The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility February 2001 Overview • Policy • Applications Markets • Augmentations • Sust

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The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility February 2001 Overview • Policy • Applications Markets • Augmentations • Sust Powered By Docstoc
					The Global Positioning System
    A Worldwide Information Utility




            February 2001
                  Overview

•   Policy
•   Applications & Markets
•   Augmentations
•   Sustainment & Modernization
•   International Cooperation
Policy
        GPS is a Dual-Use System

• Cold War spinoff
  – Developed in 1970s-1980s to support Allied forces
  – Prominent in Gulf War, Kosovo
  – After KAL-007, civilians gained free access to
    Standard Positioning Service
• Commercial use now dwarfs military use
• GPS policy is managed at a national level by
  the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB)
Interagency GPS Executive Board

       Defense             Transportation

 Commerce                      State


  Interior                       Agriculture



  Joint Chiefs              NASA
     of Staff
                 Justice
        United States GPS Policy

• Presidential Decision Directive signed in
  1996, endorsed by Congress in 1998
• GPS Standard Positioning Service to remain
  free of direct user fees
• U.S. to promote acceptance and use of GPS as
  a world standard
• Selective Availability -- ended May 2000
• IGEB to manage GPS as a national asset
   United States GPS Policy, cont’d.

• Encourage private sector investment in/use of
  GPS technologies and services
• Promote safety and efficiency in
  transportation and other fields
• Promote international cooperation in using
  GPS for peaceful purposes
• Advance scientific and technical capabilities
• Strengthen and maintain national security
Applications & Markets
Worldwide Sales of GPS Goods &
Services Will Reach $16B by 2003
Worldwide GPS Revenues
  By Market Segment
Car Navigation

       • On-board navigation
       • Fleet management
       • Roadside assistance
       • Stolen vehicle recovery
       • Enhanced services
       • Mass market dominated
         by Japan
       • Dataquest: Unit sales of
         chips for car navigation
         to reach 11.3M in 2001
       • $4.7B sales by 2003
         Consumer/Recreational

• Portable receivers for
  fishermen, hunters,
  hikers, cyclists, etc.
• Recreational facilities --
  golf courses, ski resorts
• Integration of GPS into
  cellular phones
   – E-911 requirement
• $3.8B market by 2003
Surveying/Mapping/GIS
          • Sub-centimeter accuracy
          • 100%-300% savings in
            time, cost, & labor
              – Control survey point:
                $10,000 in 1986; $250 in 1997
          • Rural electrification
          • Telecom tower placement
          • Pipelines
          • Oil, gas, and mineral
            exploration
          • Flood plain mapping
          • $3.12B market by 2003
      Tracking/Machine Control

• Package/cargo delivery
• Fleet and asset
  management
• Theft recovery
• Public safety and
  services
• Farming, mining, and
  construction equipment
• DGPS/RTK required for
  many applications
• $3B market by 2003
Public Services
     • City planning
     • Transportation infrastructure
       – Road Billing Network (ROBIN)
       – Snowplows
     • Emergency response
       –   Law enforcement
       –   Fire fighting
       –   Search and rescue
       –   Paramedics
       –   Disaster relief
                   Aviation

• GPS approved for
  en-route navigation
• More efficient flight
  routing leads to fuel
  savings
• Better tracking of
  aircraft enhances safety
• Closer spacing of planes
  increases airspace
  capacity
• $710M market by 2003
Maritime Navigation
     • GPS-based vessel tracking and
       traffic management
       maximizes effectiveness of
       waterways
     • Improved safety increases
       maritime commerce
     • Maritime DGPS service for
       enhanced accuracy and safety
       available in 34 countries
     • $210M market by 2003
    Original Equipment Manufacturers

•   Chipsets
•   Electronic boards
•   Antennas, components
•   Standalone receivers
•   $690M market by 2003
Military

   • GPS is a recognized
     NATO standard
   • GPS is required on all
     U.S. military systems
   • Precision munitions
     widely used during Gulf
     War, Kosovo
                        Timing
• GPS offers an inexpensive
  alternative to costly, high
  maintenance timing equipment
• Telecommunications network
  synchronization & management
  – Phones, pagers, wireless systems
  – LANs, WANs, Internet
• Financial transactions
• Electrical power grid management
  & fault location
• Digital signatures for e-commerce
• Some estimate the timing market
  at $40-100M
Scientific Research

