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1120 Master Student Guidebook 8-09

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					Update 8-09




              Soup and Sauce Basics
              CHRM 1120
              Student Guidebook




                                  1
Soup and Sauce Basics
CHRM 1120
Student Guidebook
Item                                    Page Number
Session I-Fond De Cusine- Stocks        5-15
Lecture notes                                   5-10
Lab/recipes                                    11-15
Session II-Soups, Part 1:
  Clear, broth based soups              16-25
Lecture notes                                    16-18
Lab/recipes                                       19-2
Session III-Soups, Part 2:
  Thick Soups & Thickening Agents       26-39
Lecture notes                                    26-27
Lab/recipes                                      28-39
Session IV-Mother Sauces & Secondary
or Daughter Sauces
Part 1: Bechamel & Veloute Based        40-48
Lecture notes                                    40-44
Lab/recipes                                      45-48
Session V-Daughter or Secondary
Sauces
Part 2: Espagnole & Tomato Based        49-62
Lecture notes                                    49-56
Lab/recipes                                      57-62
Session VI-Emulsion Sauces-Hot & Cold   63-76
Lecture notes                                    63-71
Lab/recipes                                      72-76
Session VII-Marinades, Vinaigrettes &
International Sauces                    77-98
Lecture notes                                    77-83
Lab/recipes                                      84-98
Session VIII-Finishing Sauces           99-115
Lecture notes                                  95-103
Lab/recipes                                   104-115
Session IX-Dessert Sauces               116-125
Lecture notes                                 116-119
Lab/recipes                                   120-127
Session X-Integral Sauces               128-131
Lecture notes                                 128-131
Glossary Terminology                    132-136


                                                     2
3
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION ONE: FOND DE CUISINE~STOCKS

          *Welcome – Intro: Syllabus Handouts

          *Housekeeping
              Attendance –
              Announcements –

          *Laboratory subjects – Stocks
               Make Stocks – Brown, White, Poultry, Vegetables,
                   Oriental
               View Video – Stocks and Sauces

          *Classwork –
               Video Evaluation
               Stocks and Sauces

          *Discussion Points and Reminders

          *New Assignments and Reminders –
          Read Session Two Assignment
               Chapters 3 & 4 Ingredients, Liaisons
          *Dismissal

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Develop an appreciation for the history of sauce making.
    2. Define stock
    3. Differentiate between white and brown stocks
    4. Outline the timing and sequences involved in the preparation
          of white and brown stock..
    5. Explain the function of ingredients used to make white and
         brown stocks.
    6. Produce white and brown stocks to industry standards
    7. Evaluate to industry standards, the quality of white and
        brown stocks.
    8. Store in a safe manner, an assortment of stocks.
    9. Use tools and equipment associated with stock making to
        industry standards.


                                                                      4
Assignment One:
Read Chapter 1: A Short History of Sauce Making
     Chapter 2: Ingredients
     Chapter 3: Equipment

                               BASIC STOCKS
Stocks – “Indeed, stock is everything in cooking….without it, nothing can be
done. If one’s stock is good, what remains of the work is easy. If on the
other hand, it is bad or merely mediocre, it is quite hopeless to expect
anything approaching a satisfactory result.”
 Auguste Escoffier, Le Guide Culinaire.

In classical French cuisine, stock masking is the most basic of all skills, but
in the modern American kitchen this skill is much less important for many
reasons.

   1. Cost

   2. Labor

   3. Equipment and time

So why are we interested in learning this skill?

To master the foundations of cooking. Stocks are truly one of the most important
aspects of this foundation. To understand flavors is to understand what cooking is
all about.
Fresh true flavors in a sauce cannot come from a can or a base. Real stocks equals
real food.




                                                                                     5
KEY VOCABULARY:
MIREPOIX                  BOUQUET GARNI                   CLEARMEAT
CONSOMMÉ                  CAREMELIZATION                  ALBUMEN
BROWN SAUCE               BISQUE                          GLACE
STOCK                     SKIM                            DEMI-GLAZE
SIMMER                    BOIL                            LEEK

   BASIC COMPONENTS OF STOCKS                  PRINCIPLES OF STOCK MAKING

MAJOR EXTRACTION INGREDIENTS                  START IN COLD WATER
Clean bones                                      Simmer the stock very gently
MIREPOIX                                           Skim it frequently
Celery                                             Strain is carefully
Carrots                                            Cool it quickly
Onions                                             Store it properly
SACHET                                             Degrease it before using.
Parsley stem
Bay leaves
Peppercorn
Herbs
COLD WATER


THE FOND DE CUISINE:

 NOURISHING ELEMENTS:
 from meat, bones, fish head trimmings, and vegetables.
AROMATIC AND SPICES
: , herbs, roots, and bouquet gar.
LIQUID:
 cold water, wine, 2nd bouillon or stock.
SEASONING:

 MEAT: M
y. In general, the use of salt in stocks should be omitted, however, one
POULTRY: c
hic, turkey, game birds or a combination.
FISH: m
fish such as halibut, sole, cod or pike. Strong fish such as mackerel or
 VEGETABLE: not be used as these are oily fish and can e , celery, onions, and
leeks are the basic foundation for a

Specialty stocks for specific sauces are also utilized – an example would
be lamb stock for scotch broth soup, or shrimp shells, or lobster bodies for
bisque.


                                                                                 6
                   STOCK PREPARATION TECHNIQUES
To make a good stock, start with a good amount of clean fresh bones. For
a light stock, do not roast the bones. For a darker rich stock, such as beef
stock, the bones are roasted with some of the mirepoix, and carmelization
takes place. To the bones, a mirepoix of carrots, celery and onions is
added. Leeks, and a bouquet garni is also added to the pot. A tall heavy-
bottomed pot is essential. Then cold water is added to the pot to cover the
bones. The water is then brought to a gentle boil. At this time, the heat is
turned down to low and the stock is simmered several hours, to release all
of the flavor and nutrition into the water. At this time albumen is also
released, and a scum or foam forms at the top of the pot. This is skimmed
off every hour or so, and in the process some of the clouding impurities are
removed.
 It varies between chefs, but a stock can be simmered from 6 hours to
                                    overnight.
  Beef and veal stocks do well to simmer overnight, but poultry stocks can
be finished in as little as 4 hours. The smaller the bone mass, the shorter
time needed to cook the stock. Fish stocks take 2 hours, and a vegetable
stock also is a quick cooking stock, 1-2 hours. The stock is then drained,
and at this point is ready for use as a soup base, or a sauce base. Stocks
can be intensified by roasting more bones and vegetable matter, and by
using the first stock to cook the second batch of bones in, the flavor and
intensity is doubled. If at this time the stock is clarified with a clearmeat,
and reduced, the resultant product is called a consommé double or double
strength stock. If you reduce the stock down to a gel form, this is called a
glace viande, or meat glaze. When a stock is reduced and brown sauce is
added in equal portion, and this is reduced, this is called demi-glaze.

STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR A STOCK:
Clarity:                           Color:
Clear and un.                 True to the color of the
                                     Extraction material.
                                     Dark brown for beef
                                     Golden for poultry, etc.

Body:                                           Flavor: True to the type strates
fish, etc.
Protein in the liquid.




                                                                               7
MAKING A NATURAL STOCK
RATIO OF INGREDIENTS:
                                              To yield one gallon:
Water        100%                             10-12# ( 5 – 6 quarts)
Bones         50%                                  5-6 #
Mirepoix      10%                             1#
                                              One Sachet
Should salt be added to a natural stock?
Only occasionally when a stock is not going to be reduced, and only slightly
to enhance the natural flavor of the stock.
What is the difference between a stock and a broth?
Stock is made from bones, while broth is made with meat.
What is a glace/glaze?
A coating made by reducing down to the sticky protein, stock. It is used for
fnhancement of a sauce where a more noticeable flavor would be needed.
Commercial Bases:
Product made of salt, and the major component such as chicken or beef. In
well In cheaply made ones, the first ingredienter artificial ingredients.
Why are they so popular?
Inexpensive, easy to use, consistent, and fast.
Pro’s                                     Cons’

TODAY’S LAB:
Group/Stock         Keys to Success
I Brown Veal

II Brown Chicken

III White Chicken

IV Shell Fish

V Fish

VI Vegetable

VII Vegetable

VIII White
Chicken


                                                                           8
               POTS AND PANS




   Russe                   Sautoir
 (casserole)




                           Sauteuse




 Rondeau




Braisiere                  Stock Pot




                                       9
Vegetable Stock
Yield: 3 gallons


   6 ounces vegetable oil
   12 ounces green cabbage leaf, coarsely chopped
   24 ounces carrots, coarsely chopped
   24 ounces celery, coarsely chopped
   1 pound celery leaves, coarsely chopped
   8 garlic cloves, crushed
   40 ounces onions, quartered
   3 ounces parsley stems, chopped
   1 pound parsnips, peeled
   1 pound tomato, chopped
   12 ounces turnips, chopped
   5 gallons water
   3 ounces salt
   1 tablespoon peppercorns, cracked
   6 bay leaves

   1. Heat oil in steam-jacketed kettle or large stock pot.

   2. Add vegetables to oil. Cover and cook until softened and moisture is released, 3-
   5 minutes.

   4. Add water and spices. Simmer for 40-50 minutes. Strain stock and cool.

Mise en Place

      Peel and chop onions, carrots and celery for mirepoix
      Clean, peel and chop leeks, garlic cloves, fennel and turnip.
      Wash and dice tomato.
      Prepare herb sachet




                                                                                     10
   Chicken Stock
   Yield 3 gallons

   24 pounds chicken bones
   5 gallons cold water
   24 ounces onions, quartered
   12 ounces chopped celery with leaves
   12 ounces carrots, chopped
   3 ounces salt
   1 tablespoon peppercorns, cracked
   4 bay leaves
   2 teaspoons dried thyme

1. Rinse chicken bones and place in steam-jacketed or large stock pot. Add water:
Simmer 3–4 hours. Skim as necessary.

2. Add vegetables and seasonings. Bring to boiling point. Reduce heat and simmer 1
hour longer.

3. Remove bones from broth. Strain and refrigerate. When broth is cold, fat will congeal
on top; skim off.




                                                                                      11
Brown Stock                          Yield: 2 gal. (8 lt)

15 lb Bones, veal, beef or chicken
cut in 3-4 in. (8-10 cm) pieces
3 gal Cold water
2 lb Mirepoix
8 oz Tomato paste

-----SACHET-----
2 Bay leaves
1/2 tsp Dried thyme
1/2 tsp Peppercorns, crushed
3 Garlic cloves, crushed
12 Parsley stems

1. Place the bones in a roasting pan, one layer deep, and brown in a 375ºF (190ºC)
oven. Turn the bones occasionally to brown them evenly.

2. Remove the bones and place them in a stockpot. Pour off the fat from the roasting
pan and reserve it.

3. Deglaze the roasting pan with part of the cold water.

4. Add the deglazing liquor and the rest of the cold water to the bones, covering
them completely. Bring to a boil and reduce to a simmer.

5. Add a portion of the reserved fat to the roasting pan and sauté the mirepoix until
evenly browned. Then add it to the simmering stock.

6. Add the tomato paste and sachet to the stock and continue to simmer for 6 to 8
hours, skimming as necessary.

7. Strain, cool and refrigerate.




                                                                                        12
Fish Stock                         Yield: 1 gal. (4 lt)


10 lb Fish bones or crustacean shells
5 qt Water
1 lb Mirepoix, small dice
8 oz Mushroom trimmings

-----SACHET-----
2 Bay leaves
1/2 tsp Dried thyme
1/4 tsp Peppercorns, crushed
8 Parsley stems

1. Combine all ingredients in a stockpot.

2. Bring to a simmer and skim impurities as necessary.

3. Simmer for 30 to 45 minutes.

4. Strain, cool and refrigerate.




                                                          13
FISH FUMET                          Yield: 2 gal. (8 lt)

2 oz Whole butter
1 lb Onion, small dice
12 Parsley stems
10 lb Fish bones
1 1/2 pt Dry white wine
2 oz Lemon juice
7 qt Cold water or fish stock
2 oz Mushroom trimmings
1 sprig Fresh thyme
10 Lemon slices

1. Melt the butter in a stockpot.

2. Add the onion, parsley stems and fish bones. Cover the pot and sweat the bones
over low heat.

3. Sprinkle the bones with the white wine and lemon juice.

4. Add the cold water or fish stock, mushroom trimmings, thyme and lemon slices. Bring
to a boil, reduce to a simmer and cook approximately 30 minutes, skimming frequently.

5. Strain, cool and refrigerate.




                                                                                    14
CHRM 1120 – SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
Session Two: Soups, part one: Clear, broth based soups.

           GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SESSION TWO:
   Ingredient and Materials Knowledge Goal:
   1.     Define soup.
   2.     Identify the components of a broth/clear based soup.
   3.     Identify the equipment used for making stocks and soups
   4.     Identify and describe an assortment of broth/clear soups.

TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE:
  After studying this chapter, the student should be able to do the
  following:
   1. Clarify a stock into a consomme.
   2. Prepare a variety of soups.
   3. Practice knife skills to include dicing, brunoise, dice, paysanne
   4. Evaluate a variety of broth based/clear soups for industry quality standards.
VOCABULARY OF STOCKS AND SAUCES:
Stock
Clear soup
Broth

What is the difference between a stock, a soup and a sauce?



What is a broth?



                                      SOUPS
Soups are liquid foods. Since the Age of Iron, pre-history, on through to the Egyptian,
Greek and Roman eras on up to 17th century France cauldrons were kept simmering
endlessly with whatever was newly available thrown in with what was already there.
Thus, then as now soup could be any combination of vegetables, meat or fish cooked in
a liquid. Modern soups usually have specific ingredients and cooking times. They may
be thick (like gumbo), thin (like consommé), smooth (like bisque) or chunky (like
chowder). Although most soups are served hot, some like vichyssoise and many fruit
soups are served chilled. Soups are often garnished with flavor enhancers such as
croutons, grated cheese, minced herbs or sour cream. They can be served as a first
course, as an accompaniment to an entree salad or sandwich or as a meal in
themselves.


What are the major categories of soups and the standard of quality for each?
They are usually classified by cooking techniques and appearances:


                                                                                      15
Category        Definition   Standard Of Quality   Examples
Clear/Thin



Cream/Thick



Potage/Purees



Bisques



Chowder



Specialty
Soups




                                                              16
TOOLS USED TO MAKE, HOLD AND STORE SAUCES AND SOUPS


Pots and Pans- Whenever possible, use non-reactive stainless steel heavy bottomed
pots for clean and natural tasting sauces. Aluminum and cast iron or cold rolled steel
reacts to acids and leaves grey or dulled out with an off metallic taste.

Mechanical tools-
Robot coupe, emersion blender, bar blender


Hand tools-

Whisks, spoons, spatula

Straining and refining tools-

Chin, strainers, cheese cloth

Presentation equipment-

Steam table, b

Holding equipment-

Bain e

Storing equipment-
quick blast chiller, hotel p
e pots




                                                                                         17
Session Two Lab:

Each Group will prepare a consommé and one other variety of clear soup as listed
below
Recipes to be Executed in Lab today and Keys to Success for each group


Recipe                Keys to Success                 Storage for Service
Group I
Chicken Soup & Matzo
Balls
Chicken Consommé
Group II
Chicken Vegetable &
Rice
Chicken Consommé
Group III
French Onion
Beef Consommé
Group IV
Hearty Vegetable Beef
Soup
Beef Consommé
Group V
Minestrone
Beef Consommé
Group VI
Chicken Soup & Matzo
Balls
Chicken Consomme
Group VII
Chicken Vegetable &
Rice
Group VIII
Minestrone
Beef Consomme




                                                                                   18
Beef Consommé                              Yield: 4 qt. (4 lt)


10 Egg whites
2 lb Ground beef, lean, preferably
shank, neck or shoulder
1 lb Mirepoix
12 oz Tomato, seeded and diced
5 qt Beef broth or stock, cold
2 Onion brûlée

-----SACHET-----
2 Bay leaves
1/2 tsp Dried thyme
1/2 tsp Peppercorns, crushed
8 Parsley stems
2 Cloves, whole
Salt, to taste

1. Whip the egg whites until slightly frothy.

2. Combine the egg whites, beef, mirepoix and tomatoes in an appropriate stockpot.

3. Add the cold beef stock or broth; mix well and add the onions brûlée and sachet.

4. Bring the mixture to a simmer over moderate heat, stirring occasionally. Stop stirring
when the raft begins to form.

5. Break a hole in the center of the raft to allow the consommé to bubble through.

6. Simmer until full flavor develops, approximately 1 1/2 hours.

7. Strain through several layers of cheesecloth, degrease and adjust the seasonings.
Cool and refrigerate or hold for service.




