and 4 of the Commission's terms of
of the marine environment.                                     reference and adopted a draft resolution to that effect
                                                               for action by the Council. (For the text, see chapter
829. The Commission noted the difficulties en-                 I.)
countered by small States in obtaining appropriate
advice on complex issues with international legal              Date and place of the meeting of the next session
implications, such as the establishment of exclusive
economic zones, which involved questions of                    834. The Commission decided that its thirty-eighth
licensing, surveillance, enforcement and fisheries             session would be held at ESCAP headquarters at
management as well as future exploitation of sea-bed           Bangkok some time in March 1982. The Executive
                                                               Secretary, after consultation with ACPR, would
resources. The importance of the convention to land-
                                                               determine the exact dates of the session and would
locked countries was also recognized.                          inform the members of the Commission accordingly.
830. In view of the importance of the draft                    Farewell address by Mr. J.B.P.              Maramis,
convention and its wide-reaching implications for the          outgoing Executive Secretary
regulation of virtually every aspect of the equitable
utilization, exploration, exploitation and preservation        835. In his parting address, Mr. Maramis said that
of the sea and its resources, the Commission                   the previous eight years had seen, first and foremost,
requested the Executive Secretary to continue to               a much deeper and more systematic awareness of the
monitor the latest developments of the Conference              social dimension of development in the work of
with a view to informing and advising the members              ESCAP. That had meant looking beyond simplified
of the Commission on any action which needed to be             economic parameters and phenomena of
taken at the national level as well as any necessary           development such as GNP and balance of payments
co-operative action at the regional, subregional and           to the process of transformation of societies, of how
global levels.                                                 individuals, families, communities and other social
                                                               institutions contributed to development and were in
831. It also exhorted members to take immediate                turn affected by it through a symbiotic and dynamic
action to give careful study to the provisions of the          relationship. The human being had been firmly
law of the sea for the purpose of determining their            identified as the reason for accelerating development
obligations and rights under the new convention as             and as the beneficiary of development. For, without
well                                                           an improvement in the quality of life of

                                                          91
827. The suggestion was made that the secretariat              as their needs for information, ad\ice and assistance
should identify areas of action and initiate proposals         in so far as they might affect the work of the
for inclusion in the work programme. Among the                 Commission.
activities in which ESCAP could playa useful role,
the following were mentioned: dissemination of                 832. The Commission noted with concern recent
information relating to the convention and its                 developments which threatened to undermine the
implications through seminars and workshops on a               optimism generated concerning the early finalization
regional or subregional basis involving both                   of the convention. It therefore appealed to all
governmental and non-governmental agencies,                    countries participating in the Conference to exert all
provision of a useful forum for exchange of views on           efforts to ensure that the convention was finalized
and promotion of interregional co-operation in the             during the tenth session of the Conference.
management and exploitation of marine resources;
training; preparation of model drafts of legislation on
subjects relevant to the convention; provision of                                 Other matters
technical assistance related to the protection and
                                                               Amendment of the term of reference of the
preservation of the marine environment; promotion              Commission: admission of Guam as an associate
of joint prospecting for sea-bed resources; fishery            member
research and conservation of fishery resources;
development of marine scientific capabilities; and             833. The Commission observed that the
prevention and control of marine pollution.                    Government of the United States of America had
                                                               informed the Executive Secretary, in accordance
828. The Commission suggested that countries                   with article 5 of the terms of reference of the
should avail themselves of the services of existing            Commission, of the request of Guam for admission
regional and international organizations to develop            as an associate member of the Commission and
their financial, technological and institutional               inclusion within its geographical scope. The request
capabilities for the rational exploitation and proper          of the Government concerned was contained in
management of their marine resources. It was further           document E/ESCAP/237, which included a statement
suggested that the Committees on Natural Resources             of the financial implications of the proposal. The
and on Industry, Technology, Human Settlements                 Commission unanimously recommended the
and the Environment could commence collaboration               admission of Guam as an associate member of the
on an interagency basis with existing United Nations           Commission and its inclusion within the
organizations, specialized agencies and                        geographical scope of the Commission. It further
intergovernmental bodies, particularly IOC/                    recommended that the Economic and Social Council
UNESCO, in initiating programmes for the                       should approve the consequential amendments to
utilization of marine resources and the preservation           paragraphs 2 and 4 of the Commission's terms of
of the marine environment.                                     reference and adopted a draft resolution to that effect
