ESL Scope and Scales 5-8 Middle years

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ESL Scope and Scales 5-8 Middle years Powered By Docstoc
					ANANGU EDUCATION CONFERENCE
        ALICE SPRINGS
        June / July 2003




ESL STRATEGIES: MIDDLE YEARS
       Scales 1 – 13 (5 - 8)
   Text Language
Model of in Context


  Sociocultural Context
          Genre

   Situational Context
          Tenor

  Field           Mode
                 Field Continuum



everyday fields………...specialised fields……highly technical fields
                  Tenor Continuum



equal status ……………….…………….. great difference in status

familiar …….………………………………...……………..very distant

great deal of emotional expression……..little emotional expression
            Mode Continuum



most spoken………………….…………….....… most written
             Model of Language

Text in Context                Language
Sociocultural Context      Sociocultural Context
        Genre                     Genre

    Situational Context    Situational Context
        Tenor                     Tenor

                          Field           Mode
Field           Mode
                        Text in Context   Language
Sociocultural Context
Genre                   •broader strand   •more specific
                                           strand
Situational Context                       •resources in the
Field                                      English
                                           language

Tenor



Mode
                      Text in Context             Language

Sociocultural         •range of genres            language choices -
Context               •purposes                   •structure texts
Genre                 •structure                  •build cohesion
                                                  •expand sentences

Situational Context   •informational element      •verbs
Field                 •everyday to technical      •noun groups
                      vocabulary                  •nominalisations
                                                  •circumstances
                                                  •topic specific vocabulary

                      •interpersonal element      •modality
Tenor                 •formality to familiarity   •appraisal
                                                  •speech functions
                                                  •idioms
                                                  •non-verbal elements


Mode                  •textual element            •foregrounding
                      •spoken to written          •coherence
                      •multimodal texts           •voice and tense
                                                  •print conventions
                        Text in Context                     Language
Sociocultural Context
Genre
                        •range of genres
                        •range of genres
                        •specific purposes
                                                language choices -
                                                •structure texts
                        •purposes
                        •structure
                        •cohesion
                                                •cohesive


Situational Context
                        •structure
                        •the ‘what’, or content •word groups and phrases
Field                   •its informational elements         •the verbs
                        •range from everyday to             •participants
                        technical vocabulary                •circumstances



Tenor                   •the ‘who’                          •the language choices
                        •interpersonal elements             •who questions or commands
                        •deal with formality, familiarity   •how degrees of certainty
                        and attitude                        expressed.


Mode                    •the ‘how’                          •the language choices -organise
                        •its textual elements               texts
                        •deal with the range of spoken,     •focus foregrounding
                        written and multimodal texts
                        Text in Context                   Language
Sociocultural Context
                                   •language choices
                        •the range of genres
                                                          language choices -
                                                          •structure texts          -
Genre                   •purposes •structure texts        •expand sentences
                                                          •build cohesion
                        •structure
                                         •build cohesion
Situational Context     •the ‘what’, or content     •word groups and phrases
Field                                    •expand•the verbs
                        •its informational elements   sentences
                        •range from everyday to           •participants
                        technical vocabulary              •circumstances

Tenor                   •the ‘who’                        •the language choices
                        •interpersonal elements           •who questions or commands
                        •deal with formality,             •how degrees of certainty
                        familiarity and attitude          expressed.


Mode                    •the ‘how’                        •the language choices -
                        •its textual elements             organise texts
                        •deal with the range of spoken,   •focus foregrounding
                        written and multimodal texts
                  Teaching Learning Cycle


lists                                       patterns in texts
patterns of use                             exercises




      use

                                     explore alternatives
O.K (clears throat) Morning. My
name’s Raisa…..ah, I would like to talk
about my, high school visit. Mmmm,
last two days I went to visit high
school….uh…. I and my sister catch the
bus from home to school. It took about
10 minutes from my house (long pause)
and we arrived there and we didn’t know
where the front office was so - but we
                                             Genre: Scale 6
were lucky we saw one boy who was            •phrases of time to
from this school before. …
                                             organise a recount
The first day was Monday…ummm…               •a range of linking
they took me around the school (pause),
women’s toilet and water taps. They
                                             conjunctions
took me to the library because it was a      •common binding
free lesson. They let me, ummm (long
pause) the next day we did goods
                                             conjunctions
lesson and ……….. where English room
…… and photographing was really
interesting. ………