                                                                                        19
Chicken Consomme                                Yield: 4 qt. (4 lt)


   10 egg whites
   2 lb Ground chicken
   shank, neck or shoulder
   1 lb Mirepoix
   Juice from 3 lemons
   5 qt chicken broth or stock, cold

   -----SACHET-----
   2 Bay leaves
   1/2 tsp Dried thyme
   1/2 tsp Peppercorns, crushed
   8 Parsley stems
   2 Cloves, whole
      Salt, to taste


1. Whip the egg whites until slightly frothy.

2. Combine the egg whites, chicken, and mirepoix in an appropriate stockpot.

3. Add the cold chicken stock or broth; mix well add the sachet.

4. Bring the mixture to a simmer over moderate heat, stirring occasionally. Stop stirring
when the raft begins to form.

5. Break a hole in the center of the raft to allow the consommé to bubble through.

6. Simmer until full flavor develops, approximately 1 1/2 hours.

7. Strain through several layers of cheesecloth, degrease and adjust the seasonings.
Cool and refrigerate or hold for service.




                                                                                        20
HEARTY VEGETABLE BEEF SOUP
Yield: 5 quarts (5 liters)

6 ounces butter or beef fat
3 pounds mirepoix, small dice
8 ounces turnip, small dice
2 garlic cloves, chopped
4 quarts beef broth or stock
1 pound beef, small dice

SACHET:
1 bay leaf
1/2 teaspoon dried thyme
1/2 teaspoon peppercorns, crushed
8 parsley stems

12 ounces Tomato Concassée, see recipe
12 ounces corn kernels, fresh, frozen or canned
salt and pepper, to taste


1. In a soup pot, sweat the mirepoix and turnip in the butter or fat until tender.

2. Add the garlic and sauté lightly.

3. Add the beef broth or stock and the diced beef; bring to a simmer. Add the sachet.
Skim or degrease as necessary.

4. Simmer until the beef and vegetables are tender, approximately 1 hour.

5. Add the tomato concassé and corn; simmer for 10 minutes. Season to taste with salt
and pepper.

6. Cool and refrigerate or hold for service.


.




                                                                                        21
CHICKEN SOUP WITH MATZO BALLS
Yield: 2 gallons (8 liters)

MATZO BALLS:
4 eggs
2 ounces water
2 ounces chicken fat or butter, softened
4 ounces matzo meal
salt and white pepper, to taste
RICH CHICKEN BROTH:
8 pounds chicken pieces (8 to 10 lbs)
10 quarts chicken stock
1 pound mirepoix
Enrich with commercial base (add after 1 lb mirepoix)
SACHET:
1 bay leaf
1/2 teaspoon dried thyme
1/2 teaspoon peppercorns, crushed
10 parsley stems
salt and pepper
fresh parsley as needed for garnish, chopped

1. To make matzo balls:

2.   Beat the eggs with the water. Stir in the fat.

3.    Add matzo meal, salt and pepper. The batter should be as thick as mashed
     potatoes.

4.   Chill for at least 1 hour.

5. Bring 2 quarts of water to a gentle boil. Using a #70 portion scoop, shape the batter
   into balls. Carefully drop each ball into the hot water. Cover and simmer until fully
   cooked, approximately 30 minutes. Remove the matzo balls from the water and
   serve in hot chicken soup.

6. Yield: 48 balls

7. To make rich chicken broth:
8. Simmer the chicken in the stock for 2 hours, skimming as necessary.
9. Add the mirepoix and sachet. Simmer for another hour.
10. Strain and degrease the broth. Adjust seasonings.
11. Bring to a boil at service time. Portion into heated bowls, garnish with one or two
    matzo balls and chopped parsley.

                                                                                          22
Chicken Vegetable Rice Soup
4 oz Butter or chicken fat
1 ½ lb onions, small dice
1 lb carrots, small dice
1 lb celery, small dice
12 oz turnip, small dice
12 oz cooked, diced chicken
6 qt chicken stock
1 lb drained canned tomatoes, coarsely chopped
Salt to taste
White pepper to taste
3 cups cooked rice
12 oz frozen peas, thawed
Thyme fresh

   1. Heat the butter in a heavy saucepot over medium-low heat.

   2. Add the onions, carrots, celery, and turnip. Sweat the vegetables in the butter
      over low heat until they are about half cooked. Do not let them brown.

   3. Add the stock. Bring to a boil and skim carefully. Simmer until vegetables are just
      barely tender.

   4. Add the tomatoes and simmer another 5 minutes.

   5. Degrease the soup and season with salt and white pepper.

   6. Just before serving, add the peas, cooked rice, chicken and thyme.

   7. Heat to temp.




                                                                                        23
MINESTRONE                        Yield: 2 gallons (8 liters)

   1 pound dry white beans
   2 tablespoons olive oil
   10 ounces onion, diced
   2 garlic cloves, minced
   1 pound celery, diced
   12 ounces carrot, diced
   1 pound zucchini, diced
   10 ounces green beans, cut in 1/2-inch (1.25-cm) pieces
   1 pound cabbage, diced
   5 quarts vegetable stock
   1 Pound Tomato Concassée, see recipe
   12 ounces tomato paste, low-sodium
   1 tablespoon fresh oregano, chopped
   2 tablespoons fresh basil, chopped
   1 tablespoon fresh chervil, chopped
   1 lb dry macaroni, (cooked)

1. Soak the beans in cold water overnight, then drain.

2. Cover the beans with water and simmer until tender, about 40 minutes. Reserve the
   beans. Cook macaroni.

3. Sauté the onions in the oil. Add the garlic, celery and carrots and cook for 3
   minutes.

4. Add the remaining vegetables (except the tomatoes), one type at a time, cooking
   each briefly.

5. Add the stock, tomatoes and tomato paste. Cover and simmer for 2 1/2 to 3 hours.

6. Stir in the chopped herbs and season to taste with salt and pepper.

7. Add the drained beans and cooked macaroni.

8. Bring the soup to a simmer and simmer 15 minutes. Serve in warm bowls,
   garnished with Parmesan.




                                                                                     24
French Onion Soup                           Yield: 4 quarts (4 liters)



   10 pounds yellow onion, julienne
   8 ounces clarified butter
   4 quarts beef stock
   4 quarts chicken stock
   1/2 ounce fresh thyme
   salt and pepper, to taste
   8 ounces sherry
   toasted french bread slices, as needed to garnish
   gruyère cheese as needed, as needed to garnish

1. Sauté the onions in the butter over low heat. Carefully caramelize them thoroughly
   without burning.

2. Deglaze the pan with 8 ounces (250 milliliters) of the beef stock. Cook au sec.
   Repeat this process until the onions are a very dark, even brown.

3. Add the remaining beef stock, the chicken stock and thyme.

4. Bring to a simmer and cook 20 minutes to develop flavor. Adjust the seasonings
   and add the sherry. Will likely need to enrich with beef and chicken base.

5. Serve in warm bowls. Top each portion with a slice of toasted French bread and a
   thick layer of cheese. Place under the broiler or salamander until the cheese is
   melted and lightly browned.




                                                                                      25
CHRM 1120 – SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
Session Three: Soups, part 2: Thick Soups and Thickening Agents

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SESSION ONE:
   INGREDIENT AND MATERIALS KNOWLEDGE GOAL:
   1. Identify a variety of thick soups to include cream, chowder, bisque and specialty
      soups.
   2. Identify a variety of thickening agents used to thicken soups and sauces.

TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE:
  After studying this chapter, the student should be able to do the
  following:
   1. Prepare a variety of thick soups to include cream potage, bisque, chowders,
   International, or specialty soup.
   2. Evaluate a variety of thick soups for industry quality standards.


THICKENING AGENTS (and how they work)
Type of Thickener Definition                          Best Use/Tips
Roux- fat


Beurre Manie- fat
and

Starch slurry


Waxy maize


Heat or freezer
stabilized starches

White wash


Vegetable purees


Rice



                                                                                      26
Cream and egg
yolk liason


Panade


Reduction


Emulsion




                27
Session Three Lab:
Consommé Practical for each student


Types and Varieties of Thick Soups:
Recipes to be Executed in Lab today and Keys to Success for each group
Group/Soup                       Key to Success
1 Shrimp Bisque

1 Cheddar & Leek Soup

2 New England Clam Chowder

2 Fresh Peach and Yogurt

3 Cream of Wild Mushroom
Soup

3 South West Black Bean

4 Gazpacho

4 Cream of Broccoli

5 Vichysoisse

5 Chicken & Sausage Gumbo

6 Mulligatawny

6 Puree of Split Pea

7 Shrimp Bisque

7 Cream of Broccoli

8 Cheddar Leak

8 Wild Mushroom




                                                                         28
Cream of Wild Mushroom Soup
Servings: 5
Yield: 40 fluid ounces


2 ounces onion, chopped
8 ounces assorted fresh wild mushrooms, chopped, such as
    shitake, oysters and morels
4 ounces butter
4 tablespoons flour
1 teaspoon salt
Pepper, to taste
1 teaspoon dried thyme
8 fluid ounces chicken stock
24 fluid ounces milk
2 fluid ounces marsala wine
1 tablespoon lemon juice

1) Saute the onion and mushrooms in the butter over medium heat. Cook until they
   are tender and any liquid given off has evaporated.

2) Blend in the flour, salt, pepper and thyme. Gradually stir in the chicken stock,
   then the milk.

3) Cook until the soup thickens slightly, but do not allow it to boil. Stir in the
   marsala and the lemon juice.

4) Puree half of the soup (including half of the mushrooms) and then stir it back into
   the remaining soup. Or, use an immersion blender to blend the soup in the pot,
   stopping when approximately half of the mushrooms have been pureed. Leave
   approximately half of the mushroom pieces intact for texture. Add more stock if
   necessary to achieve the desired consistency. Adjust the seasonings and serve.




                                                                                      29
Cream of Broccoli Soup
Servings: 32

   3 ounces whole butter
   12 ounces onion, medium dice
   3 ounces celery, medium dice
   3 pounds broccoli, chopped
   4 quarts chicken veloute sauce, hot
   2 quarts chicken stock, hot (approx.)
   salt and pepper to taste
   8 ounces broccoli florets



1. Sweat the onions, celery and broccoli in the butter, without browning, until they are
   nearly tender.

2. Add the veloute sauce. Bring to a simmer and cook until the vegetables are tender,
   approximately 15 minutes. Skim the surface periodically.

3. Puree the soup, then strain it through a fine china cap or chinois.

4. Return the soup to the stove and thin it to the correct consistency wit the hot chicken
   stock.

5. Bring the soup to a simmer and add the hot cream. Season to taste with salt and
   white pepper

6. Garnsih with blanched broccoli florets just before service.

Yield: 6 quarts




                                                                                       30
Mulligatawny

    2 tablespoons unsalted butter
    12 ounces mirepoix
    2 tablespoons flour
    2 teaspoons curry powder
    1 quart chicken stock
    1/2 cup chicken meat, cooked, diced
    1/4 cup green apple, diced
    1/2 cup sliced mushrooms
    4 fluid ounces milk, warm
salt and pepper, to taste



1. In a saucepot, heat the butter over medium heat, add the mirepoix and sauté for 5
   minutes.

2. Add the flour and curry powder and cook to form a blond roux.

3. Add the chicken stock. Bring to a simmer and cook for 15 minutes.

4. Add the chicken, apple and mushrooms and cook for 15 more minutes.

5. Finish with the warm milk and season with salt and white pepper.




                                                                                       31
Cheddar & Leek Soup                               Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)

     1 ounce whole butter
     8 ounces mirepoix, chopped fine
     8 ounces leek, chopped fine
     2 ounces flour
     1 1/2 quarts chicken stock
     4 ounces dry white wine or flat beer
     4 ounces half and half
     1 pound cheddar cheese, grated
     salt, to taste
     cayenne pepper, to taste
     fresh parsley, chopped, as needed to garnish
     6 slices of bread

SACHET:
  1 bay leaf
  1/4 teaspoon dried thyme
  1/4 teaspoon peppercorns, crushed

croutons as needed, for garnish

1.    Sweat mirepoix and leeks in the butter until tender.

2.    Stir in the flour and cook to make a blond roux.

3.    Add stock and sachet and bring to a boil. Add wine (or beer), half-and-half and
     cheese. Simmer for 1 hour.

4.    Strain; adjust seasonings with salt and cayenne pepper. Thin with additional warm
     half-and-half, if necessary.

5.    Serve in warm bowls, garnished with parsley and croutons.




                                                                                        32
Gazpacho                       Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)

   1 1/4pounds tomato, peeled and diced
   3 ¾ ounces onion, medium dice
   1/2 green pepper, medium dice
   1/2 red pepper, medium dice
   1/2 pound cucumber, peeled, seeded, medium dice
   1/2 ounce garlic, minced
   1 ounces red wine vinegar
   1 ounces lemon juice
   1 7/8 ounces olive oil
   salt and pepper, to taste
   cayenne pepper, to taste
   13/8 ounces fresh bread crumbs (optional)
   13/8 quarts tomato juice
   white stock, as needed

1. Combine and purée all ingredients except the tomato juice, stock and garnish in a
   VCM, food processor or blender.

2. Stir in the tomato juice.

3. Adjust the consistency with the stock.

4. Stir in the vegetables, the garnishes and adjust the seasonings.

5. Serve in chilled cups or bowls garnished with fresh basil.




                                                                                       33
Southwestern Black Bean Soup
Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)


   1/2 pound dried black beans, soaked or canned
   2 3/8 quarts vegetable stock or water
   1/2 tablespoon canola oil
   2 ounces onion, diced
   1 garlic cloves, minced
   1/2 ounce Anaheim chili pepper, diced
   1/2 tablespoon jalapeño or serrano chiles, minced
   1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
   1/2 teaspoon ground coriander
   1/2 teaspoon dried oregano
   salt and pepper, to taste
   lime wedges, as needed to garnish

SACHET:
  1 bay leaves
  1/4 teaspoon dried thyme
  5 peppercorns, cracked

cilantro, as needed to garnish


1. Combine the beans and stock or water and bring to a simmer. Add the sachet.

2. Sauté the onions, garlic and chiles in the oil. Add to the saucepot.

3. Stir in the cumin, coriander and oregano.

4. Simmer the soup, uncovered, approximately 2-3 hours. The beans should be very
   soft, just beginning to fall apart. Add additional water or stock if necessary.

5. Purée about half of the soup, then stir it back into the remaining soup. Season to
   taste with salt and black pepper.

6. Serve in warmed bowls garnished with lime wedges and chopped cilantro.




                                                                                        34
Shrimp Bisque                      Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)


     1 1/2 ounces clarified butter
     1/2 pound mirepoix, small dice
     1 pounds shrimp shells and/or lobster or crayfish shells and bodies
     1 garlic cloves, chopped
     1 ounces tomato paste
     2 ounces brandy
     6 ounces white wine
     2 quarts fish velouté (made with shrimp stock)
     1/2 pint heavy cream, hot
     salt and white pepper, to taste
     cayenne pepper, to taste

SACHET:
  1/2 bay leaf
  1/4 teaspoon dried thyme
  1/4 teaspoon peppercorns, crushed
  4 parsley stems

     1/2 pound shrimp, peeled and deveined

1. Caramelize the mirepoix and shrimp shells in the butter.

2. Add the garlic and tomato paste and sauté lightly.

3.    Add the brandy and flambé.

4. Add the white wine. Deglaze and reduce the liquid by half.

5. Add the velouté and sachet and simmer for approximately 1 hour, skimming
   occasionally.

6. Strain, discarding the sachet and reserving the liquid and solids. Purée the solids
   and return them to the liquid. Return to a simmer and cook for 10 minutes.

