Good Governance India - Municipalika

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					CONTENTS                                  6 Housing for All
                                                                                         Regular Features
                                          The National Housing & Habitat Policy
                                                                                         Messages for Municipalika             2
                                          2007 tackles the problem of urban housing.
                                                                                         From the Editor                       3
                                          Kumari Selja, Minister of State,
                                                                                         Best Practices                       42
                                          (Independent Charge), Housing and
                                                                                         The Common Man and the City          61
                                          Urban Poverty Alleviation, assures inclusive
                                                                                         Urban Links                          90
                                          growth in Indian cities with shelter for all
                                                                                         Last Word                            92
Cover Story

Planning for Urban Growth                                                           4    Finance
Speeding up urban reforms is a priority                                             5
                                                                                         Financing urban development          82
Ensuring quality of life                                                            9    Roadmap matters the most:
Heights of prosperity and depths of poverty                                        13    USAID                                85
“Mayors are the link between people and bureaucrats”                               14
JNNURM: India’s ambitious urban reforms mission                                    16
Inclusive growth with space for the service classes                                18    Services
Classification of cities                                                           19
                                                                                         Sustaining supply                    87
Municipalika 2008: A Report                                                        43    Promoting sanitation                 88

Regional Planning
                                                                                         Urban Tadka
NCR Planning Board: Managing a dynamic region                                      21    Police reforms are a long way off:
Defusing Mumbai’s urban crisis                                                     25    Kiran Bedi                           91
MMRDA: Towards creating a hassle-free Mumbai                                       28

My Vision

PM charts plan for urban renewal in India                                          31
Planned route for government agencies: APJ Abdul Kalam                             32
Living in style: The Tatas                                                         33
Technology is the key: Chandrababu Naidu                                           36
Opportunities in healthcare: Apollo                                                38
Speciality retailing: Reliance Retail                                              40

Green Pages

Managing waste is a state of mind-Ramky                                            62
Promise of zero energy commnunities: US Energy Department                          64
Eco-budget concept                                                                 65
Indo-US city partnership in energy and environment                                 66
Codes                                                                              68
Policies                                                                           69
Spatial Index                                                                      72
Carbon credits for urban local bodies                                              75
Environment education for tomorrow’s India                                         76

JNNURM: An opportunity to design safe cities                                       79

 April - June 2008                                                                                                             1
Industry messages

     Good Initiative                                                       A message from Sister Cities International

     The Good Governance India and the Municipalika initiative,            I congratulate the Good Governance India magazine on the
     promoted by the Good Governance India Foundation, has                 relaunch.
     brought together all city management stakeholders for the first
     time in India. I appreciate the initiative and wish all the best to   As the urban India is poised for a major transformation in terms
     the people who have made this effort.                                 of economy, housing, industry, infrastructure, and governance,
                                                          Rohtas Goel      the magazine has a promising role to play.
                          National Real Estate Development Council         With your energetic and accomplished team, I believe, the
                                                          (NAREDCO)        magazine will provide comprehensive, balanced, and inclusive
                                                                           voice to urban agenda leading towards a development that is
     Sharing Best Practices                                                just and environmentally sustainable.
                                                                                           – Vatsal Bhatt, Brookhaven National Laboratory
     Good Governance India is a good platform for sharing various
     developments in the urban sector.

     It should project successful best practices for giving hope and        Winning the Nobel Peace Prize for environment
     guidance to urban practitioners.
                                                   Prof. EFN Ribeiro
                              Consulting Urban & Regional Planner

     Now or Never
                                                                            Good Governance India Foundation felicitates the Inter-
     The 74th Amendment came into force on 1st June, 1993. It is
                                                                            governmental Panel on Climate Changes headed by Dr
     well-known that beyond the “conformity legislation”, this
                                                                            Rajendra Kumar Pachauri, on winning the 2007 Nobel Peace
     Amendment fell short of exploiting its full potential.
                                                                            Prize. This Prize is shared with Al Gore, the former Vice-
                                                                            President of the United States.
     JNNURM reform agenda as ushered in December 2005, with
     its financial levers, has now provided a once in a lifetime
                                                                            Dr R K Pachauri, an Indian environmentalist has been working
     opportunity to move forward the urban reform agenda, both
                                                                            on Global Warming and its impact. The Panel has been
     under the 74th Amendment and JNNURM, all the way. This is a
                                                                            awarded for its efforts to build up and disseminate greater
     ‘now or never’ opportunity which must not be missed.
                                                                            knowledge about man-made climate change and to lay the
                                                R.M. Kapoor, Chief
                                                                            foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract
                                       Local Governance Synergy
                                                                            such changes.
     Creating Inclusive Cities
                                                                            Dr Pachauri, who has been the IPCC’s chairman since April
                                                                            2002, has a double PhD from North Carolina State University,
     Glad to learn about the ensuing Municipalika-2008 Conference
                                                                            Raleigh, USA, in industrial engineering and economics. He
     and the thrust on good urban governance initiatives needed for
                                                                            headed The Energy Research Institute (formerly the Tata
     inclusive and sustainable development. Creating inclusive cities
                                                                            Energy Research Institute) in New Delhi since 1981, first as
     to take care of the needs of the marginalized and disadvantaged
                                                                            Director, and since April 2001 as Director-General.
     urban poor for gainful employment, shelter and basic services is
     an imperative need for creating sustainable cities - taking care
     of the other half of the cities. It is heartening that Good
     Governance India would give focussed exposure to these needs
     in the magazine.
                                                 A. Jockin, President,
                                   National Slum Dwellers Federation
                                                                            Good Governance India Foundation thanks all the Exhibitors, Speakers,
                                                     SPARC, Mumbai          Delegates, and visitors of Municipalika 2008 - 5th International
                                            Magsaysay Award winner          Exhibition and Conference, and all visiting Mayors and City Managers

 2                                                                                                                            April - June 2008
Sanjiv Agarwal,
Trustee,                                                                                                   From the
Good Governance India Foundation
Editorial Board
Prof Amitabh Kundu
Prof EFN Ribeiro
                                                                                India lives in the villages, said Mahatma Gandhi when he began his
Prof KT. Ravindran                                                              campaign of creating a movement that would ignite the masses in India.
R M Kapoor                                                                      At the time of Independence majority of India stayed in its six lakh
Paritosh C Tyagi                                                                villages and urbanisation was only 14 per cent. The agrarian economy
Dr Prithvish Nag
                                                                                was the major driver. After 60 years of Independence, urban India
                                                                                cumulatively contributes about 75 per cent of the country’s GDP.
V Suresh                                                                        It took 5000 years of civilisation for India’s population to be 32 crore
                                                                                at the time of Independence. But the two decades between 2001-2021
Municipalika Team                                                               is seeing India’s population increase by 35 crore! Majority of this
G. Ibrahim, Ramesh Vartak, Rajarshi De, Minu Ramchandran,                       growth is now concentrated in 5,161 cities and towns.
R. Ramadass, Falguni, Philomena, Rosy, Soumya, Neha
                                                                                Today 30 per cent of India stays in its urban centres, expected to swell
Content and design by                                                           to 40 per cent by 2021 - still lower than the global urbanisation level of                                                                 50 per cent achieved in 2007.

Photos                                                                          Indian cities have recorded an exponential growth in the last three
Times Archives, Anil Thapa, Anita Khemka,                                       decades in the built environment. Most of the cities and towns are
Randhir A Malhan                                                                already bursting at the seams with deficient urban infrastructure and
                                                                                challenges for water, waste-management, sewerage, sanitation,
Good Governance India Foundation is the only forum in the country for           transport, power utilities and social infrastructure.
communication and exchange amongst the service providers to the
government and public, the procurement decision makers and other
stakeholders in the effective administration of the country related to public   Today urban infrastructure development is receiving priority attention
works, municipal services and urban development.
                                                                                of Central, State and Local governments with dedicated funds of Rs
Good Governance India magazine is published by Sanjiv Agarwal,                  1,00,000 crore under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal
Trustee, Good Governance India Foundation, with its Registered office at
25C/1, Belvedere Road, Kolkata 700 033.
                                                                                Mission (JNNURM) dove-tailed with leveraged funds. All this can
                                                                                actually result in improving the quality of life of cities and its citizens
Opinions and views expressed in the articles published in the magazine          only if there is a quantum jump in infrastructure development.
are that of the respective authors and not necessarily that of the
                                                                                The economic liberalisation of 1991 resulted in a dramatic jump in the
All possible efforts have been taken to present factually correct
information. However, the publishers are not responsible, if despite this,      GDP growth rate in the country from a mere 4 per cent to over 8 to 9
errors may have crept inadvertently or through an oversight.                    per cent. The Rs 1,00,000 crore JNNURM funds can show similar
                                                                                results only if it is backed with adequate reforms at the policy and
Offices                                                                         institutional levels, intense capacity building and ability for technology
Mumbai: D-1, Plot No.76, RSC 6, MHADA, S.V.P. Nagar, Andheri(W),
Mumbai 400 053, Tel: 91-22-2637 2883 / 2895 Fax: 91-22-2637 2760
                                                                                Can India leverage the JNNURM advantage?
New Delhi: 216A/1, Gautam Nagar, New Delhi 110 049,
Tel: 91-11-2686 6874 / 75, Fax: 91-11-2686 8073

Kolkata: 25 C/1 Belvedere Road, Alipur, Kolkata 700 027
Tel: 91-33-2479 0010 - 14 Fax: 91-33-2479 0019
                                                                                                                                                 V Suresh

April - June 2008                                                                                                                                         3
cover story

               for urban

              “Global urbanisation is of
              the order of 50 per cent,
              while in India it is only 30
              per cent. There is scope
              for more urbanisation, and
              planning for urban growth
              is the need of the hour.”
                                                                                                           cover story

                                                                                Cities across India are looking for solutions
                                                                                to the pressing problems of urban
                                                                                governance. The legislations created for
                                                                                Delhi are robust and can function as a
                                                                                model for the rest of the country. The
                                                                                JNNURM is a trigger for concentrated
                                                                                urban reforms in India. Minister for Urban
                                                                                Development, S. Jaipal Reddy, speaks
                                                                                about the reforms process and what the
                                                                                government is doing to speed it up.

Speeding up urban reforms is a priority
       outh Korea is the best model for India to follow because        that allows people to use it conveniently. Today cities are opting
       they achieved all this growth in just the last 40 years. If     for the metro rail and suburban trains, and 10 cities have opted
       India has to grow to become a functioning modern country,       for the Bus Rapid Transit Service (BRTS)
there is no option but to go for vertical growth. The Floor Area
Ratio and Floor Space Index norm needs to be greatly facilitated.      Regional planning today is a crying need. Statistics show that the
                                                                       population migration to the National Capital Territory of Delhi
As real estate is a state subject, the Centre can’t dictate to the     has declined from 49 to 37 per cent after the suburbs came up.
States how these norms have to be implemented. But we create           Now the challenge is to integrate Delhi with its suburbs with good
codes for Delhi which can function as a model for the rest of the      public transport.
                                                                       Cities are struggling with the problem of slums. We need in situ
The Masterplan of Delhi 2021 has provisioned for infrastructural       development. We are evolving a transparent system of auctions
services. City Development Plans for the 63 Jawaharlal Nehru           of slum land for planned development. We are now seeking
National Urban Reforms Mission (JNNURM) cities have been               solutions to the problem of how to provide for maintenance of
formulated and we already see the requirement of Rs 3,50,000           elevators in multistoried homes for the poor.
crore to tackle this task. I am not even talking about the remaining
5,000 small towns.                                                     The demand in cities is for smaller and affordable apartments.
                                                                       Andhra Pradesh has managed affordable housing through proper
Policy changes are required in urban planning. I strongly believe      planning and dove-tailing of public funds and PPP ventures to
that the lower tax rates increase compliance. The objective is to      make the ventures more affordable.
reduce stamp duty rates from the present 6 per cent, further to
below 5 per cent.                                                      I liked the idea of Special Residential Zones for affordable homes
                                                                       and will look into how this can be made a reality. We will offer
The Public Private Partnership (PPP) model seems to be working.        incentives for creation of small size apartments.
For instance, the Delhi Development Authority started by
planning for a convention hall with a capacity of 2,000. Now with      To clean up the city’s housing problems we have to tackle
private participation we are creating one with a capacity of 12,000.   problems like rent control laws. The Delhi draft is under
When the demand is in thousands, we cannot create just a few           preparation. The Bill will be tabled in 2008.
hundreds capacity.
                                                                       We need regulation of the real estate industry to improve its
Just 6 per cent of Delhites own over 4 million cars. But as a          functioning, and the process of creating a draft for Delhi is
government agency we are trying to improve the public system           currently on.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                       5
                                                                          Housing for all
                                                                          The National Housing & Habitat Policy 2007 tackles
                                                                          the problem of urban housing. Kumari Selja, Minister
                                                                          of State, (Independent Charge), Housing and Urban
                                                                          Poverty Alleviation, assures inclusive growth in Indian
                                                                          cities, with shelter for all.

        At the beginning of the 11th Five Year Plan, housing shortage     Reservation of land for housing the poor has to be undertaken with
    in urban areas was 24.71 million with a major component               appropriate provisions in urban development/zoning/master
    covering the shortfall for the weaker sections. To achieve the        planning laws/regulations. The Master Plans in the States have
    target of providing housing to the weaker sections at affordable      not provided reservation of land for the poor for housing, informal
    prices, the National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy (NUHHP)           activities etc., in the past. Under Jawaharlal Nehru National
    envisages reserving 20 to 25 per cent housing stock and 10 to 15      Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) one of the reforms
    per cent of land for the poor, by private players or the              contemplated is revamping master planning/zoning/town planning
    government. What are the problems in getting this policy              regulations for housing the poor. However, if developers have to
    implemented at the state and city levels? What measures need to       reserve land for housing on cross-subsidisation basis, they have to
    be taken to make sure that this policy intention is met by states?    be compensated with proper spatial and/or financial incentives,
                                                                          particularly zoning/building-related incentives such as increase in
         Although housing is primarily a State subject, the Central       Floor Space Index (FSI), land use charge for provision for
    Government has been formulating National Housing Policies             commercial space (local shopping complexes etc.). The Ministry
    since 1986 to provide guidance to the State Governments to meet       of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation has written to the State
    the growing housing shortage. The NUHHP 2007, seeks to                Governments to initiate necessary reforms in Master
    promote optimal utilisation of land by innovative spatial             Planning/Town Planning/Zoning Regulations to provide for
    incentives like relaxation of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) for ensuring     reservation of land for the poor for housing and informal sector
    that 10 to 15 per cent of land or 20 to 25 per cent of the FAR are    activities.
    reserved for EWS/LIG units or issuance of Transferable
    Development Rights for clearance of transport corridors and               By planning for inclusive development of cities, will the
    availability of FAR in outer zones. The policy also considers an      problem of access to civic services also be met? Please elaborate.
    upward review of the presently authorised FAR in line with
    international practice of making more efficient use of scarce urban         Urban areas in our country are characterised by severe
    land through construction of high rise buildings in consonance        shortage of basic services like potable water, well laid out drainage
    with densities specified in statutory Master Plans.                   system, sewerage network, sanitation facilities, electricity, roads

6                                                                                                                          April - June 2008
                                                                                                             cover story

and appropriate solid waste disposal and         under JNNURM, is in-situ slum                  this then serve the purpose of poverty
policy focus on housing with basic services      upgradation. Housing for the poor must be      alleviation through creation of employment
is therefore required. By inclusive              located near their place of work so that       opportunities as well as providing housing
development, the policy intends to               their livelihood concerns are taken care of.   for this section of the population?
promote sustainable development of               In a way, in-situ housing guarantees
habitat in the country ensuring equitable        employment, if the poor are located in a              NUHHP 2007 gives primacy to
supply of land, shelter and services at          part of the city where they can easily get     provision of shelter to the urban poor at
affordable prices to all sections of society.    jobs of informal/formal sector types.          their present location or near their work
                                                                                                place. Efforts will be made to ensure that
Inclusive development means "inclusive"          However, in-situ upgradation is not always     the rights provided are non-transferable for
planning, "inclusive" project preparation,       possible due to the fact that in some places   a period of 10 to 15 years. Only in cases
"inclusive" project implementation,              land involved is objectionable being on        where relocation is necessary on account
"inclusive" project monitoring and               water courses, eco-fragile areas,              of severe water pollution, safety problems
"inclusive" project evaluation. The idea         reservation for other purposes in the          on account of proximity to rail track or
is that the disadvantaged sections of            Master Plan etc. Our preference is that,       other critical concerns, relocation of slum
society - Scheduled Castes, Scheduled            wherever possible, in-situ upgradation         dwellers will be undertaken. In such cases,
Tribes, minorities, women and other              should be the first choice.                    special efforts will be made to ensure fast
deprived sections, who have been left out                                                       and reliable transportation to work sites.
of the mainstream of the development
process are fully involved from concept to                                                      The Policy seeks that efforts will be made
commissioning in case of development                Inclusive development                       to provide good quality training to
projects. Inclusive development applies to             means inclusive                          construction workers with a view to
housing, provision of basic amenities and                                                       improve their skills in tandem with
                                                       planning, project
also to decisio making and implementation                                                       technological advancements in the
processes.                                               preparation,                           construction sector. This could be dove-
                                                       implementation,                          tailed with poverty alleviation and
    Should there be a cross-subsidisation                                                       employment generation programmes of
                                                        monitoring, and
of prices of basic civic services when                                                          both Central and State Governments.
tackling uniform access to these services                 evaluation
by all sections of society?                                                                     Skill development is very critical for the
                                                                                                urban poor.    Government of India is
    There should be cross-subsidisation of          Do you think the slum housing issues        launching a National Skill Development
prices for basic services when tackling          can be resolved by the end of JNNURM           Mission in the 11th Plan. Ministry of
uniform access to services by all sections       2012 time frame?                               Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation has
of the society. The poor will be in no                                                          proposed a new scheme called Skills
position to pay for the full cost of services.       Slum housing issues are colossal and       Training for Employment Promotion
Therefore, user charges need to be levied        require huge funds. A significant              amongst the Urban Poor (STEP-UP) in the
on the rich so as to cross-subsidise the         improvement in the slum housing position       11th Plan. Under the Swarna Jayanti
poor. This is the practice all over the world.   is proposed to be achieved by the end of       Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), which is
                                                 the JNNURM time frame. In addition to          being revamped, skill upgradation of the
    Slum housing has been one of the             tackling the problem of slum housing           urban poor, especially women, is given
biggest challenges in the present urban          through JNNURM, several other measures         emphasis.
scenario. While earlier there was talk of        are also being emphasised by the Ministry
relocating slum dwellers to cheaper              as mentioned in the new NUHHP 2007.                Is there a phased action plan for
fringes of city locations, currently the plan                                                   tackling the problem of urban housing
seems to be that of repositioning slum               With real estate and construction          shortage - we mean the needs of low
dwellers in their place of economic              emerging as one of the biggest employers       income and middle income as the real
activity? How does this work? Is it always       in the urban scenario, can the plan of         estate developers cover the needs of high
feasible?                                        relocation of slum dwellers also be            income groups and the urban poor is
                                                 combined with imparting skills to them to      covered through JNNURM and other
   The priority of the Ministry, especially      integrate them into the workforce? Will        programmes?

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          7
                  cover story

         Out of the total housing shortage of        housing to cover the shortfall of over Rs 3     proposition for developers.
    24.71 million dwelling units, shortage of        lakh crore for capital investment in
    Low Income Groups (LIG) is 2.89 million          housing.                                        The per unit margin of profit in case of
    units i.e. 11.70 per cent of the total housing                                                   housing for lower and lower-middle
    shortage. An interest subsidy scheme for              While the private sector real estate       income categories of consumers will be
    facilitating affordable institution housing      groups have been doing very well to take        small. However, when per unit profit
    finance to LIG category beneficiaries is on      care of the demand from the upper middle        margin is multiplied by the base of number
    the anvil.                                       income and high income group, do you            of prospective buyers for housing, the
                                                     envisage a role for them to contribute to       amount will be huge.
    The HIG and MIG households have a                the needs of the lower middle, low income
    shortage of 0.04 million dwelling units and      groups as well as the weaker section?           Prof. Prahalad's theory of the "bottom of
    it comprises 0.16 per cent of the total                                                          the pyramid" suggests that low income
    housing shortage. It is expected that the            Given the magnitude of the housing          housing could be a "market"/ remunerative
    new policy initiatives would usher in            shortage and budgetary constraints of both      proposition for developers.
    affordable housing for all categories and        the Central and state governments, the
    meet requirements of these categories also.      Policy focuses the spotlight on multiple            Will the private sector's contribution be
                                                     stakeholders including the private sector       in terms of funds or technology or both?
    The NUHHP released recently, is to be                                                            Is there any incentive scheme on the anvil?
    implemented as a joint programme of
    Central Government, state governments,             Given the magnitude of                            Energy saving construction techniques
    local bodies, para-statals and private sector      the problem, the Policy                       and prefabricated factory-made building
    including developers. Action plan for                                                            components, both from the public and
    tackling housing will be prepared in              focuses the spotlight on                       private sector, will be encouraged for mass
    consultation with the state governments             multiple stakeholders                        housing, to achieve speedy, cost effective
    and other stakeholders in due course.               including the private                        and better quality construction.

        How much investment is required to              sector for labour and                        Various types of PPPs involving both
    tackle this problem? Has the government              employee housing                            technology and finance will be developed.
    made any plans for substantial investment
    directly and indirectly towards removal of                                                       Till now the contribution of the private
    the housing shortage?                            for labour housing and employee housing.        sector for low income housing has not
                                                     Further, in order to ensure that 10 to 15 per   been significant. The Ministry will be
        During the 11th Plan period, for the         cent of land or 20 to 25 per cent of            pursuing with the private sector to focus on
    75.01 million urban households, the total        FAR/FSI whichever is greater, is                inclusive housing where parts of the
    housing requirement including the backlog        earmarked in every new public/private           housing colonies could be reserved for the
    of 24.71 million units and additional            housing project for EWS/LIG housing.            LIGs.
    requirement of 1.82 million dwelling units       Appropriate spatial incentives will be
    during 11th Plan period, is estimated as         developed by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)              With the indication of interest rates
    26.53 million dwelling units.                    and Development Authorities. In this            reductions on all fronts, is the Ministry
                                                     manner the private sector will be               taking up with the Ministry of Finance and
    A staggering investment of Rs. 3,61,             associated directly and through cross-          the RBI to bring down the housing finance
    318.10 crore is required during the 11th         subsidisation in EWS/LIG housing.               interest rates to make EMIs more
    Plan period to overcome this shortage. An                                                        affordable? More so for the urban poor,
    amount of Rs. 40,000 to 50,000 crore is          The Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty         low income and middle income?
    expected to be mobilised through Centre          Alleviation believes that the "bottom of the
    and state urban housing schemes. Efforts         pyramid" principle can work in practice in           The Ministry of Housing & Urban
    will also be made to channelise the funds        the housing sector. Although, developers        Poverty Alleviation is taking up with the
    through various types of Public Private          will be in a position to garner sizeable        Ministry of Finance regarding subsidy on
    Partnerships (PPP) including focus on            profit per unit of housing from the upper       interest rate on housing programmes for
    multiple stake holders including private         income groups, housing for lower income         the EWS and low income categories.
    sector for labour housing and employee           groups could also be a very attractive

8                                                                                                                             April - June 2008
                                                                                                                cover story

                                                                                of Life
JNNURM rewards governments with funds for executing projects on urban renewal. But the process has to
involve citizens actively, says M. Ramachandran, Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development, in a
free-wheeling interview with V Suresh and E Jayashree Kurup

        t has been estimated that urban India      the contribution of urban sector to India's    there are more job opportunities.
        would contribute about 75 per cent of      GDP has increased from 29 per cent in          Therefore, there would be increased
        gross domestic product (GDP) by            1950-51 to 47 per cent in 1980-81, about       demand for services and therefore a
    2021. This higher productivity depends         62 to 63 per cent of the GDP currently and     pressure on infrastructure.
    largely upon the availability and quality of   expected to increase to 75 per cent by
    infrastructure services such as power,         2021. What do you attribute this growing       With the right emphasis and thorough
    telecom, roads, water supply, and mass         contribution of urban areas to the             planned development, the effort should be
    transportation, coupled with civic             country's GDP to? Is this a healthy trend?     to emphasise that a person living in the city
    infrastructure, such as sanitation and solid                                                  should be comfortable there, with access
    waste management.                                  This is a trend the world over. Cities     to basic services.
                                                   have contributed dramatically to national
    M. Ramachandran, Secretary, Ministry of        economies largely because the drivers of            How do you ensure a basic quality of
    Urban Development, spoke to the Editor of      economic growth are here. In our country       life to urban citizens?
    Good Governance India, V Suresh and            there have been ideological issues on
    Executive Editor, E Jayashree Kurup on         whether to allow the urban growth to                We should learn lessons from abroad.
    the challenges in upgrading the quality of     replace the rural focus of the government.     No city in the world is allowed to burst at
    service delivery in a rapidly urbanising                                                      the seams. When the city reaches the limit
    India.                                         But today the effort is to see that if urban   of its service potential, it is frozen at that
                                                   areas contribute to the GDP, what should       level. A new city or suburb is planned to
        Despite one of the lowest degrees of       we do to sustain it. It is logical that in a   accommodate the growth in population.
    urbanisation in the world, with 27.8 per       country with problems such as
    cent living in urban areas in the country,     unemployment, people would go where            Our concept of urban planning is a little

