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					                         Anti viral agents
Anti hepatitis agent: -
        1-Interferon Alfa-2β
        2-Ribavirin
        3-Lamivudin
Hepatitis: -
       Hepatitis B and C are major health problems, due to high
prevalence rates and chronic nature of these disease.
Treatment: -
Combination therapy including:
       -Interferon Alfa-2β
       -Ribavirin

 A. Ribavirin:
 is currently approved for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.
 Mechanism of action: -
           -Transcritptase inhibitor.
           -Nucloside analogue.
           -Protease inhibitors.
 Administration: -
                -Interferon alfa-2β→ subcutaneously three times weekly.
         -Rbavirin→ capsules → dose based on body weigh and
administrated twice daily (with duration of therapy 6-12 Month)
Precautions: -
 1. 10% of patients on combination therapy develop hemolytic anemia.
(Ribavirin)
1. This combination is teratogenic. (Not used in pregnant)

B. Lamivndine: - zeftix®
Indication:- treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
Has ↑t ½ →once daily 100mg.
ANTI HERPETIC AGENTS:
    -Acyclovir, famciclorir, valacyclovir, peniciclovir, ganciclovir.
  Herpes viruses are chronic, recurring infection marked by periods of
       latency.
 A. Acyclovir and its derivatives have spectrum of activity limited to
herpes viruses.
- Mechanism of action: -
Inhibit thymedine kinase.

-Indications: -
Acyclorir is indicated for most of viruses include: -
-Treatment of initial and recurring episodes of genital herpes.
-Herpes encephalitis, neonatal erps.
-Indicated for Immune competent and compromised patient with
mucocutancous herpes.
-Chicken box.
-Herpes zoster at height doses.
-Herpes zoster and genital herpes (compination therapy F, V)

Administration:
Acyclovir →I.V, topical and oral formulation.
Famciclovic→ only by oral. (Converted to active peniciclovir after
absorption).
Valacyclovir→ available as oral formulation.

Pregnancy:
Acyclovir is the drug of choice for pregnant women with genital herpes.


B. Foscaret:

Indication:
Indicated for ganciclovir resistant CMR infections,
As well as acyclovir resistant herpes virus infections.
Anti-Keratitis /keratoconjunctivitis Agents:
 Keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye) refer to irritation,
inflammations and infections of the cornea and conjunctive respectively.

Vidarabine and trifluridine:

They are ophthalmic antiviral agents.
Indication: -
Indicated for the treatment of hepatic Keratitis
And Kerato conjunctivitis.
Side effect: -
-Local Irritation, stinging.
-Foreign body sensation.


Anti-Influenza agent:

Rimantadine:
   Indication:
    -Prophylaxis (adult and children)
    -Influenza A type virus.
NOTE:
When compared to amantadine, the proto type agent in this two drug
class, It has fewer neuron logical side affects, convenient once daily
dosiny and is the treatment of choice from illnesses caused by various
strains of influenza A virus.

				
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posted:10/18/2011
language:English
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