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Memory Powered By Docstoc
The persistence of learning
over time through the storage
and retrieval of information
–Your memory is your mind’s
 storehouse, the reservoir of
 your accumulated learning
Memory – Information Processing

Encoding – the processing of
information into the memory
Storage – the retention of
encoded information over time
Retrieval – the process of getting
information out of memory
     Sensory Information
Every second all potential
What do you pay attention to
I.e. – walking down the hall – who
do you remember? Why?
 Encoding is the
   processing of
  information into
    the memory
 system – the first
 step of building a
memory is sensory

Encoding is the processing of putting
information into the memory system –
the first step of building a memory is
sensory input
Sensory input can occur in two ways:
it is either an automatic process, or
an effortful process
Automatic Process – some
sensory information is encoded
without any conscious effort or
awareness at all – noticing the color
of your friends shirt, following the
route from one class to another, the
smell of the bathroom, … didn’t
have to do anything at the time you
were doing these things in order to
remember them later
Effortful Processing – while
some sensory information is
gathered rather simply and
without effort, some sensory
information gathering requires
both your attention and a
conscious effort
Encoding – Effortful Processing

 Two effortful practices
that may help to gather
(encode) sensory
information include
rehearsal and spacing
   Encoding – Mental Imagery
Grocery List
A through J
Make a list of thing you buy @ the grocery
store starting with A, B, C – J
Directions follow
        Encoding –
Rehearsal – the conscious
repetition of information
          Encoding –
Spacing Effect – rehearsing
information repeatedly, over
time. Spaced studying beats
cramming. Rehearse a bit, take
a break, begin rehearsing as
you start forgetting things, take a
break, rehearse again as you
begin to forget, etc.
           Encoding –

To encode the meaning of a
difficult piece of poetry, we might
re-write the poem using modern
words and phrases that we use
            Encoding –

   Remembering Your midterm
1. Colored index cards – different
   one per Chapter
2. Word on one side –
3. other side definition – in your
   own words – other info
Encoding – Effortful Processing

Semantic Encoding – the
encoding of meanings, especially
of words
Acoustic Encoding – the
encoding of sounds
Visual Encoding – the encoding
of picture images
Encoding – Effortful Processing
Semantic Encoding - in order to
process the definitions of words,
the meaning of what we have
read, the conversations we have
with people, the directions we’ve
read on a box, etc., you will need
to be able to encode them within a
context that makes sense to you
and is meaningful to you
 Encoding – Effortful Processing
         Semantic Encoding
Flashbulb Memories – a clear memory of an
emotionally significant moment or event
 – Where were you when 9/11 occurred, or
   when Kennedy was shot?
 – You clearly remember your first hit in Little
   League, your 21st birthday, your first kiss, the
   first day of high school, a funeral, a
   wedding…..even though the memory may be
   many years old, you have a clear recollection
   of a single event because it has more
   meaning to you personally
  Encoding – Effortful Processing
Visual Encoding – Mental Imagery
When you are reading a passage from a book,
imagine it as a script being played out on a
movie screen in your mind.
After reading a book and it’s now test time,
you may not remember all of the descriptive
features and personal traits of all of the
abstract characters. But, if you mentally
pictured a famous actor playing each role
while you reading the book, someone who
physically resembled the characters and
embodied many of the same character traits, it
may be easier to describe the literary
characters later on a test.
 Encoding – Effortful Processing
        Visual Encoding
Where did you go yesterday, who was
with you, where did you eat, and what
did you wear? Remembering visual
information is often easier than
remembering formulas, definitions,
names and dates.
Visual encoding applies the idea of
mental pictures to words and
concepts, in order to put them into
memory easier.
   Encoding –Mental Imagery

A mental picture of Lady Macbeth.
While reading John Grisham’s “The Firm”,
you picture Tom Cruise as the main
   Encoding – Mental Imagery

When encoding a list of words, apply a
mental picture to each word. IE.
Typewriter, fire, cigarette, scary.
 Auditory Encoding - Sounds

auditory encoding enhances
the processing of
information by applying
rhyme schemes, stories,
songs, etc. to the
 Auditory Encoding - Sounds
Trying to remember the concept
that alcohol lowers inhibitions
and encourages
socialization?…..”What sobriety
conceals, alcohol reveals”.
“If the glove doesn’t fit, you must
acquit,” is easily remembered by
jurors when a lawyer is fighting
for his client’s innocence.
Encoding – Auditory Encoding

30 Days past September, April, June
and November. All the rest have 31,
except February.
In fourteen hundred and ninety-two
Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue.
"i" before "e," except after "c," or in
sounding like "ay" as in "neighbor" or
 Encoding – Auditory Encoding

Songs are another great way to
remember things – SCHOOL
          Encoding –
 More Strategies (Mnemonics)
Chunking – Organizing items
into familiar, manageable units
Acronyms – Organizing items
by creating words or
sentences from the first letters
of the words or information to
be remembered
       Encoding –Chunking

Who’s coming to the party? Sally,
Dave, Sean, Barry, Cindy, Melissa,
Rebecca, Tim……
– How to make it easier? Make the list
  alphabetical. Group the names by
   Barry, Cindy, Dave, etc.
   Sally, Rebecca, etc…..Dave, Barry, etc.
      Encoding –Chunking

Encoding –Chunking
     Encoding –Chunking

Much easier to encode the
numbers into our memory if we
“chunk” them:
Try to remember these
1812, 1776, 1941, 1492
Encoding –Chunking
    Encoding –Chunking

Where they easier to

They were the same
numbers as before…

 1812, 1776, 1941, 1492
     Encoding –Chunking

Encode these random words?
–nickels seven any in stitch don’t
 saves ago a score time and nine
 wooden four years take
–Much easier to remember them as:
   Don’t take any wooden nickels
   Four score and seven years ago
   A stitch in time saves nine
    Encoding –Acronyms

Need to learn the names
of North America’s five
“Great Lakes”?
–HOMES – Huron, Ontario,
 Michigan, Erie, Superior
Encoding – Effortful Processing

National Basketball Association –

Self Contained Underwater
Breathing Apparatus – SCUBA
Encoding – Effortful Processing

 Can’t remember how
to spell Arithmetic?
–A Rat In Toms House
 Might Eat Toms Ice
            Encoding –Acronyms
  How does a doctor diagnose Depression?
Depressed mood most of the day
Energy loss or fatigue
Death thoughts (recurrent), suicidal ideation or
Sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia)
Worthlessness or excessive guilt
Appetite or weight change
Mentation decreased (ability to think or concentrate,
Psychomotor agitation or retardation
–My Dear Aunt Sally -
 mathematical order of
 operations: Multiply and Divide
 before you Add and Subtract
–Never Eat Slimy Worms (North-
 East – South - West
Memory – Information Processing

Atkinson and Shiffrin’s “Three-
Stage Processing” Model
Memories are created through
a three-step process of
sensory memory, short-term
memory, and long-term
Memory – Information Processing

Sensory Memory – the immediate, initial
recording of sensory information
Short-Term Memory – activated memory
that holds a few items briefly, such as the
seven-digits of a phone number while you
are dialing, and then the information is
either stored, or forgotten
Long-term Memory – the relatively
permanent and limitless storehouse of

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