    April - June 2008                                                                                                                          9
                   cover story

     different. In a city like Delhi, 30 per cent of   For instance, 24x7 water supply will           inclusive. You have an ambitious target of
     the population lives in slums and another         require better operations & maintenance        making available to the entire population
     30 per cent in unauthorised colonies.             where the private sector will find more        in urban areas water supply and sewerage
     Effectively, only 40 per cent of the              opportunities.                                 systems by the end of the 11th Five-Year
     population lives in planned areas.                                                               plan. What is the roadmap? What are the
                                                       Even when solid waste management               basic services that every urban citizen
     Workers coming to a city in search of jobs        systems are put in place, the private sector   should have a right to?
     look for a place to stay in and when the          interest should be generated and act as a
     system does not provide for their needs,          trigger for further growth.                         Today 23 basic services have been
     they look for open spaces to live in.                                                            identified for municipal governments to
                                                       A small investment in the Metro Rail, for      access JNNURM funds. Identifying key
     The Master Plan has become a policy               instance, is expected to lead to many more     areas for improving services is a dynamic
     document only now. We should have done            activities. Similarly, an investment in        process and currently a group of 4 to 5
     this long ago so that people who came in          urban transport, housing for the               secretaries are part of a committee on the
     then should also have been a part of the          Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and         second generation of JNNURM reforms.
     city's planning.                                  water supply will result in substantially
                                                       better managed cities.                         SR Rao, Principal Secretary, Urban
     It is important to understand that for every                                                     Development, Gujarat, is the convenor of
     one job generated in the formal sector,                                                          the group. We are encouraging cities to
     seven more are generated in the informal                                                         become a leader and set a trend. They
     sector. There should be effective
                                                           No city in the world is                    come to us to first access funds for
     enforcement of development planning                   allowed to burst at the                    development but the dynamic ones will
     controls, taking into account the                     seams. When the city                       also become role models for others to
     requirement of various kinds of people.                                                          emulate. Urban reforms can't be viewed in
                                                           reaches the limit of its                   isolation.
     There is currently no system of accounting             service potential, it is
     to take stock of the various investments               frozen at that level. A                   Now with the Peer Experience And
     being made in the city. For instance,                                                            Reflected Learning (PEARL) network, a
     organised retail is expanding. But the
                                                            new city or suburb is                     platform is available for sharing
     middle class are big shoppers and want                       planned                             information and views. The country has
     grocery, etc. available in their                                                                 been divided into zones or groups. A group
     neighbourhood. So those kind of stores are                                                       of local bodies can share their best
     present in neighbourhoods.                                                                       practices.
                                                       Earlier EWS housing used to be far away
     These are taking over due to compulsion,          from the place of economic activity. Today     We have found that regional aspirations are
     but these issues don't get addressed in a         we are getting the private sector players      definitely on the rise. Or similar areas –
     planned manner yet.                               such as the DLF to construct EWS housing       hilly, plains, coastal, semi-arid and arid.
                                                       along with premium housing, to                 The idea is if they share their experiences
         The common refrain across the country         accommodate service staff such as drivers,     with each other, best practices can be
     is for better infrastructure. The Deepak          maids, guards, etc.                            relevant to others in the group and be
     Parekh report projects a shortfall of $129                                                       implemented there too. This would
     billion at 2005-06 prices over the required       Even if you take the present city scenario,    expedite the process of reforms.
     $384 billion at 2005-06 prices for                the two classes are bound to co-exist. We
     provision of infrastructure. Where, in your       find slums in upmarket areas because the         Has the process of planning for change
     view, should these finances come from?            residents of slums service the needs of the    undergone a change?
                                                       premium areas. If planned together as a
        The direction we are trying to take is to      social requirement, we will be able to plan          We are encouraging new plan
     generate lively activities in our cities. The     the basic social requirements for the urban    documents in all cities under the
     Rs 1,00,000 crore under the JNNURM                poor too.                                      JNNURM. Many Master Plans are
     should trigger these activities in cities.                                                       outdated and many others were never
                                                          The new mantra is to make cities more       prepared – only roadmaps exist. We are

10                                                                                                                            April - June 2008
                                                                                                            cover story

seriously considering JNNURM funding            Resident's Welfare Associations (RWAs)         drainage, water sector and waste
for preparation of Master Plans.                can come forward and undertake small           management. This may vary locally.
                                                local improvement projects that cost upto
This exercise is not a perfect exercise in      Rs 1 lakh each.                                Monitoring will be once a year and the
our country. Normally, it is more of a table                                                   outcome of this should be transparency in
exercise by the town and country planning       The idea is to get all interested parties to   legislature.
departments. It is also very time               participate in the city renewal process.
consuming. This needs to undergo                                                                   The appallingly poor human resource
thorough change.                                    The JNNURM has addressed many of           capabilities    of     multi-disciplinary
                                                these urban issues in a structured manner      background needed to deal with the
The broad objective is to strengthen the        for the first time in the history of urban     complex challenges for city development,
local bodies. We can draw up the general        planning in the country. It is also offering   management and governance is in focus
norms. The state governments must also          finance options to local bodies. How soon      today. What is being done for capacity
address the issue at their level. Ultimately    will the city dwellers start feeling the       building, training and institutional
for a speedy and efficient process, the         effects of this change?                        strengthening?
Master Plan has to be created by somebody
who has a better understanding of the town                                                          This is an area of attention. We accept
and its issues.                                                                                that the capacity of our municipal officers
                                                     Local bodies have to
                                                                                               needs upgrade and we are not good project
Today the National Urban Information                  announce budgets                         managers. The project implementation is
Service (NUIS) and the Geographical                  annually and create                       from the Centre. The financial monitoring
Information Service (GIS) systems are                                                          is from here. The local body can opt for a
                                                        service level
available to share data at local levels.                                                       model concession document.
      How important           is    people's                                                   Regional centres and universities are
participation?                                                                                 bringing out compilations of PPP. Mayors
                                                    The first reforms agenda is till 2012.     and elected representatives will be given
       The 74th Amendment of the                The changes have to be milestones in the       rapid training.
Constitution has provisions for Area            net qualitative change in urban practices.
Sabhas being set up below the ward              The parameters for judging will be:            We need a good municipal cadre for states.
committees. There is resistance to the Area         More services online                       State Finance Commissions are looking
Sabha concept today as some states think            Awareness in the local area                into the state of finances and allocating
that it is cutting at the roots of the              Educating people                           more sources of revenue. Through
corporators’ jurisdiction.                                                                     JNNURM, project collections and
                                                The citizens will first get to know what       measures of stepping up efficiency of
The JNNURM has transparency provisions          projects are being undertaken with             collections is being determined. Resource
where the users can ask questions and must      JNNURM funds in their city through             level improvement and more technology,
get answers. The city has to take a scheme      hoardings prominently displayed at             project formulation, implementation and
and benchmark it too. We are going to           different parts of the city.                   strengthening of delivery, and collection
insist that they tell people about                                                             mechanisms are important.
improvements proposed and the long-term         For instance in Andhra Pradesh there is a
measures that will be taken to ensure that it   project for replacing pumping equipment        Earlier urban local bodies were a state
is taken care of over a period of time. The     in the city. People should know that this is   subject. States were also caught up in the
user charges are a precondition for             being done and why. This project will be       rural versus urban debate and most of the
JNNURM funds but the user must know             linked to the availability and distance from   allocations went to the rural sector.
what he is being charged for and the            the proposed pumps.                            Integrated Development of Small and
condition of the service.                                                                      Medium Towns (IDSMT) water project
                                                It is also required by local bodies to         was earlier Rs 1,000 crore. Now the
There is also a community participation         announce their budgets every year and          allocation for city improvements is Rs
scheme where people themselves can              create service level benchmarks. There         100,000 crore. The ministry's budget has
propose any small local level upgrade. The      will be a technical advisory group on          gone up significantly after JNNURM

April - June 2008                                                                                                                         11
                   cover story

     was envisioned.
                                                                                       The proposed MBA in urban
     The elected components of the local bodies will be able to plan for             management will create a pool of
     five years and will be able to announce to their constituencies that
     ‘I have got so much done’.
                                                                                          trained city managers

     KILA and Vashda are two of the training programmes that are             citizens. It should facilitate citizens asking the city management
     doing well. The JNNURM is training people. The Mission's                questions and getting answers for the same.
     efforts are to make PPP possibilities happen. A good percentage of
     people are now being trained.                                           The city specific schemes have to be publicised through the
                                                                             media. It has to be announced that this is a JNNURM scheme,
     Actually municipal authorities are amongst the poorest paid in the      what the plan is, and when it will be implemented. The city
     country. The Mussoorie’s academy is being asked to conduct a            management has to pass a resolution and own it.
     capacity building programme on urban development and
     management. The course is being structured and is in the initial        The collection of user charges is a key function and mayors too are
     stages. There is also a plan for an MBA in urban management like        coming up with projects to be implemented with the funds
     the Integrated Rural Management (IRM). Some centres have been           allocated to them.
     identified for building institutions. In Gujarat, Indian Institute of
     Management (IIM) graduates are being inducted into local bodies.        The next installment of funds will only be given when they inform
     They should be able to understand urban planning and spatial            the JNNURM cell about the progress.
     planning. This pool of city managers must have opportunities for
     growth.                                                                     Housing Boards had been created for effective planning,
                                                                             Master Planning and providing housing to city dwellers. That role
     The new concept of SEZs will be able to absorb these city               seems to have changed to that of simply consolidating and selling
     managers with some urban local body experience. They need to            land. Does that need to be beefed up to provide effective housing
     understand urban planning as a concept from the beginning. That         for all?
     you can't throw your garbage into the neighbouring area, and that
     solid, waste and sewerage linkages should be planned as a                    Housing Boards should be able to address weaker section
     manageable continuum.                                                   housing. Governments have to address the problem of housing
                                                                             requirements in the city. This has been an area of weakness. This
        One of the major problems that we are grappling with, is that        is also a state subject.
     of a large number of para-statal agencies. Do we need an
     integrated utility planning authority?                                  The present system provides a good opportunity for the state
                                                                             government to assess the demand for the next 20 years or so. The
         The NUIS now has the wherewithal for integrated utility             cities have to find their own solutions on who can meet the
     mapping and its monitoring. The policy is to give all these             demand – development authorities themselves or the private
     functions to the urban local bodies. The extreme example is Bihar       sector.
     where overnight all the functions were handed over to the elected
     representatives.                                                        The state's housing policy has to be facilitative. They could make
                                                                             land available in the joint venture. In fact, we are going to
     We would like this to happen at least in a phased manner with the       emphasise on that.
     local body and the elected representatives. Normally we would
     insist that the broad water supply project that is being executed           The Urban Development Ministry has sought a massive Rs
     by one of the para-statal agencies should keep the local body in the    2,89,615 crore in the 11th Five Year Plan to develop
     know of it and they should be aware of the project being                infrastructural facilities in urban areas. What all will this cover?
                                                                                  The first recommendation was to have an Integrated Metro
         What are the functions that e-governance will cover?                Transport Authority. This is chaired by the Lieutenant Governor
                                                                             and is a step forward towards integration of different authorities
         E-governance gives the handy status of the city development         in the transport segment – trains, buses, roads. We plan to extend
     plan - the project, the status, interactive mechanisms to involve       this facility to other major cities.

12                                                                                                                           April - June 2008
The second round of JNNURM would be
giving incentives for cities which are already
implementing reforms or those that have done
it already.

More resource generation, effective
management, and public delivery of services
is another. We are incentivising availability of
funds to those who have effective delivery

Once the consumer gets basic services of good
quality, then we will encourage them to take
up transportation within the region. The

                                                     Heights of Prosperity &
beneficiary could be the city, state or
government which takes up this activity.

The first targets are the seven mega cities, then
the 27 Class I cities. That way we are working
towards a 20 year period of effective transport
within cities.
                                                     Depths of Poverty
This will also include intelligent transport
                                                     Eminent social economist Professor Amitabh Kundu stresses
systems where the traffic flow management at         that cities continue to attract the poor but are also increasingly
intersections will be managed by IT systems.         becoming more hostile. But they also spur consumer aspirations
The National Urban Transport Authority is
                                                     at the cost of basic facilities such as food.
working towards pedestrianisation of cities.

There is a 27 point charter where good               Poverty has systematically gone down from 55 per cent in 1973-74 to 23 per cent
sidewalks and proper parking spaces are part         currently. Even though the national GDP is now growing at 9 per cent, for certain
of the plan for city redevelopment.                  sections it may be 14 to 15 per cent and for some others it may have been 1to 2 per
    Any specific plans to make at least four to
five globally competitive cities?                    However, despite the fact that poverty has gone down, the aspirations across sections
                                                     including those below the poverty line has gone up. If you look at the definition of
     Mumbai as an international financial city       poverty, the word aspiration is not included anywhere. Exposure to global markets,
is already being worked out. Infrastructure is       media, and so many influences, have not been factored in anywhere while
a major issue and there is substantial               quantifying poverty.
additional funding for drainage, etc. Currently,
the pattern of international mega cities is at the   Even though there is a decline in poverty, there is a decline in calorie intake. An
forefront.                                           average adult requires 2100 per capita calories and 2400 in the rural areas due to
                                                     more physical labour. The fact is that they may rather buy petrol for their scooter than
Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad and 28               have a proper meal. With the change in lifestyle pattern, while food consumption
others are in the plan. The development of           may be less, there are expenses on health, transport, housing, clothes, and
satellite townships and rendering of basic           entertainment.
services is a key issue.
                                                     The percentage of population with access to drinking water has gone up over the
Regional planning has been included in               years. Piped water from MCD has improved only by a small percentage but tube-well
consultation with the states. The formation of       water, driven by individual initiative has improved tremendously. There has also
metro planning committees has already begun          been an improvement in access to sanitation facilities.
and we expect it to pick up.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                               13
                   cover story

                                                            As Mayor, we are the link
                                                            between people and the
                                                        The first lady Mayor of Uttarakhand, Manorama Dobriyal Sharma
                                                        is the immediate past Chairperson of the All India Council of
                                                        Mayors, and the Chairperson of the Asian Council of Mayors. She
                                                        talks about the constructive role of a Mayor, and what all she has
                                                        done for -Dehradun

            he role of a Mayor is that of a Jan      dengue, pollution, illegal construction,       We are battling the problem of
            Pratinidhi (representative of the        street lights, beggars, and city traffic       unauthorised construction. I have found
            people). Any project picked up by a      management.                                    that it works to take the public into
     Mayor should typically have this theme or                                                      confidence while creating cut-off dates.
     should be a project linked to the people.       There are problems at the city level           We have assured that we will not remove
     People perceive us as the link between          because services such as fire and city         older encroachments but newer ones will
     themselves     and    the    bureaucratic       traffic management are at the state level.     be removed.
     machinery.                                      Even water services and sewage is with the
                                                     Jal Sansthan and not with the city             I believe in moving forward with people's
     We have been voted to power and typically       management. The Mayor has to write to          participation. We wanted to privatise waste
     understand the common man's problems            the concerned authorities for getting these    management and the 1500 strong staff
     and how to fix them. I have, in fact, created   implemented. I have been advocating that       went on strike. My councillors. and I led
     a helpline where people can directly access     these services should come under our           the sweeping and cleaning movement and
     me and tell me about their problems.            jurisdiction. For instance, the cover of a     finally managed to end the strike in 11
                                                     sewer tank was broken and a child fell into    days without giving in to their demands.
     Mayors of Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai,          it. The public will raise the issue with the   We have also started a drive against plastic
     Dehradun, cities in Uttar Pradesh,              Mayor, not with different authorities.         to     reduce    non-recyclable      waste.
     Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh are                                                             Shopkeepers have been given three months
     elected directly by the people for five         We have a huge floating population of          to utilise unused stock. After that plastic
     years. Councillors in other cities hold         pilgrims and tourists and need adequate        will be banned. About 30 per cent already
     offices for between one to two-and-a-half       public transport and pedestrian services to    have given up the use of plastic.
     years.                                          meet their needs. We have asked for a
                                                     Central grant to construct four flyovers,      A masterplan of markets is being created.
     The elected local team consists of the          escalators, subways and a tube road. Under     The new dairies, fruits and vegetable
     Mayor and the councillors. Each district        JNNURM, we are seeking funds for a bus         markets, meat and fish markets and the
     has specific problems and funds are             terminal.                                      slaughter house have been removed
     distributed to the councillors on the basis                                                    outside the town.
     of requirements. While Members of               To ensure that our city is safe and clean we
     Parliament and Members of the                   have stepped up efforts around markets,        As Chairperson of the Asian Council of
     Legislative Assembly deal with macro            bus and railway stations. We have roped in     Mayors I am involved in cross-country
     issues, Mayors and their councillors. tackle    traders, hawkers, and the public to help in    issues such as global warming. The drive
     ground level problems such as solid waste       keeping these places clean. Traffic control    against plastic is one of the efforts towards
     management, state of roads, disposal of         around the Inter-State Bus Terminus            creating a sustainable city.
     bodies of dead animals, etc. Most of the        (ISBT) and outside Transport Nagar has
     effort is on prevention of diseases such as     become a priority.

14                                                                                                                           April - June 2008
                   cover story

                          India's ambitious urban reforms mission
     The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), the most ambitious urban
     programme in the history of India, aims at encouraging fast track planned development, and providing
     the enabling framework across 63 identified cities.
     Mission Statement                               administered by the Ministry of Urban              flow of investment into the urban
                                                     Development through the Sub-Mission                infrastructure sector across the country.
     The aim is to encourage reforms and fast        Directorate for Urban Infrastructure and           Funds from the Central and state
     track planned development of identified         Governance. The main thrust of the Sub-            government will flow directly to the
     cities. Focus is to be on efficiency in urban   Mission will be on infrastructure projects         nodal agency designated by the State,
     infrastructure and service delivery             related to water supply and sanitation,            as grants-in-aid.
     mechanisms, community participation, and        sewerage, solid waste management, road          d) Incorporating        Private      Sector
     accountability of Urban Local Bodies            network,      urban      transport       and       Efficiencies: In order to optimise the
     (ULBs)/Parastatal agencies towards              redevelopment of old city areas with a view        life cycle costs over the planning
     citizens.                                       to upgrading infrastructure therein, shifting      horizon, private sector efficiencies can
                                                     industrial and commercial establishments           be     inducted     in    development,
     Objectives of the Mission                       to conforming areas, etc.                          management, implementation and
                                                                                                        financing of projects, through Public
     a) Focussed attention on integrated             Sub-Mission for Basic Services to the              Private        Partnership         (PPP)
        development of infrastructure services       Urban Poor: This will be administered by           arrangements.
        in cities covered under the Mission.         the Ministry of Urban Employment and
     b) Establishment of linkages between asset      Poverty Alleviation through the Sub-            Duration of the Mission
        creation and asset management through        Mission Directorate for Basic Services to
        a slew of reforms for long term project      the Urban Poor. The main thrust of the Sub-     Duration of the Mission would be seven
        sustainability.                              Mission will be on integrated development       years beginning from the year 2005-06.
     c) Ensuring adequate funds to meet the          of slums through projects for providing         Evaluation of the experience of
        deficiencies in urban infrastructural        shelter, basic services and other related       implementation of the Mission would be
        services.                                    civic amenities to provide utilities to the     undertaken before the commencement of
     d) Planned development of identified cities     urban poor.                                     Eleventh Five Year Plan and if necessary,
        including peri urban areas, outgrowths                                                       the programme would be calibrated
        and urban corridors leading to dispersed     Strategy of the Mission                         suitably.
     e) Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and     a) Preparing City Development Plan:             Financial        Assistance         under
        provision of utilities with emphasis on         Every city will be expected to formulate     JNNURM
        universal access to the urban poor.             a City Development Plan (CDP)
     f) Special focus on urban renewal                  indicating policies, programmes and          The Government of India has proposed
        programme for the old city areas to             strategies, and financing plans.             substantial assistance through the
        reduce congestion.                           b) Preparing Projects: The CDP would            JNNURM over the seven-year period.
     g) Provision of basic services to the urban        facilitate identification of projects. The   During this period, funds shall be provided
        poor including security of tenure at            ULBs / parastatal agencies will be           for proposals that would meet the Mission's
        affordable prices, improved housing,            required to prepare Detailed Project         requirements.
        water supply and sanitation, and                Reports (DPRs) for undertaking
        ensuring delivery of universal services         projects in the identified spheres. It is    Assistance under JNNURM is additional
        for education, health and social security.      essential that projects are planned in a     Central assistance, which would be
                                                        manner that optimises the life-cycle         provided as grant (100 per cent Central
     Scope of the Mission                               cost of projects.                            grant) to the implementing agencies.
                                                     c) Release and Leveraging of Funds: It
     Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure               is expected that the JNNURM                  Further, assistance from JNNURM is
     and Governance: This will be                       assistance would serve to catalyse the       expected to facilitate further investment in

16                                                                                                                           April - June 2008
                                                                                                          cover story

the urban sector. To this end, the               census - 28                                    Convergence of health, education and
implementing agencies are expected to            Selected cities/UAs (State Capitals and        social security schemes for the urban
leverage the sanctioned funds under              other cities/UA of religious/historic and      poor.
JNNURM to attract greater private sector         tourist importance) - 28
investments through PPP that enables                                                         Inadmissible Components                 for
sharing of risk between the private and       The cities should have elected bodies in       JNNURM Assistance
public sector.                                position.
                                                                                             Projects pertaining to the following are not
Total support from GOI is Rs 50,000 crore     Sectors and projects eligible for assistance   eligible for JNNURM assistance:
with matching contribution by cities/states   under the sub-mission directorate for basic        Power
over next six years (2006-2012).              services to the urban poor.                        Telecom
                                                 Integrated development of slums,                Health
Investment of around Rs 1,50,000 crore is        housing      and     development       of       Education
envisaged.                                       infrastructure projects in slums in             Wage employment programme and
                                                 identified cities.                              staff components.
Areas of Assistance under JNNURM                 Projects involving development,                 Creation of fresh employment
   Assistance for capacity building, CDP,        improvement, and maintenance of basic           opportunities
   DPRs, community participation,                services to the urban poor.
   information,       education,      and        Slum improvement and rehabilitation         Agenda of Reforms
   communication (IEC)                           of projects.
   Investment support component                   Projects on water supply, sewerage,        The thrust of JNNURM is to ensure
                                                 drainage, community toilets, baths, etc.    improvement in urban governance and
Cities Eligible for Assistance under             Projects for providing houses at            service delivery so that ULBs become
the JNNURM                                       affordable cost for slum dwellers, urban    financially sound and sustainable for
                                                 poor, economically weaker sections          undertaking new programmes. It is also
 The JNNURM shall give assistance for            (EWS) and lower income group (LIG)          envisaged that, with the charter of reforms
infrastructure development in the eligible       categories.                                 that are followed by the state governments
cities/ urban agglomerations (UAs) (See          Construction and improvement of             and ULBs, a stage will be set for PPPs.
Table below) across states in the country.       drains and storm water drains.
                                                 Environmental improvement of slums          Mandatory Reforms at the Level of
These cities/ UAs have been selected based       and solid waste management.                 ULBs, and Parastatal Agencies
as per the following criteria:                   Street lighting.
    Cities/UAs with 4 million plus               Civic amenities like community halls,          Adoption of modern accrual-based
    population as per 2001 census - 07           child care centres etc.                        double entry system of accounting in
    Cities/UAs with 1 million plus but less      Operation and maintenance (O&M) of             ULBs and parastatal agencies.
    than 4 million population as per 2001        assets created under this component.           Introduction of a system of

Urban Infrastructure and Governance Funding Pattern                             Grant               ULB/Parastatals/Loan from
                                                                       Centre           State       Financial Institutions
Cities with 4 million population                                         35%             15%                       50%

Cities with million plus but less than 4 million population              50%             20%                       30%

Cities in North Eastern States and J&K                                   90%             10%

Other States                                                             80%             10%                       10%

Setting up Destinations plants                                           80%             10%                       10%

April - June 2008                                                                                                                       17
                  cover story

        e-governance using Information                 Regulation Act                                  buildings, development of site etc.
        Technology applications, such as               Reform of Rent Control Laws                     Simplification of legal and procedural
        Geographical Information Services              balancing the interests of landlords and        frameworks for conversion of land
        (GIS) and Management Information               tenants.                                        from agricultural to non-agricultural.
        Services (MIS) for various services            Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to bring          Introduction of Property Title
        provided by ULBs and parastatal                it down to no more than 5 per cent              Certification System in ULBs.
        agencies.                                      within next seven years.                        Earmarking at least 20 to 25 per cent of
        Reform of property tax with GIS.               Enactment of the Public Disclosure              developed land in all housing projects
        Levy of reasonable user charges by             Law to ensure preparation of medium-            (both public and private agencies) for
        ULBs and parastatals with the objective        term fiscal plan of ULBs and parastatal         EWS and LIG category with a system
        that the full cost of O&M or recurring         agencies and release of quarterly               of cross subsidisation.
        cost is collected within the next seven        performance information to all                  Introduction of computerised process of
        years.                                         stakeholders.                                   registration of land and property.
        Internal earmarking, within local              Enactment of Community Parti-                   Revision of bye laws to make rain-
        bodies, budgets for basic services for         cipation Law to institutionalise citizen's      water harvesting mandatory in all
        the urban poor.                                participation and introduce the concept         buildings and adoption of water
        Provision of basic services to the urban       of the Area Sabha in urban areas.               conservation measures.
        poor including security of tenure at           Assigning or associating elected ULBs           Bye laws for reuse of recycled water.
        affordable prices, improved housing,           with "city planning” function.                  Administrative reforms i.e. reduction in
        and water supply and sanitation.                                                               establishment costs by adopting the
                                                   Optional reforms                                    Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS),
     Mandatory Reforms - State Level                                                                   not filling posts falling vacant due to
                                                       Reform of Rent Control Act                      retirement etc., and achieving specified
        Implementation of decentralisation             Optional Reforms (common to States,             milestones in this regard.
        measures as envisaged in 74th                  ULBs and Parastatal Agencies)                   Structural reforms.
        Constitutional Amendment Act.                  Revision of bye laws to streamline the          Encouraging PPP.
        Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and               approval process for construction of

     Inclusive growth with space for the service classes
                                              Small towns, large towns     support. Today each household living in a legal dwelling and
                                              and metropolitan cities      working in formal offices is served directly and indirectly by 30-
                                              are all places where         50 people who work in their homes or sweep their streets.
                                              increasing number of
                                              poor people live in self-    Yet we don't value their participation and we feel no obligation to
                                              built    houses,    made     provide any mobility for income or status to them.
                                              initially from recycled
                                              material but gradually, as   The city administrations are hostile to the poor. But clearly within
                                              they sense some security,    JNNURM and within the mandate of the government there are
     this housing is improvised. Their lives are deeply connected with     duties and obligations to develop a framework for addressing their
     the city whose labour force are these poor people without whom        poverty.
     the city would not run.
                                                                           It is the responsibility of the cities to proide basic amenities. Delay
     When we plan cities and their development, we forget very             leads to technical complications, and therefore, increased financial
     conveniently to earmark places and spaces for their work and          burden.
     habitat. When we plan amenities and services for the city, we
     somehow exclude these locations. And when we assess law and           Poverty in cities cannot be measured by income levels alone or
     order situations, we deem everything about them, their work, their    caloric values. Urban poverty, land tenure, and basic amenities are
     homes, everything, as illegal.                                        critical to alleviate poverty. These remain our largest challenge in
                                                                           combating poverty in urban areas.
     Cities hold hope for the poor. Their capacity to find informal
                                                                            Sheela Patel, Director SPARC; Local Government Quarterly,
     employment despite being harassed by the city is amazing.
                                                                            July-September 2007
     Imagine what they could achieve if they were assisted or had

18                                                                                                                           April - June 2008
                            cover story
 Classification of cities

April - June 2008                         19
                                                                                                 regional planning

NCR Planning Board
                                                                             Managing a Dynamic Region
 Year 1985 saw the enactment of National Capital Region Planning Board Act by the Union Parliament,
 with participating states of Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. With growth in Delhi, its problems
 of land, housing, transportation and utilities such as water supply, power, sewerage became more
 acute and the need for regional planning was felt. Member Secretary PD Sudhakar Reddy talks
 about the problems of planning for the region and how it was tackled.