                                                               for action by the Council. (For the text, see chapter
829. The Commission noted the difficulties en-                 I.)
countered by small States in obtaining appropriate
advice on complex issues with international legal              Date and place of the meeting of the next session
implications, such as the establishment of exclusive
economic zones, which involved questions of                    834. The Commission decided that its thirty-eighth
licensing, surveillance, enforcement and fisheries             session would be held at ESCAP headquarters at
management as well as future exploitation of sea-bed           Bangkok some time in March 1982. The Executive
                                                               Secretary, after consultation with ACPR, would
resources. The importance of the convention to land-
                                                               determine the exact dates of the session and would
locked countries was also recognized.                          inform the members of the Commission accordingly.
830. In view of the importance of the draft                    Farewell address by Mr. J.B.P.              Maramis,
convention and its wide-reaching implications for the          outgoing Executive Secretary
regulation of virtually every aspect of the equitable
utilization, exploration, exploitation and preservation        835. In his parting address, Mr. Maramis said that
of the sea and its resources, the Commission                   the previous eight years had seen, first and foremost,
requested the Executive Secretary to continue to               a much deeper and more systematic awareness of the
monitor the latest developments of the Conference              social dimension of development in the work of
with a view to informing and advising the members              ESCAP. That had meant looking beyond simplified
of the Commission on any action which needed to be             economic parameters and phenomena of
taken at the national level as well as any necessary           development such as GNP and balance of payments
co-operative action at the regional, subregional and           to the process of transformation of societies, of how
global levels.                                                 individuals, families, communities and other social
                                                               institutions contributed to development and were in
831. It also exhorted members to take immediate                turn affected by it through a symbiotic and dynamic
action to give careful study to the provisions of the          relationship. The human being had been firmly
law of the sea for the purpose of determining their            identified as the reason for accelerating development
obligations and rights under the new convention as             and as the beneficiary of development. For, without
well                                                           an improvement in the quality of life of

                                                          92
the common man, the efforts at development would                  to APDC to enable it to assist them to the extent
have no purpose.                                                  anticipated by them.

836. The reality up to now had been disturbingly                  841. Given the expanding functions required by
different. Mass poverty, and poverty in its most                  the member countries, ESCAP itself continued to be
degrading forms, were still rampant and increasing in             under considerable financial constraints. In that
the ESCAP region. Rhetoric alone would not suffice.               respect, he was gratified to note the continued in-
Clearly, there had to be a massive and concerted                  crease in extra-budgetary resources provided to
effort at the national level which was adequately                 ESCAP during his stewardship. In view of the
supported by international action. If that process of             extremely tight regular budget situation, those
improving the lot of the poor and disadvantaged in                extrabudgetary resources had played a crucial role in
                                                                  enabling the secretariat to respond to the felt needs
society lost momentum, the lesson of history was
                                                                  and priorities of its developing member
that the very foundations of any society that                     Governments and to move increasingly towards
continued to tolerate "private affluence in the midst             more operational programmes. He expressed his
of public squalor" would be threatened.                           deep gratitude to all the member Governments and
                                                                  organizations that had provided extrabudgetary
837. That was particularly true of the rural poor.                assistance. With the increasing stringency in the
Hundreds of millions of people in the region                      regular budget of the United Nations, he hoped that
continued to live in conditions of want and                       their generosity would be even greater in the future
deprivation, denied access even to the basic                      so that the tasks entrusted to the secretariat could be
amenities for a decent living and to any opportunity              accomplished.
to be productive members of society.