         • Monitoring geological
           change
           – Glaciers, tectonic plates,
             earthquakes, volcanoes
         • Wildlife behavior
         • Atmospheric modeling
           – Water vapor content
         • Oceanic studies
           – Tidal patterns
           – Surface mapping
         • Time transfer
    Environmental Management

• Forestry
• Wetlands management
• Natural resource
  management
• Fisheries boundary
  enforcement
• Endangered species and
  habitat preservation
• Hazardous material
  cleanup
  – Oil spills, toxic waste
        Emerging GPS Applications

• Entrepreneurs and scientific researchers
  invent new applications almost every day
• Higher precision is necessary for many
  cutting-edge applications
  –   Differential GPS (DGPS)
  –   Relative DGPS
  –   Carrier phase positioning
  –   Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)
  –   Post-processing
             Precision Agriculture

• Maximize use of resources
  – Optimized plowing of crop rows
  – Tailored applications of seeds,
    fertilizer, water, pesticides
  – Improved management of land,
    machinery, personnel, time
  – Greater crop yields
  – Net benefit: $5-14 per acre
• Minimize environmental impacts
  – Localized identification and treatment
    of distressed crops reduces chemical
    use
  – Precise leveling of fields prevents fluid
    runoff
Open Pit Mining

        • Enhanced management
          of assets, equipment
        • Progress tracked in
          real-time, remotely
        • Improved machine
          control saves time,
          lowers maintenance
          and fuel consumption,
          prevents accidents
        • Rapid surveying for
          drilling blast holes
        • Smaller, more
          empowered workforce
             Space Applications

• Improved orbit and attitude
  control for spacecraft,
  International Space Station
• Space Station return vehicle
• Advance Land Observing
  Satellite uses GPS to
  calibrate high resolution
  radar maps
• Satellite formation flying
• Space launch range safety
                        Construction

                                     • Machinery, asset, and
                                       personnel management
                                     • Rapid surveys for laying
                                       foundation piles, etc.
                                     • Accident prevention
                                     • Remote control of
                                       machinery possible
                                       – Japanese volcano dam
GPS/RTK technology was used in the
construction of the Øresund Bridge
  between Denmark and Sweden
       Europe is a Major Player
          in the GPS Market
• Rapid growth projected, especially in car
  navigation sector
• Many European firms already provide GPS
  goods and services
  – Scandanavian GNSS Industry Council
• European governments are
  investing in GPS augmentation
  and reference systems
  – Maritime DGPS
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  – EGNOS
  – EUREF Permanent Network
         The Market is Wide Open

• Civil signals are freely available, right now
• Openly published GPS specifications allow
  anyone to build receivers (no licensing fees)
• Hardware is becoming a commodity
• Huge potential exists in value-added services
  –   Software development
  –   Embedded applications
  –   Localized GIS databases
  –   Internet integration
  –   Wireless markets
               Unit Cost of Receivers Is
               Falling At ~30% Per Year

       $800


       $600


       $400


       $200


           0
            1991        1993        1995   1997   1999


Source: U.S. GPS Industry Council
  Projected Relative Market Share
         1998
 U.S.              Japan
 32%                47%


                                         2003
Europe
                              U.S.                     Japan
 18% Other      Asia          30%                       44%
                2%
       1%




                           Europe
                            23%      Other      Asia
                                      1%        2%
Augmentations
Sustainment & Modernization
            Constellation Status

• 28 operational satellites
  – 6 Block IIR satellites on orbit
  – 23 Block II/IIA operational satellites;
• Last launch: January 30, 2001
• Next tentative launch date: August 2001
• Continuously assessing constellation health
  to determine launch need
                          Constellation Age by Satellite
                                                                                                Operational Satellite
                 12.00                                                                          Non-Operational


                                                                                                Predicted
                 10.00                                                                     Mean Mission Duration

                                                                                        Block II:    8.90 years
                                                                                        Block IIA:   10.68 years
Years on Orbit