The last day on Wednesday I supposed
to go to went for visit but we went to the
soccer with Mr ……. It was a good
day, too.
Genre: Scale 6
•use conjunctions to organise texts
•a range of linking conjunctions: then, but, or, so, and
•a range of binding conjunctions: because, when,
before, after
•reference items
Genre: Scale 7
•use conjunctions to organise texts
•a range of linking conjunctions: then, but, or, so, and
•reference items
Genre: Scale 8
•subheadings in a report
•common binding conjunctions
•reference items
                Strategies Scales 5 -8
            Genre: Structure – Time phrases
1. List events
   Saturday………church
   Sunday………. camping
   Monday……….school
2. Order
  I went to school.           On Saturday
  I went camping.             On Sunday
  I went to church.           On Monday
3. Sentences
On Saturday I went to church. On Sunday I went
camping. On Monday I went to school.
4. Cloze using a list.
On Saturday I……...……… On Sunday I ………..
On Monday I …………….
                 Strategies Scales 5 - 8
       Genre: Structure – Conjunctions
1. Order events or pictures on a timeline – label pictures


got up          brushed teeth            went to school
2. Order
I went to school.      1. I got up.             First
I brushed my teeth. 2. I brushed my teeth. Then
I got up.              3. I went to school.     Then
3. Sentences
First I got up. Then I brushed my teeth. Then I
went to school.
4. Cloze using a timeline.
…………I studied English. ……… I played outside.
……….. I studied Maths.
                  Strategies Scales 5 - 8
Genre: Structure – Time Words and Conjunctions
1. Time phrases
                             8am

                  before      at      after
  7.30 = before   8am = at   8.30 = after 7.30 to 8.30 = from
2. Ordering sentences
   Then I studied English.
   Before school I played outside with my friends.
   At 9 o’çlock I went inside.
   I came to school at 8am.
3. Cloze using timetable
   7.30 – 8.30 am play              I played ……
   8 am           school            I went to school ……
   9am            inside            I went inside …….
   9.00 …..       English           I studied English ….
               Strategies Scales 5 - 8
   Genre: Structure – Action Words - Procedure
1. Play bingo with actions, ingredients and utensils
   for cooking.
2. Follow spoken instructions and order pictures of
   actions. Label each picture with an action verb:
   stir, pour, boil…
3. Listen again to the spoken instructions and
   complete the table
                          action what how long
4. Write instructions from the table.
5. Colour the action words and notice their position.
    Compare with a recount.
6. Cut and jumble the sentences and give to another
   student to order.
7. Complete a cloze of the instructions.
8. List new ingredients.
9. Observe, discuss and write new instructions.
               Strategies Scales 5 - 8
   Genre: Structure – Topic words - Report
1. List singular and plural forms of words

2. Talk about specific and general nouns
3. Compare sentences
   A cat has fur. Cats have fur. My cat has fur.
4. Compare texts with the different sentences.
5. Colour the form of noun in reports
6. Be specific about the form of verb needed for a
   report.
                Strategies Scales 5 - 8
       Genre: Cohesion – Reference Items
1. Understanding of reference items
Where is her book? Put it there.
 2. Tracking participants in a short text
Once upon a time there lived a lady.
Her name was Sadie.
She lived in a house.
It was a pretty one
3. Cloze
Once upon a time there lived a man.
………. name was Bob.
…….. lived in a caravan.
…….. was new.
4. Compare the pattern of reference items between
a recount and a procedure.
5.Colour use of reference items in own texts.
               Strategies Scales 5 - 8
          Genre: Cohesion – Reference Items
                  the and textual items
  1. Track reference items
• There was a group of people from Adelaide at the
  school. The group came to talk about drugs.
• We put flour and water in a bowl.
  Then we stirred the mixture.
• My mum’s got a new car.
  She says it’s great.
2. Cloze
There is a new truck at the store. ……… belongs to..
We travelled to Alice Springs in May. …… trip was
long.
                 Strategies Scales 5- 8
     Genre: Expansion - linking conjunctions – so
1. Illustrate sentence pattern:
 It was raining when I got up so I got an umbrella.
 I was hungry when I got up so I ate some bread.
 I was sad when I got up so I played with my friend.
 2. Complete sentence starters
   I didn’t feel well this morning so ….
3. Watch Mr Bean and answer True or False
     He lost his keys so he looked for them in the grass.
     He was hungry so he climbed through a window to
     get food.
4. Diagrams
 Draw diagrams from sentences and write sentences
 from diagrams got up           umbrella
                  rain
                 Strategies Scales 5- 8
 Genre: Expansion - binding conjunctions – because
1. Illustrate sentence pattern:
 I got an umbrella because it was raining when I got up.
 I ate some bread because I was hungry when I got up
2. Complete sentence starters
 I didn’t come to school this morning because…