                                                                  842. With the member countries requesting that the
838. In his view, the work of the secretariat in the              activities of the secretariat move into more varied
future would need to reflect that concern more and                and operational fields, it had also become
more; that important change in orientation had been               increasingly important that duplication of work with
recognized in the change in name from "Economic                   other organizations be minimized and that the
Commission" to "Economic and Social Commission"                   maximum amount of co-ordination be achieved. If
and now pervaded the entire work programme of the                 the United Nations agencies were to respond
secretariat. In the process, the secretariat not only             effectively to the requirements of the developing
had to respond positively to the felt needs and                   countries, they would need to work in close
changing priorities of its member Governments but                 co-ordination with each other. General Assembly
also had to provide intellectual leadership                       resolution 32/197 on restructuring of the economic
                                                                  and social sectors of the United Nations system
innovatively and constructively on a regional basis.
                                                                  called upon the regional commissions to provide the
                                                                  necessary team leadership. It had already been
839. He drew attention to the rapid expansion in                  demonstrated that that was feasible, notably in the
the scope of the secretariat's work programmes                    field of rural development. Similar initiatives were
during the period, which had begun increasingly to                called for in other fields. Interagency co-operation
strain the capacity of the secretariat to concentrate on          and co-ordination would become the normal practice
providing the intellectual drive to activities at the             rather than a special arrangement for particular
regional level that was required of it.                           programmes only to the extent that national agencies
                                                                  became co-ordinated among themselves and
840. Hence also the reason for entrusting a single                demanded co-ordinated rather than fragmented
organization, the Asia and Pacific Development                    assistance. He hoped that the working relationships
Centre with the task of becoming a "centre of                     and the mutual trust that had already been developed
excellence" in the region which could promote,                    would sustain and further assist the co-ordination
nurture and provide the intellectual content and                  that would be increasingly called for in the future.
backing that the problems of the region called for.
There was a need for development strategies to deal               843. It had been ESCAP's constant endeavour to
more effectively with the continuing problems of                  secure the fullest involvement of all parts of the vast
mass poverty, unemployment and equity. To do so, it                Asian and Pacific region in the programmes of the
would not be sufficient to deal with development                  Commission. Looking back at his years in office, he
only in its policy and planning aspects, not even                 observed that the participation of all areas,
including its implementation and managerial aspects.              particularly the island countries of the Pacific, had
Above all, it would be necessary to increase the                  been greatly consolidated. There had been a marked
understanding of development as a social and                      advance in the evolution of the Asian and Pacific
                                                                  identity.
political process, and as an expression of the
dynamization of a society, including the integration              844. Referring to international co-operation, he
of the marginalized sectors of its population. That               said: "We have witnessed the traumas, the
would be a daunting challenge -but a challenge that               heartbreaks and the disappointments in the
would have to be met. He urged members and                        negotiations aimed at establishing a new
associate members of ESCAP to extend patronage                    international economic order. But we should not lose
and support                                                       heart or lose faith in the promise

                                                           (93)
of co-operative endeavour. It is the responsibility of         co-operative action between subregional groups as
statesmen and the task of diplomats like yourselves            well as between the ESCAP region and other
to see that the promise of international co-operation          regions.
is not sacrificed at the altar of short-term national
expediency. We must make every effort to see that              846. ESCAP meetings tended to become the
countries are brought together in a spirit of voluntary        forums where the political aspects of international
co-operation and genuine partnership." He recalled             relationships -in their positive as well as their
with pleasure that ESCAP had facilitated such                  negative manifestations -were mirrored and given
co-operation between developed and developing                  expression. The challenge was to ascertain to what
countries within the region and through concrete               extent co-operation for the common good could be
projects, and welcomed such co-operation as a                  achieved by the countries without sacrifice of basic
positive factor in promoting global peace, and                 national interests. The path was never easy, and
stability and prosperity.                                      co-operation, even when achieved after prolonged
                                                               negotiation, was not guaranteed to be permanent. He
845. He referred to the role of subregional                    cautioned not to undo through misunderstanding
groupings, such as ASEAN, the South Pacific island             what had been achieved through patient effort. In
countries and south Asia. Subregional co-operation             concluding, he said that the members of ESCAP
should not detract from the common identity of Asia            should strengthen ~heir resolve to proceed on a path
and the Pacific, which was based not only on the               of co-operation rather than confrontation, of
shared history of struggle against colonialism but             consensus rather than controversy.