7. Strain the bisque through a fine chinois or china cap lined with cheesecloth.

8. Return the bisque to a simmer and add the hot cream.

9. Season to taste with salt, white pepper and cayenne pepper.

10. Cook the shrimp and slice or dice them as desired. Garnish each portion of soup
    with cooked shrimp.


                                                                                         35
New England-Style Clam Chowder
Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)


   1 1/4 quarts canned clams with juice, *see note
   7/8 quarts water or fish stock, approx.
   3/4 pounds potato, small dice
   5 ounces salt pork, small dice
   5/8 pound onion, small dice
   5 ounces celery, small dice
   2 1/2 ounces flour
   5/8 quart milk
   5 ounces heavy cream
   salt and pepper, to taste
   tabasco sauce, to taste
   worcestershire sauce, to taste
   fresh thyme, to taste

1. Drain the clams, reserving both the clams and their liquid. Add enough water or stock
    so that the total liquid equals 2 quarts (2 liters).

2. Simmer the potatoes in the clam liquid until nearly cooked through. Strain and
    reserve the potatoes and the liquid.

3. Render the salt pork without browning it. Add the onions and celery and sweat until
    tender.

4. Add the flour and cook to make a blond roux.

5. Add the clam liquid to the roux, whisking away any lumps.

6. Simmer for 30 minutes, skimming as necessary.

7. Bring the milk and cream to a boil and add to the soup.

8. Add the clams and potatoes, and season to taste with salt, pepper, Tabasco,
    Worcestershire and thyme.

9. Garnish each serving with fresh herbs.




                                                                                         36
Puree of Split Pea Soup
Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)

   1 3/8 ounces bacon, diced
   1/2 pound mirepoix, medium dice
   1 garlic cloves, chopped
   1 3/8 quarts chicken stock
   1/2 pound split peas, washed and sorted
   3/4 pounds ham hocks or meaty ham bones
   3 slices bread
   salt and pepper, to taste

SACHET:
  1 bay leaves
  1/4 teaspoon dried thyme
  1/4 teaspoon peppercorns, crushed

   croutons as needed, for garnish

1. In a stockpot, render the bacon by cooking it slowly and allowing it to release its fat;
     sweat the mirepoix and garlic in the fat without browning them.

2. Add the chicken stock, peas, ham hocks or bones and sachet. Bring to a boil, reduce
    to a simmer and cook until the peas are soft, approximately 1 to 1 1/2 hours.
3. Remove the sachet and ham hocks or bones. Pass the soup through a food mill and
    return it to the stockpot.

4. Remove the meat from the hocks or bones. Cut the meat into a medium dice and add
    it to the soup.

5. Bring the soup to a simmer and, if necessary, adjust the consistency by adding hot
    chicken stock. Adjust the seasonings with salt and pepper and serve, garnished
    with croutons.




                                                                                              37
Vichyssoise (Cold Potato-Leek Soup)
Yield: 2 quarts (2 liters)


    1 pounds leek, white part only
    3 3/4 ounces whole butter
    1 pounds potato, large dice
    1 2/3 quarts chicken stock
    salt and white pepper, to taste
    11 3/8 ounces heavy cream
    chives, as needed, snipped
fried sweet potato frizzles, as needed


1. Split the leeks lengthwise and wash well to remove all sand and grit. Slice them
    thinly.

2. Sweat the leeks in the butter without browning them.

3. Add the potatoes and chicken stock, season with salt and pepper and bring to a
    simmer.

4. Simmer until the leeks and potatoes are very tender, approximately 45 minutes.

5. Purée the soup in a food processor, blender or food mill; strain through a fine sieve.

6. Chill the soup well.

7. At service time, incorporate the heavy cream and adjust the seasonings. Serve in
    chilled bowls, garnished with snipped chives and sweet potato frizzles.




                                                                                            38
   Fresh Peach and Yogurt Soup
   2 quarts (2 liters)

   4 pounds fresh peaches or canned equivalent
   24 ounces dry white wine
   4 ounces honey
   2 ounces lemon juice
   1/4 teaspoon cinnamon, ground
   8 ounces plain yogurt, nonfat
   heavy cream, to taste
   pistachios, as needed to garnish, chopped fine


1. Pit and coarsely chop the peaches without peeling. Place in a nonreactive saucepan.
    Add wine, honey and lemon juice. Cover and simmer for 30 minutes.

2. Purée the peach mixture in a blender. Strain and chill.

3. Stir in cinnamon, yogurt, heavy cream.

4. Chill thoroughly. Serve in chilled bowls, garnished with finely chopped pistachio nuts.




                                                                                             39
Chicken and Sausage Gumbo

1/2 tablespoon cayenne pepper
1/2 tablespoon paprika
1/2 tablespoon white pepper
1/2 tablespoon black pepper
2 pounds chicken, boneless, skinless, cut in 1-in. (2.5-cm) pieces
1 1/2 tablespoons salt
10 ounces flour
14 fluid ounces vegetable oil
1/2 pint onions, medium dice
1/2 pint celery, medium dice
1/2 pint green bell peppers, medium dice
1 tablespoons garlic, chopped
1 tablespoons filé powder
2 bay leaves
2.5 quarts chicken stock
1 pounds andouille sausage, cooked, sliced, cut in half circles
1/2 pound okra
3/4 cup long-grain white rice, cooked
1/2 pint green onion tops, sliced

1. Combine the cayenne pepper, paprika, white pepper and black pepper. Season
the chicken with 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) of salt and 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) of
the pepper mix. Dust the chicken with some of the flour. Pan-fry the chicken in 8 fluid
ounce (240 milliliters) of the vegetable oil until well browned. Remove the chicken from
the pan and reserve.

2. Strain the oil used to brown the chicken in order to remove burnt particles. Return
the strained oil to the pan. Add 16 fluid ounces (450 milliliters) or fresh vegetable oil.
Over medium heat, add the remaining flour while stirring with a whisk to make a roux.
Cook the roux very slowly over medium heat, stirring often, until it becomes a copper-
brown color, approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour.

3. Add the andouille, onions, celery, bell pepper, garlic, filé powder, bay leaves, rice,
okra and the remaining salt and pepper mix. Cook for 5 minutes. Add the chicken stock
and bring to a simmer. Skim the fat from the surface and cook for approximately 1 1/2
hours, skimming occasionally.




                                                                                         40
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION FOUR: The mother sauces and secondary or daughter
sauces~part one bechamel and veloute based

Read
Chapter Three: Ingredients
Chapter Five: Liaisons and thickeners
Chapter Six: White Sauces

Make
Roux based Mother Sauces –
     ~Veloute and Bechamel,

View Video – Espagnole and Bechamel Sauces
Video Evaluation

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “sauce”.
    2. Describe the function of a sauce.
    3. Identify the four mother sauces based on roux.
    4. Identify the one mother sauce based on hot emulsion method.
    5. Outline the timing and sequences involved in the preparation of the five mother
        sauces.
    6. Explain the function of ingredients used as thickeners.
    7. Produce a variety of mother sauces to industry standards
    8. Evaluate to industry standards, Veloute and Béchamel.
    9. Store in a safe manner, an assortment of sauces.
    10. Use tools and equipment associated with sauce making.
    11. Identify a selection of secondary sauces based on Bechamel and Veloute.
    12. Produce a variety of secondary sauces
    13. Store a variety of secondary sauces to industry sanitation standards.
    14. Evaluate a variety of secondary sauces for standards of quality.




                                                                                     41
WHAT IS A SAUCE?



THE MAJOR OR MOTHER - ROUX BASED AND HOT EMULSION SAUCES-
          Hot Sauces –
          Cold Sauces –


MOTHER SAUCE CLASSIFICATIONS
Classical Escoffier




The Modern System (Integral)




                                                            42
THE FUNCTION OF SAUCE
   Moistness


   Flavor


   Richness


   Appearance


   Interests and Appetite Appeal


BUILDING A GREAT SAUCE
    Production of corresponding stock: Degreasing, filtering and reducing until proper
      taste and concentration is achieved.
    Production of corresponding Roux, or thickening agent.
    Establishing the liaison between roux and stock. Binding, thickening with correct
      percentage of roux, cleaning, by depouillage or skimming.


ESTABLISHING THE FIVE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
   Viscosity:



   Texture:



   Color:



   Luster:



   Opacity:




                                                                                          43
THERE ARE THREE DEGREES OF TRANSPARENCY OF A SAUCE:
   OPAQUE-

     TRANSLUCENT--LIGHT IS DIFFUSED

     TRANSPARENT--LIGHT PASSES THROUGH
     .

*If you want to produce a transparent sauce, use starch only and no protein based
products. If you want a sauce to be translucent, use a combination of those elements.
Clear and transparent sauces use pure starch as a thickening agent.


Characteristics
      Texture


      Flavor


      Compliment


      Consistency


      Color




Components of Sauce
               Liquid                                        Thickener



              Flavoring Agents                               Garniture




                                                                                        44
Session Four Lab:
Each Group will Prepare both Mother Sauces (Veloute and Bechamel) and a derivative
sauce from each as assigned

Recipe                           Keys to Success
Bechamel


Veloute


Group I (Fettuccini)
Mornay
Poulette
Group II (Poached Fish)
Cheese
Bercy
Group III (Poached Fish)
Nantua
Normand
Group IV (Grilled Chicken)
Soubise
Supreme
Group V (Fettuccini)
Cream
Hongroise
Group VI (Grilled Chicken)
Moutard
Ivoire
Group VII
Cheese Parmesan
Cardinal
Group VIII
Mornay
Horseradish




                                                                                     45
Béchamel                            Yield: 1 qt.

   1/4 Onion piquet
   1/4 gal Milk
   1 7/8 oz Flour
   1 7/8 oz Clarified butter
   Salt and white pepper, to taste
   Nutmeg, to taste

1. Add the onion piquet to the milk in a heavy saucepan and simmer for 20 minutes.

2. In a separate pot, make a white roux with the flour and butter.

3. Remove the onion piquet from the milk. Gradually add the hot milk to the roux while
stirring constantly with a whisk to prevent lumps. Bring to a boil.

4. Reduce the sauce to a simmer, add the seasonings and continue cooking for 30
minutes.

5. Strain the sauce through a china cap lined with cheesecloth. Melted butter can be
carefully ladled over the surface of the sauce to prevent a skin from forming. Hold for
service or cool in a water bath.

Small Béchamel Sauces
With a good béchamel, producing the small sauces in its family is quite simple. The
quantities given are for 1 quart ( 1lilter) of béchamel. The final step for each recipe is to
season to taste with salt and pepper.

Cream Sauce Add to béchamel 8-12 fluid ounces (250-360 milliliters) scalded cream and
a few drops of lemon juice.

Cheese Add to béchamel 8 ounces (250 grams) grated Cheddar or American cheese, a
dash of Worcestershire sauce and 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) dry mustard.

Mornay Add to béchamel 4 ounces (120 grams) grated Gruyere and 1 ounce (30 grams)
grated Parmesan. Thin as desired with scalded cream. Remove the sauce from the heat
and swirl in 2 ounces (60 grams) whole butter.

Nantua Add to béchamel 4 fluid ounces (120 milliliters) heavy cream and 6 ounces *180
grams) crayfish butter (page 249). Add paprika to achieve the desired color. Garnish the
finished sauce with diced crayfish meat.

Soubise (Modern) Sweat 1 pound (500 grams) diced onions in 1 ounce (30 grams) whole
butter without browning. Add béchamel and simmer until the onions are fully cooked.
Strain through a fine chinois.




                                                                                                46
 Sauce Moutard To 18 oz béchamel add 4 ounces prepared mustard. This sauce should be
prepared just before service, if possible. Taste and adjust seasoning.




   Velouté                   Yield: 1 qt.


   2 oz Clarified butter
   2 oz Flour
   11/4 qt Chicken, veal or fish stock
   Salt and white pepper, to taste


1. Melt the butter in a heavy saucepan. Add the flour and cook to make a blond roux.

2. Gradually add the stock to the roux, stirring constantly with a whisk to prevent lumps.
Bring to a boil and reduce to a simmer. (Seasonings are optional; their use depends upon
the seasonings in the stock and the sauce's intended use.)

3. Simmer and reduce to 1 gallon (4 liters), approximately 30 minutes.

4. Strain through a china cap lined with cheesecloth.

5. Melted butter may be carefully ladled over the surface of the sauce to prevent a skin
from forming. Hold for service or cool in a water bath.


Small Fish Velouté Sauces
A few small sauces can be made from fish velouté. The quantities given are for 1 quart (1
liter) fish velouté sauce. The final step for each recipe is to season to taste with salt and
pepper.

Bercy Sauté 2 ounces (60 grams) finely diced shallots in butter. Then add 8 fluid ounces
(250 milliliters) dry white wine and 8 fluid ounces (250 milliliters) fish stock. Reduce this
mixture by one-third and add the fish velouté. Finish with butter and garnish with chopped
parsley.

Cardinal Add 9 fluid ounces (250 milliliters) fish stock to 1 quart (1 liter) fish velouté.
Reduce the mixture by half and add 1 pint (500 milliliters) heavy cream and a dash of
cayenne pepper. Bring to a boil and swirl in 1 ½ ounces (45 grams) lobster butter (page
249). Garnish with chopped lobster coral at service time.

Normandy Add 4 ounces (120 grams) mushroom trimmings and 4 fluid ounces (120
milliliters) fish stock to 1 quart (1liter) fish velouté. Reduce by one-third and finish with an
egg yolk and cream liaison. Strain through a fine chinois.




                                                                                               47
Allemande Sauce                            Yield: 1 gal. (4 lt)

   1 gal Veal or chicken velouté sauce
   (see Velouté Sauce recipe)
   8 Egg yolks
   24 oz Heavy cream
   1 oz Lemon juice
   Salt and white pepper, to taste

1. Bring the velouté to a simmer.

2. In a stainless steel bowl, whip the egg yolks with the cream to create a liaison. Ladle
approximately one third of the hot velouté sauce into this mixture, while whisking, to
temper the yolk and cream mixture.

3. When one third of the velouté has been incorporated into the now-warmed yolk and
cream mixture, gradually add the liaison to the remaining velouté sauce while whisking
continuously.

4. Reheat the sauce. Do not let it boil.

5. Add the lemon juice; season with salt and white pepper to taste.

6. Strain through a china cap lined with cheesecloth.

Small Allemande Sauces
A few small sauces can be made from allemande. The quantities given are for 1 quart (1
liter) allemande sauce. The final step for each recipe is to season to taste with salt and
pepper

Aurora Add to allemande 2 ounces (60 grams) tomato paste and finish with 1 ounce (30
grams) butter.

Horseradish Add to allemande 4 fluid ounces (120 milliliters) heavy cream and 1
teaspoon (5 milliliters) dry mustard. Just before service and 2 ounces (60 grams) freshly
grated horseradish. The horseradish should not be cooked with the sauce.

Mushroom Sauté 4 ounces (120 grams) sliced mushrooms in ½ ounce (15 grams) whole
butter; add 2 teaspoons (10 milliliters) lemon juice. Then add the allemande to the
mushrooms. Do not strain.

Poulette Sauté 8 ounces (250 grams) sliced mushrooms and ½ ounce (15 grams) diced
shallot in 1 ounce (30 grams) whole butter. Add to the allemande; then add 2 fluid ounces
(60 milliliters) heavy cream. Finish with lemon juice to taste and 1 tablespoon (15
milliliters) chopped parsley.




                                                                                             48
Supréme Sauce
   1 quart Chicken velouté sauce
   2 ounces Mushroom trimmings
   1/4 quart Heavy cream
   TT Salt and white pepper

1. Simmer the velouté sauce with the mushroom trimmings until reduced by
   one-fourth.

2. Gradually whisk in the cream and return to a simmer.

3. Adjust the seasonings.

4. Strain through a china cap lined with cheesecloth.


Small Supréme Sauces
The following small sauces are easily made from a supréme sauce. The quantities given
are for 1 quart (1 liter) supreme sauce. The final step for each recipe is to season to taste
with salt and pepper.

Albufera Add to supreme sauce. 3 fluid ounces (90 milliliters) glace de volaille and 2
ounces (60 grams) red pepper butter (page 249).

Hungarian Sweat 2 ounces (60 grams) diced onion in 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) whole
butter. Add 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) paprika. Stir in supreme sauce. Cook for 2 to
3 minutes, strain and finish with whole butter.

Ivory Add to supreme sauce 3 fluid ounces (90 milliliters) glace de volaille.




                                                                                           49
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION FIVE: DAUGHTER OR SECONDARY SAUCES
ESPAGNOLE AND TOMATO BASED
Read Chapter Seven on Espagnole or brown sauces, and pages 434 to 438 for
Tomato based sauces. Check contents pages for more tomato recipes.

