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					      A New NATO
The NATO alliance won the cold war,
 but how will it survive the victory?
             Rory Page
               London 1990
 NATO Heads of State and Government
  agreed the Alliance would need to adapt
  to reflect the changes in post-Cold War
  Europe
 Fundamental review of Alliance strategy,
  focus on Military and Political elements
 Result: Alliance‟s new Strategic Concept
    – First NATO strategy document ever made
      public (Rome Summit 1991)
               Alliances first strategy
The strategic Concept for the Defense of the North
             Atlantic Treaty area 1949
 Purpose: to establish an effective defense
  posture for NATO in the face of a clearly
  perceived threat from the Soviet Union
 Fundamental Principals:
     –   defensive nature of the Alliance
     –   Emphasis on war prevention
     –   Importance of collectivity
     –   Role of Nuclear weapons
     –   Strategic unity within geographical diversity
*   strategy was modified several times during the ‟50s in response to
    political and military developments with the Soviet Union
        AUTUMN OF 1989
New circumstances, new approach
 London Summit announced intentions to
  enhance the political component of the Alliance
  and to review NATO‟s military strategy
 July 1990: Strategy Review Group was created
  with the job of formulating a new military
  strategy which would reflect the present security
  environment and the Alliances political response
  to the changed circumstances
 As the SRG work progressed it became clear it
  would include a substantial political element
                   FRANCE
   February 1991 France decided to
    participate fully in the New Concept
    – In 1966 all French armed forces were
      removed from NATO‟s Integrated Military
      Command
   Agreement reached between 16 members
    of the Alliance on the new Concept
    – France reserved its position on a few
     paragraphs which dealt with collective
     defense planning
       The new Strategic Concept
   ‘broad approach to security’
     – From duel approach of dialogue and defense to cooperation,
       dialog and defense
     – Greater stress on importance of crisis management and conflict
       prevention
   ‘guidelines for defense’
     – Remains unchanged for the most part
     – Changes made in the way NATO forces were organized to meet
       the new environment
         Smaller forces and lower level of readiness
         Enhanced flexibility to replace layer cake defense concept
         Multinational forces
         Greater ability to build up forces through reinforcement, mobilization and
          reconstruction
         Less training and exercising
         Reduced reliance on NATO‟s nuclear stockpile in Europe
         Risks in the post-Cold War
                environment
   Alliance had to analyze the possible future risks to allied
    security