     The NCR Planning Board has the
mandate to systematically develop the                               The NCR is one of the largest Inter-State
NCR, which is 33,578 square kilometres                              Urban Regions not only in the country but
covering NCT-Delhi and part of Haryana,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (and Punjab and
                                                                               also in the world
Madhya Pradesh for counter magnet
areas). How complex is your problem of         and senior officers of the States as             (including mass transport systems) well
regional development?                          members of the Board. Sector-wise                integrated with the land use patterns to
                                               priorities, however, vary from state to          support balanced regional development
    The NCR Planning Board, a statutory        state.                                           in such identified settlements;
body constituted under the National                                                             Minimising the adverse environmental
Capital Region Planning Board Act, 1985        With all complexity of the Region, the           impact that may occur in the process of
with the concurrence of the Constituent        Board tries at all forums like the NCR           development of the NCR;
States i.e., Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar         Planning Board, Planning Commission,             Developing selected urban settlements
Pradesh and National Capital Territory of      Statutory Committee of the Board and so          with urban infrastructure facilities such
Delhi was passed by the Parliament in          on that special emphasis is given to NCR         as transport, power, communication,
January, 1985. It received the assent of the   in development of different sectors and          drinking water, sewerage and drainage
Hon'ble President of India on 9th February,    projects both at Centre and state level for      comparable with Delhi;
1985.                                          balanced, planned and harmonised                 Providing a rational land use pattern,
                                               development of the Region.                       and;
The Preamble of the Act has mandated the                                                        Promoting sustainable development in
preparation of a plan for the development      In this process, the NCR Planning Board          the region for improving quality of life.
of the NCR, coordinating and monitoring        prepared the Regional Plan for the NCR
the implementation of such plan and for        for the perspective year 2021 which was       It is one of the largest Inter-State Urban
evolving harmonised policies for the           notified on 17th September, 2005. The         Region not only in the country but also in
control of land-uses and development of        Regional Plan-2021 for NCR aims to            the world. The complexity in the
infrastructure in the NCR to avoid any         promote economic growth and balanced          dynamism of the Region widens due to its
haphazard development of that region.          development in NCR and seeks to attain        vastness in size with the peculiarity of
                                               these through:                                being spread over four states.
The Board is chaired by the Union                 Providing suitable economic base for       Geographically, the NCR is 1.06 per cent
Minister for Urban Development with               future growth by identification and        of total India's land area, about 86 per cent
Union      Ministers    for     Power,            development of regional settlements        of Kerala, 75.9 per cent of Haryana and
Communication & IT, Road Transport and            capable of absorbing the economic          66.67 per cent of Punjab. Almost 23 times
Highways, Railways and Chief Ministers,           development impulse of Delhi;              of one of the mega-cities of India i.e.,
Lieutenant Governor of Delhi, Urban               Providing efficient and economic rail      NCT-Delhi which is also a state on its own
Development Ministers, Chief Secretaries          and road based transportation networks     and more than the combined area of three

April - June 2008                                                                                                                        21
                   regional planning

                                                                            To develop and       Other constraints for its development,
                                                                            manage such a        apart from resource crunch, are land and
                                                                            large area of        water, various environmental and safety
                                                                            diversity a huge     issues both from natural and man made
                                                                            financial            hazards. Though due considerations have
                                                                            backing         is   been given in the Regional Plan-2021,
                                                                            required. If we      activities such as Dedicated Freight
                                                                            compare       the    Corridor and Delhi-Mumbai Industrial
                                                                            geographical         Corridor were not included. The current
                                                                            area of NCR,         development plans which could be
                                                                            with some other      integrated in the Sub-regional Plans, are
                                                                            states     along     under preparation and later on could be
                                                                            with the funds       incorporated in the Regional Plan after the
                                                                            allocation     in    five years mandatory review.
                                                                            different five
                                                                            yearly plans, the    The Regional Plan provided for Special
                                                                            fund allocation      Economic Zones in each sub-region
                                                                            for NCR is not       outside NCT-Delhi, with atleast one
                                                                            even equivalent      number in each sub-region. It was not
                                                                            to one year fund     visualised that there is a need to put a limit
                                                                            allocation to the    on this number in each sub-region or
                                                                            states.              district as it has been seen that about 85 per
                                                                                                 cent of the SEZs of the Constituent States
                                                                            This Region is       of U.P. and Haryana have been proposed
                                                                            dynamic and the      in NCR up to November, 2007. Such
                                                                            NCR Planning         issues will keep on arising and would be
                                                                            Board has been       adequately addressed while carrying out
                                                                            focusing     to      the review of the Plan. It requires regular
                                                                            develop     the      monitoring of development and economic
                                                                            Region in a          trends. Reviewing the overall development
                                                                            planned manner       of the Region is important so that the
     States of Tripura, Nagaland and Sikkim          as per the current economic boom,           ultimate goal of harmonised and balanced
     (27,885 square kilometres), forms the           urbanisation trends, and requirements.      development is maintained and ensured
     entire NCR. Simply put, NCR occupies an
     area larger than the territories of the three
     States of Nagaland, Goa and Tripura and
                                                      State/Region Area in sq.        % w.r.t. NCR          Projected Outlay (Rs. in
     the two Union Territories of Chandigarh                          kms.                                          Crores)
     and Pondicherry taken together. It is
                                                          NCR            33,578           100.00               224                 350
     characterised by the presence of highly
     ecologically sensitive areas like extension
                                                         Kerala          38,863            86.00             16,100              24,000
     of the Aravalli Ridge, forests, wildlife and
     bird sanctuaries, rivers Ganga,Yamuna and           Haryana         44,212            75.90              9,310              10,285
     Hindon and is home to 371 lakhs
     population living in 108 towns.
                                                         Punjab          50,362            66.67             11,500              18,657

     Of these, 17 are Class I cities and more
     than 7,500 rural settlements. In addition,        Uttaranchal       53,483            63.00               NA                7,630
     there are five Counter-Magnet Areas:
     Hissar in Haryana, Kota in Rajasthan,              Himachal
     Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh, Patiala in
                                                                         55,673            60.31              5,700              10,300
     Punjab, and Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.

22                                                                                                                        April - June 2008
                                                                                                    regional planning

with bare minimum effect on the natural             economy through Model Industrial            schemes are under implementation
resources.                                          Estates, Special Economic Zones etc.        including expansion of DMRC corridors.
                                                    outside NCT-Delhi
    Everyone believes that the NCR                  Develop critical Project Plans which        In order to provide an efficient Mass rapid
Planning Board gives emphasis to building           are integral elements of the                Transportation System in NCR, Delhi
water supply and sanitation infrastructure.         development vision                          Metro Rail is being extended to the NCR
Please detail out initiatives in this area.                                                     towns, namely, Gurgaon, Noida and
                                                 Some of the initiatives which are at various   Ghaziabad (Vaishali). It is also proposed to
     Not only water supply and sanitation        stages of implementation by the respective     be extended to Faridabad and Bahadurgarh
infrastructure, NCR Planning Board               nodal authorities and have directly            in the next phase.
emphasises development of all kinds of           contributed to the growth of the NCR by
physical and social infrastructure in the        providing for an efficient and effective       The Board has been financing 75 per cent
Region. It includes transportation network,      transport network to facilitate movement       of the estimated cost of various
mass commuter system well integrated             of traffic and commuters in the Region,        infrastructure projects in the form of loan.
with land use pattern, power supply, water       and creating industrial infrastructure for     These include not only water supply and
supply,      sewerage,       solid     waste     the growth and development of industrial       sanitation projects but also roads, bridges,
management,          drainage,       shelter,    activities in NCR are:                         power plants, power distribution, tunnels,
telecommunication, disaster management,              The construction work on proposed          etc. It also finances rural water supply
and economic development in the form of              Western and Eastern Peripheral             schemes.
model industrial estates. In addition to this,       Expressway around Delhi in the
it addresses the rationale land use pattern          Regional Plan-2021 is in progress          Some of the important projects financed by
in the Region and environmental                      Upgradation of existing National           the NCR Planning Board are listed below:
consideration in the planning and                    Highways to Expressway standards              Augmentation of rural drinking water
sustainable development of the Region.               proposed in the Regional Plan-2021 is         supply for Mewat region-Phase-I.
                                                     in progress.                                  Extension and Augmentation of Water
Better connectivity and improved physical                                                          Supply, Sewerage and Solid Waste
infrastructure in the Region will aim to                                                           Management, Patiala.
have     balanced     and    harmonised
                                                     Better connectivity and                       Integrated Industrial Township, Loni,
development.                                           improved physical                           Tronica City.
                                                      infrastructure in the                         Strengthening of Transmission and
Thrust areas of the Regional Plan-2021                                                             Distribution Network of Meerut
prepared by the NCR Planning Board are
                                                        region will aim at                         Division by UPPCL.
as follows:                                          balanced development                          Development of Industrial Model
   Lays down land use at the regional level                                                        Township at Manesar.
    in terms of a harmonious pattern                                                               Augmentation of water supply at
    emerging from a careful examination          Feasibility Study for upgradation of              sectors serviced by Municipal
    of natural features, including               National Highways in NCR is being                 Corporation, Faridabad
    susceptibility to natural disasters and      carried out by the Ministry of Shipping,          Hathkargha Nagar (Lohia Nagar) work-
    socio-economic activities                    Road Transport & Highways. On the basis           cum-shelter scheme, Meerut.
    Proposes development of Metro and            of the recommendations, further widening          NOIDA-Greater NOIDA expressway.
    Regional Centres as powerful growth          work would be taken up                            Augmentation of water supply of trans-
    nodes to attract major activities                                                              Hindon area by carriage of 50 cusecs of
   Provide regional transport linkages and       Regional Plan-2001 and its Functional             water from Upper Ganga Canal,
    Mass Commuter System                         Plan on Transport-2001 emphasised the             Ghaziabad.
    Construction         of      peripheral      need for Mass Commuter System in Delhi.           Development of Industrial Township,
    expressways and orbital rail corridor        Functional Plan emphasised that Delhi             Phase-III, Bhiwadi.
    around Delhi                                 University-Central             Secretariat        Construction of Railroad Over Bridge,
    Development        of    core     urban      underground metro line should be                  Alwar.
    infrastructure (transport, power, water      constructed on priority. This corridor has        Jindoli Ghati Bypass Tunnel, Alwar -
    supply, sewerage, drainage, etc.)            already been implemented. To cover Delhi          Bharatpur road, Alwar.
    Facilitate development of the region's       with mass commuter system various                 Development and construction of 9 km

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          23
                  regional planning

                                                          The NCR Planning Board, is a               government or their agencies collect
             Public private                         statutory body created under an Act of           external development charges from the
           partnerships are                         Parliament, and thus, as per functions           buyers of the plots (in case of plotted
                                                    allocated to the Board, is a planning and        development) and from developers (in case
         possible in housing,                       coordinating organisation. The Board             of group housing) to lay the trunk
              solid waste                           prepares the Regional Plan for NCR which         infrastructure which is a kind of private
        management and O&M                          is a macro-level plan for the entire NCR         partnership in development of an area.
                                                    that contains broad policies and proposals.
         of sewage treatment                        The NCR Planning Board also prepares             In case of plotted development, land
                plants                              functional plans relating to sectors such as     acquisition is done by the development
                                                    transportation, power and water. It has          authority which is an old model of
                                                    been playing an important and critical role      development. Nowadays, in order to
        stretch of Dharuhera - Bhiwadi road.        in providing regional framework to               promote Public Private Partnership (PPP),
        Construction of Integrated Township at      sectoral development.                            the development authorities issue licenses
        Srinathpuram, Kota and SADA,                                                                 for development as per Master Plans to the
        Gwalior.                                    The constituent states prepare Sub-              developers who come forward after
        200 bed hospital at Gurgaon.                Regional Plans for their respective              negotiating land purchase from the owners.
        Power plant at Hissar                       sub-regions within the policy framework
                                                    of the Regional Plan. At the local level, the    These developers develop housing
          What about other social and               state        governments             prepare     complexes or plotted development in the
     infrastructural intervention including         Master/Development Plans (for the towns          area where license has been issued to them
     health, education, employment and shelter      and other local area)/zonal plans within the     and internal services/civic infrastructure is
     requirements as well as good utility and       framework of the Regional Plan and Sub-          laid by the developers and is included in
     transport infrastructure?                      Regional Plans.                                  the cost of development of the
                                                                                                     township/colony by the developer.
          As stated above, the Regional Plan-       Broad policies related to shelter, including
     2021 for NCR addresses social                  the slums areas as given in the Regional         The government confines itself to the
     infrastructure also. Policies have been laid   Plan, are to be indicated in the Sub-            licensing fee and external development
     down in the Regional Plan for                  Regional Plans which are to be further           charges, which it utilises to develop the
     development of housing, education, health,     translated into action programmes for each       trunk infrastructure.
     law and order, etc. It has emphasised          town/settlement individually and to be
     creating an economic base with model           incorporated in the Master/Development           Other sectors where PPP can be promoted
     industrial estates and Special Economic        Plans by the state government to meet the        is solid waste management where
     Zones in the Region which will create          shortage and demand of housing                   collection and transportation of garbage to
     employment opportunities for the people.       requirement for each town in NCR.                the disposal side could be handled by one
                                                    Development authorities develop various          private agency. Its treatment could be
     Due care has also been taken to provide        sectors of residential areas as per Master       handled by another agency.
     better living environment in terms of          Plans which include the specific
     health, education, recreational and quality    percentages for the EWS also.                    One has to be very careful while handing
     of shelter requirements.                                                                        over these works to the private sector. At
                                                       Any scope for private participation in        least skeleton staff should be maintained
     Some of the industrial areas, which have       urban governance?                                by the local body to look after 40-50 per
     come up with the efforts of NCR Planning                                                        cent of the work so that the private agency
     Board are, IMT-Manesar, Industrial Area-            Land development for residential /          does not take them for a ride.
     Bhiwadi,      Industrial    Area-Panipat,      commercial / industrial / institutional
     Industrial Area-Kundli, etc. Even Greater      projects in new areas/urban extensions is        Operation and maintenance of sewage
     NOIDA has come up with the efforts of the      carried out by the state government and          treatment plants through private sector has
     NCR Planning Board.                            their agencies. Trunk infrastructure such as     also been found to be successful in
                                                    roads, water supply lines, power supply          Haryana and West Bengal and reduce
        Any efforts towards providing adequate      lines, sewerage, drainage, etc. is laid by the   demand for more staff in these works.
     housing for all sections of society?           concerned development authorities. State

24                                                                                                                            April - June 2008
                                                    regional planning

Defusing Mumbai’s urban crisis
                    Functions discharged by State Government in other
                                      cities is done by BMC in Mumbai

                                                               Jairaj Phatak,
                                                               Commissioner of
                                                (BMC), is the man who has
                                                championed an "open door"
                                                policy for people to have easy
                                                access to civic officials. Having
                                                worked in diverse departments
                                                such as urban development,
                                                education, food and civil
                                                supplies, and rural development,
                                                Phatak is well aware of
                                                Mumbai's issues. He speaks
                                                about the city, its issues and the

                                                       The budget of the Municipal
                                                Corporation of Greater Mumbai is more
                                                than that of most states and cities. What
                                                governance mechanism is in place to
                                                optimally manage this huge corpus?

                                                       The budget of the Municipal
                                                Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM)
                                                is Rs.12,000 crores and is much more than
                                                that of many states in India such as
                                                Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttaranchal,
                                                Himachal Pradesh and all the North

April - June 2008                                                                       25
                  regional planning

     Eastern states except Assam. The city also serves a population of       Improved transparency and credibility due to better
     12 million which is larger than most of these states.                   governance and internal controls.

     The city actually discharges functions normally discharged by           Waste management is one of the biggest challenges in Mumbai,
     authorities other than the Municipal Corporation in other parts of   as it generates the largest quantity of waste as compared to other
     the country, e.g., apart from being the Municipal Corporation like   indian cities. Could you throw some light on the waste
     elsewhere, it also runs Water Supply and Sewerage Board, three       management initiatives in Mumbai?
     Medical Colleges, a large number of hospitals, 170 primary
     schools, prepares development plan for the city and runs a               Waste management for any city has got three main aspects:
     transport undertaking with 3400 buses.                                   Sweeping of streets/roads.
                                                                              Collection and transportation of waste from households/
     These functions are discharged in other cities by separate para-         commercial/industrial establishments.
     statal agencies or by the state government itself.                       Landfill management.

        We learnt about the substantial financial reforms undertaken      MCGM has taken initiatives in all the three spheres of waste
     by MCGM. Kindly share details with us.                               management in the city. We have introduced mechanisation in
                                                                          sweeping of streets on a pilot project basis. In collection and
        Financial Reforms in MCGM include the following:                  transportation, latest generation of compactor vehicles have been
        Accrual based double entry accounting Listing, Verification       introduced and house to house collection has been increased from
        and Valuation of Assets Codification Structure and Charter of     22 per cent to about 50 per cent. GPS based computerised tracking
        Accounts.                                                         of garbage vehicles have been introduced. We are in the process
        Budgeting Reforms and Budgetary Controls.                         of implementing integrated waste processing and development of
        Periodic and Real Time Reconciliation, Financial Statements,      sanitary landfill projects, with the involvement of private sector,
        Audit and Internal Controls.                                      based on PPP model, where Government of India has sanctioned
        Uniform codification structure has been introduced in             Rs. 62.57 crore under JNNURM.
        accordance with the principles of the National Municipal
        Accounting Manual in MCGM budget for the year 2007-               As mentioned above, technology initiatives have been introduced
        2008.                                                             in all the three spheres of waste management in the city. However,
                                                                          the result of these technology and other initiatives taken up to keep
                                                                          Mumbai clean under "Clean up Mumbai Campaign", basically
          The result of technology and other                              depends upon the citizens of Mumbai themselves, as it has to do
                                                                          with their civic behaviour and their sense of ownership for the
         initiatives depends on the citizens of                           city. It requires cultural and attitudinal changes, which is not
         Mumbai and their sense of ownership                              achievable in a short span of time.
                       for the city
                                                                             There have been several initiatives recently to keep Mumbai
                                                                          clean. What are the significant technology initiatives to manage
                                                                          the city's waste and what has been the result?
        What efforts are being made or have been made to ensure
     transparency in rendition of civic services in Mumbai?                  To cater to the increasing demands in civic services, MCGM
                                                                          has embarked on an ambitious computerisation initiative to
         Benefits of integrated systems are:                              convert its vision into reality. It believes that computerisation will:
        Reduced closing cycle time due to real time reconciliation           Enhance responsiveness to citizens' needs
        through integration of other municipal functions.                    Increase operating efficiency and effectiveness
        Reduced process cost and enhanced value of accounting staff.         Improve financial health
        Improved access to information for better decision making.           Display greater transparency
        Reduced time to complete budgets.
        Real time controls against budgets.                               The deficiencies of the present system, namely, lack of integrated
        Real time Budget Vs Actual Comparison and Analysis.               systems, inefficient work procedures, lack of up to date and
        Effective Management of Cash Flow.                                accurate databases, lack of data sharing, etc. will be eliminated
        Reduced cost for processing fixed asset transactions.             with the help of digitisation.

26                                                                                                                          April - June 2008
                                                                                                 regional planning

    E-governance has emerged as a major          attendance of its over one-lakh             policies, as well as a lack of adequate
means of ensuring good civic governance.         employees.                                  maintenance over the years, obsolescence
What steps has Mumbai taken in this              Health care system to be web enabled        and decay. Does the Corporation have any
direction?                                       and deployed in 25 hospitals.               policy towards guidelines for maintenance
                                                 Disaster recovery site is planned to be     of built assets as well rehabilitation and
   We have implemented SAP based ERP             set up at MCGM Headquarters.                retrofitting of old structures? If the
solution which covers the following              Building Proposed System.                   building is decaying beyond rehabilitation,
functions:                                       Legal Management System.                    would you then consider inner city revival
    Finance                                      Geographical Information System             of those areas?
    Human resources (yet to be released)         You have recently expressed strong               Dilapidated buildings are being
    Fleet and Workshop Management.           views on the role of civic agency on the        redeveloped as per provisions under
    Citizens'    portal    and      Ward     subject of building safety as well as the       Development Control Regulations.
    Management.                              responsibilities of builder, architects and
    Project systems.                         engineers in the buildings they construct.      Most of the private buildings are cessed
    Real Estate Management (yet to be        Please elaborate on the roles and               properties and Mumbai Building Repairs
    released).                               responsibilities of each.                       & Reconstruction Board is the authority to
                                                                                             decide course of action. Development
The key benefits of ERP are as follows:                                                      permissions for redevelopment of the
   Opportunity for re-engineering with                                                       cessed properties are being granted by
   global best practices and templates.                                                      MCGM.
                                                 For every construction,
   High level of integration across
   departments and wards.                            a qualified and                            Mumbai is a city with a strong heritage
   Sharing of data from a single                  registered structural                      movement. What role does the Corporation
   information repository.                                                                   have and who are the other agencies that
   Streamlining or eliminating inefficient                                                   are/should be involved in the same?
   manual processes.                              supervisor is insisted
   Integrated, organisation wide common                   upon                                   Heritage Regulations were sanctioned
   tools, processes and systems.                                                             in 1995 under Development Control
   Control of budgeting, planning and                                                        Regulation No.67. Government of
   financial management processes.                                                           Maharashtra has prescribed composition of
   Organisation wide reporting and               There are two aspects of safety i.e. (i)    the Heritage Conservation Committee
   decision support.                         structural safety and (ii) fire safety.         (HCC) to advise Municipal Commissioner
   Other systems in Operation.               Regarding structural safety, latest codes of    in matters related to conservation of
   Octroi.                                   ductile detailing for earthquake resistance     heritage buildings/precincts, etc.
   Billing.                                  and other codes are insisted for design of
   Property Tax.                             buildings while granting permission. For        For any development work including
   Vehicle Tracking System.                  every construction, a qualified and             repairs, recommendations from the HCC
                                             registered structural engineer/architect/site   are obtained by MCGM before approving
Infrastructure Created                       supervisor is insisted.                         any development.