also on the commonality of the tasks of economic
construction. The unity underlying the apparent                847. In that connexion, the Commission adopted
diversity of Asia and the Pacific was too strong a             resolution 218 (XXXVII) by acclamation.
historical reality to be lost sight of. The role of an
umbrella regional body such as ESCAP in promoting                       Adoption of the annual report of
international co-operation was to facilitate the                               the Commission
formation of and co-operation within appropriate
subregional groups and to encourage understanding              848. At its 571st meeting on 20 March 1981,
and                                                            the Commission unanimously adopted the draft
                                                               report prepared by the Technical and Drafting
                                                               Committee.




                                                          93
of co-operative endeavour. It is the responsibility of         co-operative action between subregional groups as
statesmen and the task of diplomats like yourselves            well as between the ESCAP region and other
to see that the promise of international co-operation          regions.
is not sacrificed at the altar of short-term national
expediency. We must make every effort to see that              846. ESCAP meetings tended to become the
countries are brought together in a spirit of voluntary        forums where the political aspects of international
co-operation and genuine partnership." He recalled             relationships -in their positive as well as their
with pleasure that ESCAP had facilitated such                  negative manifestations -were mirrored and given
co-operation between developed and developing                  expression. The challenge was to ascertain to what
countries within the region and through concrete               extent co-operation for the common good could be
projects, and welcomed such co-operation as a                  achieved by the countries without sacrifice of basic
positive factor in promoting global peace, and                 national interests. The path was never easy, and
stability and prosperity.                                      co-operation, even when achieved after prolonged
                                                               negotiation, was not guaranteed to be permanent. He
845. He referred to the role of subregional                    cautioned not to undo through misunderstanding
groupings, such as ASEAN, the South Pacific island             what had been achieved through patient effort. In
countries and south Asia. Subregional co-operation             concluding, he said that the members of ESCAP
should not detract from the common identity of Asia            should strengthen ~heir resolve to proceed on a path
and the Pacific, which was based not only on the               of co-operation rather than confrontation, of
shared history of struggle against colonialism but             consensus rather than controversy.
also on the commonality of the tasks of economic
construction. The unity underlying the apparent                847. In that connexion, the Commission adopted
diversity of Asia and the Pacific was too strong a             resolution 218 (XXXVII) by acclamation.
historical reality to be lost sight of. The role of an
umbrella regional body such as ESCAP in promoting                       Adoption of the annual report of
international co-operation was to facilitate the                               the Commission
formation of and co-operation within appropriate
subregional groups and to encourage understanding              848. At its 571st meeting on 20 March 1981,
and                                                            the Commission unanimously adopted the draft
                                                               report prepared by the Technical and Drafting
                                                               Committee.




