ARTERIES OF ABDOMINAL CAVITY ABDOMINAL AORTA
Plane for Arterial supply of Abdomen
The abdominal aorta has got Ventral branches supplying the gut, Dorsal Branches, supplying the body wall, lateral Branches supplying the Diaphragm, Supra Renal glands, and gonads. The Terminal branches supplying the Pelvic Wall and pelvic Viscera. The Fore Gut and its Derivatives i.e. Liver and Pancreas and also Spleen are supplied by Coeliac Trunk. The Mid Gut is supplied by the Superior Mesentery Artery. The Hind Gut is supplied by the Inferior Mesentery Artery.
Abdominal Aorta begins at the level of Thoracic vertebrae when descending thoracic aorta enters the abdominal cavity by passing through the opening in the Diaphragm. It descends downwards on left side of vertebral column up to fourth Lumber vertebrae where it divided into right & left common iliac arteries
On the Basis of Numbers Paired:
1- Inferior Phrenic 2- Middle Supra Renal 3- Renal 4- Gonadal 5- Lumbar (5 in Numbers) 5- Common Iliac Unpaired: 1- Coeliac trunk 2- Superior Mesentery 3- Inferior Mesentery 4- Median Sacral
On the Basis of Site of Origin Ventral:
1. Coeliac trunk 2. Superior Mesentery 3. Inferior Mesentery Lateral: 1. Inferior Phrenic 2. Middle Supra Renal 3. Renal 4. Gonadal 5. Common Iliac Dorsal: 1. Lumbar (5 in Numbers) 2. Median Sacral
CELIAC TRUNK is a short thick trunk, about 1.25 cm. in length, which arises from the front of the aorta, just below the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, and, passing nearly horizontally forward, divides into three large branches: 1. Left gastric Artery 2. Hepatic Artery 3. Splenic Artery
Left Gastric Artery
The smallest of the three branches of the celiac artery, passes upward and to the left, posterior to the omental bursa, to the cardiac orifice of the stomach. Here it distributes branches to the lower 1/3 esophagus, which anastomose with the aortic esophageal arteries. It then runs from left to right, along the lesser curvature of the stomach to the pylorus, between the layers of the lesser omentum; it gives branches to both surfaces of the stomach and anastomoses with the right gastric artery.
In the adult is intermediate in size between the left gastric and Splenic Arteries. At first directed forward and to the right, to the upper margin of the superior part of the duodenum, and then enters the free margin of lesser omentum and ascends between the layers of the lesser omentum, and in front of the epiploic foramen, to the porta hepatis, where it divides into two branches, right and left, which supply the corresponding lobes of the liver. Its branches are: 1. Right Gastric. 2. Gastroduodenal
a) Right Gastroepiploic. b) Superior Pancreaticoduodenal
RIGHT GASTRIC ARTERY
Also called as Pyloric artery arises from the hepatic, above the pylorus, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery.
It is a short but large branch, which descends, near the pylorus, between the superior part of the duodenum and the neck of the pancreas, and divides at the lower border of the duodenum into two branches, Right gastroepiploic Superior pancreaticoduodenal. Before to its division it gives off two or three small branches to the pyloric end of the stomach and to the pancreas.
RIGHT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY
Runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, anastomosing with the left gastroepiploic branch of the Splenic artery. This vessel gives off numerous branches, some of which ascend to supply both surfaces of the stomach, while others descend to supply the greater omentum and anastomose with branches of the middle colic.
Superior pancreaticoduodenal Artery
Descends between the contiguous margins of the duodenum and pancreas. It supplies both these organs, and anastomoses with the inferiorpancreaticoduodenal branch of the superior mesenteric artery, and with the pancreatic branches of the Splenic artery.
Usually a branch of the right hepatic, passes downward and forward along the neck of the gall-bladder, and divides into two branches, one of which ramifies on the free surface, the other on the attached surface of the gall-bladder
Largest branch of the celiac artery, is remarkable for the tortuosity of its course. It passes horizontally to the left side, behind the stomach and the omental bursa of the peritoneum, and along the upper border of the pancreas, accompanied by the lienal vein, it crosses in front of the upper part of the left kidney, and, on arriving near the spleen, divides into branches, which enter the hilus of that organ between the two layers of the phrenicosplenic ligament to be distributed to the tissues of the spleen; some are given to the pancreas, while others pass to the greater curvature of the stomach between the layers of the gastrolsplenic ligament.
Branches of Splenic Artery
The pancreatic branches are numerous small vessels derived from the lienal as it runs behind the upper border of the pancreas, supplying its body and tail. One of these, larger than the rest, is sometimes given off near the tail of the pancreas; it runs from left to right near the posterior surface of the gland, following the course of the pancreatic duct, and is called the arteria pancreatica magna. These vessels anastomose with the pancreatic branches of the pancreaticoduodenal and superior mesenteric arteries.
SHORT GASTRIC ARTERIES
Consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the Splenic artery, and from its terminal divisions. They pass from left to right, between the layers of the gastrospleic ligament, and are distributed to the greater curvature of the stomach, anastomosing with branches of the left gastric and left gastroepiploic arteries.
LEFT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY
The largest branch of the Splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic. In its course it distributes several ascending branches to both surfaces of the stomach; others descend to supply the greater omentum and anastomose with branches of the middle colic.