              * Attendance
              * Laboratory subjects
                Make Roux based Secondary Sauces –
                Brown ~ Espagnole,
               Tomato ~ Tomatee
               View Video – Espagnole and Tomato Sauces
                             Video Evaluation
              *Classwork – Secondary Sauces- Part Two:
                     Espagnole and Tomato Sauces
              *Discussion Points and Reminders

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “secondary sauce”.
    2. Identify a selection of secondary sauces based on Espagnole and Tomato
       mother sauces.
    3. Produce a variety of secondary sauces
    4. Store a variety of secondary sauces to industry sanitation standards.
    5. Evaluate a variety of secondary sauces for standards of quality.

KEY CONCEPTS:
Sauce Espagnole

Sauce Escoffier

Italian Tomato Sauce

Sugu

Jus de Veau Lie

Rendering

Sange

Depouillage

Simmer



                                                                                50
Tomato Products Overview

Type of Tomato   Standard of Quality   Application




                                                     51
FRENCH TOMATO SAUCE OR SAUCE ESCOFFIER

INGREDIENTS:
Item                    Notes




TECHNIQUE:




DERIVATIVES:




                                         52
ITALIAN TOMATO SAUCE

INGREDIENTS:
Item                   Notes




TECHNIQUE:




DERIVATIVES:




                               53
Sugu – ―Omaha Steak House Spaghetti Sauce‖

INGREDIENTS:
Item                         Notes




TECHNIQUE:




DERIVATIVES:




                                             54
ESPAGNOLE AND DEMI GLACE

INGREDIENTS:
Item                       Notes




TECHNIQUE:




DERIVATIVES:




                                   55
Grand Sauce Brown
Variations

                    Red wine, shallots,
                    peppercorns, bay leaf,
                    thyme, bone marrow

                                              Bordelaise Sauce

                    White wine, vinegar,
                    mirepoix, garlic,
                    peppercorns, butter


                                              Poivrade Sauce

                    White wine, shallots,
                    fines herbes, cayenne
                    pepper


                                              Diable Sauce
Demi-glace
   or               Onion, white wine,
Fond de veau        lemon juice, mustard
   lie


                                              Robert Sauce

                    Madeira, butter




                                               Madeira Sauce




                    White wine, mushrooms,
                    shallots, tomato puree,
                    parsley
                                               Duxelles Sauce




                                                                 56
Session Five Lab:
 Only Three groups will function in lab today, each finishing with two family style plates
   for service and tasting at the time determined by your instructor.
 It is important that your group and the instructor demonstrate the key steps to your
   sauces as they occur to the entire class. Please take time now to meet with your group
   and discuss with the instructor those steps that will be critical for each recipe for the
   entire class to see.

Group Recipe                        Sauce Vehicle        Steps to Demonstrate
  I      Espagnole and
          Meat Glaze
         Mushroom

  2         Demi Glace



  3            Sauce Robert        Grilled Pork



  4           Sauce                Potatoes
         Chasseur                  Parisienne



  5         Milanaise              Roasted Chicken



  6         Spanish                Grilled or Sautéed
                                   Fish



  7         Marinara               Grilled Baguette



  8         Puttanesca             Spaghetti




                                                                                          57
Brown Roux

1 lb 2 oz clarified butter
1 lb 5 oz sifted flour


1) Mix the butter and flour together in a heavy pan and place in a moderate oven to cook,
stirring frequently until an even, light brown color is obtained. When cooked, the roux
should have a smell resembling that of hazelnuts or baked flour and be without grains.




Meat Glaze
Place sufficient brown stock into a large pan and allow it to reduce; from time to time after
an appreciable degree of reduction has taken place, strain the stock into a smaller pan and
continue to do this as the process of reduction progresses.
It is necessary to skim the stock carefully throughout the process as the quality of the
resultant glaze depends very much on this.
Reduce the heat progressively as the reduction of the stock increases until the final stage
when the reduction must be finished over moderate heat.
The glaze is ready when it adheres to the back of a spoon in the form of a glossy coating.




                                                                                          58
Espagnole (Brown Sauce)                                   Yield: 1 qt.

   1/2 lb Mirepoix, medium dice
   2 oz Clarified butter
   2 oz Flour
   1 1/4 qt Brown stock
   2 oz Tomato purée

   -----SACHET-----
   1/4 Bay leaf
   1/8 tsp Dried thyme
   1/16 tsp Peppercorns, crushed
   2 Parsley stems
Salt and pepper, to taste

1. Sauté the mirepoix in butter until well caramelized.

2. Add the flour and cook to make a brown roux.

3. Add the brown stock and tomato purée. Stir to break up any lumps of roux. Bring to a
boil; reduce to a simmer.

4. Add the sachet.

5. Simmer for approximately 1 1/2 hours, allowing the sauce to reduce. Skim the surface
as needed to remove impurities.

6. Strain the sauce through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth. Adjust
seasonings and cool in a water bath or hold for service.




                                                                                           59
Demi-Glace                            Yield: 1 qt. (1 lt)

   1 quart Brown Stock, see recipe
   1 quart Espagnole (Brown Sauce), see recipe

1. Combine the stock and sauce in a saucepan over medium heat.

2. Simmer until the mixture is reduced by half (a yield of 1 quart or 1 liter).

3. Strain and cool in a water bath.

Chasseur (Hunter’s Sauce) Sauté 4 ounces (120 grams) sliced mushrooms and ½
ounce (15 grams) diced shallots in whole butter. Add 8 fluid ounces (250 milliliters) white
wine and reduce by three-fourths. Then add demi-glace and 6 ounces (170 grams) diced
tomatoes; simmer for 5 minutes. Do not strain. Garnish with chopped parsley.

Cháteaubriand Combine 16 fluid ounces (s500 milliliters) dry white wine and 2 ounces
(60 grams) diced shallots. Reduce the mixture by two-thirds. Add demi-glace and reduce
by half. Season to taste with lemon juice and cayenne pepper. Do not strain. Swirl in 4
ounces (120 grams) whole butter to finish and garnish with chopped fresh tarragon.

Marchand De Vin Reduce 8 fluid ounces (250 milliliters) dry red wine and 2 ounces (60
grams) diced shallots by two-thirds. Then add demi-glace, simmer and strain.

Piquant Combine 1 ounce (30 grams) shallots, 4 fluid ounces (120 milliliters) white wine
and 4 fluid ounces (120 milliliters) white wine vinegar. Reduce the mixture by two-thirds.
Then add demi-glace and simmer for 10 minutes. Add 2 ounces (60 grams) diced
cornichons, 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) fresh tarragon, 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) fresh
parsley and 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) fresh chervil. Do not strain.

Poivrade Sweat 12 ounces (340 grams) mirepoix in 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) oil. Add
1 bay leaf, 1 sprig thyme and 4 parsley stems. Then add 16 fluid ounces (500 milliliters)
vinegar and 4 fluid ounces (120 milliliters) white wine. Reduce by half, add demi-glace and
simmer for 40 minutes. Then add 20 crushed peppercorns and simmer for 5 more
minutes. Strain through a fine chinois and finish with up to 2 ounces (60 grams) whole
butter.

Robert Sauté 8 ounces (250grams) chopped onion in 1 ounce (30 grams) whole butter.
Add 8 fluid ounces (250 milliliters) dry white wine and reduce by two-thirds. Add demi-
glace and simmer for 10 minutes. Strain and then add 2 teaspoons (10 milliliters)
prepared Dijon mustard and 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) granulated sugar. If the finished
Robert sauce is garnished with sliced sour pickles, preferably cornichons, it is know as
Charcutiére.

Mushroom Blanch 8 ounces (250 grams) mushroom caps in 8 fluid ounces (250
milliliters) boiling water seasoned with salt and lemon juice. Drain the mushrooms, saving
the fluid. Reduce this liquid to 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) and add it to the demi-glace.
Just before service stir in 2 ounces (60 grams) whole butter and the mushroom caps.


                                                                                                60
Tomato Sauce                      Yield: 1 gal. (4 lt)

   4 oz Salt pork, small dice
   24 oz Mirepoix
   3 qt Tomato, fresh or canned
   2 qt Tomato purée
   -----SACHET-----
   1 tsp Dried thyme
   3 Bay leaves
   3 Garlic cloves
   10 Parsley stems
   1/2 tsp Peppercorns, crushed
   1 1/2 oz Salt
   3/4 oz Sugar
   3 qt White stock
   2 lb Pork bones

1. Render the salt pork over medium heat.

2. Add the mirepoix and sauté, but do not brown.

3. Add the tomatoes and tomato purée, sachet, salt and sugar.

4. Add the white stock and bones.

5. Simmer slowly for 1/2 to 2 hours or until the desired consistency has been reached.

6. Remove the bones and sachet, and pass the sauce through a food mill. Cool in a water
bath and refrigerate.


Small Tomato Sauce
The following small sauces ae made by adding the listed ingredients to 1 quart (1 liter)
tomato sauce. The final step for each recipe is to season to taste with salt and pepper.

Creole Sauté 6 ounces (170 grams) finely diced onion, 4 ounces (120 grams) thinly sliced
celery and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) garlic in 1 fluid ounce (30 milliliters) oi. Add tomato
sauce, a bay leaf and 1 pinch thyme; simmer for 15 minutes. Then add 4 ouncs (120
grams) finely diced green pepper and a dash of hot pepper sauce; simmer for 15 minutes
longer. Remove the bay leaf.

Spanish Prepare creole sauce as directed, adding 4 ounces (120 grams) sliced
mushrooms to the sautéed onions. Garnish with sliced black or green olives.

Milanaise Sauté 5 ounces (140 grams) sliced mushrooms in ½ ounce (15 grams) whole
butter. Add tomato sauce and then stir in 5 ounces (140 grams) cooked ham (julienne)
and 5 ounces (140 grams) cooked tongue (julienne). Bring to a simmer.



                                                                                           61
Italian Tomato Sauce
8 pounds tomatoes
.5 cups olive oil
1 tablespoon parsley, chopped
6 garlic cloves, minced


   1) Preheat oven to 400 degrees F.

   2) Brush a baking sheet with 1 tbsp olive oil, set aside.

   3) Cut each tomato in half and squeeze out the seeds. Cut into chunks and place on
      the baking sheet in one layer. Bake for 1 ½ hours.

   4) In a large sauce pot over medium heat, sauté the garlic in the remaining olive oil for
      a minute or two, careful not to burn. Add parsley and cooked tomatoes. Stir while
      cooking to help break down the tomatoes. Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.

   5) Pass through a food mill.




Marinara Sauce
   1 pound onion, chopped
   8 cloves garlic, minced
   3/4 cup olive oil
   20 pounds plum tomatoes (2 1/2 gal), canned, undrained
   3 ounces chopped fresh parsley
   3 tablespoons dried basil, crumbled
   2 tablespoons salt
   1 1/2 teaspoons black pepper

1. Sauté onion and garlic in oil until tender and golden in color.

2. Add tomatoes to onion-garlic mixture. Break tomatoes into small pieces.

3. Stir in seasonings. Cover and simmer for 2 hours, stirring occasionally. Cook until
sauce reaches desired consistency.




                                                                                         62
Puttanesca
4 garlic cloves, halved
5 anchovies, chopped
3 Tbsp olive oil
6 black olives, sliced
6 green olives, sliced
2 Tbsp capers
1 red chili, finely diced
28 oz Italian tomato sauce
2 Tbsp parsley, finely chopped, rinsed


   1) In a deep pan over medium high heat brown the garlic in the olive oil. Add the
      anchovies and crush to a paste with a fork.

   2) Add tomato sauce, olives, capers, and the chili. Cook over medium high heat,
      constantly stirring, for 10 minutes.

   3) Add parsley and cook for 1 to 2 more minutes. Taste and adjust seasoning if
   necessary




                                                                                       63
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION SIX: EMULSION SAUCES-HOT AND COLD
BUTTER SAUCES - HOT AND COLD COMPOUND

Read Chapter Thirteen and Fourteen: Hot emulsified egg yolk sauces and
Mayonnaise based sauces

            * Attendance
            * Laboratory subjects –
              Make Emulsion sauces –
              Cold sauces ~ Mayonnaise
              Hot sauces ~ Hollandaise, Bearnaise
              Make cold compound butter and hot butter sauces
              Cold butter- compound butters
              Hot sauces ~ Beurre blanc,beurre rouge, beurre
            *Classwork – Hollandaise and Mayonnaise based
              secondary sauces.
            *Discussion Points and Reminders

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “emulsion sauce”.
    2. Define the term, “Compound butter and beurre blanc”.
    3. Identify a selection of secondary sauces based on Hot and cold emulsion
        sauces
    4. Identify a selection of sauces based on cold butter and hot beurre blanc
        emulsion sauces
    5. Produce a variety of emulsion based sauces to include Hollandaise and
        Mayonnaise
    6. Produce a variety of compound butters and hot butter sauces to include beurre
        rouge, beurre blanc, and an assortment of other butter sauces.
    7. Evaluate a variety of emulsion sauces for standards of quality.
    8. Evaluate a variety of butter sauces for standards of quality.
    9. Store a variety of emulsion sauces to industry sanitation standards.
    10. Store a variety of butter sauces to industry sanitation standards.




                                                                                   64
Note Taking Guide                                Session Six – Emulsions

Key Terms
Emulsion

Emulsifier

Coalescence

Beurre Blanc

Compound Butter

Béarnaise




Two TYPES of emulsions:
  1. Oil in water (Milk)



   2. Water in oil (Butter)




Emulsifiers:
Name of Emulsifier            Origin or Source   Common Use




                                                                           65
Note Taking Guide                          Session Six – Emulsions (Continued)

Categories of Emulsions:
   1. Temporary


   2. Semi-Permanent


   3. Permanent



Common Emulsions and Emulsion Sauces:




Master Recipe: Hollandaise and Béarnaise

Components and Purpose:
Reduction:

Egg Yolks:

Butter:

Lemon:




                                                                                 66
Master Recipe: Hollandaise and Béarnaise

Differences between Hollandaise and Béarnaise:




Techniques for Success:
   1. Equal temperature


   2. Slow and steady to start


   3. Proper ratio


   4. Mechanical help?


   5. Broken Emulsion – How to Fix it:
         Hot Water                               New Yolk




Derivative             Flavoring                   Use
Hollandaise
      Mousseline




Béarnaise
     Choron

       Foyot




                                                            67
Note Taking Guide                            Session Six – Emulsions (Continued)

Compound Butter

Definition:


Uses:



Keys to Success:




Varieties:




Hot Butter Preparations

Variety                   Flavor/Technique          Use




Keys for Success:
Beurre Fondus



Pan Sauces




                                                                                   68
Master Recipe: Mayonnaise

Components and Purpose:




Keys to Success:




Alternative and Derivatives:




                               69
Recipe Lab and Experiments                                       Session Six – Emulsions

Everyone will prepare a Hollandaise or Béarnaise based on their group’s assigned
derivative. Each INDIVIDUAL preparation should be presented to the instructor for review
BEFORE being combined with the other group member’s sauce.

Additionally, there will be three groups, each will execute three sauces, a prepared
protein(to pair with all three sauce from the group), and an experiment as detailed below.

Please take 15 minutes as a group, before the end of class, to discuss and create the
following information:
    1. A timeline for the execution of your individual recipes, the group recipes and the
       group’s experiment

   2. A list identifying who is responsible for which task

   3. A list of the “keys to success” for your dishes

   4. A list of “moments of demonstration

   5. The expected outcome of your experiment (review the questions on the following
      pages)

Lab Assignments
Session Six     Group I                 Group II             Group III        Group IV

Hollandaise/         Béarnaise          Hollandaise          Béarnaise
Béarnaise
(individual)
        Derivative   Choron             Mousseline           Foyot            Maltaise
        (combined)
Cold Emulsion        Blue Cheese        Spanish              Caesar           Caesar
                     Aioli              Romesco              Dressing
Butter               Beurre Rouge       Beurre Fondu         Chili            Beuree Blanc
                                                             Compound
                                                             Butter
Protein              Grilled Beef       Poached              Seared Beef      Chicken
                                        Chicken
                                        (in the beurre
                                        fondu)
Experiment           Break and Fix      Break and Fix        Turn cream
                     Beurre Rouge       Hollandaise          into butter
                                                             (Invert
                                                             emulsion type)


Homework for Next Week:
Take the quiz online at www.quia.com


                                                                                             70
Experiment I – Breaking Beurre Rouge

   1. What did you do to break the beurre rouge?




   2. When broken…
      Taste                      Appearance        Viscosity




   3. How did you fix it?



   4. How could you have avoided breaking?




Experiment II – Breaking Hollandaise

   1. What did you do to break the hollandaise?



   2. When broken…
      Taste                      Appearance        Viscosity




   3. How did you fix it?



   4. How could you have avoided breaking?




                                                               71
Experiment III – Making Butter

   1. What were the keys to success in making butter?



   2. Fill in the following chart:
       Weight of cream               Weight of buttermilk   Weight of butter




   3. Explain the process of “inverting the emulsion”



   4. What are the characteristics of this fresh butter?
        a. Spreadability:


          b. Color:


          c. Taste:


          d. Aroma:




                                                                               72
Sauce Hollandaise

   1/4 tsp White peppercorns, crushed
   3 oz White wine vinegar
   2 oz Water
   2 Egg yolks
   1 1/4 oz Lemon juice
   2 cups Clarified butter, warm
   Salt and white pepper, to taste
   Cayenne pepper, to taste

1. Combine the peppercorns, vinegar and water in a small saucepan and reduce by one
half.

2. Place the egg yolks in a stainless steel bowl. Strain the vinegar and pepper reduction
through a chinois, into the yolks.