                                                          94
                                                 Chapter IV

               RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE COMMISSION
                    AT ITS THIRTY- SEVENTH SESSION
211 (XXXVII). Strengthening the Commission in                          1. Requests the Executive Secretary:
   the promotion of the integration of women
          in the development process 1                                 (a) To request the Secretary-General, as a
                                                                matter of priority, to transfer by 1982 from within
       The Economic and Social Commission for                   the regular budget of the United Nations a post of a
Asia and the Pacific,                                           senior officer to ESCAP, to be responsible for the
                                                                programmes of the Commission on the integration of
       Recalling the Convention on the Elimination              women in the development process;
of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the
Programme of Action for the Second Half of the                          (b) Pending General Assembly approval, to
United Nations Decade for Women and the relevant                deploy immediately a senior-level post within the
paragraphs of General Assembly resolution 35/136
                                                                secretariat for that purpose, to enable, inter alia, the
of 11 December 1980 on the World Conference of
                                                                maximum use of the resources of the Voluntary Fund
the United Nations Decade for Women,
                                                                for the United Nations Decade for Women available
      Also recalling its. resolution 203 (XXXVI) of             for programmes and projects;
27 March 1980 on the integration of women in the
development process and resolutions 21 and 22 of                       (c) To seek resources, such as extrabudgetary
the World Conference of the United Nations Decade               funding, in addition to the funds provided by the
for Women,                                                      Voluntary Fund in order to undertake programmes
                                                                and projects in the Asian and Pacific region for the
      Noting recommendation 9 of the Subregional                integration of women in the development process;
Follow-up Meeting for Pacific Women on the World
Conference of the United Nations Decade for                             (d) To set up within the secretariat appropri-
Women that the United Nations should ensure that a              ate arrangements for interdivisional co-ordination
permanent post is provided in the regular budget of             and consultation to ensure that the concept of the
the Commission for a senior programme officer for               integration of women in the development process is
women,                                                          reflected in all programme activities of the
                                                                Commission;
       Recalling that the Consultative Committee on
the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade                       (e) To establish under the auspices of the
for Women at its fifth session reaffirmed that the two          Commission, in consultation with other United
posts for senior women's programme officers in the              Nations bodies and the specialized agencies, a
regional commissions' supported by the Voluntary                standing mechanism for interagency co-ordination
Fund should be maintained under the regular budget,             and collaboration in planning, monitoring and
and that at its eighth session it recommended that the          evaluating the implementation of strategies and
financing of those two senior women's programme
                                                                programmes at the regional level for the integration
officer posts should be discontinued on the
                                                                of women in development and in particular the
expiration of existing commitments unless at least
one of them was provided for under the regular                  implementation of the Programme of Action for the
budget,                                                         Second Half of the United Nations Decade for
                                                                Women;
       Emphasizing that accelerated development
requires the real and effective participation of men                    2. Further requests the Executive Secretary
and women in all areas of activity and the creation of          to report in full, through the Commission at its thirty-
the necessary conditions for .equality of rights,               eighth session, to the Economic and Social Council
opportunities and responsibilities for men and                  at its first regular session of 1982 on the specific
women,                                                          aspects of the situation of women in all the sectors of
                                                                its development programme and to report to the
        Recognizing the intersectoral character of              Commission at its thirty-eighth session on the
efforts to promote the integration of women in the              implementation of the present resolution and of
development process,                                            resolution 203 (XXXVI).
______
1                                                                                                    570th meeting
See paras. 541-544 above.                                                                            19 March 1981

                                                         (95)
   212 (XXXVII). Review and appraisal of the                         Bearing in mind that the Committee on
    implementation of the new International                   Development Planning, at its third session, saw an
           Development Strategy2                              increased role for the secretariat in activities related
                                                              to development planning as a desirable outcome of
      The Economic and Social Commission for                  the restructuring of activities and responsibilities
Asiaand the Pacific,                                          within the worldwide United Nations system,
      Recalling General Assembly resolution 35/56                     1.     Requests the Executive Secretary to
of 5 December 1980 containing the International
                                                              pay appropriate attention to the need for adequate
Development Strategy for the Third United Nations
Development Decade,                                           application of a unified approach to economic and
                                                              social development and planning in the work of all
        1. Urges all Governments, in accordance               divisions of the secretariat, especially in the priority
with their national priorities and plans, to reflect          areas of the programme of work of the Commission,
appropriately the goals, objectives and policy                in order to assist the developing countries of the
measures of the International Development Strategy            region effectively in formulating and implementing
in their policy formulation;                                  their national development plans and programmes;

       2.     Calls upon the Executive Secretary to                   2. Urges the Governments of the
present a report to the Commission at its thirty-             Commission's members and associate members to
eighth session:                                               co-operate actively with the Commission in
                                                              facilitating an exchange of national experience in the
        (a)    Elaborating regional and subregional           field of economic and social planning, with
strategies in the light of the Strategy as a matter of        particular emphasis on the problems of interest to the
priority for consideration by the Commission;                 developing countries of Asia and the Pacific;
       (b)   Proposing action programmes towards                     3.     Invites the Executive Secretary, within
achieving the goals and objectives of the Strategy;
                                                              the resources available to him, to take the appropri-
       3.     Requests the Executive Secretary to             ate measures to strengthen the activities of the De-
prepare as part of the regular activity of the                velopment Planning Division so as to enable effec-
Commission reviews of major aspects of                        tive implementation of its functions;
development in different sectors identifying and
appraising the progress towards, and factors which                   4.     Requests the Executive Secretary to
account for shortfalls in, the implementation of the          report to the Commission at its thirty-eighth session
Strategy, and to present the first of such reviews to         on the implementation of the present resolution.
