Docstoc

zhangjing

Document Sample
zhangjing Powered By Docstoc
					 Chemical Aspects of GLOBEC-
 China Programs and Potential to
GLOBEC-IMBER Study in China

                     Jing Zhang
 1. State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal
 Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai
 200062
 2. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,
 Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003
                        Atmospheric
                        Depositions




                      Biogeochemical Cycle



Sediment – Water Interface




Question 3: Nutrient Dynamics
Scientific Questions:
1. How the transfer of chemical materials across the
   boundary affects the ecosystem of the East China Sea
   and Yellow Sea
   - on cycles of chemical elements?
   - on nutrient budgets?

2. To what extent the biogeochemical processes affects
   the carbon cycle and fisheries
   - on the food web structure?
   - on transform of nutrient limitation?
   - on comparison of new and recycled production?
Measurements and Simulation


• Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, PO43-, and SiO32-)
    and DOC/N
•   Trace species [Al, As (III+V), CH4, and N2O]
•   POC/N, C-13, N-15, and particulate metals
•   Radio isotopes (e.g. 210Pb, 7Be, 234Th, 226Ra and
    228Ra)

•   Bio-markers (e.g. Alkanes, PAHs, AA and FAs)
          121°00′E                    121°30′                     122°00′                       122°30′
32°00′N
              a                                                                                     N



            WY2
                                                 Jiangsu                East China Sea
              WY3
                BZ2 BZ3        Ch
          XLJ                       on g
              ZDD3
                ZDD5                       mi
                   ZDD9
                                                ng
                                                      Isl
                                                            and
                                                                   0m
 31°30′                                         ZJ1
                                                      ZJ3
                                                                                 -5m
                                     CY1 CY4
                                            CY7                                        -10m
                              Shanghai    XWH3      FDD11
                                                                                       -5m
                                         ZHER1 XWH5       FDD15
                                                     FDD3FDD1
                                                 XYZ10     XYZ2-1
                                            HPJ
                                                                    XYZ9          XYZ3
 31°00′                                                                    -5m
                                                                            XYZ8 XYZ4
                                                                                   XYZ5
                                                                            XYZ21
                                                                             XYZ22 XYZ6

          0       9   18 km
                                                                                             XYZ7
           Y1
  Y4 Y3 Y2
Y5      C4 Y6              T3 T2T1
   C2 C3            T5 T4          A1
 C1     T8 T7 T6
 P12 T9 C6
   P11C5                         A2
 C8 P10    C7
   C9                           A3
        P9
     C10 P8-1                 A4
       C11    P8
                   P7        A5
                     p6    A6
                      P5P4P3
Phosphorus in Food Web
                32P (t1/2=14.3 d)
                33P (t =25.3 d)
                      1/2


                      Zooplankton
Atomospheric
    Input


                      Predation
      Up-take


                Phytoplankton
Water Column
Zhang et al., ECSS, 2004
                 90                                                                0.3
                               千里岩                Nitrate+Nitric                                                              千里岩             Phosphate
                                                  Ammonium                                                                                    Silicate
 浓度(nmol/m 3 )




                                                                   浓度(nmol/m 3 )
                 60                                                                0.2


                 30                                                                0.1


                  0                                                                  0
                      1    2   3   4   5   6月 7   8   9 10 11 12                          1       2       3       4       5       6月7    8   9 10 11 12



                 90                                                                0.18
                          Nitrate+Nitric     嵊泗群岛                                                 Phosphate                              嵊泗群岛
                          Ammonium                                                                Silicate
 浓度(nmol/m 3 )




                                                                   浓度(nmol/m 3 )
                 60                                                                0.12


                 30                                                                0.06


                 0                                                                 0.00
                      1    2   3   4   5   6月 7   8   9 10 11 12                              1       2       3       4       5   6月 7   8   9 10 11 12



Aerosol nutrients over the Yellow Sea (upper panel) and East China Sea (lower panel)
Silica flux (mmol m-2 d-1) at sediment – water interface
                     of the ECS

 Station      E4        E4        E5        E6        E6


 Cruise    2000-10 2001-5 2001-5 2000-10 2001-5

 DM         0.712      0.018     1.84      0.439     0.638

 BC         0.464      0.546     2.63                1.86


DM: calculation from pore water profile, BC: data from in situ
incubations
                     BSi (%)                              BSi (%)
                 0      0.5     1                     0     0.5     1
             0                                    0
                                                 10




                                     Depth (m)
Depth (m)




            10                                   20
                                                 30
            20                                   40
                                                 50
            30         E5 (2001-5)               60       E4 (2000-10)


In the ECS BSi<1%, similar to Chesapeake Bay, Yellow Sea and Bohai.
Transport                  Salinity   Water flux       Al         Al flux
                                       m3 yr-1         M        ×109 g yr-1
Input
Changjiang                    0          1012      0.69±0.40      16.0±9.3
Atmospheric                   0                                   12.3±4.1
Kuroshio Surface Water      34.33     0.58×1013    0.022±0.004    3.4±0.6
Kuroshio Subsurface
                            34.68     1.54×1013    0.016±0.001     6.6±0.4
Water
Taiwan Current Warm
                           33.50a     1.58×1013    0.042±0.033    17.9±14.1
Water