3. Place the bowl over a double boiler, whipping the mixture continuously with a wire whip.
As the yolks cook, the mixture will thicken. When the mixture is thick enough to leave a
trail across the surface when the whip is drawn away, remove the bowl from the double
boiler. Do not overcook the egg yolks.

4. Whip in 1 ounce (30 milliliters) lemon juice to stop the yolks from cooking.

5. Begin to add the warm clarified butter to the egg yolk mixture a drop at a time, while
constantly whipping the mixture to form an emulsion. Once the emulsion is started, the
butter may be added more quickly. Continue until all the butter is incorporated.

6. Whip in the remaining lemon juice. Adjust the seasonings with salt, white pepper and
cayenne pepper.

7. Strain the sauce through cheesecloth if necessary and hold for service in a warm (not
simmering) bain marie.

Yield: 3 cups

Small Hollandaise Sauces (reduce derivative ingredients)
The following small sauces are easily made by adding the listed ingredients to 1 quart (1
liter) hollandaise. The final step for each recipe is to season to taste with salt and pepper.
Béarnaise is presented here as a small sauce although some chefs consider it a leading
sauce.

Béarnaise (bair-NAYZ) Combine 1 ounces (s30 grams) chopped shallots, 2 1/2
tablespoons (37 1/2 milliliters) chopped fresh tarragon, 1 1/2 tablespoons (23 milliliters)
chopped fresh chervil and 1/1 teaspoon (2 1/2 milliliters) crushed peppercorns with 4 fluid
ounces (125 milliliters) white wine vinegar. Reduce to 1 fluid ounces (30 milliliters). Add
this reduction to the egg yolks and proceed with the hollandaise recipe. Strain the finished


                                                                                            73
sauce and season to taste with salt and cayenne pepper. Garnish with additional chopped
fresh tarragon.

Choron Combine 1 ounces (30 grams) tomato paste and 1 fluid ounces (30 milliliters)
heavy cream; add the mixture to a béarnaise.

Foyot Add to béarnaise 1/2 fluid ounces (45 milliliters) melted glace de viande.

Grimrod Infuse a hollandaise sauce with saffron.

Maltaise Add to hollandaise 1 fluid ounces (30 milliliters) orange juice and 1 teaspoons (5
milliliters) finely grated orange zest. Blood oranges are traditionally used for this sauce.

Mousseline (Chantilly Sauce) Whip 4 fluid ounces (125 milliliters) heavy cream until stiff.
Fold it into the hollandaise just before service. Mousseline sauce is also used as a
glacage coating.




Beurre Fondu

1 Tbsp water
1 Pound chilled butter, cut into ½ inch cubes


   1) In a small deep sauce pot, over medium high heat, heat water until the edges are
      simmering.

   2) Reduce heat to low and add one piece of butter , whisking constantly until butter is
      incorporated. At this time, add another piece of butter and continue the process
      until all the butter has been incorporated.

   3) When the emulsion has formed, it is okay to add more butter at a time as long as
      the whisking is constant and the emulsion does not break.




                                                                                          74
Bleu Cheese Aioli
1 oz fresh garlic, pureed
1 egg yolk
Pinch salt
8 oz vegetable oil
Juice of 1 lemon
½ Tbsp cold water if necessary
2 oz bleu cheese, or to taste



   1) In a medium sized non reactive mixing bowl, whisk garlic, salt and egg yolk until
   combined.

   2) Using a whisk, gradually add oil to mixture, one drop at a time. Once emulsion is
   formed, oil can be added in a very small but steady stream, continuously whisking.

   3) When all the oil in incorporated, mix in the bleu cheese and lemon juice to taste.
   Adjust seasoning if necessary.

   4) If sauce is too thick, it can be thinned by adding a little cold water.




Chili Compound Butter
1 pound butter
3 tablespoons chili powder
1 tablespoon ground cumin
3 dashes Tabasco sauce
2 tablespoons tequila
salt and freshly cracked black pepper


1) In a kitchen aid mixer using a paddle, combine all ingredients until an even mixture is
   formed. Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.

2) Place butter on a sheet of parchment paper and form into a roll, or put into a piping bag
   and pipe onto plates for service.




                                                                                             75
Beurre Blanc                   Yield: 1 cup


4 oz White wine
½ oz White wine vinegar
¾ tsp salt
1/4 tsp white pepper
½ ounce shallots, minced
8 iz whole butter, chilled

1. Combine the white wine, white wine vinegar, salt, white pepper and shallots in a
small saucepan. Reduce the mixture until approximately 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) of
liquid remain. If more than 2 tablespoons of liquid are allowed to remain, the resulting
sauce will be too thin. For a thicker sauce, reduce the mixture au sec.

2. Cut eh butter into pieces approximately 1 ounce (30 grams) in weight. Over low
heat, whisk in the butter a few pieces at a time, using the chilled butter to keep the
sauce between 100 degrees F. and 120 degrees F (43C – 49C).

3. Once all the butter has been incorporated, remove the saucepan from the heat.
Strain through a chinois and hold the sauce between 100 degrees F and 130 degrees F
(30C-54C) for service.



Variations

Beurre Rouge – Substitute a dry red wine for the white wine and red wine vinegar for
the white wine vinegar.

Lemon Dill – Heat 1 tablespoons (15 milliliters) lemon juice and whisk it into the beurre
blanc. Stir in 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) chopped fresh dill.

Pink Peppercorn – Add 1 tablespoons (15 milliliters) coarsely crushed ink
peppercorns to the shallot-wine reduction when making beurre rouge. Garnish the
finished sauce with whole pink peppercorns.




                                                                                         76
Spanish Romesco Sauce

   3 Red bell peppers, medium size
   2 ounces Almonds, sliced
   2 ounces Hazelnuts
   3 Garlic cloves
   1 tablespoon Fresh Italian parsley, chopped
   2 teaspoons Paprika
   1/2 teaspoon Chilli powder
   4 fluid ounces Sherry vinegar
   6 fluid ounces Extra virgin olive oil
   TT Salt and pepper

1. Roast the bell peppers in an open flame. Peel them, remove the seeds and chop them
   coarsely.

2. Toast the almonds and hazelnuts in a dry sauté. Cool them and grind them in the bowl
   of a food processor until they are almost a paste.

3. Add the bell peppers, garlic, Italian parsley, paprika and chilli powder to the bowl of the
   food processor and pulse to combine the ingredients.

4. Add the vinegar and purée to a smooth paste.

5. With the processor running, add the oil in a slow stream to emulsify the sauce. Season
   to taste.




                                                                                            77
Caesar Dressing

1 tbsp garlic, minced
3 Anchovy fillets
¾ tsp salt (to taste)
½ tsp fresh ground black pepper, to taste
2 egg yolks
2 fl oz lemon juice, to taste.
5 fl oz extra-virgin olive oil
5 fl oz blended oil
6 oz finely grated Parmesan cheese
12 oz croutons

1) In a small non-reactive bowl mash together the garlic, anchovies, salt and pepper to form a
relatively smooth paste.

2) Add the egg and lemon juice and whisk well. While whisking gradually add the olive oil so as to
form a thick emulsion.

3) Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper.

4) Toss with romaine add cheese and croutons.




                                                                                                 78
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION SEVEN: MARINADES, VINAIGRETTES and INTERNATIONAL SAUCES

Read Chapter 16 in Sauces by James Peterson

      * Attendance
      * Laboratory subjects –
             Make marinades, vinaigrettes, salad sauces and a selection of
             International sauces and relishes
      *Classwork – Oil and vinegar based sauces and International sauces.
      *Discussion Points and Reminders

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “Marinade, vinaigrette, salad sauce, and relish”.
    2. Identify a selection of ingredients used in the production of sauces based on
       marinades, vinaigrettes, and an assortment of International sauces.
    3. Describe a variety of sauces based on oil and vinegar.
    4. Describe the uses of a variety of marinades, vinaigrettes and other assorted
       International sauces.
    5. Produce a variety of sauces based on marinades, vinaigrettes, and an
       assortment of International sauces.
    6. Store a variety of sauces based on marinades, vinaigrettes, and an assortment
       of International sauces.
    7. Evaluate a variety of sauces based on marinades, vinaigrettes, and an
       assortment of International sauces.




                                                                                   79
Note Taking Guide             Session Seven – Marinades, Vinaigrettes, International

Define the Following Terms:

Marinade:



Marinate:



Infusion:



Maceration:




Marinade Ingredients and There Purpose:
Ingredient            Purpose




Should marinades be emulsified?                            Yes and No




                                                                                       80
    Note Taking Guide             Session Seven – Marinades, Vinaigrettes, International

Types, Definition and Examples of Marinades
 Type       Definition     Examples         Pros               Cons            Uses




    Sugar Content of Marinades:




                                                                                           81
Note Taking Guide        Session Seven – Marinades, Vinaigrettes, International

International Sauces—some definitions
Sauce                   Definition




                                                                                  82
Recipe Lab and ExperimentsSession Seven – Marinades, Vinaigrettes, International

The class will be divided into six groups, each taking a type of marinade, a vinaigrette or
other salad sauce, and an international sauce. Each group will also have an experiment to
perform as they execute the recipes.

TODAY’S         Group I              Group II           Group III          Group IV
LAB
Marinade        Warm Duck            Seviche            London Broil       Chicken with
(start first)   Breast with Asisan                                         Cloves of Garlic
                spices


Salad           Orange Soy                              Blue Cheese        German potato
                Vinaigrette                             Vinaigrette        salad



International Pico de Gallo          Thai Melon         Tapenade
                                     Salsa



Experiment      Brined and Not       Some of the        Emulsified         Unmarinated vs
(start first)   Brined               salsa as           verse not          Marinated
                                     chutney

                Group V              Group VI           Group VII          Group VIII

Marinade        Shish-               Grilled            London Broil       Chicken with
(start first)   Kebab                Marinated                             Cloves of Garlic
                                     Chicken Breast

Salad           Non-Fat Creamy       Green Goddess      Blue Cheese        German Potato
                Mustard Yogurt       Dressing           Vinaigrette        salad
                Dressing

International Balsamic Honey         BBQ                Tapenade
              Glaze

Experiment      Injected vs Not      Marinated and      Emulsified         Unmarinated vs
(start first)   Injected             basted vs          Verse not          Marinated
                                     Marinated only




                                                                                         83
Recipe Lab and ExperimentsSession Seven – Marinades, Vinaigrettes, International

Experiment I—Brined and Not Brined
Was there a significant difference in the following areas:
Coloration:


Yield:


Overall Flavor:


Juiciness:


Saltiness:


Crispness of Skin:



Experiment II—Salsa vs Chutney

Explore the following conditions:
Condition         Salsa                                  Chutney
Texture



Sweetness



Color



Pairing with
protein item




                                                                               84
Experiment III—Emulsified vs Non-Emulsified

Evaluate the following qualities of the two chicken preparations.
Condition         Emulsified                             Non-Emulsified
Texture -
Tnderness

Flavor



Color



Yield



Moisture
Content




Experiment IV—Emulsified vs Non-Emulsified

Evaluate the following qualities of the two fried chicken preparations.
Condition         Marinated                               Not Marinated
Texture -
Crunchiness

Flavor



Interior Color



Tenderness



Moisture
Content




                                                                          85
Experiment V—Injected vs Not Injected

Evaluate the following qualities of the two beef preparations.
Condition         Emulsified                              Non-Emulsified
Texture-
Tenderness

Flavor



Color



Yield



Moisture
Content



Experiment VI—Basted vs Not Basted

Evaluate the following qualities of the two jerk chicken preparations.
Condition         Emulsified                              Non-Emulsified
Texture-
Tenderness

Flavor
(sweetness
and spiciness)

Color



Yield



Moisture
Content




                                                                           86
   Chicken with 40 Cloves of Garlic
   2 1/2 pounds chicken, cut in eight pieces
   13 ounces dry white wine
   flour, as needed
   salt and pepper, to taste
   1 tablespoons olive oil
   20 garlic cloves, unpeeled
   2 sprigs fresh thyme
   1 sprig fresh rosemary
   8 french bread croutons
   fresh parsley as needed for garnish, chopped

1. Marinate the chicken pieces in the white wine for 1-2 hours under refrigeration. Remove
   and pat dry.

2. Dredge the chicken in flour and season lightly with salt and pepper. Sauté the chicken
   in the olive oil.

3. Remove the chicken from the pan and sauté the garlic until it begins to brown. Place
   the chicken on top of the garlic in a single layer. Add the wine marinade and herbs and
   cover.

4. Braise in a 325ºF (160ºC) oven until tender, approximately 45 minutes.

5. Remove the chicken and garlic from the pan and reserve. Remove and discard the
   herbs. Place the pan on the stove top and reduce the sauce until slightly thick. Season
   with salt and pepper.

6. Serve 2 pieces of chicken and several of the garlic cloves resting on 2 French bread
   croutons. Top with a portion of the sauce and garnish with chopped parsley.

      Yield: 4 2-piece servings




                                                                                          87
Barbecue Sauce
     8 ounces onion, small dice
     1 ounce garlic, chopped
     1 fluid ounce vegetable oil
     6 fluid ounces red wine vinegar
     1 ounce brown sugar
     2 fluid ounces honey
     8 fluid ounces beef stock
     10 ounces ketchup
     1 ounce dry mustard
     2 tablespoons worcestershire sauce
     salt and pepper, to taste
     cayenne pepper, to taste

1. Sweat the onions and garlic in the oil until tender.

2.    Combine the remaining ingredients and simmer for 30 minutes.




Tomato Vinaigrette for Pasta
8 ounces Tomato Concassee, see recipe
1 oz fresh basil, thyme or marjoram
3 oz balsamic vinegar
2 tbsp shallots, minced
8 oz olive oil
Salt and pepper, to taste
1 lb pasta, cooked

1. Combine all vinaigrette ingredients. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Set aside for
20-30 minutes to allow the flavors to blend.

2. Toss the sauce with 1 pound (500 grams) warm or cold cooked pasta such as spaghetti
or fettuccine. Adjust the seasonings. Serve immediately or refrigerate and serve chilled.




                                                                                          88
Pico de Gallo
   5 each Tomatoes, seeded, small dice
   1 bunch green onions, sliced
   3 each garlic clove, minced
   1/2 bunch cilantro, chopped
   3 each jalapeno, chopped fine
   2 fluid ounces lemon juice, fresh
   1/2 teaspoon cumin, ground
   1/2 TT salt and pepper


Combine all ingredients and gently toss. Adjust seasonings and refrigerate.




Fresh Cranberry Orange Sauce
1 pound granulated sugar
4 ounces orange juice
8 ounces water
1 ½ pounds fresh or frozen cranberries
1 cinnamon stick
2 ounces orange liqueur
2 tablespoons orange zest, finely grated
20 orange segments

1. Combine the sugar, juice and water in a nonreactive saucepan; bring to a boil.

2. Add the cranberries and cinnamon stick and simmer uncovered until the berries begin
to burst, approximately 15 minutes. Skim off any foam that rises to the surface.