the Commission at its thirty-ninth session.
                                                                                                     570th meeting
                                       570th meeting                                                 19 March 1981
                                      19 March 1981
                                                                214 (XXXVII). United Nations Conference on
213 (XXXVII). Unified approach to economic and                        the Least Developed Countries4
       social development and planning 3
                                                                     The Economic and Social Commission for
       The Economic and Social Commission for                 Asia and the Pacific,
Asia and the Pacific.
                                                                      Deeply concerned at the gravity of the
       Recalling General Assembly resolution 3409
(XXX) of 28 November 1975, in which, inter alia,              deteriorating economic and social situation of the
the General Assembly endorsed the application of              least developed countries, their continued critical
a unified approach to development analysis and                lack of basic infrastructure and their dismal
planning in the regional commissions,                         development during the past two decades, as well as
                                                              their bleak development prospects in the 1980s,
      Bearing in mind General Assembly decisions
32/418 of 8 December 1977 and 34/419 of 29                           Recalling resolution 122 (V) of 3 June 1979
November 1979 on a unified approach to                        of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
development analysis and planning,                            Development, by which it endorsed a
                                                              Comprehensive New Programme of Action for the
       Recalling also the International Development           Least Developed Countries in two phases,
Strategy for the Third United Nations Development             comprising an Immediate Action Programme (1979-
Decade annexed to General Assembly resolution                 1981) of greatly expanded assistance to provide an
35/56 of 5 December 1980, particularly the                    immediate boost to their economies and immediate
provisions related to a unified approach to economic          support for projects for the provision of the most
and social development,                                       pressing needs and paving the way for much larger
_______                                                       ______
 2 See paras. 250-251 above.
                                                                4 See paras. 427428 above.
 3 See para. 326 above.
                                                         95
   212 (XXXVII). Review and appraisal of the                         Bearing in mind that the Committee on
    implementation of the new International                   Development Planning, at its third session, saw an
           Development Strategy2                              increased role for the secretariat in activities related
                                                              to development planning as a desirable outcome of
      The Economic and Social Commission for                  the restructuring of activities and responsibilities
Asiaand the Pacific,                                          within the worldwide United Nations system,
      Recalling General Assembly resolution 35/56                     1.     Requests the Executive Secretary to
of 5 December 1980 containing the International
                                                              pay appropriate attention to the need for adequate
Development Strategy for the Third United Nations
Development Decade,                                           application of a unified approach to economic and
                                                              social development and planning in the work of all
        1. Urges all Governments, in accordance               divisions of the secretariat, especially in the priority
with their national priorities and plans, to reflect          areas of the programme of work of the Commission,
appropriately the goals, objectives and policy                in order to assist the developing countries of the
measures of the International Development Strategy            region effectively in formulating and implementing
in their policy formulation;                                  their national development plans and programmes;

       2.     Calls upon the Executive Secretary to                   2. Urges the Governments of the
present a report to the Commission at its thirty-             Commission's members and associate members to
eighth session:                                               co-operate actively with the Commission in
                                                              facilitating an exchange of national experience in the
        (a)    Elaborating regional and subregional           field of economic and social planning, with
strategies in the light of the Strategy as a matter of        particular emphasis on the problems of interest to the
priority for consideration by the Commission;                 developing countries of Asia and the Pacific;
       (b)   Proposing action programmes towards                     3.     Invites the Executive Secretary, within
achieving the goals and objectives of the Strategy;
                                                              the resources available to him, to take the appropri-
       3.     Requests the Executive Secretary to             ate measures to strengthen the activities of the De-
prepare as part of the regular activity of the                velopment Planning Division so as to enable effec-
Commission reviews of major aspects of                        tive implementation of its functions;
development in different sectors identifying and
appraising the progress towards, and factors which                   4.     Requests the Executive Secretary to
account for shortfalls in, the implementation of the          report to the Commission at its thirty-eighth session
Strategy, and to present the first of such reviews to         on the implementation of the present resolution.
the Commission at its thirty-ninth session.