                 8.00                                                                   Block IIR:   10 years (est.)



                 6.00



                 4.00



                 2.00



                 0.00
                 SVN 14 13 16 19 17 18 20 21 15 23 24 25 28 26 27 32 29 22 31 37 39 35 34 36 33 40 30 38 43 46 51 44 41
                               II                                        IIA                                  IIR
      GPS Modernization Program

• Need for upgrades recognized as GPS entered Full
  Operational Capability
  – Anti-jam military needs
  – Better, more reliable civilian service
  – Recognized growing importance of GPS to both sectors
• 1996 Presidential policy and 1998/1999 Vice
  Presidential announcements committed U.S. to
  modernization and improvement path
  – New signals, better service ( no direct user fees)
  – Selective Availability (SA) discontinued
  – Over $1 billion added to future U.S. GPS investment
                                      The End of Selective Availability
                                                May 2, 2000
                                      Colorado Springs, Colorado                                                                           2 May 2000
                                160
                                140                       Horizontal Error (meters)
                                                                                               SPS CEP AFTER TRANSITION: 2.8 meters
                                120                       Vertical Error (meters)              SPS SEP AFTER TRANSITION: 4.6 meters
                                100
                                 80
Instantaneous Error (meters)




                                 60
                                 40
                                 20
                                  0
                                -20
                                -40
                                -60
                                -80
                                                                                                           ANALYSIS NOTES
                               -100
                               -120                                                       - Data taken from Overlook PAN Monitor Station,
                                                                                            equipped with Trimble SVeeSix Receiver
                               -140                                                       - Single Frequency Civil Receiver
                               -160                                                       - Four Satellite Position Solution at Surveyed Benchmark
                               -180                                                       - Data presented is raw, no smoothing or editing

                               -200
                                      0        1          2        3         4        5            6             7            8             9        10
                                                                            Time of Day (Hours UTC)
             Modernized Signal Evolution
                                                                 C/A

  Present Signal                     P(Y)              P(Y)
  (Block II/IIA/IIR)

                                       M                     M
                                              C/A                C/A
2nd   Civil; M-Code
                                    P(Y)              P(Y)
      Block IIR-M
(IOC: 2008; FOC: 2010)


                                      M       C/A            M    C/A
       3rd   Civil
                                    P(Y)               P(Y)
       Block IIF
(IOC: 2012; FOC 2014)

                         1176 MHz          1227 MHz          1575 MHz
                            (L5)              (L2)              (L1)
                    Block IIR-Modified
                                             L2 Enhancements
  L1 Enhancements
                                           • New ME code
 • New ME code                             • New civilian
                                             signal (selectable
                           L1   L2           between C/A &
                                             R/C)




                                     Modifications Status
– Modernizing towards
  the next generation                – Power system characterized
  of GPS                             – New high power amplifier
                                       brass-boarded
– Modifying Block IIR                – Initial backward compatibility
  satellites                           tests completed
                                     – New L-band panel designed
– Tailored constellation
                                     – Software flexible M-code
  sustainment program                  spectrum and signal power
                                       levels
                                                     Block IIR Schedule
FY00                       01                  02     03                                         04                    05      06              07     08     09    10       11    12   13
 USAF     USAF   USAF   USAF    USAF    USAF




                                                    Basic IIR Launches
                               Dev                  (JPO Projected Profile)
                                                                                                                                                    IOC           FOC
     ATP                                                                                                                                            Mearth        Mearth
    Aug 00
                 PDR            CDR

                                       SV 10-21 Modification
                                                      USAF




                                                             USAF
                                                                      1st IIR SV Retrofit/Delivery/Launch
                                                                    USAF




                                                                            USAF




                                                                                   USAF




                                                                                          USAF




                                                                                                  USAF




                                                                                                         USAF




                                                                                                                USAF




                                                                                                                        USAF




                                                                                                                               USAF
                                                                                                                                             1st IIF Lite Delivery/Launch
                                                                                                                                      USAF




OCS                                                                                                                                            12th SV Retrofit/Delivery/Launch
        Legacy Update
Development                            Transition                          Legacy Ops
                                  Block IIF
                                                     L2 Enhancements
       L1 Enhancements                             • ME code added
    • ME code added                                • New civilian signal
                                                     (selectable between
                                                     C/A & R/C)
                                   L1 L5   L2