   A state of the art Data Centre            Regarding fire safety, requisite NOC from       Agencies       like    MMR        Heritage
   Wide Area Network-Connectivity to         Chief Fire Officer and compliance of the        Conservation Society assign study groups
   all the major buildings                   conditions stipulated by Fire Brigade           to identify new heritage structures/areas in
   Local Area Network in all major           Department are insisted. Specific NOC is        the Mumbai City as well as areas under
   buildidngs                                also insisted while granting occupation         MMRDA jurisdiction and prepare draft
                                             permission to ensure fire safety.               guidelines for development of such
Proposed Systems                                                                             heritage areas. Some NGOs like INTACH,
                                                  Mumbai is also a city with ageing          UDRI, etc. are also involved in the field of
   Biometric based Access Control            buildings, crumbling structures because of      heritage work.
   System to ensure accurate recording of    coastal regulations and other such

April - June 2008                                                                                                                       27
                   regional planning

                              Towards Creating a Hassle-Free Mumbai
     Drastic measures need to be taken to counter the effects of indiscriminate growth and unplanned
     explosion of commercial activities. Ratnakar Gaikwad, Metropolitan Commissioner of Mumbai outlines
     the steps taken to sort out the city’s problems

                umbai, the commercial capital of India contributes           education and health services are also causes for grave concern.
                significantly by generating over 50 per cent of direct
                and indirect taxes. It has also emerged as a formidable      To improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai,
     force in the Asian region. Economic growth is poised to jump by         MMRDA is in various stages of planning and implementing
     2.4 per cent and the GDP is fast approaching the double-digit           ambitious and innovative projects such as Mumbai Urban
     figure over the next decade, thus creating more than 0.5 million        Infrastructure Project (MUIP), Resettlement and Rehabilitation,
     additional jobs.                                                        Metro Railway, Flyovers Project, Refurbishment of Marine Drive
                                                                             and Mithi River Development Project. We have various new
     However, indiscriminate growth and unplanned explosion of               projects also undertaken under the MMR, such as Nirmal Mumbai
     commercial activities has taken its toll on the city. Rapid economic    Metropolitan Region Abhiyan (Open defecation free MMR),
     growth has put tremendous pressure on the city's infrastructure,        Skywalk and Monorail.
     drastically affecting the overall quality of life. Housing, transport
     and other city infrastructure is over stressed and bursting at the      The MMRDA has started implementing these projects. Apart from
     seams. Drastic steps need to be taken to maintain and accelerate        these, new projects undertaken are-: Eastern Freeway - Elevated
     the rate of economic growth and the Government of Maharashtra           road from Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum to Ghatkopar (approved
     is committed to this.                                                   by JNNRUM with a projected cost of Rs 531 crores), Sahar
                                                                             Elevated Road - International Airport connectivity (approved by
     Many policy makers and the general public have serious                  the JNNRUM with a projected cost of Rs. 287 crores) and Milan
     reservations on whether this crumbling city can be turned around        subway ROB - from Milan Junction (SV road) to Service road
     to a world-class city. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region                   (Western Express Highway) with a project cost of Rs 42 crores.
     Development Authority (MMRDA), a nodal planning authority
     of the Government of Maharashtra, has been given this daunting          Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP)
     task. It is responsible for the development of Mumbai
     Metropolitan Region (MMR), which comprises of the mega city             The MUTP concentrates mostly on improvement of rail, road and
     of Mumbai along with the rapidly growing hinterland. MMRDA              Resettlement and Rehabilitation component of the Government
     firmly believes that to ease the load of the overcrowded                of Maharashtra. The MUTP is being implemented with the
     metropolis, the whole MMR needs to be developed.                        financial assistance of World Bank. The objective of this project

     To achieve balanced development of MMR, MMRDA has
     embarked on a multi-pronged development programme. This                      To achieve balanced development of
     programme provides a blueprint for the overall development of                the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the
     the Region that will transform Mumbai into a vibrant international
                                                                                    MMRDA has embarked on a multi-
     metropolis and a world-class city. The key areas that needed
     immediate attention are the overburdened public transport system              pronged development plan that will
     and the road infrastructure. Other issues retarding the pace of             transform Mumbai into an international
     growth are lack of affordable housing leading to generation of
     slums. Issues like safety, environment, pollution, water, sanitation,

28                                                                                                                         April - June 2008
                                                                                                  regional planning

        To increase health standards in the slums, there is need to provide basic health
         facilities, public toilets and bathrooms, solid waste management, underground
                             drainage systems and storm - water systems

is to enhance capacity, efficiency and          railway level crossings. The proposed         railway stations for the convenience of the
financial viability. The cost of this project   scheme for road development comprises of      pedestrians. The project, proposes the
is Rs 4, 526 crore. Under this project, rail    Eastern Sub. Western Sub. and Island City,    construction of a skywalk near 20
is allocated Rs 3,140 crores, road, Rs 829      wherein the estimated cost is Rs 2,647        suburban railway stations. The estimated
crore, and Rehabilitation and Resettlement      crore.                                        cost of the project is Rs 600 crore. The
component, Rs 500 crore. Under the road                                                       pilot project will be implemented at the
component, construction, widening and           The MUIP had undertaken the widening          Bandra railway station. The MMRDA will
beatification of two vital link roads to        and beautification of key corridors to ease   build an elevated deck at the eastern
connect eastern and western suburbs viz.        traffic congestion. These are Western         direction costing approximately Rs 20
JVLR (costing Rs 115 crore) and SCLR            Express Highway, Eastern Express              crore.
(costing Rs 127 crore) has already been         Highway, LBS Marg, SV Road, Main
undertaken.                                     Linking Road, Goregaon Mulund Link            The Skywalks will facilitate easy entry and
                                                Road, Jogeshwari Vikhroli Link Road           exit from railway station, speedy access to
The primary objective of all the projects is    (JVLR), Andheri Ghatkopar Link Road,          bus stop, rickshaw, taxi stand, and would
well defined. The MUTP aims to ease out         Santacruz Chembur Link Road (SCLR),           therefore save valuable travel time. The
Mumbaikars’ commuting hassles and to            Sion-Dharavi Link Road, Sahar Road, Saki      overall traffic situation will improve
make available 101 new trains (999 new          Vihar Road, missing links to Sahar Airport    drastically with the construction of the one
railway coaches will be added in Mumbai),       from AK Road, Dhaku Marg, Marol               pillar skywalk.
also, to develop new railway routes (the        Maroshi Road, Mahakali Caves Road,
work of Borivali-Virar fourth lane has to       Andheri Kurla link Road, Jari Mari Road,      Monorail
be completed). The project will also ensure     JP Road and Anik Panjarpol Road. Of the
improved rail travel comfort and                work undertaken on 20 roads, work on          The Government of Maharashtra had
pedestrian safety, provide enhanced rail        seven have been completed and handed          formed a committee to implement Monrail
frequency, reduce delays in road journey,       over to MCGM. Work on the remaining 13        in Mumbai in 2005. The various Municipal
resettlement of PAPs in permanent housing       roads is progressing in full swing and is     Corporations governing the MMR have
and finally design 644 new eco-friendly         expected to be completed before the onset     demanded that the scope of the project be
buses for BEST. This has already been           of monsoon.                                   extended to their region also. The project
accomplished.                                                                                 will help decongest roads and complement
                                                Flyovers                                      the public transport. MMRDA has urged
Mumbai     Urban           Infrastructure                                                     the Corporations of Thane, Navi Mumbai,
Project (MUIP)                                  Under the Flyover project, 16 flyovers        Bhiwandi, Kalyan - Dombivili, Mira-
                                                comprising of a total length of 10,677 m in   Bhayander and Ullasnagar to present a
The main objective is to improve the road       length will be built as per international     joint proposal to MMRDA. To begin with,
network and provide benefits to the             standards and keeping aesthetics in mind.     three routes in Mumbai city and one route
pedestrians and public transport users. The     The expected cost of construction for these   in MMR will be implemented. The first
MUIP will facilitate connectivity between       flyovers will be Rs 421.62 crore. The         route covering 25 km will be from Malabar
the North-South road links, East-West           construction work of all the flyovers will    hill to Bandra Kurla Complex through
connectivity and safe, convenient and           be completed by December 2008.                Wadala and Sion. The second route of 10
efficient movement for pedestrians. It will                                                   km will run from Chembur to Mahul and
also ensure high capacity uninterrupted         Skywalk                                       the third route of 10 km will be from
connectivity to international airport,                                                        Lokhandwala Complex, Oshiwara, to
efficient and fast public transport,            The MMRDA has also undertaken the             Kanjurmarg through JVLR. In the MMR,
corridors, bus terminals/depots with            Skywalk project that is designed to           the Monorail is proposed to be executed
integration facilities, and elimination of      decongest the areas around the suburban       between Thane and Bhiwandi, covering a

April - June 2008                                                                                                                        29
                   regional planning

     distance of 25 km. The total estimated cost of all the four routes      NGO's have been appointed to implement the project.
     will be Rs 1500 crore.
                                                                             Resettlement and Rehabilitation Project
     The Monorail Project will enable traffic and signal free, pollution-    The Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) project is almost
     free, and comfortable travelling. It will save travel time and ensure   complete. The works under the MUTP, the MUIP, Metro Project,
     minimum investment in Rehabilitation and Resettlement.                  Mahatma Gandhi Footpath Scheme and Mithi River Development
                                                                             Project required the shifting of 65,000 slum dweller families
     Mumbai Metro Rail Project                                               residing in the way of roads and safety margins on the Rail
     The Mumbai Metro Rail Project has been conceived to attract
     commuters to use public transport rather than private modes of          About 20,000 slum dwelling families are affected by the MUTP,
     transport. The 146.5 km Mumbai Metro Rail Master Plan - worth           about 35,000 slum dwelling families under the MUIP, 3500
     Rs 20,000 crore - will be executed in three phases. The first phase     families under Metro Rail, 2500 families under Mahatma Gandhi
     would connect the western suburbs of Versova, passing through           Footpath Scheme, and about 3000 families under Mithi River
     Andheri to the eastern suburb of Ghatkopar. It will cover a total       Development Project, totalling 65,000 project-affected families.
     distance of 15 km. The second route would be a 32 km section
     beginning from Charkop and passing through Bandra to culminate          The MMRDA has constructed 55,000 tenements with all the
     at Mankhurd. The third route of 20 km, will provide northwest           physical and social infrastructure for resettlement of 4 lakh slum
     connectivity on the Coloba-Bandra route on Line-3. The total            dwellers at 32 different locations in Mumbai. The tenement of 225
     estimated cost for the 67 km three lines metro rail is about Rs         sq ft with all infrastructure and amenities will be allotted free of
     20,000 crore.                                                           cost to each project-affected family. The MMRDA has so far
                                                                             resettled about 19,000 under the MUTP, 14,000 under the MUIP,
     Mithi River Development Project                                         3500 families under Metro Rail, 2,500 families under Mahatma
                                                                             Gandhi Footpath Scheme and about 3,000 families under Mithi
     The Mithi River originates from Vihar lake and meets the Arabian        River Development Project.
     Sea at Mahim. The total length of the river is 17.83 km and it
     passes through Powai, Marol, Sakinaka, Santacruz, Kurla and             Marine Drive Refurbishment Project
     Bandra. The challenges of Mithi River are encroachments, solid
     waste, plastics, and constricted waterway. The plan was to be           Marine Drive, the 5 km promenade, also known as Queens
     completed in two phases. The first phase, which included                Necklace due to the glittering effect that the street lights produce
     desilting, widening and deepening of the river, has been completed      in this stretch, was developed in the early 1920s and has emerged
     as per plan at a cost of Rs 24 crore. Work on the second phase is       as one of the city's favorite recreational spot. Over the years the
     in progress.                                                            promenade had deteriorated and deserved a revamp. The
                                                                             MMRDA under the MUIP will refurbish the Marine Drive.
     Nirmal Mumbai Metropolitan Region Abhiyan (Open
     Defecation free MMR)                                                    The makeover is intended to strengthen and enhance the Marine
                                                                             Drive's image, yet maintain its basic characteristics. Work on the
     The seven Municipal Corporations and 13 Municipal Councils              first phase is almost complete at a cost of Rs 26 crore.
     belong to the MMR. More than 40 per cent of the people here live
     in slums, and therefore, the health standards are very low. To          JNNURM
     increase the health standards in these areas, there is a need to
     provide basic health facilities, public toilets and bathrooms, solid    Sponsored by the Central Government, the Jawaharlal Nehru
     waste management and underground drainage systems. About 70             National Urban Renewable Mission (JNNURM) was launched
     per cent of the total population, which comes under the MMRDA,          towards the end of 2005. By September 2007, the Government of
     do not have a storm water drainage system. That is why the 'Open        Maharashtra received the highest share of the funds released by
     Defecation-Free MMR (Nirmal Abhiyan)' is being implemented.             the Government of India. The state government, through the
                                                                             MMRDA has facilitated loans for urban infrastructure at 7 to 8
     The key objectives of Open Defecation-Free MMR 'Nirmal                  per cent per annum for all the 20 municipal corporations and
     Abhiyan' will be to increase the basic health standard and              councils in the MMR including the MCGM. The total amount
     cleanliness in the area of the Urban Local Body, reduce diseases,       provided so far is over Rs 2,200 crore, till the end of July, 2007.
     and increase the standard of living of the local people. Three          The interest rates were lowered in 2006.

30                                                                                                                           April - June 2008
                                                                                                               my vision

PM charts plan for urban renewal in India
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh's address to the nation on the occasion of the 61st Independence
Day on August 15, 2007 was significant for a different reason. He spelled out his vision for the new
India where urban renewal was a thrust area. In a country where politicians have been traditionally
soaked in the socialist principle of subsidies for farmers and the rural areas, this speech made clear the
government's intent to reduce the rural-urban divide and also focus on urban areas and their problems.

            e have helped increase farmers'      generate demand for
            income by raising substantially      first rate infrastructure.
            the support price for wheat and
                                                                                                  Industrialisation and
rice. Through Bharat Nirman, we are              The expansion and                             urbanisation will generate
investing in rural connectivity - road,          modernisation of our                             demand for first rate
electricity and telephone connectivity.          highways,        roads,
Bharat Nirman is our effort at bridging the      railways and airports is
urban rural divide.                              visible proof of our
                                                 efforts to meet this
It is essential that we create new               demand. Much more is needed and will be       development and economic growth. It is
employment opportunities outside of              done.                                         necessary to increase investment in
agriculture. Remember, there is no                                                             backward areas to improve the regional
developed country today anywhere in the          We need to do much more to generate and       balance in development.
world, that is not an industrial economy.        distribute more power more efficiently.
Industrialisation is critical for progress. If   Everyone should get good quality power at     Towards this end, we have created the
employment generation is the best weapon         affordable prices. I appeal to the state      Backward Regions Grant Fund covering
against poverty, then industrialization is       governments to take this matter seriously     250 districts. Over a period of time, these
the most effective means to create new job       as a weak power situation can become a        funds and our other initiatives will see that
opportunities.                                   handicap in industrialisation and job         these regions catch up with other parts of
                                                 creation.                                     the country.
Industrialisation would also mean
urbanisation. As more and more people            For every one of our people to benefit from   Every state, every district, every village,
live in urban areas, we need to have a more      new employment opportunities being            every person must be touched by the hand
creative process of urbanisation.                created across the economy, we must           of progress.
                                                 ensure that every Indian is educated and
This requires greater foresight in urban         skilled.                                      In the rush of modernisation and the race to
planning and development. Adequate                                                             develop we must not forget the value of
compensation must be paid to those               No nation can progress unless its people      conserving our resources.
displaced and urban space must be used in        are educated. We have shown our
an economical manner.                            government's commitment in this regard        Water is one such scarce resource. I want
                                                 by tripling public spending on education in   each and every citizen to pay special
We need to have adequate drainage                the last three years.                         attention to water conservation and how to
facilities so that life in our cities does not                                                 store and use water.
come to a standstill during heavy rains.         I request states also to give priority to
                                                 education, as education alone is the          I urge states to look upon water as a
The day is not far off when half a billion       foundation on which a progressive,            national asset and work to resolve inter-
people will be living in our cities and we       prosperous society can be built.              state disputes over water sharing with an
need to prepare for that day.                                                                  attitude of give and take.
                                                 There are many less developed regions in
Industrialisation and urbanisation will          the country that must also benefit from

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          31
                 my vision

     A planned route for government agencies
     Expressing his vision for the well-planned urban development in India, the former President of India, Dr.
     APJ Abdul Kalam, urged construction departments, like CPWD, to focus, evolve and implement the
     following suggested missions in the next two decades.

       Building design should use maximum solar energy and reduce            incorporation in future assets and cost effective modernisation
       energy consumption per square metre by half compared to the           of existing assets.
       present practice.                                                     Evolve a responsive management structure for implementation
       Water harvesting, recycling and management in all buildings.          of networked e-governance solutions - for transparency and
       Reduce fresh water consumption by 50 per cent in five years.          intelligent buildings
       Earthquake and disaster protection for all buildings - to reduce
       damage and wastage of precious natural resources.                  Urban development represents one of the great challenges for
       Water-proof for at least ten years without any                     India over the next two decades. Given the socio-political reality
       maintenance/repair costs.                                          in India, it will be difficult for the private sector to bring about
       Plan all civil, electrical, water, drainage, gas, and              changes in the pattern of investment in infrastructure without the
       communication services and integrate in the conceptual stage       state becoming an active partner, bringing about the required
       -avoid needless wastage in construction later.                     legislative and administrative changes. A satisfying outcome will
       Make all buildings disabled friendly.                              depend on the formulation of effective public policy to accelerate
       Use green building materials from agricultural and industrial      all-round development of smaller urban centres and to refashion
       wastes with least energy costs                                     the role of the state as an effective facilitator to compensate for the
       Seek ISO certification and use competent contractors.              deficiencies of the market.
       Propagate state-of-the-art technologies and knowledge for

32                                                                                                                          April - June 2008
   Living in
                                                                                  my vision


  Ratan Tata, Chairman of the Tata group, made news earlier this year with the Tata Nano, the Rs 1 lakh
  small car which is expected to change the way people live and move. He is now in the news for cracking
  the Jaguar-Land Rover deal, and earlier he made headlines for securing Corus as part of the Tata family.
  But theTatas are also a group that spends time, effort and money on securing comfortable lifestyles for
  their own employees in their flagship town - Jamshedpur - and a host of others across the country. They
  are the only player in the private sector that set-up a service company, JUSCO, to take care of its
  township’s civic services. We present the Tata Group’s vision and roadmap for urban governance.

April - June 2008                                                                                     33
                   my vision

            he Tata group’s vision for township       and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu               prepared, with the help of renowned
            management did not come from              temples, Mohammedan mosques and                  architect Karan Grover, to improve the city
            any one individual. It was part of a      Christian churches.”                             further. This is in the Tata tradition of town
     process that visionary founders stated and                                                        planning, pioneered in India almost a
     which has been adhered to and perfected          Tata Steel maintains Jamshedpur’s public         century back — through the Jamshedpur
     over the years. Excerpts:                        utilities much like a municipality, only         model — by architect F. C. Temple.
                                                      better. It takes care of road maintenance,
     The cities and towns around Tata industrial      water and electricity supply, streetlights,      Complementing the contribution that Tata
     facilities reflect originality in concept and    healthcare, sanitation and more.                 Steel has made to Jamshedpur, albeit on a
     execution. Jamshedpur, Mithapur, Babrala                                                          lesser scale, is Tata Motors, which has a
     and Mathigiri are unique in their own            The standard of these activities is so good      1,200-acre township of its own within the
     ways, different from one another in tone,        that Tata Steel floated JUSCO—                   precincts of the city.
     tenor and character, but there is a similarity   Jamshedpur Utilities and Services
     of principle that underpins all four — mere      Company Limited—as a separate entity so          Tata Motors provides accommodation to
     functionality has taken a backseat to a          as to share its knowledge and expertise,         all its employees and there are about
     blending of the practical and the aesthetic      which is unparalleled in the country.            40,000 residents in the township. Here
     with the environment in which these cities                                                        there are facilities for water treatment and
     are rooted.                                      The water here is of such high quality that      sewage disposal, a well-equipped hospital
                                                      Jamshedpur is one of the few Indian cities       with 500 beds, dispensaries, markets, a
     “Each city is an archetype rather than a         where one can drink directly from the tap.       sports stadium, playgrounds, parks and
     prototype, an exaggerated example from           Tata Steel arranges for the cleaning up of       recreation centres, academies for theatre,
     which to derive lessons for the typical,”        over 120,000 tonnes of garbage a year,           music and dance, and a hobby hub that
     said American architect Robert Venturi.          keeping the city squeaky clean.                  fosters creativity in employees and their
     The Tata cities are tangible manifestations      It provides electricity, well enough for
     of a commitment to infrastructure                residents to take the service for granted.       Mithapur and Babrala
     development. Just as importantly, they are       The company also spends Rs. 25 crore a
     catalysts for the development of the             year on the Tata Main Hospital, which            As with Jamshedpur and Tata Steel, so
     regions and the people surrounding their         takes care of employees as well as the           with Tata Chemicals and the two centres it
     suburbs.                                         general public.                                  has created around its operations: Mithapur
                                                                                                       in coastal Gujarat and Babrala in Uttar
     The Tata companies that sustain these            Jamshedpur is among the greenest of              Pradesh. Distinct in layout and geography,
     cities are cast in the mould of caretakers       India’s cities, with a plethora of parks,        Mithapur and Babrala serves the needs,
     rather than gatekeepers.                         playgrounds and tree lined streets. It is also   and then some of the company’s chemicals
                                                      a fine example in education, having a            and fertilisers plants respectively.
     Jamshedpur                                       literacy rate of 75 per cent that is
                                                      unparalleled in eastern India.                   The Mithapur story began in 1939, when
     Jamshedpur is home to majority of Tata                                                            the Tatas took over the Okha Salt Works.
     Steel’s operations and a significant part of     Tata Steel runs eight primary schools, nine      Okhamandal, the region where Mithapur is
     Tata Motors’. It is tied to an idea espoused     high schools and a college, while                situated, was an undeveloped and desolate
     by Jamsetji Tata, the founder of the Tata        supporting many more schools indirectly.         place where many kingdoms and
     Group.                                           Community initiatives are as high on the         civilisations had thrived in the past.
                                                      Tata agenda as education and this has            Mithapur, privately owned by Tata
     Writing to his son Dorab Tata in 1902            spawned a wide variety of programmes,            Chemicals, is part of the 5,398 acres of
     about his concept of a city for the workers      most notably on AIDS awareness and drug          freehold land obtained in the 1930s from
     of the proposed Tata Steel plant, he stated:     abuse.                                           the government of the erstwhile princely
     “Be sure to lay wide streets planted with                                                         state of Baroda.
     shady trees, every other of a quick-             The Tatas spend about Rs 139 crore
     growing variety. Be sure that there is           annually on keeping Jamshedpur in the            Spread across 663 acres of land, Mithapur
     plenty of space for lawns and gardens.           pink of health. That, evidently, is not good     enjoys the advantages of urban
     Reserve large areas for football, hockey         enough, given that plans are being               infrastructure along with the beauty of its

34                                                                                                                              April - June 2008
                                                                                                                my vision

idyllic surroundings. A department within Tata Chemicals takes           Mathigiri
care of Mithapur’s administration.
                                                                         In the late 1980s, Titan zeroed in on Hosur in Tamil Nadu’s
This department is responsible for developing and maintaining            impoverished Dharmapuri district for its manufacturing operation.
residential houses, schools, medical facilities, public spaces and       Several companies followed in its wake and the influx of
welfare and sports activities. Mithapur has a high school, three         industrial workers put a severe strain on the infrastructure in the
primary schools, two junior schools and one pre school; together         area. While mapping the needs of its burgeoning employee
they provide education to some 8,000 children and employment to          community, Titan discovered that housing resources were meagre
over 200 teachers.                                                       and substandard. Having provided its large, young workforce with
                                                                         decent disposable incomes, the watchmaker was now faced with
A well-equipped hospital, a mobile clinic, a family planning unit,       the task of meeting the requirement of enjoyable living.
and child immunisation centres look after the healthcare needs of
company employees as well as the people living in the 42 villages        In 1991 Titan established a township spread over 110 acres at
of Okhamandal. Other facilities include a market with 300 shops,         Mathigiri. Constructed with the help of acclaimed architect
a hospital, a cinema hall and six parks. The town has an                 Charles Correa, it was designed in a manner that blended urban
assortment of parks and gardens to go with a 2 km long beach and         landscapes with the semi-rural milieu of the region, from where
the two lakes at its outskirts attract a variety of migratory birds in   the majority of the company’s employees came. “We did not want
the winter months.                                                       to unsettle our employees by providing a total urban
                                                                                               environment,” says N. Sekar, Senior Officer,
Tata Chemicals operates all the municipal                                                      Training and Development, Titan.
services in the town, and delivers an                Environment is a key
uninterrupted supply of electricity from its          issue in Babrala and                Currently about 130 families live at
captive co-generation power plant. The
                                                   Mithapur - both of which Mathigiri, which has rows of duplex houses
company provides for the cultural and                                                     arranged in clusters around landscaped
recreational needs of the community through        are ISO 14001 certified. courtyards. Every house has an open space
the libraries, clubs, cinemas, playgrounds         Awareness drives and a in the front and a private garden in a
and public gardens it has established. To                                                 common courtyard at the back. There is a
                                                     no-plastic policy helps
cater to the diverse needs of its staff and the                                           conveniently located shopping centre, a
local community, Tata Chemicals supports a                                                medical clinic, a sprawling recreation centre
large number of social and cultural institutions through grants. and other facilities aimed at encouraging a vibrant communal life.
Water is a precious commodity in Mithapur, which falls in the Blacktopped roads and landscaped common areas make this area
drought-prone Jamnagar district. Water is recycled back to a flush- pleasing to the eye.
pumping station and used to nourish plants and maintain gardens.
                                                                    The company also addresses the education needs of this
About 1,400 kilometres to the north of Mithapur, in the midst of community. The Titan School, started in 2001, teaches almost 350
a densely forested area, lies Babrala, developed in 1992 when Tata children in classes ranging from pre primary to the fifth standard.
Chemicals’ fertiliser plant was set up here.                        This school has an alternative approach and emphasises holistic
                                                                    rather than merely academic education.
This settlement is home to nearly 1,000 employees and their
families. This, too, is an urban dwelling in a rural setting. Wide Children use the unconventional sight and phonetic reading
roads and a green environment characterise the town layout. Tata method to learn. The school has no examinations till the fourth
Chemicals has provided plenty of amenities in Babrala: spacious standard.
houses, a shopping centre, a clubhouse, a library, and health and
sports facilities. The DAV Public School instructs students in both “We believe in the integrated curriculum approach that does not
English and Hindi.                                                  burden a child, but allows for total personality development,” says
                                                                    Sajeetha Barathi, the school’s Headmistress.
Environment is a key issue in Babrala and Mithapur, both of
which are ISO-14001 certified. The emphasis is on waste The company was also able to employ its spirit for innovation to
reduction, proper garbage disposal and conservation of natural circumvent some of the problems it encountered. Water shortage,
resources. Environmental awareness drives are held regularly and the norm in Hosur, is unheard of in Mathigiri.
both towns have a ‘no plastic policy’.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          35
               my vision

                     Technology is the key
     N Chandrababu Naidu is credited to be the first Chief Minister of a state who laid down principles of
     governance to boost economic reforms. Use of technology to bring transparency and accountability is
     the key, he tells E Jayashree Kurup.