                                                                                                     570th meeting
                                       570th meeting                                                 19 March 1981
                                      19 March 1981
                                                                214 (XXXVII). United Nations Conference on
213 (XXXVII). Unified approach to economic and                        the Least Developed Countries4
       social development and planning 3
                                                                     The Economic and Social Commission for
       The Economic and Social Commission for                 Asia and the Pacific,
Asia and the Pacific.
                                                                      Deeply concerned at the gravity of the
       Recalling General Assembly resolution 3409
(XXX) of 28 November 1975, in which, inter alia,              deteriorating economic and social situation of the
the General Assembly endorsed the application of              least developed countries, their continued critical
a unified approach to development analysis and                lack of basic infrastructure and their dismal
planning in the regional commissions,                         development during the past two decades, as well as
                                                              their bleak development prospects in the 1980s,
      Bearing in mind General Assembly decisions
32/418 of 8 December 1977 and 34/419 of 29                           Recalling resolution 122 (V) of 3 June 1979
November 1979 on a unified approach to                        of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
development analysis and planning,                            Development, by which it endorsed a
                                                              Comprehensive New Programme of Action for the
       Recalling also the International Development           Least Developed Countries in two phases,
Strategy for the Third United Nations Development             comprising an Immediate Action Programme (1979-
Decade annexed to General Assembly resolution                 1981) of greatly expanded assistance to provide an
35/56 of 5 December 1980, particularly the                    immediate boost to their economies and immediate
provisions related to a unified approach to economic          support for projects for the provision of the most
and social development,                                       pressing needs and paving the way for much larger
_______                                                       ______
 2 See paras. 250-251 above.
                                                                4 See paras. 427428 above.
 3 See para. 326 above.
                                                         96
longer-term development efforts and a Substantial               in any case before the end of 1981, the commitments
New Programme of Action for the 1980s for the least             undertaken in the Immediate Action Programme
developed countries with the objective, inter alia, of          (1979-1981) contained in resolution 122 (V) of the
transforming their economies towards self-sustained             United Nations Conference on Trade and
development,                                                    Development;

       Recalling further General Assembly                               4. Urges donor countries and multilateral
resolutions 34/210 of 19 December 1979, by which                development institutions to allocate increased
the Assembly endorsed the Comprehensive New                     financial resources and technical assistance in
Programme of Action for the Least Developed                     support of activities aimed at major structural
Countries, and 35/205 of 16 December 1980 on the                transformations in the least developed countries,
United Nations Conference on the Least Developed                taking into account the relative over-all performance
Countries,                                                      of the donor countries;

       Recalling also General Assembly resolution                       5. Also urges donor countries to make
35/56 of 5 December 1980 containing the                         equitable and all possible efforts with a view to dou-
International Development Strategy for the Third                bling, at the earliest possible time within the first half
United Nations Development Decade,                              of the 1980s, the flow of official development
                                                                assistance to the least developed countries, in
       Reaffirming Commission resolution 204                    accordance with the commitments undertaken in
(XXXVI) of 27 March 1980 on special measures in                 paragraph 13 of resolution 122 (V) of the United
favour of the least developed countries,                        Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and
                                                                to give serious consideration to this end to the
                                                                proposal that such a doubling should be in real terms,
       Deeply concerned that, since the adoption of             taking into account the relative performance of donor
the Immediate Action Programme (1979-1981), very                countries;
limited progress has been made towards its
implementation,                                                        6. Urges all developed countries, developing
                                                                countries in a position to do so, multilateral
       Recognizing that primary responsibility for              development institutions and other sources to extend
their development rests with the least developed                substantial technical and/or financial assistance to
countries themselves,                                           the least developed countries for the survey,
                                                                exploration and development of their energy