3. Add the orange liqueur and zest and simmer for another 5 minutes.

4. Remove from the heat and remove the cinnamon stick. Add the orange segments. Cool
and refrigerate.

Yield: 3 quarts ( 3 liters)




                                                                                     89
     German Potato Salad
     4 ounces Bacon, paysanne
     4 ounces Onions, small dice
     1 ounces Green onions, sliced thin
     1 ounces Flour
     2 1/2 ounces Granulated sugar
     3 fluid ounces Cider vinegar
     1/2 pint Chicken stock
     2 1/2 pounds Russet potatoes, cooked, peeled, sliced 1/4 in. thick
     3 Eggs, hard cooked, peeled, sliced
     TT Salt and pepper

1. In a heavy saucepan large enough to hold all of the ingredients, cook the bacon,
   rendering the fat without browning the bacon. Remove the bacon and set aside.

2. Add the onions and green onions and cook until tender without browning,
   approximately 2 minutes.

3. Stir in the flour to make a roux. Add the sugar, vinegar, and stock. Stir, bring to a boil
   and reduce to a simmer.

4.    Carefully fold in the potatoes, eggs and cooked bacon. Season to taste with salt
      and pepper. Serve warm.




                                                                                                90
Grilled Marinated Chicken Breasts
   4 skinless boneless chicken breast halves, boneless, skinless
   salt and pepper, to taste
   1 tablespoon vegetable oil
   2 ounces red pepper butter

1. Trim any excess fat from the breasts. Split each breast into two pieces by removing
   the small piece of cartilage that joins the halves.

2. Marinate the chicken breasts in 8 fluid ounces White Wine Marinade for u to 1 hour.
   Blot excess marinade from the chicken with a paper towel before grilling.

3. Heat and prepare the grill.

4. Grill the chicken breasts until done, turning them to produce attractive cross-hatch
   markings.

5. Remove the chicken from the grill and place on a plate for service..




White Wine Marinade
   1 teaspoons garlic, minced
   2.5 ounces onion, small dice
   12 ounces dry white wine
   1 bay leaves
   1 teaspoons dried thyme
   .5 teaspoon white pepper
   1.5 teaspoons salt
   .5 ounce lemon juice
    2 ounces vegetable oil

1. Combine all ingredients.

Yield 1 quart (1 liter)




                                                                                          91
    Thai Melon Salsa
    1 qt Assorted melons such as honeydew,
       cantaloupe, Crenshaw
    1 tsp Garlic, chopped
    2 Tbsp Brown sugar
    1 oz Thai fish sauce
    1 Tbsp Serrano chiles, minced
    2 oz Lime juice
    4 Tbsp Unsalted peanuts, roasted,
       chopped fine
    4 Tbsp Fresh mint


1. Cut the melons into small dice or shape into small balls using a Parisienne scoop.

2. Combine remaining ingredients and toss with the melon pieces. Chill thoroughly. Serve
with fish, shellfish or chicken.

Yield: 1 qt. (1 lt)




                                                                                        92
   Warm Duck Breast Salad with Asian Spices
    And Orange Soy Vinaigrette
   2 Whole boneless duck breasts (12 oz [350 g] each)

   -----MARINADE-----
   1 tsp Garlic, minced
   2 Tbsp Green onions, minced
   2 tsp Oyster sauce
   1 tsp Light soy sauce
   1 tsp Rice wine or dry sherry
   1 tsp Sugar
   1/2 tsp Five spice powder

   4 oz Mixed baby greens (4 to 6 oz)

1. Trim the excess fat from the duck breasts and separate the breasts into halves.

2. Combine the marinade ingredients. Thoroughly coat the duck with the marinade and
marinate for at least 2 hours.

3. Combine the Orange Soy Vinaigrette ingredients at least 2 hours before service so that
the flavors will develop.

4. Wipe the marinade from the breasts and sauté them, skin side down first, in a dry sauté
pan until medium rare, approximately 2 1/2 minutes per side. Do not overcook.

5. Arrange a mixture of baby greens on 4 plates. Slice the breasts on the diagonal and
arrange on the plates with the greens. Drizzle the Orange Soy vinaigrette over the greens.




                                                                                        93
Orange Soy Vinaigrette
   8 fluid ounces rice vinegar
   1 teaspoon chile flakes
   3 tablespoons granulated sugar
   1/2 teaspoon orange oil
   2 teaspoons sesame oil
   1 tablespoon soy sauce
   4 teaspoons orange zest, minced
   water, as needed
   2 tablespoons green onion tops, sliced very thin on the bias
   2 teaspoons sesame seeds
   2 teaspoons fresh cilantro, chopped

1. Combine the vinegar, chile flakes, sugar, oils, soy sauce and orange zest in a small
   saucepan. Bring to a boil and cook just until the sugar dissolves.

2. Taste the mixture and adjust the strength by adding 4 to 8 fl. oz. (120 to 240 milliliters)
   of water.

3. Cool the mixture, then add the green onions, sesame seeds and cilantro. Stir to
   combine, cover and chill until ready to use.




                                                                                             94
   Green Goddess Dressing
   2 head iceberg lettuce
   1 ounce fresh parsley
   1 pint mayonnaise
   12 ounces sour cream
   1 tablespoon garlic, chopped
   1 ounce anchovy fillets, minced
   1 ounce fresh chives, chopped
   1 tablespoon fresh tarragon, chopped
   1 ounce lemon juice
   1 ounce red wine vinegar
   salt and white pepper, to taste
   worcestershire sauce, to taste


1. Rinse and chop the parsley, but do not dry it or you will remove some of the chlorophyll.

2. Combine all the ingredients and mix well. Season to taste with salt, white pepper and
   Worcestershire sauce.

Yield: 1 quart (1 liter)




                                                                                           95
   Marinated London Broil
MARINADE:
  4 ounces olive oil
  4 ounces balsamic vinegar
  2 tablespoons fresh rosemary, chopped
  2 ounces garlic, minced
  1 teaspoon pepper

   2 pounds beef flank steak (2-3 lb.) (1-1 1/2 kg)


1. Combine the marinade ingredients in a hotel pan.

2. Add the flank steak to the marinade and coat completely. Allow the meat to marinate for
   at least 4 hours.

3. Grill the steak rare to medium rare. If cooked further, the meat will become extremely
   tough.

4. Carve into 1/4-inch (6-millimeter) thick slices, cutting diagonally across the grain.




                                                                                            96
   Seviche
   1/2 pound raw scallops and/or shrimp
   1/2 pound raw firm white fish
   4 ounces fresh lime juice
   2 serrano peppers, minced
   3 ounces red onion, fine dice
   2 tablespoons fresh cilantro, minced
   1 tablespoons olive oil
   4 ounces Tomato Concassée, see recipe
   1 teaspoons garlic, chopped
   salt and pepper, to taste

1. Chop the scallops, shrimp and fish coarsely but evenly. Place in a nonreactive
   container and add the lime juice. Cover and marinate in the refrigerator for 4 hours. The
   fish should turn opaque and become firm.

2. Toss in the remaining ingredients and season to taste with salt and pepper. Chill
   thoroughly and serve as a salad or with tortilla chips.

3. If the seviche is going to be held for more than 2 hours, drain the liquid and refrigerate
   separately. The reserved liquid can then be tossed with the other ingredients at service
   time.

Yield: 1 1/2 pounds




   Blue Cheese Vinaigrette
   8 ounces blue cheese
   1 teaspoon salt
   1 teaspoon garlic, mashed
   4 fluid ounces white wine vinegar
   1/4 teaspoon black pepper
   12 fluid ounces olive oil

1. Crumble the blue cheese and set aside 2 oz. (60 g) of the chunks for garnish. Pass the
   remainder through a drum sieve or food mill fitted with a fine disk.

2. Combine the salt, garlic, vinegar and pepper. Add the olive oil in a slow steady stream,
   whisking constantly to incorporate. Gradually beat in the sieved blue cheese until
   smooth. Stir in the reserved blue cheese chunks.




                                                                                           97
   Balsamic Honey Glaze (reduction)

      1 quart Balsamic vinegar
      1 lb Honey
      1 tsp Black pepper


   Combine all ingredients in a small saucepot. Simmer and reduce until it reaches a syrup-
   like consistency.




   Tapenade
      4 garlic cloves
      1 pint kalamata olives, pitted
      1 ounce anchovies
      2 tablespoons capers
      1 teaspoon fresh thyme
      1 teaspoon fresh rosemary
      1 teaspoon fresh oregano
      3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
      2 fluid ounces extra virgin olive oil


Place all of the ingredients in the bowl of a food processor and process until the mixture forms
a coarse paste. Refrigerate




                                                                                              98
Low-Fat Creamy Mustard Yogurt Dressing

   2 fluid ounces Dijon mustard
   2 tablespoons Whole grain mustard
   2 tablespoons Shallots, minced
   1 Garlic clove, minced
   3 tablespoons Lemon juice
   6 ounces Nonfat yogurt
   3 tablespoons Fresh dill, chopped
   1/2 teaspoon Salt
   TT Pepper

Whisk all the ingredients together and adjust the seasonings with additional salt and
pepper.




                                                                                        99
Shish Kebab

   -----MARINADE-----
   6 oz Onion, small dice
   1/2 oz Garlic, chopped
   2 oz Lemon juice
   1 Tbsp Salt
   1/2 tsp Pepper
   1 tsp Fresh oregano, chopped
   4 oz Olive oil
   1 tsp Cumin, ground
   1/2 Tbsp Coriander, ground
   1 tsp Fresh mint, chopped

   2 1/2 lb Lamb leg or shoulder, boneless, trimmed
     and cut in 2-in. (15-cm) cubes


1. Combine the marinade ingredients and add the lamb. Marinate for 2 hours.

2. Place 3-4 cubes of lamb on each of ten skewers. Grill or broil to the desired doneness.
   Serve with rice pilaf.




                                                                                        100
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION EIGHT: FINISHING SAUCES—oils, essences, reductions, coulis, and juices

Agenda
* Attendance
* Bonus Quiz Review
* Laboratory subjects –
* Classwork – Oils, essences, reductions, creams and juice based sauces.
* Discussion Points and Reminders

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “Oils, essences, reductions, creams and juices”.
    2. Identify a selection of ingredients used in the production oils, essences,
       reductions, creams and juices.
    3. Describe a variety of sauces based on oils, essences, reductions, creams and
       juices.
    4. Describe the uses of a variety of sauces based on oils, essences, reductions,
       creams and juices.
    5. Produce a variety of sauces based on oils, essences, reductions, creams and
       juices.
    6. Store a variety of sauces to industry standards for sanitation and safety.
    7. Evaluate a variety of sauces based on oils, essences, reductions, creams and
       juices.


Current cooking trends have been heading lighter in the last few years. As health issues
become more common place, lighter sauces are finding their way into the traditional
kitchen setting known for heavy use of butter and cream. Nothing too wrong with butter
and cream but there is now a solid place in the kitchen for the lighter style of sauces.

Some of the leading chefs in America today are opting for lighter style cuisine without
losing the flavors. Some of the great examples is the food of such chefs such as Rick
Bayless, Jean-Georges Vongerichten, and Paul Bertolli. They have taken a more natural,
lower in calorie approach and brought them to culinary heights by using flavors-intense
flavors.




                                                                                       101
Note Taking Guide                    Session Eight – Finishing Sauces

Definition:




Types of Finishing Sauces:
Type           Definition-Recipe   Example          Use




                                                                    102
Note Taking Guide                                     Session Eight – Finishing Sauces

Sauce Balderdash
In groups, write a definition to the following terms. The created definitions, along with
the correct definition will be read aloud to the class. Then, groups will choose from
the definition read aloud to determine which one they believe to be the actual
definition. Please keep it clean.

You have three ways to score points:
  1. Your written definition matches the correct definition-10 points (you knew
     what the term meant)
  2. Other groups choose your inaccurate definition as the correct definition-5
     points (you did not know what the term meant, but your inaccurate definition
     was well written and convincing)
  3. You pick the correct answer-5 points (You did not know what the term meant,
     but upon hearing the correct answer read aloud, you chose that answer)
  *Winning team will receive 10 extra credit points

Terms
Write the definitions to all of the terms on ONE piece of paper with the names of your
group members and a team name listed at the top.
   Nage
   Smear
   Au sec
   Tamis
   Milking
   Ribbonning




                                                                                            103
Recipe and Lab Experiments                          Session Eight – Finishing Sauces

Recipes      Group I                  Group II                 Group III

jus          red bell pepper          spinach                  strawberry
             red bell pepper-clear
jus lie      gel                      spinach-xanthan gum      strawberry-arrowroot

coulis       red bell pepper          spinach                  strawberry

reduction    red bell pepper          balsamic                 strawberry gastrique

essence      mushroom                 mint                     onion

foam         red bell pepper-egg      spinach-fat              strawberry-lecithin

cream        red bell pepper          spinach                  strawberry
hot oil      basil                    chile                    walnut oil

cold oil     sundried tomato-garlic Italian herb               orange-vanilla
Experiment   thickeners for jus lie   foaming agents           oil comparison
Service
Vehicle      Grilled Chicken          Baguette                 Pound Cake


Recipes      Group IV                 GroupV                   Group VI

jus          red bell pepper          spinach                  strawberry
             red bell pepper-clear
jus lie      gel                      spinach-xanthan gum      strawberry-arrowroot
coulis       red bell pepper          spinach                  strawberry

reduction    red bell pepper          balsamic                 strawberry gastrique

essence      mushroom                 mint                     onion

foam         red bell pepper-egg      spinach-fat              strawberry-lecithin

cream        red bell pepper          spinach                  strawberry

hot oil      basil                    chile                    walnut oil
cold oil     sundried tomato-garlic Italian herb               orange-vanilla
Experiment   thickeners for jus lie foaming agents             oil comparison
Service
Vehicle      Grilled Chicken          Baguette                 Pound Cake


                                                                                      104
Recipes          Group VII                Group VIII             Group IX

jus              red bell pepper          spinach                strawberry
                 red bell pepper-clear
jus lie          gel                      spinach-xanthan gum    strawberry-arrowroot

coulis           red bell pepper          spinach                strawberry

reduction        red bell pepper          balsamic               strawberry gastrique

essence          mushroom                 mint                   onion

foam             red bell pepper-egg      spinach-fat            strawberry-lecithin

cream            red bell pepper          spinach                strawberry

hot oil          basil                    chile                  walnut oil

cold oil         sundried tomato-garlic Italian herb             orange-vanilla

Experiment       thickeners for jus lie   foaming agents         oil comparison
Service
Vehicle          Grilled Chicken          Baguette               Pound Cake


Experiment I – Thickeners for Jus Lie
When making jus lie, use the following thickening agents and save the results for
evaluation:

Experiment I                              Type of Thickening Agent
Characteristic           Clear Gel              Blonde Roux        Corn Starch Slurry
Viscosity


Clarity


Flavor


“Ribboning”




                                                                                        105
Experiment II – Foaming Agents
When Foams, use the following agents and save the results for evaluation:

Experiment II                            Type of Foaming Agent
Characteristic      Butter and Cream             Gelatin                Xanthan Gum
Volume


Stiffness


Flavor


Stability after
resting:
 10 minutes
 45 minutes
 90minutes


Experiment III –Oil Performance Comparison
When making and using oil infusions, it is critical to understand the performance
characteristics of Virgin oils. Please prepare SIX oils as listed below and present them to
the class for evaluation.

Prepare 1 Cup of Extra Virgin and 1 Cup Vegetable Oil

Experiment III                            Olive Oil Comparison
Characteristic       Heated to 180º          Unheated-Room          Refrigerated 2 hours
                     then add herbs              Temp
Color


Aroma


Taste


Mouthfeel




                                                                                           106
Red Bell Pepper Reduction

1 1/3 cup red pepper jus
Salt, to taste
Pepper, to taste


   1) In a small non reactive sauce pot over medium heat bring jus to a boil.
   2) Reduce heat to allow for a simmer and cook jus until it has been reduced to nappe.
   3) Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.




Strawberry Cream

1 cup Strawberry Jus
2 cups Heavy whipping cream
Honey to taste


   1) In a medium non reactive heavy bottomed sauce pot, bring cream to a boil over
      medium heat. Lower the heat and reduce until nappe.

   2) In a separate small non reactive heavy bottomed sauce pot over low heat, reduce
      strawberry jus to nappe.

   3) Combine reductions and season to taste.

   4) Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.