 3. Matching
 He caught a bus because he was sick.
 He went home because he wanted to visit his aunt.
4. Diagrams
 Draw diagrams from sentences and write sentences
 from diagrams umbrella            got up
                                          rain
                  Strategies Scales 5 - 8
       Genre: Expansion - binding conjunctions –
                    when, before, after
1. Illustrate sentence pattern:
 I noticed he had lost his bag when I had to pay for lunch.
 He ate some bread before he went out.
 After the rain stopped we went for a walk.

2. Write the parts of the sentence on paper and
move the parts around. Observe the word order.
 3. Complete the sentence
 After the rain stopped ………………
 Before I came to school…………

 4. Substitute the conjunction
 Change the conjunction and show the event on a
 timeline.
                   Strategies Scales 5 - 8
     Genre: Expansion - binding conjunctions –
1. Match         relative pronouns
      The woman             when
      The house             in which
      The day               who
      The letter            that
2. Compare the information
    Children who don’t wear hats get sunburnt
    Children, who don’t wear hats, get sunburnt.
 3. Complete the sentence
 The woman…………………………. is Sarah’s mother.
 The woman, …………………….., is Sarah’s mother.
4. Recognise ellipsed relative pronouns
The woman I met at the party.
5. Produce own sentences based on a text / context.
                        Text in Context                         Language
Sociocultural Context   •the range of genres                    •language choices -
Genre                   •specific purposes                      •structure texts
                        •structure and cohesion                 •cohesive


Situational Context     language choices -      •word groups and phrases
Field                   •structure texts        •the verbs
                        •informational element •participants
                        •expand sentences
                        •everyday to highly technical
                        •build cohesion         •circumstances



Tenor                   •the ‘who’                              •the language choices
                        •interpersonal elements                 •who questions or commands
                        •deal with formality, familiarity and   •how degrees of certainty
                        attitude                                expressed.


Mode                    •the ‘how’                              •the language choices -organise
                        •its textual elements                   texts
                        •deal with the range of spoken,         •focus foregrounding
                        written and multimodal texts
                        Text in Context                     Language
Sociocultural Context   •the range of genres                •language choices -
Genre                   •specific purposes                  •structure texts
                        •structure and cohesion             •cohesive


Situational Context           •verbs
                        •informational element •the verbs
Field                         •noun groups •participants
                        •everyday to technical
                                               •circumstances
                         vocabulary
                              •nominalisations
                                •circumstances
Tenor                           •topic specific vocabulary
                        •the ‘who’               •the language choices
                        •interpersonal elements             •who questions or commands
                        •deal with formality, familiarity   •how degrees of certainty
                        and attitude                        expressed.


Mode                    •the ‘how’                          •the language choices -organise
                        •its textual elements               texts
                        •deal with the range of spoken,     •focus foregrounding
                        written and multimodal texts
O.K (clears throat) Morning. My
name’s Raisa…..ah, I would like to talk
about my, high school visit. Mmmm,
last two days I went to visit high
school….uh…. I and my sister catch the       Field: Scale 6
bus from home to school. It took about       •verbs
10 minutes from my house (long pause)
and we arrived there and we didn’t know         •actions
where the front office was so - but we       •circumstances
were lucky we saw one boy who was
from this school before. …                      •location
                                             •noun groups
The first day was Monday…ummm…
they took me around the school (pause),         •number
women’s toilet and water taps. They             •classifiers
took me to the library because it was a
free lesson. They let me, ummm (long         •technical vocabulary
pause) the next day we did goods             •comparatives
lesson and ……….. where English room
…… and photographing was really
interesting. ………