       Reaffirming that there is an immediate need              resources;
for a greatly expanded increase in the transfer of
resources to meet the critical needs of the least                      7. Urges that special efforts be made to
developed countries and to help to promote their                ensure and/or promote adequate markets for the
rapid and self-sustained socio-economic                         exports of the least developed countries, in
development,                                                    accordance with resolution 122 (V) of the United
                                                                Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
       Emphasizing the particular importance of the             taking into account the interests of other developing
contribution that economic co-operation among                   countries;
developing countries can make, inter alia, to the
development of the least developed countries among                     8. Requests the Executive Secretary to report
them,                                                           to the Commission at its thirty-eighth session on the
                                                                United Nations Conference on the Least Developed
       1. Calls upon the international community                Countries;
and the organs, organizations and bodies of the
United Nations system to take all necessary                             9. Further requests the Executive Secretary
measures to contribute to the success of the United             to focus his annual report to the Commission relating
Nations Conference on the Least Developed                       to the least developed countries of the ESCAP region
Countries, which will, inter alia, finalize, adopt and          in particular on progress in the implementation of the
support the Substantial New Programme of Action                 decisions of the Conference.
for the 1980s called for in resolution 122 (V) of the
United Nations Conference on Trade and                                                                  570th meeting
Development;                                                                                            19 March 1981

        2. Requests the international community to                   215 (XXXVII). Charter of the Asian and
take all necessary steps and measures and to accord                       .Pacific Development Centre5
due priority, in the implementation of the
International Development Strategy for the Third                       The Economic and Social Commission for
United Nations Development Decade, to the                       Asia and the Pacific,
provisions relating to accelerated development of the
least developed countries;                                             Recalling its resolution 191 (XXXV) of 14
       3. Urges all developed countries, developing             March 1979, in which, inter alia, it decided that the
countries in a position to do so, multilateral                  Asian and
development institutions and other sources to take              ______
urgent steps to implement without any further delay,            5
and                                                             See para. 789 above.
                                                         (97)
Pacific Development Institute, the Asian and Pacific          mental meeting of members and associate members
Development Administration Centre, the Social                 of the Commission, if deemed appropriate, with a
Welfare and DeveloPn:lent Centre for Asia and the             view to resolving the outstanding issues set forth
Pacific and the Asian and Pacific Centre for Women            above for the consideration and approval of the
and Development should be integrated, further                 Commission at its thirty-eighth session.
decided that the integrated institution should be
named the Asian and Pacific Development Centre                                                     570th meeting
and resolved that the Centre should be an                                                          19March 1981
intergovernmental institution with its own charter,
                                                                                     Annex
       Recalling also its request in the same
resolution that the Executive Secretary proceed to               DRAFT CHARTER OF THE ASIAN AND
formulate a charter for the Asian and Pacific                     PACIFIC DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
Development Centre and submit the charter to the
Commission at its thirty-sixth session for
consideration,                                                       The Parties to this Charter, being members
                                                              and associate members of the United Nations
       Further recalling its resolution 206 (XXXVI)           Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
of 27 March 1980, in which, inter alia, it requested          Pacific (here-inafter referred to as the "Commission"
the Executive Secretary to convene an                         or "ESCAP"),
intergovernmental meeting of members and associate
                                                                     Recalling Commission resolution 191
members of the Commission for the purpose of
                                                              (XXXV) of 14 March 1979 on, inter alia, the
reviewing the provisions of the draft Charter and             integration of the following regional training and
proposing a final draft for the consideration and             research institutions: the Asian and Pacific
approval of the Commission at its thirty-seventh              Development Institute, the Asian and Pacific
session,                                                      Development Administration Centre, the Social
                                                              Welfare and Development Centre for Asia and the
       Having received and considered the report of           Pacific and the Asian and Pacific Centre for
the intergovernm