                                                       New L5 Signal
• Modify six satellites already                   • New robust Civilian
  on contract to include                            Nav Signal
      – M-code on L1 and L2
      – L5 signal
• Procure additional Block IIF
  satellites necessary to                           Program Status
sustain                                         – Recognized need to push up
  constellation                                   schedule for operational need
      – Six plus options                          date - Sep 05
• Ensure compatible M-Code                      – Compressing development
  signal implementation                           Program schedule
• Define Control Segment                        – Revising long-lead and
  changes for implementation                      production program phasing
  under SPI effort
                              Block IIF Schedule
FY00    01        02        03        04       05       06                07       08         09    10         11   12     13    14
       ATP (Aug 00)
       IIF Development                                                            IOC              FOC              IOC         FOC
        OCS Version 5
                                       V5 SW                                      Mearth           Mearth            L5          L5
                                      Delivery
              Development             Transition
                                                                                                                    2012        2014
                                                       Ops
                                                      V6 SW
       DAE                       OCS Version 6       Delivery
       Review                         Development    Transition                 Ops
                             SV 1-6 Modification
                                              IAT
       4/01
                                                                                        Last IIR Mod Vehicle
                       SV Deliveries                3 4 5 6 2 1
                                                                 USAF




                                                                                            JPO Projected
       IIF
                                                          USAF




                            SV Launches
                                                                                            Launch Profiles

                                  SV 7 - 9                              IAT
                     LL                    Prod                                7 8 9
                                             SV 10 - 12                         IAT
                                 LL                  Prod                               10 11 12
          Operational Control Segment


      Ground              Monitor
      Antenna             Station



            Master Control
        Station (Schriever AFB)




                                    Incremental software versions and
                                      hardware upgrades to support
                                       modernization requirements
•   Control M-Code
•   Transition from mainframe system to distributed system architecture
•   Support improved system security architecture; Accuracy
    Improvement Initiatives (add NIMA monitoring stations; improve
    Kalman filter); initial Block IIF functionality
•   Full Block IIF functionality; support L5
                 GPS III Program
• Procure cost-effective GPS system to meet next
  generation military and civilian positioning,
  navigation, and timing needs

                       Space
                      Segment




       Control                            User
      Segment                          Equipment
              The GPS III Opportunity
• Assess system-wide architectural alternatives to:
   –   Achieve current and long term GPS performance goals
   –   Reduce long term total ownership costs
   –   Capitalize on emerging technologies
   –   Provide flexibility and robustness to meet evolving
       requirements
   – Discover military and economic value of pushing to higher
     performance capabilities
• Scope
   – Military and Civil
   – Possible augmentation opportunities


        Ensure best GPS system for the next 30 years
 GPS III Concept Exploration Phase

• 12-month study between government and industry
  –   Two contractors (Lockheed Martin, Boeing)
  –   Firm Fixed Price contracts
  –   $16M per contractor
  –   Awarded 8 Nov 00
  –   Spectrum Astro (participating on company funds)
• Near term goals
  – Build technical requirements set
  – Illustrate requirements through architectural solutions
  – Complete Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and cost benefit assessment
       GPS III Study Phase Products

•   Technical Requirements for Development Milestones
•   Architectures that support Technical Requirements
•   Life Cycle Cost estimates for each Architecture
•   Risk Analysis
•   Draft System Effectiveness and Performance Metrics
•   Initial Test and Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP)
•   Acquisition Strategy
•   Entry/Exit criteria for Development Milestones
•   Technology Roadmap
    GPS III Architecture Study Status
• Successful initial meetings (Nov 00) and Laboratory Days (Jan 01)
• Near real-time communication in place (web-based)
• Lockheed Martin
   – Three teams (System Engineering, Architecture, Life Cycle
     Cost)
   – Solid initial architectural assessments
• Boeing
   – Five teams (System Concept, User, Ground, Space, Secondary
     Payloads, Operations and Support)
   – Focusing on mission and requirements analysis
• Spectrum Astro
   – Signed Memorandum of Agreement (Dec 00)
   – Program plan, schedule, and team structure near complete
   – Providing innovative inputs to GPS III, working to improve
     position for follow-on phases
       GPS III Acquisition Strategy