Output
Shelf water export          33.42     3.83×1013    0.031±0.05      32.0±5.2
Sediment-water interface                                         0.043±0.029
                   P12 P11      P10       P9     P8      E6          P7     P6    P5 P4        P3


             -50


            -100
Depth (m)




            -150


            -400


            -650


            -900
                       Sep-2002, unit %
            -1150
                 100          200         300          400          500          600           700
                              Distance from Changjiang River mouth (km)

            Impact of Changjiang water on the PN section (East China Sea) in September 2002.
                                           Station
                                                                                     80
                 E4
              P14 P11    P10   P9    P8       E6      P7         P6   P5 P4     P3
              0                                                                      70
                                                                                     60
             -50                                                                     50
                                                                                     40
                                                                                     30
Depth / m




            -100
                                                                                     20
                                                                                     15
            -150
                                                                                     10
                   TSM: mg/l
                                                                                     8
            -200
                                                                                     6
                                                                                     4
                   123         124           125           126            127
                                                                                     2
                                          Longitude                                  0
Decreased




  8.9


                           8.1

        C/N ratio (atom)
                    1
Terrigenous POM



                  0.8         [POM]=-0.38Ln(Km)+2.40
                                       2
                  0.6                 r =0.95
                  0.4
                  0.2
                    0
                  0     200            400          600
           Changjian                              ECS
                                 km
              g
a. Summer
                            Atmosphere
                             NO3-: 0.37
Yellow Sea                                                Outflow
                             NH4+: 0.80
NO3-: 0.027                                             NO3-: 11.8
                            PO43-: 0.002
NH4+: 0.008                                             NH4+: 2.38
                            SiO32-: 0.047
PO43-: 0.004                                            PO43-: 0.57
SiO32-: 0.107                                           SiO32-: 20.1


                         East China Sea Shelf
    River                                                Kuroshio
  NO3-: 2.76                                            NO3-: 5.43
 NH4+: 0.182                                            NH4+: 0.47
 PO43-: 0.013                                           PO43-: 0.384
 SiO32-: 3.94                                           SiO32-: 6.20
                Taiwan Strait         Bottom Sediment
                NO3-: 7.10              NO3-: 0.11
                NH4+: 1.35              NH4+: 1.01
                PO43-: 0.359            PO43-: 0.025
                 SiO32-: 14.7           SiO32-: 2.51

                                                         unit: 103 mol/s
b. Winter


Yellow Sea                Atmosphere                    Outflow
NO3-: 0.053                NO3-: 0.71                 NO3-: 17.1
NH4+: 0.013                NH4+: 1.27                 NH4+: 0.98
PO43-: 0.006              PO43-: 0.003                PO43-: 1.34
SiO32-: 0.111             SiO32-: 0.017               SiO32-: 33.6




    River              East China Sea Shelf            Kuroshio
 NO3-: 0.765                                          NO3-: 12.6
 NH4+: 0.195                                          NH4+: 0.97
 PO43-: 0.006                                         PO43-: 0.92
 SiO32-: 1.37                                         SiO32-: 23.7
                Taiwan Strait       Bottom Sediment
                NO3-: 5.73            NO3-: 0.11
                NH4+: 0.69            NH4+: 1.01
                PO43-: 0.46           PO43-: 0.025
                SiO32-: 17.9          SiO32-: 2.51
                                                       unit: 103 mol/s
                             Muscle of Engraulis Japonicus

              15
  N-15 (%o)
                         =0.45BL+3.15
              10
                            r 2 =0.68
               5
               0
                    0               5           10          15   20
                                         Body Length (cm)


                             Muscle of Engraulis Japonicus

                    0               5           10          15   20
              -18
C-13 (%o)




                        13 C=0.17BL-21.9
              -20            r 2 =0.82

              -22
                                         Body Length (cm)
     Towards developing GLOBEC-IMBER Studies
                         in China
   OCEANS OSM (Paris, 7-10 January, 2003)
   March – May, 2003: Series of workshops on the
    possibility of integration of GLOBEC and IMBER studies
    in China
   August, 2003: Establishment of a joint working group
    of GLOBEC and IMBER within frame of CNC-IGBP
   May 26-28, 2004: “Xiangshan Forum” on “Sustainable
    Ecosystem and Biogeochemistry in the Coastal Ocean”
    (No. 228)
   October, 2004: Final examination of GLOBEC-China II
    “Ecosystem Dynamics and Sustainable Use of Marine
    Resources in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea”
   2005: Development of national study on GLOBEC-
    IMBER in China
Thank You!

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:10/18/2011
language:English
pages:26