The last day on Wednesday I supposed
to go to went for visit but we went to the
soccer with Mr ……. It was a good
day, too.
Field: Scale 6
•verbs: action
•circumstances: time, location
•noun groups: classifiers
•technical vocabulary
Field: Scale 7
•verbs: action
•circumstances: location
•noun groups
•technical vocabulary
Field: Scale 8
•verbs: action
•circumstances: location
•noun groups
•technical vocabulary
•nominalisations
                 Strategies Scales 5 - 8
                 Field: Noun groups
1. Word groups: build groups following the pattern
one car
one old brown car
one old brown car in the street
one old brown Holden car in the street
2. Deconstruct the order and build groups of words
number opinion fact classifier key concept qualifier
3. Multiple choice from a story or picture
Is she wearing a big yellow hat or a small blue hat?
4. Describing people
A student with one set of pictures describes them to
another student with another set, to put them in the
same order.
5. Draw a 3 legged wooden stool with a fur top.
6. Experiment with the effect of positive and negative
describers: sweet smelling /smelly
                 Strategies Scales 5 - 8
          Field: Noun groups with qualifiers
1. Word groups: build groups following the pattern
one car
one old brown car
one old brown Holden car
one old brown Holden car in the street
2. Deconstruct the order and build groups of words
number opinion fact classifier key concept qualifier
3. Multiple choice
Is it the old car in the street or is the old car in the
school?
4. Experiment with the effect of different qualifiers
5. Describing people and objects
A student describes objects and pictures to give
clear instructions of where to place them
                Strategies Scales 5 - 8
                 Field: Comparatives
1. Word lists
     adjective comparative form superlative form
     nice          nicer than         the nicest
     happy         happier than       the happiest
     good          better than        the best
     a lot         more than         the most
2. Contextualise
use statistics or objects to make true statements
3. True or false
Respond to statements based on statistic, objects etc
5. Interview
Model questions and answers, requiring
comparatives or superlatives, about students lives
One student prepares questions and interview
another student
Report back orally and in writing:
    Dan likes Darwin better than Alice Springs.
                Strategies Scales 5 - 8
        Field: Circumstances - location
1. Follow instructions
Draw a book near the vase.
Draw a ball under the table.
Draw a man behind the flower.
2. Answering questions
Is the vase on the table?
Is the vase under the table?
Is the vase next to the table?
3. Describe a picture.
next to in behind
The car is …… the garage.
The fence is ……. the tree.
The tree is …….. the house.
                  Strategies Scales 5 - 8
        Field: Circumstances - location
1. Questions
   Where is the vase?
   Where is the ball?
   Where is the clock?
   Where are the flowers?
2. Noughts and crosses
     near in    in front
   next to   on     behind
   under     over between
               Strategies Scales 5 - 8
        Field: circumstances - manner
1.Labelling
    Use a sentence structure
                  He is ………..ing ……..
                 (quickly, slowly, quietly)
    to describe the actions of a character in a video
             Strategies Scales 5 - 8
      Field: verbs
1. Colour the verbs in sentences.
2. Illustrate the verbs.
3. Group the verbs. You may get thinking,
   doing, saying, being verbs.
4. Find examples of verbs that have more than
   one meaning eg I see
5. Compare the types of verbs in recounts,
   reports and procedures.
6. Cloze exercise for verbs.
             Strategies Scales 5 - 8
      Field: technical vocabulary
1. Start with what the students know
2. Match the known words with new vocabulary
3. Discuss similarities and differences with other
   known vocabulary
4. Use the vocabulary in modelled, jointly
   constructed texts
5. Ask questions to check comprehension of the
   new vocabulary
6. Use the new vocabulary in new contexts
                Strategies Scales 5 - 8
      Field: nominalisations
1. Complete a table
   Word               Nominalisation
   to hope     verb   Hope
   to know     verb   Knowledge
   to surprise verb   The surprise

2. Change a sentence using a verb to a noun
   I hope that I can pass. My …….. is …….

3. Colour nominalisations in a text.

4. Answer questions requiring nominalisations.
                        Text in Context                   Language
Sociocultural Context   •the range of genres              •language choices -
Genre                   •specific purposes                •structure texts
                        •structure and cohesion           •cohesive


Situational Context     •the ‘what’, or content           •word groups and phrases
Field                   •its informational elements       •the verbs
                        •range from everyday to           •participants
                        technical vocabulary              •circumstances



Tenor                    •the ‘who’                        •the language choices
                        •interpersonal element questions or commands
                         •interpersonal elements           •who
                         •deal with formality, familiarity •how degrees of certainty
                        •familiar to formal
                         and attitude                      expressed.