      FY00                         01                     02                        03
                      Competitive                    Contract
                      Trade Studies                   Award
                      (Two contractors)
                                          CARD
                                          Inputs                     SRR

Original       RFP/                                RFP/             PD/RR
  ATP           SS        SARD                      SS          (Two contractors)
(Apr 00)
             ATP                            ASR
           (Aug 00)
                                                       PD/RR
                                                   Program Review
                                                      (MS I/II)
GPS III Acquisition Strategy, Cont’d

        04                  05                06                          07

                                                   Qual Vehicle Testing
  PDR           CDR                                     Complete



PD/RR              EMD              Box/System Qual Tests       Integ/Assy/Test
(con’t)       (Single contractor)


Down Select
  (MSII)                                       LLP
                                             (MS IIIa)
International Cooperation
       International Cooperation

• Promote acceptance and peaceful use of GPS
  and its augmentations
  – International offering of GPS to ICAO and IMO
    • Service free of direct user charges
    • Non-proprietary signal standards for civil services
  – GPS Augmentations -- Worldwide interoperability
    • Space-based systems (WAAS, MSAS, EGNOS) for aviation
    • Land-based DGPS technology for maritime and terrestrial
      uses: already adopted by 35 countries
    • Global, non-proprietary standards
        Principles for Cooperation
• No direct user fees for civil and public safety services
• Ensure open market driven competition for user
  equipment and applications
• Open signal structure for all civil services to promote
  equal access for applications development and value
  added services
• Protection of the current radionavigation spectrum
  from disruption and interference
• Use of GPS time, geodesy, and signal structure
  standards
• Seamless, global interoperability of future systems
  with GPS
• Recognition of national and international security
  issues and protecting against misuse
        U.S. - Japan Cooperation

• September 1998: Joint Statement signed
• GPS based augmentations
• Largest commercial market share for
  products and services
• September 1999: Working Groups met in
  Washington, D.C.
  – Policy
  – Transportation
  – Commercial & Scientific
• February 2001: Plenary Meeting, Tokyo
       U.S. - Russia Consultation

• May 19 in Washington, D.C.
• Excellent dialogue
  – Many common views
  – Principles of Cooperation
• Next meeting in Moscow
          U.S. - E.U. Consultations

• Use of GPS and its augmentations for commercial
  products and services incorporating open signal
  structure
• 1998: U.S. presented draft Framework Agreement
  based on GPS and its augmentations
  – Consider inclusion of: International Advisory Commission,
    Intent of Guarantee, Statement of Free Service
• 2000: Cooperation concept
  – Stage 1: Framework Cooperative Agreement based on
    Principles of Cooperation
  – Stage 2: Working groups
  – Stage 3: Follow-on agreement to cover Galileo operations
    phase
         U.S. - E.U. Draft Agreement
• Presented to the Commission on October 5
• Embodies GPS Policy & Principles of Cooperation
    – Government provided satellite signals free of user fees
    – Interoperability with GPS
    – Open signals for critical infrastructure and safety-of-life
      services
    – Open specifications and markets for civil equipment and
      services
    – Users choose which system or combination best meet their
      needs
•   Recognizes efforts of other fora: ICAO, IMO, ITU
•   Accounts for different levels of system maturity
•   Lays foundation for future cooperation
•   Next round of talks scheduled for March 20-21, 2001
       U.S. Questions About Galileo

• To be understood:
  –   Revenue stream generation
  –   Future regulatory actions
  –   Required use (mandate through standards)
  –   Interoperability of free open system with fee-based
      encrypted system
       • Safety of life applications
  – Prevention of misuse
  – Open specifications and standards for equal
    worldwide market access
  – Spectrum use
  – Security service
                     Summary
• GPS is a key component of the global information
  infrastructure
• U.S. is committed to providing GPS service free of
  direct user fees to users worldwide
• Adherence to U.S. principles has led to GPS
  standardization and market growth
• GPS modernization is under way
• U.S. is continuing international outreach to further
  understanding of GPS, its augmentations, and its
  applications
• U.S. is fostering international dialogue to be
  responsive to global user needs

				
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