•Soviet Union and
southern periphery
•Spillover
•Local conflicts
become regional
•Old fault lines and
historical rivalries
       Out-of-Area Operations
 The spread of instability and/or violent conflict
  will destroy progress achieved thus far in
  Europe
 NATO is the obvious tool for addressing the
  security challenges of post-Cold war Europe
 If NATO were not to address Europe's security
  issues the U.S. would pull out and NATO would
  become irrelevant
 Some in the Alliance speculated that if NATO
  could not find a “will and vision” the Alliance
  must go “out of area” or it will go “out of
  business” ...
    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    September 1991 civil war broke out
    UN issues arms embargo and economic
     sanctions on Yugoslavia
    June 1992 conflict escalated
    –   “…to support, on a case-by-case
        basis…peacekeeping activities”
    Over the next 8 years the Alliance made
     dozens of critical decisions that changed its roll
     from observer, to crisis manager, to peace
     enforcer
   Operation Sky Monitor: The September 1992 shoot-down of an Italian Air Force
    transport attempting to deliver humanitarian aid to Sarajevo prompted the UN to
    establish a ban on (non NATO/UN) military flights in the air space of Bosnia. NATO‟s
    first response was to establish a No Fly Zone (NFZ) over Bosnia
    Operation Maritime Guard/ Sharp Guard: In November 1992, the UN called for
    actual enforcement of the sea embargo to include halting and searching all ships of
    interest. This resulted in Operation Maritime Guard and, later, Operation Sharp Guard
    – the first operations of their kind in NATO history.
   Operation Deny Flight: Since the establishment of the NFZ over Bosnia, reported
    widespread violations of the ban on military flights had been reported. Consequently,
    in March 1993, the UN banned all flights in Bosnia, and authorized “...all necessary
    measures” to enforce compliance with this ban. This was language rarely used by the
    UN, and never before used in NATO. Two weeks later, NATO began to “enforce” the
    NFZ over Bosnia, in what is now known as Operation Deny Flight.
   NATO Support to UN Safe Areas: Within days of the start of Deny Flight, the UN
    was receiving reports that Bosnian Serb military units were continuing “deliberate and
    armed attacks” against innocent civilians. In response, the UN established Srebrenica
    as a safe area, and, three weeks later, created similar safe areas in Sarajevo, Tuzla,
    Bihac, Gorazde, and Zepa. In June 1993, the UN authorized NATO, “...[to use] all
    necessary measures through the use of airpower...” to assist UNPROFOR with
    protection of the safe areas.
   NATO’s First Air-to-Air Combat: February 28 1994, NATO detected six Bosnian
    Serb aircraft violating the NFZ, apparently en route to a bombing mission on the
    Muslim-held town of Novi Travnik. Within 5 minutes four of the six planes had been
    shot down.
      – for the very first time NATO used lethal force in securing the NFZ over Bosnia. in
          the 45-year history of NATO, this had never happened. And it had all happened
          out of area.
   NATO Launches Major Attack on Serbian Airfield: November 1994, Bosnian
    Serb aircraft conducted two attacks in Bosnia. In response, NATO conducted a major
    air strike on the Udbina airfield in Serb-held Croatia involving 39 combat and combat-
    support aircraft, This was the first major air attack of its kind in the history of NATO.
   NATO Goes to War:
     – July 1995 the massacre of close to 8000 unarmed Bosnian Muslim men and
         boys.
     – 28 August 1995, a deadly mortar attack at a market in Sarajevo –both locations
         were UN-designated safe areas.
   NATO and UNPROFOR “...jointly ordered the execution of Operation Deliberate
    Force.” the NATO air campaign lasted 11 days, not including a four-day suspension
    after the first 48 hours (30 August – 4 September 1995) to allow the Serbs to
    comply. They did not, and, thus, the bombing resumed. NATO aircraft flew over 3500
    sorties and dropped more than 1000 bombs against nearly 350 separate targets. for
    two weeks NATO went to war. When it was over, designated safe areas no longer
    were threatened or under attack.

    Enforcing the Peace in Bosnia: In the aftermath of Deliberate Force, Bosnian
    Serb military forces had been critically weakened. On November 21 1995, in Dayton,
    Ohio, “...the leaders of Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia agreed to end the war.” NATO‟s
    970-day peace support air operation were over.

   Looking back, in his 2005 article Crossing the Rubicon, Professor Ryan C.
    Hendrickson declared that Operation Deliberate Force had “...effectively ended the
    “out-of-area” debate that had dominated intra-Alliance discussions on NATO‟s role
    since the end of the Cold War.” NATO now began an entirely new era as a
    peacemaker, peace enforcer and peacekeeper, and thus silenced any further criticism
    that it had “to go „out of area‟ or it would go „out of business.‟”
                 CONCLUSION
   After the end of the Cold War many analysis
    though NATO would crumble and the United
    States would pull out of Europe. During that
    time (in a rapidly changing political and military
    environment) the institution was able to make
    remarkable adaption's to its strategy, ultimately
    keeping the Alliance “in business,” and as the
    key player in the security of Europe. The civil
    war in former Yugoslavia was the perfect task
    for NATO to put into action what it had to offer
    after the cold war- peacekeeping and security.
                               Sources
   Asmus, Kugler and Larrabee. “Building a New NATO” 1993
   www.Nato.int
   Archived articles from www.Nytimes.com
   http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no4/dennis-eng.asp
                 Alliance Objectives
Redefined objectives of the Alliance in the new security
    environment
   Many of the aims were still valid from the old concept, but had to be set into a new
        political framework
Four security Functions:
   1.   To provide one of the indispensable foundations for a stable security
        environment in Europe, based on the growth of democratic institutions and
        commitment to peaceful resolution of disputes, in which no country would be
        able to intimidate or coerce any European nation or to impose hegemony
        through the threat or use of force.
   2.   To serve, as provided for in Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, as the
        transatlantic forum for Allied consultations on any issues that affect their vital
        interests, including possible developments posing risks for members‟ security,
        and for appropriate coordination of there efforts in fields of common concern.
   3.   To deter and defend against any threat of aggression against the territory of
        any NATO member state.
   4.   To preserve the strategic balance within Europe.

				
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posted:10/17/2011
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