                                                                                  or Indian cities to work, all city
                                                                                  governments         must       have
                                                                                  accountability and transparency.
                                                                          Information Technology and new concepts
                                                                          of management are tools that can help. The
                                                                          excuse that cities are crowded and
                                                                          therefore the infrastructure does not match,
                                                                          does not hold. Look at pilgrim cities like
                                                                          Badrinath which have provided all the
                                                                          facilities for the common man. Once IT
                                                                          systems are deployed, there is no loss of
                                                                          time and corruption is reduced. I strongly
                                                                          recommend the use of IT for governance.
                                                                          In Hyderabad, we created the E-Seva
                                                                          project where a large number of services
                                                                          of the municipal corporations were taken

                                                                          This way we integrated all possible
                                                                          services from birth to death. Even the
                                                                          municipal department's functioning was
                                                                          streamlined by bringing together all
                                                                          documentation and accounting of
                                                                          payments, travel and entertainment.

                                                                          The day-to-day functions of each
                                                                          department were on its own server and all
                                                                          departments update their own data
                                                                          continuously. These individual servers
                                                                          were linked to a central server.

                                                                          The single window provision helped
                                                                          streamline      municipal      functions
                                                                          tremendously. The process of verification
                                                                          ws simplified. The departments of
                                                                          registration, for instance, reduced the
                                                                          process     of   issuing    encumbrance
                                                                          certificates from 7-10 days to just 2

                                                                          The registration process was standardised

36                                                                                                April - June 2008
                                                                                                             my vision

and these documents can be secured from anywhere in the state.
Tremendous cost saving was effected through the system of e-             Creativity and mission must be backed
procurement. It also brought in efficiency and accountability.               with infrastructure upgrade. The
An IT revolution should not be restricted to government offices of        planning for a city goes hand in hand
even commercial establishments. It should seep into the lives of                       with this vision
the citizens. In Hyderabad all houses are wired.
                                                                      What should be done to revive old cities and modernise them?
The poor citizens got access to the service through the E-Seva        Special funds have been earmarked for maintenance of schools,
centres. Others could access it from their own homes.                 roads etc. Regular maintenance makes repair and management
                                                                      cheaper. For all these, we need to create fixed money, plan
Usage was slow in the initial stages but eventually all the driving   allocation and non-plan allocation.
licenses to bill chalans were given electronically. Finally we had
a delegation from Singapore visiting us to study how this was         Metro Rail is a must in growing cities - there is no other way. But
made possible.                                                        we need to integrate the entire transport planning to reduce road
The departments only needed to learn to provide these systems
and use the advantage of being networked.                             City planning is a continuous process. Facilities of cleaning of
                                                                      roads can be outsourced for efficiency. I had made a pact with my
Creativity is very important in city management. I and my team        cleaning staff that they could continue till they retire.
studied best practices from all over the world. And then we tried
to implement them with local variations. Today we have the best       But private parties were used for overall cleaning where night time
convention centre, the best companies in the world working here,      cleaning was introduced. Actually I feel city management depends
the best educational institutions working here.                       on leadership. The same money can be made to go a lot further
                                                                      with good management.
This has to be backed by adequate infrastructure upgrade. The
development of the international airport as a greenfield project is   India is moving forward. The quality of governance too is
a step in this direction.                                             improving. However, corruption is at its peak and poses a big
Planning for growth in a city is very important. The city has to be
planned - this was a step in that direction. This opens up new        Bureaucrats and city managers need constant training globally to
avenues of growth in the city.                                        remain competitive. I had sent them to Singapore for training.
                                                                      There should be continuous capacity building. Willingness is
When the prime city is overcrowded, the orientation of the original   important among bureaucrats.
city has to be changed.
                                                                      Local area planning is a key initiative that will ensure regular
When you plan for renewal of a city you have to look after all        participation of citizens in the planning process. Money is not a
aspects of it. The old part adds heritage value. But you have to      constraint, the will to do is important.
reduce the crowd there and enhance its traditional features through
planning. Structured planning of business and entertainment in        We increased revenue 10 to15 times and efficiency was up 7 to 8
this region will enhance its value.                                   per cent. People showed a willingness to participate and pay for
                                                                      better service quality. When a city grows, water reqirements
 Entertainment and shopping in inner city areas are a must to         increase. The planners and administrators have to consider where
ensure its revival. But back this up with suburban development        the additional resources would come from. We needed to tackle
where planned commercial and residential development will             the issue of where to bring water from. Plan well and the problem
ensure that crowds dissipate to the suburbs.                          finds a solution.

Asset management in a growing city is a must. We have been            Civic services have to be dealt with as a unified whole. Sewers,
ignoring this aspect but to make the city acceptable in the modern    water, electricity, telecommunication can be integrated into
context we must ensure proper asset management.                       channels so that roads are not dug frequently. Plan well and cities
                                                                      will work.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                       37
                  my vision

     Growing Need of Healthcare in Urban
     A growing city population requires provision of quality healthcare. But inclusive health facilities require
     policy interventions encompassing education, sanitation, inclusive housing and medical facilities.
     Founder chairman of Apollo Hospitals Group, Dr. Pratap C Reddy, gives his vision of the opportunities
     that exist in urban healthcare.

                                                      The poor are the hardest hit by growing out-of-pocket
                                                      spending on healthcare and lack of public policy on
                                                      urban health

                                                    very complex one indeed.                       This was especially significant because of
                                                                                                   the complex nature of the healthcare
                                                    Aligning supply with demand, therefore, is     system in urban areas, as they face a dual
                                                    not a problem unique to the healthcare         burden of communicable and non-
                                                    sector alone, particularly in the context of   communicable diseases. But there was also
                                                    urbanisation and its demands. What is          a downside. This saw increasing instances
                                                    unique, however, is the low priority for       of healthcare spending in India coming

              fter more than four decades as a      urban health, with greater focus reserved      from out-of-pocket expenditures of its
              closed economy and fourteen           for rural areas, even though statistics for    people, as also the lack of focus of public
              years of reform, India has            urban poor can rival those for rural poor.     policy on urban health in comparison to
     ascended the world stage and laid the          Of the estimated 328 million urban             rural health.
     groundwork for rapid growth. An                populations, over 180 million urban poor
     inevitable outcome of the process of           have only 1,083 family welfare centers to      The hardest hit, in the bargain, are the poor,
     growth and modernisation has been the          diagnose their diseases. At least 300          also because of lack of credible data for
     phenomenon of uncontrolled urbanisation.       additional urban health and family welfare     urban poor related planning, and the
     This phenomenon is owed to the premature       centres need to be set up annually to cater    illegality that they face with the clusters of
     migration of very large number of people       to the needs of the 215 million urban by       slums overlooked by official enumeration
     from rural areas to urban ones, causing        2020, says a report by the Associated          systems. Though several NGOs are doing
     considerable strain to urban infrastructure.   Chambers of Commerce and Industry of           commendable work in slums, there is weak
                                                    India (ASSOCHAM).                              coordination among the government and
     Studies have established that people who                                                      other stakeholders, including NGOs,
     move to the cities do so either to become      Traditionally, the spatial strategies of       leading to few examples of coordinated,
     better educated and look for jobs in the       tertiary care hospitals have necessitated      planned slum health programs in most
     burgeoning services sector, or to meet with    their location in urban centers. This          states.
     the demand for labour for the development      strategy only found continuum with the
     activities in cities. More economic growth     advent of corporate healthcare in India.       The low access of public health services to
     has only led to more migration, and more       What changed for the better with the           the poor is also owed to the weak referral
     migration has meant that we almost keep        advent of corporate healthcare though, was     linkages from community and primary
     standing where we are with regard to           the availability of a better value             facilities, and the lack of risk pooling and
     development activities, which goes to          proposition for India's urban citizens with    health insurance mechanisms for the poor.
     make the phenomenon of urbanisation a          regard to healthcare delivery.                 Overall, rapid urbanisation has certainly

38                                                                                                                          April - June 2008
                                                                                                               my vision

By optimising performance, it is possible to reconcile the objectives of access, quality and
                                    cost in healthcare
led to sharp disparities in the access to healthcare.                   opening up to a variety of players, has been the concerted move
                                                                        to redefine public health as both a private and public good, seeing
To introduce reforms, policies aimed at promoting urban health          them as complementary and not in opposition. This shifting of an
must necessarily focus on reducing the amount of sickness and           age old mindset assumes greater significance in the context of the
injury, as it is important to reduce demand in order to align better    growing worldwide interest in the Indian healthcare industry's
with supply. Obvious as this opportunity might seem, many               domestic agenda. How we plan to leverage our reputation on the
reformers prefer to deal with more complicated matters before           global healthcare scenario to address the needs of our own people
addressing it. The opportunities are actually multifarious:             certainly depends on what steps both government and industry
promoting basic levels of hygiene through proper sanitation;            take.
ensuring clean drinking water; building safe roads for
transportation and ensuring safe, reliable energy consumption;          But our population is huge, and any intervention that we design
reducing environmental hazards, because illness is inevitably           must have both scale and permanence. Interventions that center
linked to pollution levels; establishing effective and                  on philanthropy, often lack scale and permanence, unless when
comprehensive immunisation programs; and encouraging healthy            they partner the government, in which case they may end up
lifestyles as increased risk of diabetes, heart disease and cancer is   lacking efficiency and efficacy. We need to pursue public private
linked with poor diet, sedentary lifestyles and smoking. As has         partnerships with business houses, and also with committed NGOs
been seen in the US and the UK, public education campaigns can          and other groups, targetting models that have the capacity and
be quite powerful and effective, because since the 1980s, tobacco       experience to deliver consistent value. Our experience in working
consumption has reduced by approximately 50 percent.                    with the government and other groups on path breaking initiatives
                                                                        such as Yashaswini in Karnataka that covers over 2 million
So, the opportunities in healthcare in urban governance cannot be       members, and other notable projects such as with the Maharashtra
limited to the domain sector alone. It needs an arsenal comprising      State Police, All India Weavers' Cooperative and the Bharat
education, healthcare, housing, access to basic services, and           Swaasth model have demonstrated that it is possible to combine
access to capital, for a major focus for restructuring the system       efficacy and efficiency with scale and permanence.
must most certainly create a universal access mechanism which
also factors in the private sector as a major player. Health            When we have interventions that combine idealism and
insurance is an evolving mechanism, that can adequately address         experience with social entrepreneurship, we will find more and
the healthcare needs of the urban poor and the rich. By offering        more businesses committed about ventures that make money for
insurance products and community based micro-insurance                  investors while providing tangible social benefits. In my
schemes for slum dwellers and poorer sections, we can address           experience, people always adopt any solution that delivers better
the issue of access to healthcare. Insurance offers exciting            value. But our challenge now lies in delivering the solution at
opportunities for several players including life insurers and banks,    better value and at a lower cost. By working together to prevent
who all view the sector as a value add to consumers, as is apparent     disease, improving access mechanisms to healthcare and
from the advertisements on the subject.                                 optimising performance, it is possible to reconcile the objectives
                                                                        of access, quality and cost in healthcare.
In fact, one encouraging development with regard to the sector's

April - June 2008                                                                                                                         39
                                                                                                   The transformation of the
                                                                                                   Indian consumer has
                                                                                                   begun. India was
                                                                                                   dismissed as a country
                                                                                                   beset by social problems,
                                                                                                   inhabited by the poverty-
                                                                                                   stricken and ruled by
                                                                                                   socialist principles, where
                                                                                                   consumption was
                                                                                                   considered taboo and
                                                                                                   ostentatious display of
                                                                                                   wealth and lifestyle was
                                                                                                   not encouraged. Bijou
                                                                                                   Kurien, President & CEO
                                                                                                   of Reliance Lifestyle,
                                                                                                   shares his vision for an
                                                                                                   emerging India with Good
                                                                                                   Governance India.

     The New India
     Challenges of Civic Development and Specialty Retailing

                   ith the emergence of a new,        by the lucre of a 1 billion large consumer    cities. There is a yearning amongst
                   young and confident India          market.                                       Indians for a world class retail experience.
                   which is more internationally
     aligned and less tradition oriented, the         The opportunity is huge. The middle class,    There is a need to source quality products,
     stage is set for organised retailing and         variously estimated between 150 to 250        transport them in an efficient and speedy
     retailing of lifestyle categories to take off.   million and growing by leaps and bounds,      manner to the stores, create the right
                                                      is craving the lives they often wished but    mindset and attitude among those who
     Driven no longer by need but by                  could not afford or aspire to. The size of    work within the stores; and support it by
     aspiration, Indians are now demanding            the consuming class can be huge - the         technology and processes which ensure a
     wider range of products and brands, newer        mobile phone and wireless telephony           profitable, responsive and flexible
     stores, better experiences and greater           market bear witness to massive changes        business.
     access. Impulse shopping is creeping             that can be wrought by new value
     ahead of planned purchase. Focus is on           propositions.                                 India has archaic land laws. Large parcels
     fashion and form rather than utility. In                                                       of land are still held by the government.
     many cases, the replacement cycle has            The Indian retail market, estimated at        There are no zoning laws and it is perfectly
     dropped sharply leading to ownership of          approximately $300 billion, is largely        possible to have residential and
     multiple brands and products for different       dominated by small independent retailers      commercial developments exist side by
     wear and usage occasions. With import            spread across the width and breadth of the    side.
     restrictions being gradually removed,            country. International formats such as
     more and more international brands are           hyper markets or super markets have only      Re-development of large land banks and
     flocking to the shores of India, captivated      been recently established in a couple of      tenancy rights are mired in the

40                                                                                                                           April - June 2008
                                                                                                              my vision

bureaucratic or judicial processes of the       and public sector can collaborate in          potential national income and employment
country. All this puts pressure on the price    developing our future cities.                 value that organised retail and brands can
of land and the consequent price of mall or                                                   add, and is taking steps to address these
retail space. The retailers seek out property   For India to become a shopping destination    issues.
and land parcels, competing with other          which conforms to international standards,
users, without any specific reservation,        we have to adopt international laws and       There is a compelling economic need to
recognition or subsidy, hoping to be able       norms. Making shopping 24X7 is currently      trigger consumption growth, which in its
to turn a venture into a profitable business.   hampered by the limitations imposed by        wake, will bring infrastructural and
                                                the Shops & Commercial Establishments         industrial growth, and propel the
State governments and local civic bodies        Act. Similarly, the Standards of Weights &    development of a strong support industry
need to consider town planning in a             Measures Act force products or brands to      for the retail sector. The retail industry
radically different manner. Creeping, or in     go through several secondary packaging        which is the second largest employer in
some cases, galloping expansion of              processes like price marking, affixing        India, has the potential to drive growth and
construction, without any distinction           manufacturer's details etc., which            grow along with the economy. What it
between housing, shopping, commercial or        sometimes makes products look like a          needs is collaborative working amongst all
industrial or even the provision of lung        mass of labels and slows down the entire      stake holders and a national policy which
spaces, will make it difficult to create        supply chain. Transparent inter-state rules   encompasses the vision that all such stake
towns and cities which can measure up to        and regulations and taxation systems for      holders subscribe to.
international standards. We need the            movement and sale of goods would help
political will and the bureaucratic zeal to     speed up logistics. But slowly the
build and implement such a vision. Private      government is beginning to realise the

April - June 2008                                                                                                                        41
               best practices

 Urban Governance Best Practices
 The Good Governance India Magazine showcases the best practices initiated by various bodies
 involved in urban development, management and governance. In this issue, we bring forward
 the best practices under various themes of environment, energy, solid waste management, water
 & sanitation, and disaster management.
                                                streets for disposal.
                                                It has resulted in collection of 18 per cent
 Community Links              for    Clean      of Chennai’s garbage per day and creation
 Environment - India                            of 1500 jobs. The advent of Civic
                                                EXNORAs has led to a more effective
 Excellent Novel and Radical (EXNORA)           system of garbage collection and disposal.
 International is a broad based voluntary,
 Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)            Garbage is being collected and disposed in
 in Chennai. It has created wide spread         a more organised manner by households.
 environmental and civic awareness by           Greater awareness has been generated
 promoting community / street directly          among the communities about the need for
 involved in a voluntary effort in waste        maintaining a systematic method for
 collection, removal, recycling and keeping     garbage clearance and removal. As a result,
 their environment clean and green.             households in general are taking a more
                                                active role in keeping their surroundings
 The local units of EXNORA have made            clean. EXNORA is also concerned with
 innovations to this scheme by adopting         other special and environmental issues.
 different methods of disposal, recycling,                                                     Housing and Urban Development.
 reuse and composting of waste, which           Therefore, it has initiated supported
 reflects initiative and a conscious decision   activities towards creating a clean and        The CEIP incorporates environmental
 making process.                                green environment for all.                     management strategy priorities, such as the
                                                                                               restoration of Beira Lake, improving the
 The entire scheme is managed by the            Environment       Improvement                  garbage collection system, constructing a
 residents of each street/community. For the    Programme - Colombo                            new sanitary landfill and transfer stations,
 Corporation's experiment to be successful,                                                    construction of two centralised industrial
 garbage would have to be placed directly       On the invitation of the Government of Sri     effluent treatment plants, and also for
 into the hydrocontainers so that               Lanka, MEIP-Colombo was set up and has         developing a robust, well-planned
 Corporation workers could later mount          assisted the city of Colombo in developing     Geographic Information System (GIS) for
 them directly on trucks.                       an Environmental Management Strategy           Colombo.
                                                (EMS) and Action Plan which has been
 These hydrocontainers were made                effectively used to assess key                 Another significant achievement towards
 available at the end of every street so that   environmental problems, identify options,      sustainability was the preparation and
 the garbage could be dumped into it            devise strategies, implement action plans,     acceptance of Clean Air 2000 Action Plan
 directly and not strewn in and around the      and institutionalise the approach.             as government policy for air quality
 dustbins.                                                                                     management.
                                                The major achievement of MEIP-Colombo
 From here the containers would be hauled       was that in the short space of six years it    Among the consequences of its
 onto the Corporation trucks and taken to       prepared a "down-stream" investment            implementation were the setting up of an
 the dumping sites. The residents found it      project, the Colombo Environment               air quality        monitoring network,
 inconvenient to carry the garbage from         Improvement Project (CEIP) currently           introduction of unleaded petrol and setting
 their respective houses to the end of the      being implemented by the Ministry of           environmentally related standards.

42                                                                                                                     April - June 2008

5th International Conference on “Good Urban Governance for
                         Inclusive and Sustainable Cities” and
          5th International Exhibition on “Municipal Services,
                       Urban Development and Public Works”

           unicipalika 2008 covering the
           5th International Conference
           and Exhibition was held at
MMRDA         Grounds,       Bandra-Kurla
Complex, Mumbai from 31st January to
2nd February 2008. It had the participation
of over 600 delegates representing 35
mayors, 48 Municipal commissioners and
Secretaries from 19 states. Besides the
participation of all professionals,
technology providers and other stake
holders including civil society groups.

Municipalika 2008 was inaugurated by
Shri M. Ramachandran, Secretary,
Ministry of Urban Development,
Government of India. The inaugural            ICMA – South Asia, Shri V Suresh,            Shri M. Ramachandran, Secretary,
session was presided by Smt. Manorama         Conference Co-ordinator and Advisor,         Ministry of Urban Development,
Dobriyal Sharma, Chairperson, All India       Good Governance of India Foundation,         Government of India. The Exhibition
Council of Mayors. The other dignitaries      Shri Govind Swarup, Advisor, Good            showcasing technology, services and
in the inaugural session were Shri T.C.       Governance India Foundation and Shri         managerial systems incorporated into a
Benjamin, Principal Secretary, Urban          Sanjiv Agarwal, Founder and Trustee,         common space of over 2000 sq.mts., was
Development,         Government        of     Good Governance India Foundation.            highly appreciated by the Secretary and
Maharashtra, Dr. J V Modi, President, All                                                  other dignitaries.
India Institute of Local Self Government,     Subsequent to conference inauguration, the
Mr. Marc Ginsberg, EERE Board of              5th International Exhibition on “Municipal   The 3day conference           had    13
Directors, Department of Energy,              Services, Urban Development and Public       Technical Sessions :
Washington, Mr. Jon Bormet, Director,         Works”        was      inaugurated      by
                                                                                           Theme:     City         Development
                                                                                           Challenges and         Good Urban

                                                                                           CS 01 Growing Cities and Urban
                                                                                           Challenges, CS 02 Leading and Best
                                                                                           Practices for Good Urban Governance,
                                                                                           CS 03 Urban Reforms Agenda (Sound
                                                                                           Financial Management including Double
                                                                                           Entry Accounting System, Enhancement
                                                                                           of Resource Base, Property Tax Reforms
                                                                                           and Resource Mobilization from Capital /
                                                                                           Bond Market and National / International
                                                                                           Agencies) and CS 04 Disaster Mitigation

April - June 2008                                                                                                                 43


 and Management including Fire Protection
 and Safety, Vision Address – Sustainable

 Theme: Integrated Water Supply,
 Sanitation, Waste, Transport &
 Energy Needs:

 CS 05 Integrated Water and Waste Water
 Management Practices – Water, CS 06
 Integrated Waste Management Practices
 (collection, transportation, treatment and
 disposal) - Domestic and Municipal Waste
 Management, CS 05 Integrated Water and
 Waste Water Management Practices -
 Waste Water, CS 06 Integrated Waste
 Management Practices - Biomedical, toxic
 and hazardous waste including e-waste, CS
 07 Integrated Transport Management, CS
 08 Integrated Energy Efficient City
 Services and Built Environment and CS.09
 City Development in Regional Context
 including SEZ & Satellite Towns.