Mode                    •the ‘how’                        •the language choices -organise
                        •its textual elements             texts
                        •deal with the range of spoken,   •focus foregrounding
                        written and multimodal texts
                        Text in Context                   Language
Sociocultural Context   •the range of genres              •language choices -
Genre                   •specific purposes                •structure texts
                        •structure and cohesion           •cohesive


Situational Context     •the ‘what’, or content           •word groups and phrases
Field                   •its informational elements       •the verbs
                        •range from everyday to           •participants
                        technical vocabulary              •circumstances

Tenor                   •interpersonal •modality •non-verbal elements
                                       element
                                       •appraisal
                        •formality, familiarity and •speech functions
                                                    •modality
                        attitude       •speech functionslexis
                                                    •attitudinal
                                         •idioms •idioms
                        •the ‘how’
                                         •non-verbal elements -organise
                                                   •the language choices
Mode                    •its textual elements             texts
                        •deal with the range of spoken,   •focus foregrounding
                        written and multimodal texts
O.K (clears throat) Morning. My
name’s Raisa…..ah, I would like to talk
about my, high school visit. Mmmm,
last two days I went to visit high
school….uh…. I and my sister catch the
bus from home to school. It took about
10 minutes from my house (long pause)
and we arrived there and we didn’t know
where the front office was so - but we
were lucky we saw one boy who was            Tenor: Scale 6
from this school before. …
                                             •modality
The first day was Monday…ummm…               •evaluative language
they took me around the school (pause),
women’s toilet and water taps. They
took me to the library because it was a
free lesson. They let me, ummm (long
pause) the next day we did goods
lesson and ……….. where English room
…… and photographing was really
interesting. ………

The last day on Wednesday I supposed
to go to went for visit but we went to the
soccer with Mr ……. It was a good
day, too.
Tenor: Scale 7
•evaluative language
Tenor: Scale 8
•modality
•language appropriate to the context
•evaluative language
•idioms
                Strategies Scales 5 - 8

       Modality: Offers and Commands
1. Compare the meanings of
    Can I help you? Can I have your book?
    Give me your book.
    Explore the relationship between the response,
    speaker and the listener.
2. Use pictures
    Complete speech bubbles with offers and
    commands for a range of pictures, including
    pictures from story books.

3. Video exchanges between people and explore
the type of language used
                Strategies Scales 5 - 8

       Modality: Obligation and Certainty
1. Compile statements with degrees of obligation
      you might like to    you must

2. Compile statements with degrees of certainty
      you might It is likely that I will
3. Script exchanges with degrees of certainty and
obligation and role play. Discuss the impact of the
changes.
4. Video exchanges between people and explore
the type of language used.
                  Strategies Scales 5 - 8

                Tenor: feeling and attitude
1. Cloze
like don’t like
I ………….. ice cream.
I ………… winter.
2. Find someone who
Find someone who likes winter.
Find someone who doesn’t like icecream.
3. Rehearse
Do you like….? Yes I do. No I don’t
 4. Report back
 Who likes ice cream? Sue likes icecream.
 Who likes winter? Dan and Bill like winter.
5. Experiment with intonation and the use of very, so,
much, really.
                 Strategies Scales 5 - 8
             Tenor: feelings and attitudes
1. Synonyms
    Compile synonyms of adjectives.
    Put the words on a continuum of emotion
       big        huge               enormous
    Change the adjectives of an existing story.
    Change the adjectives of a newspaper report.
    Explore the effect of the change.
2. Feedback
    Compile lists of words that give feedback of
    an event, an object or student work.
    eg like, don’t like, it’s beautiful, it’s hard
3. Role play
    Role play being a teacher, a principal etc
    giving feedback to a student.
                        Text in Context                         Language
Sociocultural Context   •the range of genres                    •language choices -
Genre                   •specific purposes                      •structure texts
                        •structure and cohesion                 •cohesive

Situational Context     •the ‘what’, or content                 •word groups and phrases
Field                   •its informational elements             •the verbs
                        •range from everyday to technical       •participants
                        vocabulary                              •circumstances

Tenor                   •the ‘who’                              •the language choices
                        •interpersonal elements                 •who questions or commands
                        •deal with formality, familiarity and   •how degrees of certainty
                        attitude                                expressed.