                                                                                      107
   Strawberry Coulis
   1 lb Strawberries, washed, stemmed and sliced
   1 fl oz olive oil
   3 fl oz red wine
   3 oz strawberry juice
   Sugar or honey to taste


   1. In a medium sauté pan sweat the strawberries in the olive oil until tender

   2. Deglaze sauté pan with red wine

   4. Add the strawberry juice and reduce the liquid by half

   5. Place the mixture in a food processor with a “S” blade and puree until smooth.

   6. Adjust seasoning to taste with sugar or honey.




   Strawberry Foam
   1 tbsp lemon juice *See note below
   Sugar to taste
   ½ cup strawberries jus
   A few grains salt
   A few grains of Lecithin

   1) In a non-reactive stainless steel bain marie insert combine all ingredients. The
   liquid in the container should be deeper than it is wide.

   2) With an immersion blender whip the mixture until foamy.


* all protein-set foams require some acid to stabilize




                                                                                         108
Strawberry Gastrique
½ cup strawberry jus
4 tablespoons red wine vinegar
6 tablespoons of granulated sugar


    1) In a medium size stainless steel pot, combine the vinegar and sugar and cook over
       a low heat until the sugar has dissolved, about 2 minutes.

    2) Add the juice and cook over a low heat for 10 minutes, until it has reduced to a
       syrup like consistency.
Yield: 4 servings




Strawberry Jus Lie

1 1/3 cup Strawberry jus
1 tsp arrowroot diluted in 1 tsp cold water
Honey or sugar to taste


    1) In a small bowl, dilute arrowroot in cold water, set aside.

    2) In a small sauce pot over medium heat, bring jus to a simmer.

    3) Using a whisk incorporate arrowroot solution and stir until thick.

    4) Season to taste and serve.




                                                                                          109
Strawberry Jus

5 lb strawberries, de-stemmed
Honey, to taste


1) Cut strawberries in half and feed through the juicer. Use a 2-quart measuring
container to
 hold juice as it comes out of the juicer.

2) Set aside juice that will be used for further recipes; divide equally for seven recipes.
Set aside six portions.

3) Season remaining portion to taste. Hold in the cooler until service.




Sun Dried Tomato-Garlic Oil
1 cup sun dried tomatoes
1 ½ cups extra virgin olive oil
½ cup vegetable oil or pomace oil- to winterize
1 bulb cleaned garlic, whole cloves

1. In a sealed container combine sun dried tomatoes and garlic with the olive oil.

2. Allow to infuse for at least 72 hours.

* because of the garlic, the oil will only last 1-2 weeks refrigerated (stir frequently to aerate)




                                                                                              110
Balsamic Reduction

1 1/3 cup Balsamic Vinegar


1) In a small non reactive sauce pot over medium heat bring vinegar to a boil
   .
2) Reduce heat to allow for a simmer and cook until it has been reduced to nappe.

3) Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.

   * remember, because of the sugar content in this reduction, it will thicken significantly
   as it cools




Spinach Coulis

1/2 c. olive oil
1 garlic clove
1 c. sliced shallots
1/4 c. white wine
2 c. fresh spinach leaves, well packed
1/2 c. chicken stock
salt and pepper, to taste


1) In skillet over low heat, heat olive oil and sauté garlic and sliced shallots until
translucent,
about 5 minutes.

2) Deglaze with wine and cook 1 minute.

3) Stir in spinach leaves and toss until coated with oil

4) Place in blender or food processor and puree, adding chicken broth until liquid is
smooth and
can be poured easily, but is not watery. Season with salt and pepper, and pour into
squeeze
bottle.

   * do not strain




                                                                                           111
Spinach Cream

Spinach Jus to taste
2 cups Heavy whipping cream
Salt, as needed
Pepper, as needed


1) In a medium non reactive heavy bottomed sauce pot, bring cream to a boil over
medium heat.

2) When reduction is nappe, add basil jus to taste.

3) Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.




Basil Foam
1 1/2 cups basil jus
1 1/2 cups Heavy cream
1/2 Lemon, juiced
1 1/2 sheets Gelatin


1) In a small non reactive heavy bottomed sauce pan over low heat reduce basil jus by
half. Add the juice of half a lemon.

2) Bloom gelatin in cold water until soft, about 5 minutes, then squeeze gently to remove
excess water and add to warm juice reduction, stir to completely dissolve.

3) Add juice to heavy cream and strain through a chinois.

4) Fill pint-size Gourmet Whip canister. Secure the top and charge with one or two N2O
cream chargers. Shake and refrigerate for 2-4 hours before using.




                                                                                       112
Spinach Jus Lie

1 cup spinach jus
1/2 tsp xanthan gum
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste

1) In a medium sized non reactive mixing bowl, combine 70 degree spinach jus and
xanthan gum with whisk.

2) Stir continuously until mixture has thickened to the consistency desired
.
3) Season to taste and serve.




Spinach Jus

2 lb Fresh spinach leaves
1 lb Fresh Parsley
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste


1) In a large pot of boiling water, blanch parsley and spinach leaves for 20 to 30
seconds.
Immediately shock in a bowl of ice water. Drain well.

2) In a robot coupe puree parsley and basil leaves until smooth and strain through
cheesecloth,
reserving the liquid.


3) Set aside juice that will be used for further recipes; divide equally for six recipes. Set
aside
five portions.

Season the remaining portion of jus to taste. Hold in the cooler until service




                                                                                            113
Basil Oil
4 cups pressed basil leaves
2 cups vegetable oil
1 cup parsley or spinach
1) In a medium heavy bottomed stainless steel sauce pot, heat oil to 140 degrees.

2) Add basil and parsley and take off of heat.


3) Using a food processor puree the mixture. Pour into a non reactive holding
   container and let cool at room temperature for an hour.

4) Strain through a cheese cloth lined chinois and reserve the oil in a sealable
   container.




Chili Oil
4 tsp red pepper flakes
2 cups vegetable oil
1 tsp paprika
1 tsp chili powder

1) In a small saucepan over low heat toast the spices until fragrant.

2) Add oil and heat to 140 degrees.

3) Put oil into a different container and allow to cool at room temperature. Do not
   place in the cooler.

4) Strain mixture through a fine mesh strainer into a holding container, such as a squirt
   bottle.




                                                                                      114
Walnut Oil
2 cups walnuts, whole
2 cups vegetable oil

1) Toast walnuts in 350° oven for 10 -15 minutes and crush to coarse consistency.

2) Add vegetable oil and crushed walnuts in pan, heat to 140 degrees.

4) Strain the mixture through a fine mesh strainer into a non-reactive stainless steel
   bowl
   and allow to cool.

5) Move the mixture to another container and allow to cool at room temperature (about
   1 hour).




Italian Herb Oil
6 leaves fresh basil
2 sprigs fresh thyme
2 sprigs fresh rosemary
2 sprigs fresh oregano
1 ½ cups extra virgin olive oil
½ cup pomace or vegetable oil

1) In a sealable container combine herbs and olive oil and shake gently.

2) Allow to stand for 2 to 3 days and use.

3) Refrigerate unused portions.




                                                                                         115
Orange-Vanilla Oil
1 ½ cup vegetable oil
½ cup palm or coconut oil
1 orange peel, no pith. (Gently scrape pith with knife to remove)
1 vanilla bean, split
1) Combine mixture in a sealable container, such as a glass bottle.

2) Shake gently and allow to stand for 3-4 days.




Red Pepper Coulis
1 lb red peppers diced
½ minced shallot
1 fl oz olive oil
3 fl oz dry white wine
3 oz chicken stock
salt to taste


1) Place red pepper on burner over high heat and cook until skin is completely
blackened. Place peppers in a plastic bag, tie shut and allow to cool for approx 10
minutes. Peel and seed peppers.

2) In a medium sauté pan sweat the peppers and shallots in the olive oil until tender.

3) Deglaze sauté pan with white wine.

4) Add the stock and reduce the liquid by half.

5) Place the mixture in a food processor with a “S” blade and puree until smooth.




                                                                                      116
Red Bell Pepper Cream

1 cup Red Pepper Jus
2 cups Heavy whipping cream
Salt, as needed
Pepper, as needed


1) In a medium non reactive heavy bottomed sauce pot, bring cream to a boil over
medium heat. Lower the heat and reduce to nappe.

2) In a separate small non reactive heavy bottomed sauce pot, reduce the jus to nappe.

3) Combine the reductions.

4) Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary.




Red Bell Pepper Foam
1 egg white
2 Tbsp red pepper jus
Salt to taste
White pepper


1) In a medium sized non reactive mixing bowl, whip the egg white with a whisk to
medium peaks.

2) Add red pepper jus and fold in with a spatula until it is evenly incorporated in the egg
foam.

3) Season to taste.




                                                                                          117
Red Bell Pepper Jus Lie

1 1/3 cup red pepper jus
1 tsp clear gel diluted in 1 tsp cold water
Salt to taste
White pepper to taste


1) In a small bowl, dilute clear gel in cold water, set aside.

2) In a small sauce pot over medium heat, bring jus to a simmer.

3) Using a whisk incorporate clear gel solution and stir until thick.

4) Season to taste and serve.




Red Bell Pepper Jus
5 lb red bell peppers
Salt, to taste
White pepper to taste



1)     Cut bell peppers into 1 inch by 2 inch pieces, discarding the seeds and the stems and
     feed through the juicer. Use a 2 quart measuring container to hold juice as it comes
     out of the juicer.

2) Set aside juice that will be used for further recipes; divide equally for seven recipes.
   Set aside six portions.


3) Season remaining portion to taste. Hold in the cooler until service.




                                                                                              118
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION NINE: DESSERT SAUCES


             * Attendance
             * Laboratory subjects – sauces and relishes
             *Class work – Dessert sauces
             *Discussion Points and Reminders

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “dessert sauces”.
    2. Identify a selection of ingredients used in the production of caramels, fruit coulis,
       chocolate sauces and other dessert and sweet based sauces.
    3. Describe a variety of sauces based on dessert usage
    4. Produce a variety of sauces based on fruit, sugar, chocolate, custards and other
       dessert style ingredients.
    5. Store a variety of sauces to industry standards for sanitation and safety.
    6. Evaluate a variety of sauces used for desserts




                                                                                         119
Note Taking Guide                  Session Nine – Dessert Sauces

Purpose of a Sauce:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


Types of Dessert Sauces
Type          Definition         Examples




Keys to Success
Caramel Sauce:             Chocolate:




Custards:                  Fruit Sauces:




                                                               120
Recipe Lab and Experiments                              Session Nine – Dessert Sauces

   Group              I                   II                  III                  I

  Caramel           Clear              Classic           Butterscotch            Clear

  Custard        Mousseline       Crème Anglaise           Sabayon            Mousseline

 Chocolate          Syrup            Hot Fudge        Coating Ganache           Syrup

    Fruit           Jam                 Jelly              Preserve              Jam
                                      Curdling
Experiment      Invert Sugar                          Classic Ganache        Invert Sugar
                                     Experiment
  Service          Scones            Ice Cream          Sugar Cookies           Scones



Experiment I – Caramel
Prepare the two Clear caramel recipes in the packet (one with corn syrup and the one
without) and perform the following procedures on them:
    1. divide each batch in half before stating the cooking process.
    2. leave one pot of each entirely undisturbed during cooking
    3. stir one pot occasionally with a wooden spoon
    4. evaluate each of the four sauces against the following criteria (after cooling please)

Experiment I      Clear              Clear stirred      Invert            Invert stirred
                  undisturbed                           undisturbed
Clarity



Nuttiness



Smooth/Grainy



Viscosity



Cohesiveness




                                                                                            121
Recipe Lab and Experiments                             Session Nine – Dessert Sauces

Experiment II – Curdling
During the preparation of the crème anglaise, note the following temperatures and remove
a portion of your custard at each mark for evaluation

Temperature           Color                  Texture               Taste
177º


183 º


185 º


190 º


Curdled (temp:
)
Comments:




Experiment III – Ganache Variations
Prepare a contemporary Ganache to coating consistency and reserve some in a bowl for
comparison, while using some for coating sugar cookies filled with jam or preserves. Also
make a traditional Ganache (the custard method) and reserve in a bowl for comparison.

Ganache               Viscosity              Sheen                 Taste
Contemporary



Traditional



Comments:




                                                                                       122
Coating Ganache
3 cups Heavy cream
3 ounces Light corn syrup
3 ounces Unsalted butter
2 pounds Sweet dark chocolate, finely chopped

    1) In a heavy bottomed, non reactive saucepan place the butter, cream,and corn syrup
       over medium high heat. Bring to a boil.

    2) Remove from the heat and stir in the chocolate.


    3) Use to coat pastry items or store in an air tight container for 1 week.




Crème Anglaise
1120 session 9

1 quart Half and Half
1 Vanilla bean, split
12 Egg yolks
10 ounces Sugar

    1) Using a heavy non-reactive saucepot, bring the half and half and vanilla bean just to a boil.

    2) Mix the egg yolks and sugar together in a mixing bowl.


    3) Temper the egg mixture with about 1/3 of the hot half and half, then add the egg mixture
       back into the hot half-and-half and return it to the heat. Cook the sauce over medium heat,
       stirring constantly, until it is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon. Do NOT allow the
       mixture to exceed 185º degrees or the eggs will curdle.

    4) Once the sauce thickens, remove it from the heat and pour it through a fine mesh strainer
       into a clean bowl. Chill the sauce in an ice bath, cover and store in the fridge. The sauce will
       keep for 3 to 4 days.




                                                                                                   123
Hot Fudge Sauce
5 ounces unsweetened cocoa powder, sifted
6 ounces Light brown sugar
6 ounces Sugar
1 ¼ cups Heavy cream
8 ounces Unsalted butter
½ teaspoon Salt

   1) In a mixing bowl thoroughly combine the cocoa powder, brown sugar, and sugar.

   2) Place the cream, butter, and salt in a saucepan over medium heat. Bring to scalding
      point, stirring to melt the butter.

   3) Whisk in the sugar mixture to avoid lumps. Cook over low heat, stirring until the
      sugar dissolves and the mixture is smooth. Serve immediately or hold in a Bain
      Marie.



Mousseline Sauce
3 ounces Sugar
6 Egg yolks
½ cup Boiling water
1 teaspoon Vanilla extract
1 ½ cups Heavy cream


   1) In a medium non reactive mixing bowl whisk the egg yolks and sugar together just
      to combine. Temper in the boiling water by whisking it in gradually, careful not
      scramble the egg yolks.

   2) Place over a pot of simmering water and whisk constantly until the mixture thickens
      to the ribbon stage.

   3) Remove from the heat and whip until completely cool.

   4) Stir in the vanilla extract.

   5) In a separate non reactive mixing bowl, whip the heavy cream until it thickens to a
      sauce like consistency, before soft peaks form.

   6) Fold into the egg yolk mixture. If too thick, add heavy cream. If too thin, add more
      whipped heavy cream. Store covered and in the fridge for 3 to 4 days. If the sauce
      separates, whisking will bring it back.



                                                                                          124
Orange Jelly

12 medium Oranges, juiced
7 fl oz fresh Apple juice, strained well
1 pound 2 ounces Sugar


1) Dissolve the sugar with a little water in a saucepan.

2) Cook over medium heat until hard ball stage is reached, 250º.

3) Add the juices and cook over low heat to dissolve the syrup then cook rapidly. Dip a
   cool metal spoon into the boiling jelly mixture. Raise the spoon about 12 inches above
   the pan (out of steam). Turn the spoon so the liquid runs off the side. The jelly is done
   when the syrup forms two drops that flow together and hang off the edge of the spoon.

4) Remove from heat and place in cans that have been sterilized in the steamer.




Rhubarb Preserves
4 ounces rhubarb, peeled like celery, chopped
3 tablespoons Sugar
2 fluid ounces Port wine
2 fluid ounces Water

   1) In a small saucepot, combine all ingredients. Simmer until rhubarb is tender about ,
      about 25 minutes.

   2) Puree in a food processor. Reduce if necessary. Cool before serving.

   3) Can be stored in sterilized glass jars.




                                                                                         125
Sabayon

8 Egg Yolks
4 ounces Sugar
¼ tsp Salt
2 fluid ounces Marsala wine
6 fluid ounces Dry champagne


   1) In a stainless steel bowl, using a whisk, combine the egg yolks, sugar, and salt until
      mixed well.

   2) Whisk in the Marsala and the champagne.


   3) Place the bowl over a pan of barely simmering water. Whisk vigorously until the
      sauce is thick and pale yellow, about 10 minutes.

   4) Serve immediately.