 Theme: Inclusive & Sustainable City
 Development and E-Governance:

 CS 10 Housing and Infrastructure                   by high quality floor interventions.
 Development For Slum-Less Cities &
 Integrated   Housing     and     Slum              In addition, the event also had 3 vision
 Development Programme (IHSDP), Basic               addresses on the team of sustainable cities
 Services for Urban Poor (BSUP) and                 given by Mr. Adi Godrej, Ms. Minja Yang
 Public - Private - People Partnership              and Mr. Mark Ginsberg.
 (PPPP), CS 11 E Governance & IT
 Applications    in    Municipal/Urban              Further there was a video conference
 Management and Services, CS.12 Public-             between US and Indian Cities covering
 Private Partnerships / Real Estate                 Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Ahmedabad,
 Development as Engines of Growth and               Atlanta, Columbus, Denver and Chicago.
 CS 13 Remote Sensing / GIS / GPS / GIT
 Applications for Urban Planning,                   One of the significant events was the open
 Development and Management.                        house interface between the citizens and
                                                    Mayors and City Managers’.                    and to take care of the needs of the poor,
 Each of the sessions highlighted the                                                             marginalised and disadvantaged for
 challenges, major initiatives and actionable       Dr. H.S. Anand, Secretary, Housing and        housing and basic services for Sustainable
 agenda needed for creating sustainable and         Urban Poverty Alleviation, Govt. of India,    City Development. Dr. H S Anand also
 inclusive cities. The sessions had over 120        in his Valedictory Address exhorted the       gave the awards for the best displays in
 presentations by expert speakers followed          imperative need for inclusive development     Municipalika Exhibition.

44                                                                                                                       April - June 2008

                    Clockwise from top left:

                    Adi Godrej, Chairman, Godrej Group

                    Minja Yang, Director, UNESCO India

                    L to R: Manorama Dobriyal Sharma,
                    Mayor, Dehradun, Dr. H.S. Anand,
                    Secretary, Min. of Housing & Urban
                    Poverty Alleviation (H&UPA), Govt. of
                    India, Sanjiv Agarwal, Trustee, Good
                    Governance India Foundation (GGIF),
                    Govind Swarup, Advisor, GGIF:

                    Dr. H.S. Anand giving away the
                    Municipalika 2008 Awards in the
                    presence of V. Suresh, Advisor-GGIF &
                    Conference Coordinator, and Manorama
                    Dobriyal Sharma

                    Mark Ginsberg, Board of Directors,
                    US Department of Energy

April - June 2008                                           45

                                           and manmade disaster has to be         heart and soul is needed in this
     Recommendations                       one of the major areas that require    connection – a paradigm shift.
                                           attention at the local body level.     Keeping in view the development
 The following major points of             Most of the cities are ill-prepared.   need in coastal cities with over
 observations and recommendations          Keeping in view the limited land       6000 kms. of sea front, the existing
 emerged        from       Municipalika    and high costs, high rise              coastal zoning regulations would
 conference:                               development        has       become    need revamp.
    Cities with vision documents are       necessary. The safety aspects from     Considering         the        limited
    the ones that come forward with        all point of view have to be kept in   availability of land, there is
    best practices and best conceived      mind and the building bye laws         sufficient scope to increase
    projects under JNNURM. The             and enforcement have to take care      FAR/FSI commensurate with
    vision document guides the action      of the same.                           infrastructure addition.
    plan and support should be             As part of the slum development        There is a crying need to conserve
    provided.                              strategy under JNNURM, IHSDP           the present built environment and
    It is desirable to analyse the         and BSUP in addition to efforts for    heritage      along      with     new
    unfinished agenda for reforms in       providing adequate and affordable      developments. Cultural past is the
    2008 to see that these are             shelter and basic services, equal      pillar for future growth
    completed within the time frame.       attention should be given for          Modern tools of GIS/GPS and
    The potential of decentralisation is   poverty alleviation, job creation      Remote Sensing to be utilized for
    immense and should involve             and skill impartation.                 city based information system and
    stakeholders at the local level and    Sulabh toilets, socially, culturally   properties, natural resources and
    monitoring and execution of            acceptable, appropriate, affordable    infrastructure both above and
    projects in the decentralised model    and indigenous need to be              below grounds.
    is far more efficient.                 encouraged.                            E-Governance to be given top
    There should be a uniform code of      All efficient water management         priority       for      transparency,
    selection and conduct for mayors,      system including waste water           information sharing, provision of
    city managers for all local            recyling has to be introduced          services to the citizens in user
    governments.                           compulsorily Revive traditional        friendly manner.
    Professionalism and transparency       systems      and    also     involve   The initiatives for Public-Private-
    of functions is required for           communities to deal with the           People’s Partnership (PPPP) to be
    efficient city management.             present crisis                         encouraged for housing and
    Culture is changing fast and we        There is a greater need for            infrastructure initiatives for all
    have to adapt to new realities, and    utilisation    of   state-of-the-art   groups.
    plan policies accordingly, with        technologies        for        waste   The potential of land as a resource
    cities adopting new technologies       management of all categories           has to be fully tapped for
    and skill–sets to execute them.        including conversion waste to          enhancing the resource base as
    Possible flexibility needed for        wealth.                                well as providing equitable and
    diverse regional needs.                Keeping in view the large scale        inclusive solutions benefiting all
    Regional aspirations are on the rise   automobile revolution in cities,       groups.
    and cities in the region are being     there is an urgent need to             There is an imperative need to
    encouraged to participate and          encourage and strengthen public        strengthen local bodies through
    share experiences and solutions to     transportation modes.                  capacity building at the level of
    problems.                              Considering the larger impact of       mayors,        councellors,       city
    30 cities have been credit rated.      global warming and climate             managers, service providers to deal
    Municipal bonds are a good source      change, there is a major need to       with      the      multi-dimensional
    of raising resources. This has to be   adopt, technologies and practices,     development needs to make cities
    expanded and for smaller local         which will contribute to creating      work.      Appropriate        training
    bodies pooled bond scheme should       environment friendly, ecologically     modules suiting each groups have
    be launched.                           appropriate and energy saving and      to be evolved.
    Disaster        mitigation      and    built environment. A major
    preparation to deal with natural       attitudinal change of mind, body,

46                                                                                                   April - June 2008

                                    he 5th International Exhibition on Municipal
                                    Services, Urban Development and Public Works
                                    was organised at Bandra-Kurla Exhibition
                             Complex, Mumbai during 31st Jan - 2nd February 2008
                             with elicited display of products, projects, technologies,
                             systems and services from large number of manufacturers,
                             developers, utility providing agencies, construction

 entities,    technology/service    providers,     financing
 institutions, NGO’s and national and international agencies.

 Based on the quality of display, the impact made, publicity
 material distributed, demonstration display, visitors
 interface provided, the jury decided to bestow recognition
 for the display under various categories.
                                                                                                      best practices

Energy Conservation Program -

The Vadodara Municipal Corporation
(VMC) did not have a uniform lighting
system working efficiently.

There was a problem from installation and
electrical energy consumption point of

Moreover, street lights had been installed
in an unplanned manner resulting in an
uneven, inefficient and poor lighting
system in the city.

Another disadvantage of this unplanned
street lighting is that the VMC has to bear      wattage, Luminous flux and average
high operational, capital and maintenance        burning life in hours.                      The new administrative officials at the
cost.                                                                                        Kromeriz focused on bringing to an end
                                                 All these efforts made VMC to achieve       the uncontrolled waste dump and pollution
VMC has tried to improve illumination by         overall savings of 52.50 per cent in        of both subsoil and surface water.
consuming minimum possible electrical            electrical consumption.
energy.                                                                                      Through the initiative, the pond was
                                              Biogas from Household Waste -                  cleaned and the eco-system balance
Thus the VMC has achieved maximum             Kromeriz                                       restored.
possible electricity efficiency and serve
function and benefits of public lighting by   Kromeríz lies at the southern edge of the      Biogas was tapped and re-vegetation of the
implementing a series of measures             Haná, Czech Republic and has a                 entire area, to provide a green park for the
including the following:                      population of about 30,000 people.             inhabitants of the nearby housing estate,
                                              Utilisation of biogas from household waste     was done together with providing a cheap
   Concept of Procuring lighting not          is based on an exhausted and disused clay      source of household heating energy.
   Lighting Materials - VMC invited           pit that was an environmental hazard.
   lighting design oriented tenders.                                                         The pumping operation under the biogas
                                              The Kromeriz Town Hall administrative          utilisation conditions facilitates heating of
   Code of practice for lighting of public    officials had turned the pit into a dumpsite   hot water for 200 households during
   through fares to achieve required and      for household waste. The layer of the          winter. Since the beginning of the project,
   uniform illumination, which saves          deposited material reached up to 12m. The      3,37,177 m3 of biogas has been tapped and
   capital cost and electrical energy.        total volume of the deposited waste            pumped from the deposit.
                                              amounted to 1,80,000 m3.
   Energy Saving by Time Management-                                                         The lesson learnt from this project is that
   Annual programmable switches were          The deposited subsoil consisted of clay,       there is potential to generate biogas from
   preferred taking consideration the sun-    with substantial layers of eroded sandstone    household waste when proper technology
   rise and sunset timings preferred rather   and sand-clay. As a consequence, the eco-      is employed.
   than the conventional manual ones.         system of a nearby pond was destroyed.
                                                                                             The biogas utilisation project is being
   Selection of Energy Efficient Lamps        Leach from the deposit polluted the subsoil    replicated in other towns of the Czech
   and Luminaries - Selection of lamps        water and the deposit's biogas escaped to      Republic.
   and Luminaries were based on               the ambient environment.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                        51
               best practices

 Integrated Wetland System for
                                                 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
 Municipal Waste - Kolkata

 The Government of West Bengal and the
 Kolkata Metropolitan Authority developed
 a three-part strategy for the reuse of waste-
 water: vegetables are grown on garbage
 substrata with treated sewage used to
 irrigate the garbage farms; next, 3,000
 hectares of fish ponds integrate sewage
 treatment with fish farming - the sun
 destroys most harmful bacteria and the fish
 feed from the ponds; finally, the treated
 sewage is used to grow crops.

 Through this process, all the sewage from       The main objective of the Sewage               Surat Municipal Corporation has
 Kolkata is treated, the garbage fields          Disposal Education Programme is to create
                                                                                                adopted Solid Waste Management
 produce 150 tonnes of vegetables per day,       a better understanding of the workings of
 the fishponds produce approximately             the     sewerage      system       amongst
                                                                                                strategies to:
 8,000 tonnes of fish per year, and the          communities, especially first time users of       Improve the system of transportation
 paddy fields produce 16,000 tonnes of           these services. This is done through a            of waste by identification of suitable
 winter paddies.                                 number of innovative educational                  one-time handling of waste.
                                                 interventions, which encourage interactive        Mitigate and control the reduction in
 The project, managed by community               and participative learning. Educational           quantity of wastes plying out of
 groups, utilises appropriate technology         resources and toolkits have been designed         landfill sites.
 with entrepreneurs taking away all sales        for use in schools and at informal                Identify sources of income from the
 proceeds in return for rental of land and       education settings, such as clinics.              processing of MSW, thereby
 water.                                                                                            enhancing agricultural productivity.
                                                 Road-show     and     street    theatre
 Sewage    Disposal             Education        performances are presented at informal         Strategies Adopted
 Programme - Durban                              settings to a broad spectrum of the               Decentralisation and Coordination.
                                                 community, reaching out to less literate          Better Public Grievance Redressal
 Durban Metro Water Service's Sewage             members of communities.                           System
 Disposal Education Programme arose out                                                            Solid Waste Management Strategies.
 of the need to curb high levels of sewage       The education programme has made a                Public Private Concept.
 pollution and maintenance costs incurred        quantitative impact. In Umlazi (population
 through the abuse and misuse of sewerage        2,62,000) for example, blockages have          Results Achieved
 systems in the Durban metropolitan area.        been reduced from approximately 1,300            The level of sanitation is increased
                                                 per month to 300 to 400 per month, after a       from 40 to 98 per cent.
 This education programme has become a           period of about one and a half to two years.     Increased garbage removal from 400
 vehicle of broader social reconstruction                                                         TPD to 960.
 and development. Directed by Durban             Sewage blockages throughout the Metro            Spraying and fogging to control
 Metro Water Services, it involves Public-       area have resulted in savings equivalent to      mosquitoes increased by 200 per cent.
 Private-Partnerships (PPP), and aims to         US$ 2,00,000. The education campaign             Increased number of garbage bind
 establish a climate of civic responsibility,    has reached 1,41,646 learners and 2,12,104       from 700 to 1721.
 calling on communities to support their         adults.                                          Increased piped water supply coverage
 local government and businesses in the                                                           from 60 to100 per cent.
 construction and development of their                                                            Rapid Public Grievance Redressal
 living environments.                                                                             System.

52                                                                                                                     April - June 2008
                                                                                                      best practices

Innovative Partnerships -

Infrastructure conditions in the slums of
Ahmedabad were in a poor state. The
quality and quantity of water supply was

Many of the slums were not connected
with the sewerage, solid waste disposal
was inadequate or limited with no landfill
sites, and flooding and epidemics were a
frequent phenomena. Public parks and
gardens were the scenes of crime and other
anti social behaviours.

The Sabarmati River was heavily polluted
while     traffic     management       was
characterised        by       unauthorised
construction, congested traffic, no parking   Society Organisations; Corporate Sector;       Funding for the project, interestingly, was
or pedestrians facilities.                    CBOs and NGOs; and financial                   provided by three tiers of government
                                              institutions such as SEWA Cooperative          which worked in partnership with the
Bye-laws were violated in every sense of      Bank. The innovative urban partnerships        private sector.
the word.                                     are based on the concepts of investments,
                                              each partner investing a portion of the        The project cleared the surrounding streets
Conditions of municipal hospitals and         project.                                       of public transport activity. This activity
level of primary education in municipal                                                      was an obstacle to traffic on inner city
schools were degrading day-by-day.            Organising Park Central Taxi Rank -            roads as well as to commercial
                                              Johannesburg                                   development within the city by providing a
The municipal council had budget deficit,                                                    parking area for 2,000 taxis.
costs overrun, unpaid overdrafts and          Johannesburg is South Africa's largest and
credits,    and     delayed     payments.     most vibrant city. Transportation problems     There is more efficient and safer
Consequently, riots and demonstrations        arising from the taxi industry are             transportation services for 160,000
against the administration were becoming      considered the biggest problem faced by        commuters per day.
frequent, especially in the slum areas.The    South Africa's inner cities. This was no
Innovative Urban Partnerships in              exception for Johannesburg's Jack Mincer       The success of the project represents much
Ahmedabad cover a wide range of local         area where taxis invaded a 15-block area       more than just an improved transportation
government       functions      -     slum    causing a urban decay of the surrounding       hub and the revitalisation of a community.
improvement, public administration,           area.
municipal finance, water and sanitation,                                                     It represents the successful coming
urban forestry etc.                           The infiltration of taxis in the area caused   together of public and private enterprise in
                                              the roads to become nearly impassable and      a concerted manner in a serious attempt to
They involve many groups of partners:         made crime nearly inescapable.                 revitalise the Inner City.
government and public sector units;
international agencies such as US Agency      In response to the urban decay in the area,               Contact: Greater Johannesburg
for Indernational Development (USAID),        the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan                               Tel: 27(11)407-6733
UK Department        for     International    Council (GJMC) put out a proposal for the
Development (DFID), and United Nations        development of a formalised taxi rank in
Development Programme (UNDP); Civil           the area.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                       53
               best practices

 Building Raised Houses for Flood
                                                 DISASTER MANAGEMENT
 Protection - Assam

 In Assam, the agrarian society has always
 settled on the banks of rivers owing to the
 availability of fertile lands and water.
 However, due to various environmental
 and man made reasons, water started
 entering the homes of people and great
 damage was done to life and belongings
 which needed to be solved.

 As a practice of coping with the damage
 caused by floods, these houses are built on
 raised wooden stilts or strong bamboo,
 cement concrete pillars (stilts) and CGI
 sheet roofing are used. In case such houses
 were not there, the community would have       Rehabilitation & Upgrading Informal           Residents are provided with a soft loan, 90
 to migrate in search of greener pastures       Settlement - Cairo                            per cent of which is required to be paid
 and shift to relief camps.                                                                   over 40 years, giving the residents a sense
                                                The Rehabilitation and Upgrading of The       of ownership.
 The best effect of this practice is that the   Manshiet Nasser Informal Settlement,
 houses are saved from the ravages of           located in the heart of Cairo City, is a      The project is based on participatory
 flood. The wear and tear of the houses is      unique initiative to improve the living       socio-economic survey and mechanisms
 less and the maintenance intervals are         environment of more than 500,000              of transparent dialogue with local
 longer. If these houses are made of timber     inhabitants.                                  inhabitants in both the planning and
 (stilts and platforms), they stand for more                                                  management processes.
 than 40 years without major repairs and        The project, which was initiated by the
 remain safe from the high moisture content     Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban      Major achievements of the project include
 of the otherwise mud houses. During            Communities of Egypt, is focused entirely     affordable housing options to the poor;
 floods as people do not come in direct         on relocating a percentage of inhabitants     empowered civic engagement at early stages of
 contact with water they are safe from          into a close-by planned settlement            decision making, etc.
 various health hazards. Most importantly,      equipped with all services and amenities,
 the livestock is saved also. The children      and developing and renewal of the site of     This resulted in an institutionalised participatory
 can continue to study, the pregnant,           the existing slum.                            urban management; maintained and enhanced
 elderly, disabled and sick are safe from                                                     livelihood systems of inhabitants; preserved
 drowning and other related dangers.            The process consists of nine phases, and is   social capital and ties of original dwellers; and
                                                expected to complete the biggest project of   socio-economic sustained development.
 These houses are extensively used by the       its kind in Egypt by building 70,000
 Mishing community in the plains of             housing units.                                The initiative has demonstrated in a powerful
 Bramhaputra river basin. The main                                                            manner, that empowerment of local inhabitants
 concentration of Mishing people are in the     The settlements are fully equipped with       to effectively participate in decision making at
 Dhemaji, Lakhimpur, Majuli and Sadia           complete piped networks of water supply       an early stage of planned interventions can
 areas of Assam.                                and sanitation, roads network, open space,    reduce the scope of conflicts, and enable
                                                vocational training and heath care centres,   mobilisation of resources for effective
                                                libraries, schools, phone service network,    implementation.
          Contact: Rural Volunteers Centre      and     environment      friendly    crafts
               Tel: 03753-246306/246436         workshops.                                                  Contact: Eng. Hussein El-Gebaly,
                                                                                                                       Tel: 00-202-7921514

54                                                                                                                         April - June 2008
                                                                                                        best practices

Grassroot Level Strategy for Low-
Cost Housing - India

Housing inadequacy is largely felt at the
level of low income and more so with
continuous rise in cost of construction at
all levels. This necessitates the use of
appropriate and cost effective technologies
in house construction. The Building Centre
movement in India therefore, emerged as
a grassroot-level intervention with the
objectives of transfer of technology,
training of artisans, production of elements
and construction and guidance. From the
first Nirmithi Kendra in Quilon in Kerala,
to the latest one in Jammu , is the journey
from south-to-north criss-crossing the
length and breadth of the country through       per cent over conventional cost. Most of       job creation. Each of the 12 project sites
385 building centres.                           the State Governments / local initiatives      has created approximately 50 jobs within
                                                have come forward to link the building         the community; the majority of these jobs
The movement was meant to provide               centre    movement      with     housing       go to local craftsmen and artisans.
institutional intervention for putting into     programmes.
practice, at the grassroot level, the new                                                      The environment is another concern of the
research and development and appropriate                     Contact: Secretary / DHUPA,       organisation. It has worked closely in
technologies. The movement aimed to               Govt. of India Tel: (+91+11) 23017444)       partnership with the Departments of
'enable' and 'empower' people by evolving                                                      Agriculture and Forestry, WUSC, and
appropriate housing delivery system with        Low-Cost Partnership Housing -                 Peace Corps to strengthen its response to
people's     participation,      by    using    Malawi                                         environmental degredation and the needs
environment-friendly solutions and by                                                          of the communities in which it works. The
developing the right level of skills among      Habitat for Humanity (Malawi) works in         organisation has resulted in building of
the local artisans. This has helped in          partnership with local communities and the     3,027 low-cost houses and latrines in
creating 'awareness' about the available        government to build simple, decent houses      Malawi. An estimated 461 communities
alternative options and also an                 and latrines. A locally-elected committee      have participated in the scheme,
'appreciation' of these options not only in     works with the local, district, and national   encouraging self-help and community
terms of cost effectiveness but also in         government as well as with traditional         organisation in the country. It has
terms of structural, functional and aesthetic   authorities      in      planning        and   introduced     the     HydraForm         M5
sufficiency.                                    implementation.                                Blockmaking Machines which produces a
                                                                                               dense, compacted brick that can be dry-
It is also catering to the geo-climatological   The key to the programme's success is that     stacked, allowing for quick construction
context from hilly terrain to plains to         the community is emphasized over the           without the need for mortar. The
coastal areas. Wide variations of               output. Partnerships are foundational to the   technology is perfectly suited for such self-
temperature, rainfall, wind, natural            organisation and are formed at all levels      help projects as clinics, schools,
disasters have clearly demonstrated the         for the strengthening, funding and             government and several donor agencies.
sutasinability. This movement has now           furthering of the work. In addition, it is
spread all over India with 385 Building         working in urban centres to address the                   Contact: Habitat for Humanity/
Centres. It has received national, regional     growing need for shelter and sanitation in                      National Office, Malawi
and       international     attention    and    the rapidly growing cities. By maintaining                           Tel: (265) 643-117
appreciation. Over 55,000 artisans are          an active revolving fund, more and more
trained on appropriate technologies, in         families are being provided with adequate
various community / residential building        homes in the growing cities of Malawi.
construction, with the saving of 15 to 40       Another outcome of (Malawi)'s work is

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          55
                                                                                                   best practices

 Water & Sanitation
Urban Governance in               Public     financial powers to ten commissioners        the citizens brought about transparency
Health - Surat                               (six zonal chiefs together with four         among council officers and workers
                                             functional heads of water supply,            which changed their style of functioning.
The city of Surat was one of the filthiest   sewerage; town planning and finance
cities in India till early 1990s. In         divisions).                                  Within a period of 18 months, Surat had
September of 1994, the city was                                                           turned from the filthiest city to the
traumatised by a plague outbreak.            The resulting decentralisation and           second cleanest city of India. The
                                             empowerment of work units broke the          internal revenue collection increased due
Basic municipal services such as street      departmental barriers and lifted the         to efficient tax recovery, transparency in
cleaning, collection of solid waste, water   morale of the staff. A micro-planning        tax assessments and plugging of
supply and sewerage services, drains,        exercise based on extensive field input      loopholes in tax administration.
street lights, parks and gardens, roads      was carried out to lay down equitable
and schools were only covered by about       norms for effective and efficient            A sense of pride among the sanitation
45 per cent of the city residents.           provision of services to the citizens with   workers was restored, through provision
                                             best use of the available resources.         of proper equipment and consdieration
Morbidity rate due to water-borne and                                                     of their grievances.
water-related public health diseases was     The citizens were involved in the
high. A new Mayor was posted to the          decision making process through a            Provision of basic services increased to
city as the Chief Executive Officer          grievance redressal system and feedback      over 95 per cent of the residents, while
(CEO) in the late 1990s and he               mechanism.       Inculcating      public     capital expenditure also increased by
decentralised all his administrative and     awareness and civic participation among      about 450 per cent.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                  57
               best practices

 Water Conservation Conscious -                 Other measures include an integrated           third part provides reclaimed water to any
 Fukuoka                                        water distribution monitoring system to        large new buildings within the city. Total
                                                ensure efficiency. The city has also           savings are approximately 7 million litres
 Without abundant water resources and           embarked on protecting water sources           (1.85 million gallons) of potable water
 subject to serious periodic droughts,          through tree planting campaign. Currently,     each day.
 Fukuoka faced an enormous challenge in         the per capita water consumption in
 securing a stable water supply to serve        Fukuoka City is less than what it was in       Wastewater reclamation has the greatest
 population of over 1.3 million. To respond     1978, despite a 30 per cent increase in        potential in urbanised areas as the costs
 to this alarming situation, the Fukuoka city   population. It consumes approximately 20       associated with building a separate
 in partnership with the citizens and private   per cent less water than other comparably      distribution system are high. Even though
 sector launched various initiatives            sized cities.                                  it is sold to consumers for less than potable
 promoting a "Water Conservation                                                               water, Fukuoka recoups a small margin on
 Conscious City".                               The city also built a three-part collection    the sale of reclaimed water- approximately
                                                and distribution system for the reuse of       US$1/M3. The Fukuoka example indicates
 Water-saving apparatus was introduced          grey water for non-drinking purposes. One      that the reuse of water for residential toilet
 and currently about 96 per cent of users       part of the system redistributes reclaimed     flushing and urban irrigation (parks, golf
 have water flow reducing devices installed     water to 7.7 sq km (3 square miles) in the     courses) can be economically and
 in their faucets. Water savings have been      central part of the city (which includes the   environmentally justified, especially in
 realised with an average family saving up      City Hall and subway stations). Another        water scarce areas.
 to 1,000 litres per month.                     part provides reclaimed water to several
                                                apartment complexes which have their                                Contact: Hiroaki Goda
 Water      conservation     consciousness      own treatment facilities that re-circulate                           Tel: 81-92-711-4022
 amongst residents is promoted through          reclaimed water within the complexes. The
 "Save Water Campaign" held annually in
 June. Guidelines on saving water are
 distributed to homes and educational
 materials to primary schools. More than 85
 per cent of citizens are involved in some
 kind of efforts to conserve water.