Mode                    •the ‘how’                              •the language choices -organise
                        •textualelements
                        •its textual element                    texts
                        •spoken to written
                        •range of spoken, written and           •focus foregrounding
                        multimodal texts
                        •multimodal
                        Text in Context                         Language
Sociocultural Context   •the range of genres                    •language choices -
Genre                   •specific purposes                      •structure texts
                        •structure and cohesion                 •cohesive

Situational Context     •the ‘what’, or content                 •word groups and phrases
Field                   •its informational elements             •the verbs
                        •range from everyday to technical       •participants
                        vocabulary                              •circumstances

Tenor                   •the ‘who’                              •the language choices
                        •interpersonal elements                 •who questions or commands
                        •deal with formality, familiarity and   •how degrees of certainty
                        attitude                                expressed.

Mode                    •textual element                      • foregrounding
                        •deals with the range of            •foregrounding
                                                              • voice and tense
                                                              • print conventions
                         spoken, written and                •voice and tense
                         multimodal texts                   •print conventions
Mode: Scale 6
•control of primary tenses and past tense form of
most common irregular verbs
•begins to control secondary tenses
•spells with greater accuracy
•legible and uses punctuation
O.K (clears throat) Morning. My
name’s Raisa…..ah, I would like to talk
about my, high school visit. Mmmm,
last two days I went to visit high
school….uh…. I and my sister catch the
bus from home to school. It took about       Mode: Scale 6
10 minutes from my house (long pause)
and we arrived there and we didn’t know      •basic phrases of time
where the front office was so - but we       at the front of recounts
were lucky we saw one boy who was
from this school before. …                   •control of primary
                                             tenses and past tense
The first day was Monday…ummm…
they took me around the school (pause),      form of most common
women’s toilet and water taps. They          irregular verbs
took me to the library because it was a
free lesson. They let me, ummm (long
pause) the next day we did goods
lesson and ……….. where English room
…… and photographing was really
interesting. ………

The last day on Wednesday I supposed
to go to went for visit but we went to the
soccer with Mr ……. It was a good
day, too.
Mode: Scale 7
•foregrounds ways of doing actions in procedures
•foregrounds pronouns in practical reports
•control of primary tenses and past tense of most common
irregular verbs accurately words learnt in classroom
•understanding of common punctuation marks
•better control of secondary tenses
•spells accurately most words learnt in classroom
Mode: Scale 8
•organises texts in simply logically ordered paragraphs on
basis of change of topic
•begins to foreground non human element in factual
genres
•punctuation beyond most basic
                Strategies Scales 4 - 8
                  Mode: Foregrounding
 1.Identify foregrounded elements in a recount
 and a procedure
 My brother took me in his car. We went to my
 uncle’s house. On Saturday we went home.
 Open the box. Lift the paper. Fold the paper.
 2. Compare foregrounding
 Recount:                   Procedure:
 My brother      Person     Open      Action
 We              Person     Lift      Action
 On Saturday Time           Fold      Action
3. Compile
other words: time - Later that night, After a while
4. Experiment
Shift foregrounded element from the front to middle
    to back
               Strategies Scales 4 - 8

                    Mode: Tense
1. Lists of verbs
   go went         sit    sat        play played
   have had        watch watched
2. Model
    Everyday I go to school.
    Yesterday I played football.
3. Question and answer
    What do you do everyday? I go to school.
    What did you do yesterday? I played football.
4. Picture cloze
             What did the boy do yesterday?
             He sat ……………………..
             He…………… a game on the computer.
                   Strategies Scales 4 - 8

 5.Cloze             Mode: Tense
 Yesterday David …………. (drive) a car.
 He ………….. (drive) a car everyday.
6. Pattern
I …………… now.
I …………… everyday.
I ……………. yesterday.
I …………….. tomorrow.
7. Time
What are they doing now?
What were they doing an hour ago?
What will they do soon?
What were they doing yesterday?
                    …..ed
    were …ing       change word   are …….ing   will ……….
    past perfect        past          now      future
                        Strategies Scales 4 - 8
          Comparing texts
  Cities are very busy. Some
A                                  report         technical
  people go to work in offices and
                                   about          vocab
  some people go shopping and
                                   cities         simple present
  some people go to look at the
  old and new buildings.

  Alice Springs is a beautiful city. description noun groups
B There are many shops. The             about Alice circumstances
  mountains are around the city. Springs
                                                    evaluative
C I like Alice Springs. I like visiting personal    language
  my grandmother there.                 response pronouns
D Yesterday I went to visit my     recount        time
  grandmother in Alice Springs.    about          past tense
                                   yesterday      pronouns

				
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posted:10/17/2011
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