                                                                                         126
Strawberry Jam
14 ounce Sugar
1 pound 2 ounces Strawberries, de-stemmed, diced

   1) Place the sugar and a bit of water in a saucepan. Bring to hardball stage, 250º.

   2) Add the fruit, take off heat, steep for 8 minutes.

   3) Strain the juice. Reserve juice and the strawberries.

   4) Heat the juice until boiling. Dip a cool metal spoon into the boiling jelly mixture.
      Raise the spoon about 12 inches above the pan (out of steam). Turn the spoon so
      the liquid runs off the side. The jelly is done when the syrup forms two drops that
      flow together and hang off the edge of the spoon.

   5) Replace the fruit and cook for another 5 minutes. Pour a small amount of boiling
      product mixture on a plate and put it into the freezing compartment of a refrigerator
      for a few minutes. If the mixture gels, it should be done. During the test, however,
      the rest of the mixture should be removed from the heat.

   6) Pour the jam into jars that have been sterilized in the steamer. Pour a little at a time
      or the fruit will rise to the top.



Butterscotch Sauce
1 cup light brown sugar, firmly packed
2/3 cup light corn syrup
¼ cup unsalted butter
2/3 cup evaporated milk
1/8 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon vanilla


1) In a medium non reactive heavy bottomed saucepan combine sugar, syrup, and butter.
Cook, stirring constantly, over medium heat until sugar has dissolved and mixture comes
to a full rolling boil. Allow to boil, without stirring, for exactly 1 minute.

2) Remove from heat and let stand for 5 minutes.

3) In another bowl or large measuring cup, combine evaporated milk, baking soda, and
vanilla. Stir into the slightly cooled sauce. Serve or chill.




                                                                                           127
Caramel Sauce
4 pounds 8 ounces Sugar
1 pint Water
2 fluid ounces Lemon juice
1 quart Heavy cream, room temperature
5 ounces Unsalted butter, chunks

   1) Combine the water and sugar in a large heavy saucepot. Stir to moisten the sugar
      completely. Place the saucepot on the stove over high heat and bring to a boil.

   2) While cooking , use a pastry brush dipped in water to wash down the sides of the
      pan. This will prevent the sugar from crystallizing.

   3) When the mixture comes to a boil, add the lemon juice. Do NOT stir as this will
      cause lumping. Continue to boil until the sugar reaches 338º F turning a deep
      amber color.


   4) Remove from the heat, and add the cream. Be careful, as the hot caramel may
      splatter. Whisk in the cream to blend.

   5) Add the butter chunks, stirring to melt. Return to low heat if needed to melt butter.


   6) Strain and cool completely at room temp. The sauce can be held for a few weeks
      refrigerated.




                                                                                          128
Chocolate Sauce (Hershey’s Replacement)
2 cups Water
10 ounces Sugar
½ cup Light corn syrup
4 ounces Unsweetened cocoa powder
1 pound Sweet dark chocolate, melted

   1) In a medium sized heavy bottom non reactive saucepan over medium heat bring the
      sugar, water, and corn syrup to a boil. Remove from the heat.

   2) In a dry medium sized mixing bowl, add the cocoa powder

   3) Slowly add a small amount of the corn syrup mixture to the cocoa powder and mix
      with a wooden spoon or spatula to form a smooth yet stiff paste.

   4) Gradually add the remaining syrup, stirring constantly.

   5) Add the melted chocolate, stir until combined. If necessary strain the sauce before
      service.



Classic Ganache
8 Egg yolks
8 ounces Sugar
2 teaspoons Vanilla extract
3 pounds 8 ounces Sweet dark chocolate, chopped
1 quart Heavy cream

   1) In a kitchen aid mixer using a whisk attachment, whip the egg yolks, sugar, and
      vanilla until light and fluffy.

   2) In a medium sized heavy bottomed non reactive sauce pan, heat the cream and
      chopped chocolate to 150, stirring constantly.

   3) Temper the hot milk mixture into the egg mixture while stirring just enough to
      incorporate and make sure the sugar is melted.

   4) Let the Ganache cool and store in an air tight container for up to 1 week at room
      temp or longer in the fridge.




                                                                                          129
Clear Caramel Sauce 2
1 ½ lb Sugar
8 oz corn syrup
1 teaspoon Lemon juice
1 ½ cups Hot water

   1) Cook the sugar, corn syrup, and lemon juice in a small heavy bottom saucepan over
   medium heat. Stir constantly with a wooden spoon, until all of the sugar is melted.
   Continue to cook and stir the sugar until it reaches a light to medium golden color.

   2) While cooking, use a pastry brush dipped in water to wash down the sides of the
      pan. This will prevent the sugar from crystallizing.

   3) Immediately remove from the heat and slowly add the hot water. Be careful
      because the syrup may splatter.

   4) Return to the heat, stir constantly to melt any lumps.

   5) Let the sauce cool completely. Add more water if needed to thin the sauce to the
      desired consistency.

Clear Caramel Sauce

2 pounds Sugar
1 teaspoon Lemon juice
1 ½ cups Hot water

   1) Cook the sugar and lemon juice in a small heavy bottom saucepan over medium
   heat. Stir constantly with a wooden spoon, until all of the sugar is melted. Continue to
   cook and stir the sugar until it reaches a light to medium golden color.

   2) While cooking, use a pastry brush dipped in water to wash down the sides of the
   pan. This will prevent the sugar form crystallizing.

   4) Immediately remove from the heat and slowly add the hot water. Be careful
   because the syrup may splatter.

   4) Return to the heat, stir constantly to melt any lumps.

   6) Let the sauce cool completely. Add more water if needed to thin the sauce to the
   desired consistency.




                                                                                         130
CHRM 1120 SOUP AND SAUCE BASICS
SESSION TEN: INTEGRAL SAUCES


            * Attendance
            * Laboratory subjects – sauces and relishes
            *Class work – Integral Sauces
            *Discussion Points and Reminders

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    The student should be able to:
    1. Define the term, “integral sauce”.
    2. Identify a selection of ingredients used in the production of integral sauces
    3. Describe the types of integral sauces
    4. Produce a variety of integral sauces and the protein items that accompany them,
       and the appropriate side items
    5. Store a variety of sauces to industry standards for sanitation and safety.
    6. Evaluate a variety of integral sauces




                                                                                  131
Note Taking Guide                       Session Ten – Integral Sauces

Integral Sauce Definition:




Types of Integral Sauces
Named By                     Examples
Primary Flavor Source



Cooking Method/
Thickening Agent


Classic Nomenclature




Components in Integral Sauces
Component                 Example           Function




                                                                    132
Note Taking Guide                                 Session Ten – Integral Sauces

Sauté and Sauce Production:
The Flavor Development Sequence

Sear                    Deglaze                  Reduce                 Finish

Functions and Components:




Poaching and Sauce Production:

Flavorful Liquid        Poach                          Reduce
      Finish

Functions and Components:




Seafood Sauce Production:
Cooking Method determines style of flavor release and timing

Functions and Components:




General Tips:




                                                                              133
Recipes and Experiments                                Session Ten – Integral Sauces

Mystery Baskets
     1. Each student will be given one protein item.
     2. 2 hours to complete 2 restaurant quality plates with protein, veg, starch and
         integral sauce.
     3. 1 plate should be divided into appropriate number of tasting portions

Evaluation
Please consider the following criteria when evaluating the final dishes:
                Your Sauce –      Your Sauce      Partners           Partners
                your critique     Instructor      Sauce – Your       Sauce –
                                  Critique        Critique           Instructors
                                                                     Critique
Technique
Used

Coherence


Appearance


Temperature


Texture


Sauce
Consistency




                                                                                        134
                          GLOSSARY TERMINOLOGY

Bouquet Garni:                Aromatics tied together in little fagot consisting of
                              parsley stems, thyme, bay leaves, sometimes with
                              tarragon, basil, etc. Always removed from the dish
                              before serving.

Bouquet De Marmite:           A large fagot made with leeks, celery and carrots, tied
                              together and used in the marmite while making stocks.

Bouillabaisse:                A number of different fish cooked in water or white wine,
                              with garlic, tomatoes, parsley, onions, olive oil, saffron,
                              pepper and bay leaves. There are great variations of
                              this dish.

Brunoise:                     A mixture of vegetables (simple-carrots, onions, leeks,
                              celery) cut into very small diced and cooked in butter or
                              other fat. It is used in forcemeats, sauces and as
                              garniture to consommé.

Clarify:                      To clear stock with slightly beaten egg white and minced
                              raw beef, poultry, veal or fish.

Clouter:                      To stud something with truffles, ham, tongue. To spike
                              an onion, carrot or other vegetables with cloves or
                              sometimes other spices.

Concasser:                    As in tomatoes concassees. Tomatoes which have
                              been skinned, cored and pressed to remove the excess
                              water and seeds and then chopped roughly.

Court Bouillon:               An aromatic liquid, water, stock, wine, oil, vegetables,
                              herbs and seasonings in a wide range of combinations,
                              in which meat, fish and various vegetables are cooked.

Court Bouillon (White):       A court bouillon generally with vinegar and/or flour
                              added used to cook certain variety of meats and
                              vegetables that are liable to turn dark.

Colorer:                      The addition of something to color. To pass over or
                              through heat to color.

Cordon:                       Thin line of sauce surrounding a finished preparation.

Cuire Au Gras:                To cook with fat element.



                                                                                       135
Cuire Au Maigre:          To cook without fat elements.
Cuisson:                  The cooking process. Liquor in which ingredients have
                          been cooked.

Deglacer:                 To deglaze-to moisten with wine, cooking liquor or any
                          liquid.

Demi-glace:               Brown sauce, semi-clear and glossy, prepared by
                          reducing sauce Espagnole and fond brun, and flavored
                          with either Madeira or sherry.

Depouiller-Depouillage:   To skin- to free fish from skin and bones. The process
                          of removing the skin formed by scum and excess fat,
                          through skimming liquid or sauce while simmering.

Detendre:                 To clarify, to thin by adding liquid.

Dorer:                    To glaze, to color golden, to brush beaten egg or fat on
                          an article preparatory to placing in the oven.

Duxelles:                 Preparation containing chopped mushrooms and
                          shallots cooked together in butter. Used for garnish or
                          filling.

Emincer:                  To slice thinly.

Essence:                  The word “essence” when applied to meats, vegetables,
                          etc., means a concentrate of that particular product.
                          Mostly from well-flavored vegetables.

Essence De Trufles:       A highly concentrated liquid prepared from truffle
                          peelings, steeped in Madeira or any other heavy wine.

Etuver:                   To stew, cook slowly. To cook with a given quantity of
                          fat keeping covered and without moistening.

Farce-Forcement:          Stuffing made of minced or chopped ingredients with
                          spices, usually with a binder of panade.

Fecule:                   This is pure starch and is principally used for thickening.
                          Cornstarch or arrowroot may be used.

Fines Herbs:              Most often a mixture of chopped parsley, chervil,
                          tarragon and chives.

Fondre:                   To dissolve, to melt, to cook certain vegetables, keeping
                          covered, with little or no liquid.




                                                                                  136
Fumet:                    Light essence to strengthen the taste of sauces and
                          stocks, concentrated stock of fish.
Glace:                    Meat stock reduced to a syrupy consistency.

Glacer, Glacage, Glaze:   To color the surface of a dish or of a sauce under
                          intense heat. To brush preparations with heavily
                          reduced stocks to give a brilliant, shiny appearance, a
                          glossy covering.

Gratiner:                 To gratinate, to brown under the grill or quickly in the
                          oven. Dishes cooked in this way are often sprinkled with
                          breadcrumbs, butter and possibly grated cheese.

Julienne:                 To cut vegetables, meat, fish into long matched fine
                          strips.

Jus Lie:                  Thickened pan juices.

Jardiniere:               A vegetable soup or sauce or a mode of garnishing with
                          garden vegetables.

Lenten:                   Cooking without meats.

Larder:                   To lard with strips of larding bacon, to introduce small or
                          large pieces of fat, bacon with a special needle to enrich
                          a piece of lean meat.

Liaison:                  Culinary process (marriage) of combining two or more
                          ingredients until none of them can be identified – done
                          with starches, egg yolks, beurre manie, cream, blood,
                          vegetable puree, etc.

Marinate:                 To steep pieces of fish or meat in a prepared liquid of
                          wine, water and aromatics to both tenderize and flavor.
                          Smaller pieces may be marinated in lemon juice, wine,
                          spirits, or oil, with the addition of aromatics.

Marcuer:                  To prepare an article before cooking.

Meunierre:                Fish seasoned, lightly floured and pan-fried in noisette
                          butter, with lemon juice and parsley added to the pan
                          just before serving.

Mignonnette:              Peeled and crushed finest quality of peppercorn.

Mirepoix:                 A basic mixture of diced carrots, onions, and celery
                          cooked in fat, (usually butter) and sometimes with diced
                          salt pork, bacon or ham.



                                                                                  137
Mise En Place:      A constant state of efficient readiness. A general name
                    given to those elementary preparations which are
                    constantly resorted to during the various stages of
                    culinary preparations.

Moisten:            (Mouiller)-to cover with liquid, stock, wine, etc. or to add
                    a specific amount of liquid as directed in the recipe.

Monter:             To aerate by whisking or beating egg whites, cream, etc.

Monter Au Beurre:   To finish a sauce by beating while adding nuts or butter,
                    (usually compounds).

Mousseline:         A sauce or dish lightened with either whipped cream or
                    beaten egg whites.

Napper:             Synonymous with the word masquer – to mask, to cover
                    – also used to indicate the moment in cooking when a
                    substance has reduced or thickened sufficiently to cover
                    a spoon or spatula without flowing.

Neice:              To battre en neige – to beat egg whites stiffly to a frosty
                    consistency.

Panada:             Are the preparations which bind the forcemeats are
                    which ensure their proper consistency when they are
                    cooked. Can be made with bread and milk, flour and
                    water, flour and egg yolks.

Papillotte:         Paper or foil case, in which food is cooked and served.

Paysanne:           To cut vegetables or product into triangles.

Poach:              To simmer in a liquid without allowing to boil.

Poeler:             A method of cooking which should be called simply
                    “butter roasting”; applies not only to meats, but also to
                    eggs, pot roasts, etc.

Printanier:         A garnish or filling of early spring vegetables cut into
                    various shapes-also apply to preparation comprising the
                    same.

Puree:              A puree is any food that is strained through a sieve, so
                    that it forms a complete mass. Puree applies to any
                    food, soups or sauces, fruit, vegetables and meat.


                                                                             138
Quenelle:                 A poached dumpling made with fish or meat forcemeat
                          and bound with eggs.

Ragout:                   A stew.

Raidir:                   To stiffen without cooking.

Reduce, Reduction:        (Reduire) to boil down, (simmering uncovered) a liquid or
                          a sauce to improve the taste concentration or to raise
                          the viscosity.

Refresh, Rafraichir:      To place under cold running water fish and vegetables
                          which have been previously blanched.

Remouillage, Rewetting:   Second boil of a stock after draining away the first
                          wetting. Will produce a weak stock, used instead of
                          water to improve next stock.

Revenir:                  To turn more or less brown as desired in fat.

Rissoler:                 To give a golden color; to obtain a crisp or crusty surface
                          by turning the food over in a pan, usually in hot shallow
                          butter or fat.

Roux:                     A mixture of butter or other fat and flour cooked together
                          for varying lengths of time, depending on its particular
                          use. It is used as a thickening element in sauces.

Sauter:                   (Sautéed) To shallow-fry lightly in hot fat, shaking the
                          pan frequently.

Sauteuse:                 A shallow sloping-sided saucepan of various sizes.

Soffritto:                Italian version of mirepoix using garlic, pancetta, herbs
                          such as parsley, sage or rosemary.

Soufflé:                  A class of light, hot or cold preparation of fish, meats,
                          vegetables, poultry, desserts.

Singer:                   To sprinkle or dust a preparation with flour used for
                          ragout, fricassee, estouffades, soups, etc.

Sweat:                    To stew gently in butter without coloring, with added
                          seasoning so that the ingredients cook in their essence
                          or juices.

Travailler:               To work or knead with the hands or an instrument.



                                                                                      139
Vanner:                          To stir sauces occasionally to prevent the formation of a
                                 skin.

Veloute:                         A basic sauce prepared with a light roux and veal,
                                 chicken, or fish stock. This sauce is used as the basis
                                 for many other sauces.

      White soup of similar foundations. Also, using vegetable stock.




                                                                                       140

				
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