 The Fukuoka City Water Bureau has been
 addressing water leakage by replacing old
 pipes with new ones. Through such effort
 Fukuoka has achieved the lowest water
 leakage rate in Japan, which was under 2.7
 per cent in 2001.

 The city is also actively promoting reuse
 of treated waste water. Using the Wide-
 Area Circulation System and Individual
 Circulation System for large-buildings,
 used and treated water is utilised for flush
 toilets and watering plants. The amount of
 water conserved by this approach is about
 7,000 cubic metres a day.

 The City supplements its fresh water
 supplies by converting seawater into
 freshwater, using the Reverse Permeability
 system, to produce 50,000 cubic metres of
 freshwater daily.

58                                                                                                                      April - June 2008

April - June 2008                 59

60                 April - June 2008
The Common Man and the City


                green pages

 Managing Waste is a state of mind
 The solutions to urban waste management lies in Municipal
 Solid Waste (MSW) Rules 2000, say experts at Ramky, the solid
 waste management group. Urban managers simply need to
 change their mindsets.

    What are the critical elements of waste        problems. We in India today have
 management that cities need to consider           developed the art of establishing and
 before creating waste management master           maintaining landfills. Ramky on its own         Koyanbedu, Chandigarh, Hyderabad and
 plans?                                            has established more than 20 landfills and      Vijayawada have managed to convert
                                                   all operational plants are effective as per     waste into a resource, through various
      Population, growth pattern, present          the design as well as operations.               means and practices.
 practices, availability of infrastructure like
 vehicle, disposal sites, their proximity and      The main issue with sanitary landfills is the       What kind of financial investments will
 funds for capex as well as operation and          identification and availability of sufficient   this entail? How can city managers involve
 maintenance.                                      land. ULBs need to plan for land for the        other stakeholders in this effort?
                                                   current and future needs. This should be
 Above all is the spirit of the Urban Local        one of the main functions/responsibilities           There exists considerable enthusiasm
 Body (ULB) in implementing good waste             that they have sufficient land for treatment    in the entrepreneurs as far as Public Private
 management practices and give a good              and disposal of waste.                          Partnership (PPP) in this sector is
 service quality in this sector to its citizens.                                                   concerned. Not much of effort is needed on
                                                   It's high time that all ULBs realise the        the part of the managers - even general
     The generation of solid waste is far          importance of this aspect and then they         public can start participating in a green
 beyond the handling capacities of urban           would not face problems associated with         development programme once operation is
 governments and agencies. How can the             landfills.                                      good and helpful to improve environment.
 problems of sanitary landfills be
 addressed?                                           Most city managers complain about the           Waste management practices differ for
                                                   quality of waste in the city? Why hasn't        developed and developing nations, for
       This statement is debatable. The            segregation and management become a             urban and rural areas, and for residential
 generation levels are within the handling         thrust area in our country?                     and industrial producers. Can you
 capacities of the local bodies. Even a 10                                                         elaborate on the key differences in these
 per cent deficiency will make the cities              It is mainly the lack of determination      practices?
 stink within 10 days, and therefore               on the part of the administration and lack
 efficiency must be improved.                      of awareness among the public. Door to              The entire system revolves around the
                                                   door collection either by the local body or     subsidies available from the State. The
 Sanitary landfills do not have any                NGOs has proved to be successful.               level of subsidies abroad is so high that the
                                                                                                   private operators could invest high
            Just trying to                         Given the way things are moving ahead,          amounts to transport, process, and recycle
                                                   we feel that segregated collection should       the wastes.
      bring in some Public                         not be a hurdle in near future.
                                                                                                   In India, the entire brunt is to be borne by
       Private Partnership                            How can city managers convert this           the PPP entrepreneur. Sometimes, the local
     operator will not solve                       waste into a resource? Are there any            bodies insist that the land required for the
                                                   examples that you can cite?                     processing and disposal should also be
     the problem of Waste                                                                          acquired by the PPP operator.
                                                      Yes. Cities, for instance, Bangalore,
             Management                            Coimbatore, Nasik, Surat, Jaipur,               The Urban Management has to start

62                                                                                                                          April - June 2008
                                                                                                            green pages

thinking that this activity is not a mere        done in these areas.                            The TSDF is required to have a team to
economic one but a social one too.                                                               reach the generators to explain and educate
                                                 All the five form integral parts of the waste   them of the need for participating actively
Broadly, there are three categories of waste     management; be it urban or rural, and one       in environmental protection programs by
i.e., 1) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), 2)         needs to focus on all these areas for           improving on compliance with regulations.
Bio-Medical and 3) Industrial, which             effective waste management
includes 'e-waste' also.                                                                             Most organisations are now trying to
                                                    Does each city need to evolve its own        cope with e-waste. Many are not even
We have to tackle-in urban issues first          solutions or is there any basic format that     aware of the magnitude of the problem.
before stepping into rural areas.                needs to be evolved, which each city can        Any suggestions on how to deal with this
                                                 customise according to its requirements?        issue?
    What is the solution to city waste
management problem - is it about                     The solution is one and same for all the           E-waste disposal has come into
involving the community and the private          cities in the country. This system already      attention due to the sudden burst of usage
sector or about involving innovative             stands well-defined in MSW Rules 2000           of electrical and electronic gadgets. There
technologies and disposal methods; or            and needs only effective implementation.        is a need to have a clear legislation from
involving behaviour changes and                                                                  the Central Ministry/Pollution Control
spreading awareness?                                Medical and hazardous waste has also         Board and invite entrepreneurs to set up e-
                                                 become a major cause of concern in recent       waste Management Facilities across India.
     What is basically needed is change of       times? Are there any best practices you
mindset of urban managers. They should           would like to advocate in this field?           Ramky is endeavouring to set up facilities
start looking at this issue in a broader                                                         in various states as well as a Central
sense.                                                 The government needs to set up            Facility for recovery/safe disposal of the
                                                 hazardous and bio-medical waste                 residual and toxic heavy metals, in
Just trying to bring in some PPP operator        management facilities in each state. On the     collaboration with a foreign e-waste
will not solve the problem. They have to         part of owner/operator of the Treatment         management company.
strive to create congenial atmosphere for        Stabilisation Disposal Facilities (TSDF), it
PPP operators to come forward, establish         is required to comply with the regulatory       In the meantime, involvement             of
and let them sustain.                            conditions in management and proactively        government with private parties         for
                                                 coordinate with the regulatory body to          permitting collection, prevention        of
Once urban managers are able to                  improve on the efficiency of collection of      unauthorised collection and disposal,   are
implement MSW Rules, the much needed             hazardous waste/bio-medical waste from          required to expedite the process         of
change in behavioral attitudes will be           the generators.                                 managing e-waste.
achieved and awareness will be generated.
The available technologies are good
enough for our conditions.

    Out of the 4 key aspects of waste
management - disposal, processing,
recycling and minimisation - where are we
focused currently and where should we be?

      Another important aspect of waste
management        is   collection     and
transportation which was not given above.
We are presently focused on transportation

Collection, arrangement, recycling,
processing and safe disposal are still in a
very nascent stage in India and a lot is to be

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          63
               green pages

                                     The Promise of
                           Zero Energy Communities
                               Mark Ginsberg, U.S. Department of Energy

         s the world seeks answers to           If we can think of a community as a system
         rising energy consumption,             and apply the concept of systems
         pollution, climate change and          engineering or whole community design,
 economic development, the U.S.                 we can see the time when communities or
 Department of Energy has been                  even cities can become more self sufficient
 developing the concept of net Zero Energy      and     become       net  Zero     Energy
 Buildings (ZEB).                               Communities.
                                                                                                10 times longer! Yes, they may cost more
 For over a decade, the idea has been to        All of this is predicated on the design         now, but they pay for themselves quickly.
 apply all our energy efficiency, renewable     understanding that my friend, the visionary     And the cost will continue to go down as
 energy technologies and practices, in the      William McDonough, advocates that               they are produced in mass quantities and
 design of buildings that generate their own    "everything is a resource, nothing is           as new technologies make the
 renewable energy and are so energy             waste." Making use of municipal solid           manufacturing even more efficient.
 efficient that, over the course of a year,     waste, for example, has the benefit of not
 they produce as much energy as they need       trucking it to a distant landfill and risking   Even transportation fuels can be produced
 to operate comfortably.                        the water table. By separating the              locally. The next generation of bio-fuels
                                                recyclables, capturing the methane and          can be produced from grass cuttings or
 These design principles are being applied      utilizing the remaining waste for energy        municipal waste. Our concept is to develop
 in thousands of homes and some larger          production, one can make a nuisance waste       local bio-refineries that would utilise non-
 buildings throughout the United States as      into a useful resource.                         food cellulosic material and process it into
 we move towards ZEBs. We are finding                                                           ethanol or bio-diesel. And communities
 right now that we can build homes that are     Similarly, making use of every rooftop and      can reduce the demand for transportation
 30-50 per cent more energy efficient than      open field to harness the sun to produce        fuels by improving public transit and
 typical homes and do it cost-effectively.      electricity or hot water can be part of the     designing walkable neighbourhoods that
                                                integrated community solution. There are        have services and jobs, so we don't have to
 Our research goal is 70 per cent. When         similar issues in water conservation.           drive to work or stores.
 you add current generation photovoltaic,
 geothermal heat pumps or even small wind       At the same time, the community or city         A city, a community fund, utility, or energy
 turbines, we are confident we can achieve      can do everything possible to reduce the        service company could make these
 the goal of producing as much energy as        need for electricity and heating. As a          investments and benefit the entire
 the building needs. As our research            community, they can invest in energy            community. Cities already invest in
 continues in energy efficiency and             efficiency. They will create jobs needed to     streetlights. Why not make them the
 renewable energy technologies, the             make, install and maintain the next             highest efficiency and maybe operate them
 deliverable energy will increase and cost      generation insulation, efficient windows,       with small photovoltaic panels and battery
 will decrease. The ZEB concept is based        lights and heating-cooling systems, etc. At     storage? Cities already invest in municipal
 on a design principle of "systems              the same time, they will significantly          solid waste. Why not make those facilities
 integration" or "whole building design."       reduce energy waste.                            into resources instead of garbage dumps?

 The next logical step in the process is Zero   Consider that current compact fluorescent       Imagine a city of the future that
 Energy Communities. Even though it is          light bulbs (CFLs) use just a fraction of the   incorporates these design concepts into its
 more ambitious and complicated, it is          electricity needed for an old, hot              planning. Harness all the resources we
 based on the same design concept.              incandescent bulb and they last as much as      currently consider waste. Utilise our

64                                                                                                                      April - June 2008
                                                                                                          green pages

natural resources more effectively: wind,     productivity, reduce energy waste, help the     Find a willing locale and bring the public
sunshine, geothermal heat. Construct          environment and revitalise the entire area.     and private sectors together to consider
buildings that generate their own energy.                                                     their opportunity to remake their
Design a neighborhood in a way that the       I am confident those communities will be        community or to require new development
entire community benefits from the            more sustainable and successful. They           to adhere to these principles.
synergy of reduced waste and increased        will be at the forefront of technology and
efficiency.                                   will be admired. They will offer their          All it takes is leadership, a willingness to
                                              citizens more efficient services which will     get started, some creativity and a
Provide incentives to builders who            be less dependent on outside sources of         commitment to work toward the goals of a
incorporate these principles: accelerated     energy and less vulnerable to power             Zero Energy Community. I am confident
approval processes, greater density zoning,   outages.                                        the human genius will continue to find
possibly tax incentives. Or an existing                                                       solutions through technologies and best
neighborhood could be remodeled. If           How do we get started? I joke that it took      practices. It is challenging. But it is
everyone signed up to get better lights,      us decades to get into this mess, and it will   achievable!
windows, or insulation, a talented team of    take time to get out! But that's why I start
remodelers could go through the entire        with the concept of a Zero Energy
neighbourhood. That would increase            Community, maybe a neighbourhood or a
building values, improve employee             large new multi-use development.

                                     The ecoBUDGET concept
The ecoBUDGET concept delivers local environmental                    water and soil/land. Each local body is free to identify
budgeting using a politically ratified environmental budget           locally relevant resources, and thus able to create targets
together with an associated management process, the                   that are relevant for local politicians and the local
environmental budget cycle. Together they form the                    community.
ecoBUDGET environmental management system. The
ecoBUDGET method is rooted in three fundamental                       For e.g: In 2006 the Municipal Corporation of Guntur, India
principles:                                                           created a Master Budget for 'environmental expenditures'
                                                                      in order to manage their natural resources in the same
 1. It is based on analogies with the principles and                  budgetary way that financial resources are managed.
    procedures of financial budgeting, which form the                 Municipal staff in Guntur identified the green surface area
    guidelines for the individual methodological stages of            of the municipality as an environmental indicator.
    the environmental budget cycle.
                                                                      Considering the international scenario, the Municipality of
 2. It comprises a full management cycle of "plan-do-check-           Kalithea which is situated at the northeast of the island of
    act", known as Deming Cycle, first introduced in 1956.            Rhodes in Greece with a population of 10,000 is the
                                                                      smallest and also youngest ecoBUDGET Municipality.
 3. The ecoBUDGET method accepts sustainable
    development as a guiding target regime. Thus, strong              The focus of Kalithea's ecoBUDGET is to improve the
    political commitment and community involvement are                general environmental situation and thus introduce the
    both prerequisites for ecoBUDGET.                                 community to sustainable development.

The resources used in ecoBUDGET are not restricted to                 Implementation of ecoBUDGET concept requires technical
fundamental environmental resources such as land, water               work as well as political decision making and its undoubted
and air.                                                              advantage is that it ensures unwavering attention to
                                                                      environmental issues.
Environmental resources would include elements or
components of ecosystem that support human life, and                  Reference: THE ecoBUDGET GUIDE                       by Holger
include raw materials, climate stability, peace and quiet, air,       Robrecht, ICLEI Europe, 2004

April - June 2008                                                                                                                        65
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                                                                                                   Partnership on

          ccording to the United Nations        As increasing energy demands are                 consumer rebates, eco clubs, consumer
          estimate, about 90 per cent of        outpacing supply, it is critical for cities to   education and others.
          future growth will take place in      provide enough energy on a reliable basis,
 cities. By mid-2008, more than half of the     and at prices that will not diminish             A paper on the Promise of Zero Energy
 world's population will be urban.              economic growth. Along with energy               Communities by Mark Ginsberg in this
                                                challenges, cities are facing numerous           publication highlights such initiatives and
 By 2030, when the global population will       problems of economic development and             respective benefits.
 have risen from currently 6.5 to 8.2 billion   environmental protection.
 people, about 60 per cent of all humans                                                         Growing concerns about energy security
 will live in cities. Rapidly growing Indian    Inclined to give stopgap measures priority,      and environmental sustainability prompted
 cities will be home to nearly 40 per cent of   they tend to regard long-term solutions,         the US and India to launch various
 Indians by 2021.                               like demand-side management, distributed         Collaborative Dialogues in recent years,
                                                generation and clean energy sources, as          mainly on Energy, Environment and
 Considering both the challenge and             secondary. However, such solutions would
 potential in global urbanisation, it is of     bring multiple benefits to the community.
 vital importance to focus natural-scientific                                                                          Long term
 and social-scientific research on pressing     In many cities of the world, innovative
 issues of cities. Increasing urbanisation      initiatives and accomplishments show that                  solutions such as
 strains infrastructures and resources, at      energy and environmentally smart
 times which leads to a deteriorating           strategies have begun to take root in every                        demand-side
 environment and compromised quality of         aspect of the City's operations and in the
 life.                                          way they partner with the citizens and            management and clean
 Cities, national economic growth, energy                                                           energy sources would
 demand and environmental quality are           Initiatives vary by size and scale including,
 significantly interdependent. Rapidly          programs like; green buildings, energy             bring multiple benefits
 urbanising cities consume more than 75         efficiency, supply and reliability, green and
 per cent of global energy and produces         renewable power, alternative fuel vehicles,                to the community
 nearly similar share of greenhouse gas         city greening, green government
 emissions.                                     purchasing,       alternative      recycling,

66                                                                                                                       April - June 2008
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Climate Change, which reflect the                 Participating cities have been selected on
transformed strategic relationship between        the basis of their specific links based on the     Existing partnerships
the world's two largest democracies.              Sister Cities partnership, or other such
                                                  collaborations promoting economic                        between cities
Various US agencies, including the US             development, education partnerships,
Department of Energy (DOE), the US                media and cultural exchange.                           will be expanded
Agency for International Development, the
US Environmental Protection Agency and            Existing partnerships between cities will                 to share best
others, have been working with Indian             be expanded to share best practices on the
counterparts in strengthening the US-India        issues of energy and environment. The US-         practices on the issues
partnership.                                      India Cities cooperation will provide a
                                                  win-win situation for all partners,                          of energy
The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean             including U.S. cities, as the partnership is
Development and Climate and other US-             expected to be interactive, long-term and              and environment.
India Dialogues on Energy, Climate                sustainable.
change and Environment are examples of
such shared efforts.                              Highlighting the path forward, the cities
                                                  (Mayors) will pledge to work together and        The working group will arrange
The Brookhaven National Laboratory                expand the ongoing sister cities or similar      workshops, technical exchanges, business
(BNL) of the US DOE is in the process of          partnership to include issues of clean           partnerships, establish collaborative
initiating a collaborative US-India Cities        development, energy and environment. In          projects, etc. in furtherance of the
partnership focusing on the issues of             the same forum, the cities will be able to       partnership.
mutual interests based on clean                   briefly highlight their best practices.
development, energy and environment.                                                               In a recent trend, US cities / states /
                                                  Secondly, work bilaterally with partnering       counties are developing official business
The purpose is to share the lessons learnt        city to establish mechanisms (e.g. MOU)          offices in collaborating cities / states /
from every city's experience to augment           for sharing best practices, which will           counties in other countries. If there is
other participating cities capabilities to        mainly involve issues of mutual interest.        enough interest, such activities may be
identify and respond to a range of barriers                                                        anticipated.
that limit implementation and management          Understanding the issues of mutual interest
of sustainable urban development practices        may involve bilateral discussions with City      Academic/research institutions may be
and plans.                                        officials either over digital media or with      involved, in both cities, to make such
                                                  official visits on a regular basis.              partnerships enriching and sustainable.
In the absence of a comprehensive national                                                         Centres of excellence for research,
or state policy, cities can be at the forefront   Mainly, issues of collaboration will evolve      development          and         information
of implementing ground breaking policies,         from bilateral discussions. Establishment        dissemination can be established in such
as evident from various national and              of short and long-term action items in           institutions, which will act as incubators
international cities energy and climate           consultation with partnering city under this     for knowledge diffusion and proliferation
change initiatives.                               MOU will help steer the process for a            of such activities in other cities.
                                                  sustainable partnership.
For an example, 780 US mayors have                                                                 Mayors will participate in a face-to-face
already signed the US Mayor's Climate             Signing of MOU may involve a conference          meeting with other US and Indian city
Agreement.                                        in either city and may be attended by both       Mayors arranged later next year to discuss
                                                  the Mayors with a delegation involving           the progress. This forum may be a vehicle
BNL has involved Indian cities like, New          city agencies and businesses, which may          to collaborate with other participating
Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru,                be considered a second step to showcase          cities on issues of mutual interest.
Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar and Vadodara               and share best practices.
for collaboration with U.S. cities like,                                                                                    – Vatsal Bhatt,
Chicago, Atlanta, New York, Denver,               A working group involving respective city                 Brookhaven National Laboratory
Columbus, Los Angeles, Edison, San                agencies/businesses may be established in
Francisco and Seattle.                            each of the cities to followup on MOU.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                             67
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     Codes & Policies
                                                    rise and special buildings                   21. Complete revision of provision on
     National Building Code of India 2005       5. Provision for periodic renewal                    building and plumbing services in line
                                                    certificate of occupied buildings from           with applicable international practices
 The National Building Code of India                structural, fire and electrical safety       22. Provisions on rain water harvesting
 (NBC), a comprehensive building Code, is           point of view                                23. Inclusion of all new chapter to cover
 a national instrument providing guidelines     6. Provision for empowering engineers                landscaping needs
 for regulating the building construction           and architects for sanctioning plans of
 activities across the country.                     residential buildings up to 500 m2           Applicable to: It serves as a Model Code
                                                7. Inclusion of detailed town planning           for adoption by all agencies involved in
 The Code mainly contains administrative            norms for various amenities such as          building construction works by the Public
 regulations, development control rules and         educational        facilities,   medical     Works Departments, other government
 general building requirements; fire safety         facilities, distribution services, police,   construction departments, local bodies or
 requirements; stipulations regarding               civil defence and home guards and fire       private construction agencies.
 materials,     structural  design      and         services
 construction (including safety); and           8. Revision of parking requirements for          Enforcing authority: Bureau of Indian
 building and plumbing services.                    metro and mega cities                        Standards (BIS)
                                                9. Updation of special requirements for
 Created by: Bureau of Indian Standards             low income housing for urban areas           Enforceable by - Recommendatory
 (BIS) and expert panels including              10. Inclusion of special requirements for
 architects, designers, urban planners,             low income housing rural habitat             Green Building Code
 engineers, structural engineers, fire              planning
 professionals, and plumbing, water and         11. Revision of the provisions for               A code is a set of guidelines that offer a
 sanitation experts                                 buildings and facilities for physically      broad, subjective set of recommendations/
                                                    challenged                                   means that may be followed in order to
 Year of adoption: The Code was first           12. Fire safety norms completely                 achieve a certain end. The end in this case
 published in 1970 at the instance of               revamped through detailed provisions         is a 'green building', or a structure that has
 Planning Commission and then revised in            on Fire Prevention, Life Safety and          a minimal negative impact on the
 1983. Thereafter, three major amendments           Fire Protection                              environment, and consumes minimal
 were issued, two in 1987 and the third in      13. Inclusion of new categories of starred       resources (water, energy, construction
 1997.                                              hotels, heritage structures and              materials, etc.) during its construction,
                                                    archeological monuments for fire             operation and demolition stages. In other
 Salient features:                                  safety provisions                            words, over its entire 'life cycle'.
 1. Inclusion of a complete philosophy          14. Substitution        of     halogen-based
     and direction for successfully                 fire/extinguishers fire fighting system      There are NO green building codes in
     accomplishing the building projects        15. Promotion to new/innovative building         India. What there are, are rating systems
     through Integrated Multi-disciplinary          materials/technologies                       based on existing national and
     Approach right through the conceptual      16. Inclusion of latest provisions for           international "building codes" (NOT
     stage to planning, designing,                  earthquake resistant design and              'green' building codes but regular codes
     construction,      operation       and         construction                                 such as the Energy Conservation Building
     maintenance stages of the project to its   17. Inclusion of details on multi-disaster-      Code, the National Building Code, etc.).
     conclusion.                                    prone districts                              Such as the USGBC developed (now
 2. A series of reforms in building permit      18. Inclusion of new chapter on design and       IGBC adapted) LEED (Leadership in
     process                                        construction using bamboo                    Energy and Environmental Design) rating
 3. Provisions to ensure and certification      19. Chapter on prefabricated and                 system, and the TERI developed (now
     of safety of buildings against natural         composite construction for speedier          endorsed by the Ministry of New and
     disaster by engineer and structural            construction                                 Renewable Energy, Government of India)
     engineer                                   20. Updation of provision of safety in           GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated
 4. Provision for two stage permit for high         construction                                 Habitat Assessment) rating system.

68                                                                                                                        April - June 2008
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These systems help compare the                   function from TERI itself, as was the case          safe, affordable, quick, comfortable,
"greenness" of your buildings with               earlier.                                            reliable and sustainable access for the
nationally/ internationally acceptable                                                               growing number of city residents to
standards (and in GRIHA's case -                 Enforceable by - Recommendatory                     jobs, education, recreation and such
benchmarks) to determine whether you                                                                 other needs within our cities. This is
deserve a 5 star rating for your efforts to      Background                                          sought to be achieved by:
preserve the environment, or lesser such                                                        b)   Incorporating urban transportation as
ratings.                                         Rapid economic growth happens on the                an important parameter at the urban
                                                 back of concentrated activity in the urban          planning stage rather than being a
The Energy Conservation Building Code            areas which must provide for an easy and            consequential requirement
(ECBC), as prepared by the BEE under the         sustainable flow of goods and people.          c)   Encouraging integrated land use and
Ministry of Power, is a code that helps          Today, billions of man hours are lost with          transport planning in all cities so that
make a (essentially air-conditioned)             people "stuck in traffic".                          travel distances are minimised and
building energy efficient. However, that                                                             access to livelihoods, education, and
doesn't help categorise a building as green,     The primary reason for this has been the            other social needs, especially for the
which needs to address other issues such         explosive growth in the number of motor             marginal segments of the urban
as water and waste management,                   vehicles, coupled with limitations on the           population is improved
renewable energy applications, low               amount of road space that can be provided.     d)   Improving access of business to
embodied energy materials use, etc.              With population growth, cities have tended          markets and the various factors of
                                                 to sprawl and increased travel distances            production
1. Created by: TERI (in case of                  have made non-motorised modes                  e)   Bringing about a more equitable
   GRIHA), and the IGBC (Indian Green            impossible to use and thus, increasing the          allocation of road space with people,
   Building Council) in case of LEED             cost of traveling, especially for poor.             rather than vehicles, as its main focus
2. Year of Adoption: The GRIHA system                                                           f)   Encourage greater use of public
   was adopted by the MNRE (Ministry             Travel in the city has become more risky            transport and non motorised modes by
   of New and Renewable Energy) on the           with accident rates having gone up from             offering Central financial assistance for
   1st of November, 2007                         1.6 lakh in 1981 to over 3.9 lakh in 2001.          this purpose
3. Enforcing Authority: A code is not            Increased use of personal vehicles has led     g)   Enabling the establishment of quality
   enforced. It is voluntary, unless it is       to increased air pollution.                         focused multi-modal public transport
   made part of a local byelaws. Like the                                                            systems that are well integrated,
   National Building Code of India 2005,         Vision                                              providing seamless travel across
   which is a voluntary code, but since it                                                           modes.
   is a part of most states' local bye-laws      A) To recognise that people occupy             h)   Establishing effective regulatory and
   it is mandatory.                                 center-stage in our cities and all plans         enforcement mechanisms that allow a
                                                    would be for their common benefit and            level playing field for all operators of
The ECBC shall also be eventually                   well being.                                      transport services and enhanced safety
integrated with state bylaws and become          B) To make our cities the most livable in           for the transport system users.
mandatory. GRIHA has based itself on the            the world and enable them to become         i)   Establishing institutional mechanisms
ECBC and other such national codes that             the "engines of economic growth" that            for enhanced coordination in the
already exist, so as not to burden the              power India's development in the 21st            planning and management of transport
architects/engineers/contractors with 'yet          century                                          systems.
another' norm to go by. This also goes to        C) To allow our cities to evolve into an       j)   Introducing Intelligent Transport
highlight that a 'green building' can be built      urban form that is best suited for the           Systems for traffic management.
in India, simply by adopting local codes            unique geography of their locations         k)   Addressing concerns of road safety and
and standards, and our traditional                  and is best placed to support the main           trauma response.
knowledge of architecture.                          social and economic activities that take    l)   Reducing pollution levels through
                                                    place in the city.                               changes in traveling practices, better
In case of GRIHA, the implementing                                                                   enforcement,        stricter      norms,
authority is MNRE, that shall ensure it be       Objectives                                          technological improvements, etc.
linked to some financial incentives that are                                                    m)   Building capacity (institutional and
yet to be finalised. The secretariat shall       a) The objective of this policy is to ensure        manpower) to plan for sustainable

April - June 2008                                                                                                                            69
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      urban transport and establishing          (f) A need exists to build capacity for             secure access to these resources.
      knowledge management system that              urban transport planning as also            (c) Inter-generational Equity: To ensure
      would service the needs of all urban          develops it as a professional practice.         judicious use of environmental
      transport professionals, such as          (g) A need exists to take up coordinated            resources to meet the needs and
      planners,      researchers,   teachers,       capacity building, research and                 aspirations of the present and future
      students, etc.                                information dissemination to raise the          generations.
 n)   Promoting the use of cleaner                  overall level of awareness and skills.      (d) Integration of Environmental
      technologies.                                                                                 Concerns in Economic and Social
 o)   Raising finances, through innovative      Introduction                                        Development:          To       integrate
      mechanisms that tap land as a                                                                 environmental concerns into policies,
      resource, for investments in urban        National Environment Policy - 2006                  plans, programmes, and projects for
      transport infrastructure.                                                                     economic and social development.
 p)   Associating the private sector in         The National Environment Policy seeks to        (e) Efficiency in Environmental Resource
      activities where their strengths can be   extend the coverage, and fill in gaps that          Use: To ensure efficient use of
      beneficially tapped.                      still exist, in light of present knowledge          environmental resources in the sense
 q)   Taking up pilot projects that             and accumulated experience. It does not             of reduction in their use per unit of
      demonstrate the potential of possible     displace, but builds on the earlier policies.       economic output, to minimise adverse
      best practices in sustainable urban       The National Environment Policy is                  environmental impacts.
      transport.                                intended to mainstream environmental            (f) Environmental Governance: To
                                                concerns in all development activities.             apply the principles of good
 Need For National Policy                                                                           governance (transparency, rationality,
                                                The dominant theme of this policy is that           accountability, reduction in time and
 (a) Although the responsibility for            while conservation of environmental                 costs, participation, and regulatory
     management of urban areas (and thus        resources is necessary to secure                    independence) to the management and
     urban transport) rests with the State      livelihoods and well-being of all, the most         regulation of use of environmental
     governments, a Central policy is           secure basis for conservation is to ensure          resources.
     considered necessary as:                   that people dependent on particular             (g) Enhancement of Resources for
 (b) Several key agencies that would play       resources obtain better livelihoods from            Environmental Conservation: To
     an important role in urban transport       the fact of conservation than from                  ensure higher resource flows,
     planning work under the Central            degradation of the resource.                        comprising finance, technology,
     government, with no accountability to                                                          management        skills,    traditional
     the State government                       Objectives                                          knowledge, and social capital, for
 (c) Several Acts and Rules, which have                                                             environmental conservation through
     important implications in dealing with     (a) Conservation          of        Critical        mutually beneficial multistakeholder
     urban      transport     issues,    are        Environmental Resources: To                     partnerships       between         local
     administered      by     the     Central       protect and conserve critical ecological        communities, public agencies, the
     Government                                     systems and resources, and invaluable           academic and research community,
 (d) A need exists to guide State level             natural and man-made heritage, which            investors, and multilateral and bilateral
     action plans within an overall                 are essential for life support,                 development partners.
     framework.                                     livelihoods, economic growth, and a
 (e) The launching of the JNNURM has                broad conception of human well-             Principles
     provided a timely platform for                 being.
     providing significant financial support    (b) Intra-generational              Equity:     (a) If the costs (or benefits) of the
     from the Central Government for                Livelihood Security for the Poor: To            externalities are not re-visited on the
     investments in urban transport                 ensure      equitable     access      to        party responsible for the original act,
     infrastructure.                                environmental resources and quality             the resulting level of the entire
     As such, this offers an opportunity for        for all sections of society, and in             sequence      of     production      or
     a meaningful national policy that              particular, to ensure that poor                 consumption, and externality, is
     would guide Central financial                  communities, which are most                     inefficient.
     assistance towards improving urban             dependent on environmental resources        (b) Efficiency of resource use may also be
     mobility.                                      for their livelihoods, are assured              accomplished by the use of policy

70                                                                                                                       April - June 2008
                                                                                                      green pages

    instruments that create incentives to
    minimise        wasteful       use    and    Vision
    consumption of natural resources.
(c) The principle of legal liability may be                Integrated Energy Policy - 2006
    viewed as an embodiment in legal
    doctrine of the "polluter pays"              The broad vision behind the energy policy is to reliably meet the demand for
    approach, itself deriving from the           energy services of all sectors including the lifeline energy needs of vulnerable
    principle of economic efficiency.            households in all parts of the country with safe, clean and convenient energy
(d) Environmental standards must reflect         at the least-cost. This must be done in a technically efficient, economically
    the economic and social development          viable and environmentally sustainable manner using different fuels and forms
    situation in which they apply.               of energy, both conventional and non-conventional, as well as new and
(e) It is preferable to prevent                  emerging energy sources to ensure supply at all times with a prescribed
    environmental damage from occurring          confidence level considering that shocks and disruption can be reasonably
    in the first place, rather than attempting   expected.
    to restore degraded environmental
    resources after the fact.                    Need for an integrated policy
                                                 The need to have an integrated policy arises because different fuels can
Strategies and Actions                           substitute for each other in both production and consumption. Alternative
                                                 technologies are available and there is substantial scope for exploiting possible
(a) Action plans would need to be                synergies to increase energy system efficiency and to meet requirement for
    prepared on identified themes by the         energy services.
    concerned agencies at all levels of
    Government - Central, State/UT, and          The Approach
    Local.                                       The traditional approach to the energy policy is no longer appropriate. We must
(b) A judicious mix of civil and criminal        provide policies that create an enabling environment and provide incentives to
    processes and sanctions will be              decision makers, consumers, private firms, autonomous public corporations,
    employed in the legal regime for             and government departments, to behave in ways that result in socially and
    enforcement, through a review of the         economically desirable outcomes. It is not necessary to compare precisely the
    existing legislation.                        economics of alternatives as the policy does not mandate which alternative
(c) The causes of degradation of                 should be used and when.
    environmental resources lie ultimately
    in a broad range of policy, and              The institutional structure in the public sector that we have so assiduously built
    institutional including regulatory           up during the last 55 years or so to promote self sufficiency and self-reliance
    shortcomings, leading to the direct          in energy, has led to a monopolistic market structure and led to the systemic
    causes.                                      infirmities that are inherent in cases of majority public ownership.
(d) It is essential that women play a greater
    role in the management of natural            Concluding Comment
    resources.                                   (a) Reducing energy requirements through energy efficiency and
(e) Access to environmental information              conservation.
    is the principal means by which              (b) Augmenting energy resources and supply.
    environmentally               conscious      (c) Rationalisation of fuel prices to mimic free market prices that promote
    stakeholders may evaluate compliance             efficient fuel choice and substitution.
    by the concerned parties with                (d) Promoting coal imports.
    environmental standards.                     (e) Accelerating power sector reforms.
                                                 (f) Cutting cost of power.
                                                 (g) Encouraging renewables and local solutions.

      Urban Links                                (h) Enhancing energy security.
                                                 (i) Promoting on energy R&D
                                                 j) Promoting household energy security, gender equity and empowerment
          see page 90                                through entitlements for the poor.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                     71
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April - June 2008                 73
                                                                                                              green pages

Local Bodies can also go for
Carbon Credits
Local bodies can be paid for using sustainable technologies through
Carbon Credits, says N Kalidas

    ntegrating civilization with sustainable      Board. We worked on the project for five        results in saving diesel and compute for
    development is one of the biggest             years before grounding the same in 2006.        carbon credits. Encourage only battery cars
    challenges of urban management                Many approaches were articulated by us          in the heart of the cities.
today. It involves changes in lifestyles,         within the frame of 'Bundling', which have
consumption patterns, utility concepts,           become reference tools for banks and other      Use of wastes:
water and waste management. But how               agencies throughout the world.                  Aim to tap methane from sewerage water
many Corporations and Municipalities are                                                          and municipal waste. This is one project of
geared up to this mechanism of sustainable        The bricks are produced throughout the          carbon credits.
development? Do we have syllabus and              country by various walks of entrepreneurs
technological rulebooks to guide our urban        such as, builders, unemployed youth, self-      Use methane as a substitute to fossil fuel
planners?                                         help groups in rural areas, building centers,   to generate electricity, which is another
                                                  masons-tuned as entrepreneurs, clay-brick       project of carbon credits.
India is slowly realising the potential of        producers turned into FaL-G producers
carbon      trading        through       Clean    and corporates.                                 Electricity:
Development Mechanism (CDM). Most of                                                              Operate colony-based solar power systems
the potential in this initiative is believed to   The challenges to urban local bodies lie in     and make the colony-dwellers responsible
be in the Small Scale Industries (SSI). A         managing various urban amenities with the       for maintenance and operation. All street
study indicates that over 45 per cent of          agenda of sustainable development. The          lights should have used solar-based power.
India's potential in carbon credits lie in the    list is exhaustive and the suggestions          Advertisement is a luxury having no
small scale segment. However, they are            appear to be impractical.                       barriers on budgets. Why to provide
often intimidated by the high transaction                                                         regular power? Insist hoardings to use
costs and low quantity generation (of             When water could be sold at par to the cost     solar power if they are keen to light their
credits).                                         of milk today (which was posed as a             display.
                                                  challenge next to impossibility prior to
Institute for Solid Waste Research &              90s) every thing is possible. The only need     The earnings through carbon credits to
Ecological Balance (INSWAREB) has                 is to beat the nerve of the consumer with       urban local bodies are meager. They can
undertaken the role of a Project Entity that      right philosophy.                               earn the credits only through bundling. The
bundles or aggregates several small-scale                                                         State government should set up a task
CDM       projects,    deals    with     all      On water front:                                 force/CDM Board at state level to pool the
documentation, filing and statutory issues.       Encourage water harvesting at every house       activities of various cities and towns within
The conditions of the CDM executive               to improve ground water. Restore all old        the state, bundle them and promote as
board are met, but the individual SSIs do         water tanks amidst of cities to receive rain    CDM project.The rules are common who
not need to deal with the verification            water and thereby charging ground water.        ever the promoter be.
mechanisms and the transaction costs are          This would minimise water tanks, ease
distributed among many, making it                 traffic congestion and earn carbon credits      The concept of carbon credits can be
affordable to the SSIs.                           for saving diesel.                              popularised by counselling and class room
                                                                                                  lectures at grass root levels. The target
The FaL-G bricks mechanism is different           On transport:                                   groups should be identified and pooled for
because it involved bundling. It is               Encourage mass transport system.                imparting motivation.
articulated based on the provisions of            Decongest each junction with flyovers and
bundling offered by CDM-Executive                 avoid stagnation of traffic. Calculate the

April - June 2008                                                                                                                             75
                  green pages

                                                                                                 Education for
                                                                                                 As Supreme Court makes
                                                                                                 environment education mandatory
                                                                                                 for schools.

             nvironment education is moving        gaps that they inevitably identify in their   assess themselves.
             out of the realm of simply planting   current practices so that they can become
             trees or shutting taps. Schools       ecologically sustainable micro habitats.      So how do they assess themselves?
     across the country are in the process of
     quantifying their habits of water usage,      It has two primary components:                Typically, these are parameters that are
     waste generation and land use as part of an                                                 difficult even for established organisations
     innovative scheme evolved by the Centre       a)A manual, which is a do-it-yourself         to monitor. But schools have come up with
     for Science and Environment.                     guidebook, which sets down the basic       innovative means of measuring these
                                                      rules of the audit process. The five       intangibles.
     Explains Sumita Dasgupta, coordinator of         resources audited are: water, air,
     CSE's Green Schools Programme, "When             energy, waste and land. The manual         In Daramdin School, Sikkim, for instance,
     the     Supreme      Court    mandated           also     includes      comprehensive       the school's source of water to the taps was
     environmental education as part of the           background on each of these resources,     a natural stream and the amount of water
     school curriculum, we saw an opportunity         explaining their ecological, social and    used could not be documented. So the
     here for actually getting students and           economic significance; and                 school used a measuring cup for two days
     schools interested in what the practical      b)A 2-day workshop for teachers to brief      to serve out the water to children which
     aspects of environmental education are,          them on how to use the manual.             allowed them to arrive at tangible usage
     and how can they become a part of the                                                       levels.
     process."                                     However, nothing comes free to schools.
                                                   They have to pay for the training and the     Being Green
     The outcome was CSE's Gobar Times             kit but savings come in the form of energy    The schools that won and showed the way:
     Green Schools Program. This is designed       saved over a period of time.                  Government Senior Secondary School,
     as a tool to help school communities to                                                     Boormajra (Ropar), Punjab - this school is
     audit the use of natural resources within     Recognition, however, can come                a winner second time round.
     their own premises.                           immediately when they participate in a
                                                   competition where the various competing       In 2006, the team beat all other contenders
     It also provides them the methodology to      schools are judged on the basis of their      in the fray, by presenting remarkably
     assess themselves as environmental            performance on the prescribed parameters.     precise audit documents. The data also
     managers.                                                                                   reflected the effort that the school
                                                   What is interesting is that the school        community with limited resources had
     And finally, it tells them how to plug the    administration, students and teachers         made in managing its water.

76                                                                                                                       April - June 2008
                                                                                                               green pages

             Water                                 Air                                Land                                 Waste
                                                                        What is the percentage of
How much water does the             Is the school community’s                                                What are the sources of
                                                                        green area in the school
school use?                         use of Oxygen balanced?                                                  energy used in the school?

                                    What is the level of air
Are the sanitation facilities                                           How much land area is                How much energy does it
                                    pollution in the area where
adequate?                                                               covered by trees?                    consume?
                                    the school is located?

                             How much Respirable
Does the school follow basic                                                                                 Does the school follow
                             Suspended Particulate                      What is the per capita
water conservation                                                                                           energy conservation
                             Matter do the members of                   constructed and field area?
practices?                                                                                                   practices?
                             the community inhale?

                                                                        How many species of plants
How much water does the             How eco-friendly are the                                        How much energy does the
                                                                        and animals does the school
school harvest?                     vehicles in the school?                                         school save?

                                    How does each member                Which pesticides does the
How much does it recycle?
                                    travel to school?                   school use?

                                                 The team believes that one can make do           welfare associations at block levels or other
It was reusing almost 50 per cent of the         with little if the resource is managed           institutions such as hospitals and hotels.
spillage from taps to irrigate the school        prudently. The school has also worked
grounds. In 2007, the students and teachers      hard on preparing waste generation data,         Says Dasgupta,"The Green School programme
of Boormajra had produced minutely               and now knows exactly how much                   will be an opportunity for legitimate region wise
detailed information, not only on water,         solidwaste is generated on its premises.         data which can than be useful in evolving a
but on land, air and energy, as well. Today,                                                      manual of best practice." For the participating
the school is practicing sustainable use of      For CSE, this data generated by schools          student and teacher communities as well, this
natural resources and constantly looking         themselves becomes a very valuable authentic     effort sensitises them not just in the schools but
out for new and more innovative ways of          database which can then be used to monitor and   in their home environment as well and makes
managing them. The school has now set up         document other communities such as resident's    them harbingers of change.
a rainwater harvesting system with the
help of funds from the state government.

Most importantly, it has been able to
motivate a large group of schools in
different parts of Punjab to participate in
the programme.

Apeejay School, Pitampura (New Delhi) -
This Delhi-based school has got the overall
third position as well as top spot in the Best
Students' Team Category.

The school's team has earned the honours
for its meticulously prepared biodiversity
register, which is a feat in itself
considering the school's location in the
extremely crowded west Delhi.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                                  77

JNNURM guides upcoming projects for safety aspects
Dr Anand S Arya, National Seismic Advisor and Ankush Agarwal, Technical Officer (Hazard
Vulnerability Reduction)

        he Jawaharlal Nehru Urban              river erosion; close to 5,700 km long coast   disaster prone regions. The losses of life
        Renewal Mission (JNNURM), that         line, is prone to cyclones and tsunamis.      and property could be minimised in the
        covers 63 cities consisting of seven   Further, hilly areas are also at risk from    future projects to be sanctioned/
major cities, 28 million plus cities and 28    landslides and avalanches.                    implemented in the cities (which lie in the
other identified cities with less than 1                                                     disaster prone regions of the country), if
million population, provides a great           It is, therefore, necessary that all          the guidelines/recommendations enclosed
opportunity for improving not only quality     investment going for creation of physical     for each area, are incorporated in all the
but also safety of our cities. We seriously    infrastructure as a part of this national     stages of project formulation, sanction,
need to consider that each project, when       development scheme (JNNURM) takes             implementation and monitoring.
sanctioned particularly in disaster prone      cognizance of the likely adverse impact of
regions, should include a component for        natural hazards on the assets proposed to     In    the     above,      background
assessment of impact of natural hazards        be created in the cities falling in the       recommendations have been made for the
that may occur in the area and the likely
damage it may cause to life and assets to
be built in the scope of the project.

The earthquake in Japan's Kobe city in
1995 highlighted how the various service
sectors in the city were adversely affected
during the earthquake which caused
immense problems to the city dwellers as
well as the disaster management agencies
in meeting the situation. (See table)


The Disaster Mitigation and Management
Act, 2005 recognises the need to consider
Disaster Mitigation Measures and
Strategies as an integral part of all
development activities in the country,
specifically the Act provides as follows :-
Section 11 (3)(b) states that the National
Plan shall include measures to be taken for
the integration of mitigation measures in
the development plans; and

Section 23(4) (c) states that the State plan
shall include the manner in which the
mitigation measures shall be integrated
with the development plans and projects.
More than 59 per cent of the landmass is
prone to earthquakes of moderate to very
high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12
per cent of land) is prone to floods and

April - June 2008                                                                                                                      79

                                                    Greater Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chennai,             incorporating in the project proposals
                                                    Kokata and few others fall in Seismic Zone      suitably. The assessing and monitoring
                                                    III that have moderate damage risk. There       authorities should also consider all these
                                                    are several cities in Seismic Zone II which     disaster related issues while approving the
                                                    is a low damage risk zone.                      projects.

                                                    Seven coastal cities like Chennai, Kolkata,     Sector-wise   problems                 and
                                                    Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneshwar, Agartala,          recommendations
                                                    Puri and Pondicherry have been classified
                                                    as cyclone-prone cities. Another 10 cities      Redevelopment of inner old city
                                                    Coimbatore, Shimla, Imphal, Shillong,           areas.
                                                    Aizwal, Kohima, Gangtok, Dehradun,
                                                    Nainital and Srinagar (J&K) have been           (1) Narrow streets
                                                    classified as cities that are prone to          (2) Old buildings and structures which
                                                    landslides.                                         were not designed/constructed
                                                                                                        keeping in mind earthquake safety,
                                                    JNNURM an opportunity                    for    (3) Poor infrastructure facilities like
                                                    disaster mitigation.                                exposed electric poles with hanging
                                                                                                        electric wires,
 following sectors which are to be covered          The urban renewal mission provides a            (4) Choked sewers, drains etc
 under the JNNURM:                                  great opportunity, while considering the
                                                    projects for urban renewal, to provide          Recommendation:
     i)    Redevelopment of inner (old) city        safety to the cities from the impacts of
           areas                                    natural hazards considered probable to          a)  Design & Construction of safer new
     ii) Water supply (including desalination       occur in the future. It will be most                buildings as well as Seismic
           plats) and sanitation.                   appropriate to carry out in each proposed           retrofitting of unsafe existing
     iii) Sewerage        and     solid    waste    project a study of disastrous impact of             buildings
           management                               hazards on the proposed development.            (b) Most inner city areas are composed of
     iv) Construction and improvement of                                                                masonry buildings of various types
           drains and storm water drains            This impact will have to be considered              consisting of brick and/or stone. The
     v) Urban Transportation including roads,       from two angles:-                                   information given in IS: 4326, IS:
           highways, MRTS and metro projects                                                            13828 and notably IS: 13935 will be
     vi) Parking lots and spaces on PPP basis       (a) How the elements of the proposed                found most important in this regard.
     vii) Development of heritage areas                 project would be adversely impacted         (c) To safeguard against the collapse of
     viii) Prevention and rehabilitation of soil        by any one or more of the natural               buildings on to narrow streets,
           erosion and landslides (only in cases        hazards and how to safeguard the                reinforced concrete or steel frames of
           of special category states, where such       proposed development?                           special designs could be erected to
           problems are common)                     (b) Whether the proposed projects will              provide lateral support to the
     ix) Preservation of Water bodies.                  have adverse effect in enhancing the            buildings on both sides.
                                                        hazard proneness of the city and if so,
     Hazard - prone cities                              then how to eliminate the features that     States may be advised to establish panels
                                                        may cause such an adverse impact?           of earthquake experts to carry out studies
 JNNURM has identified some cities that                                                             in this regard and help develop the safety
 are prone to hazards. Of these Guwahati,           A few considerations and suggestions are        systems for such areas.
 Itanagar, Imphal, Shillong, Aizwal,                given in the following paragraphs in regard
 Kohima, Agartala & Srinagar fall under the         to the nine sectors specified for eligibility   (1) If such areas consist of burnable
 Seismic Zone V and have very high                  under JNNURM. The Government of                     wooden buildings, special precautions
 damage risk. There are 14 cities, including        India's Ministry of Urban Development               against fire safety may be carried out
 Delhi, Patna, Ludhiana, Haridwar, etc.             and Ministry of Urban Employment &                  for protection.
 which fall in Seismic Zone IV, deemed              Poverty Alleviation may provide these           (2) Where new structures are proposed
 high damage risk zone. Other 24 cities like        recommendations to the States for                   for improvement of civic facilities, all

80                                                                                                                          April - June 2008

     such structures should be designed to    health.
     be earthquake resistant as per the
     above BIS Codes.                         Sewage treatment plants: In an earthquake,             Every segment
                                              sewage treatment plants not designed for
•   Water     supply     (including           seismic resistance would sustain damage.          of the problem has a
desalination plants) and sanitation           Raw or inadequately treated sewage that
                                              had reached the sewage treatment plant               detailed solution.
Emergency facilities:                         would be discharged into the receiving
Water could be unavailable to serve           water body.                                             The problems
emergency facilities.
                                              Recommendation:                                    have to be identified
Telecommunication systems:
The cut off of water supplies with the        For sewer lines the recommendations as             and the appropriate
resulting shutdown of cooling systems         for water supply mains are relevant.
could render computer-dependent tele-                                                               solution applied
communication systems inoperable.             Any structures required for the sewerage
                                              treatment plant will need to be designed
Water supplies:                               using the Earthquake Resistant Design         Direct loss of property and utility service
If distribution systems were damaged,         Codes.                                        (e.g., the collapse of a bridge carrying
drinking water would have to be trucked in                                                  utilities).
until the water system could be restored.     • Drains and storm water drains
Businesses would have to remain closed                                                      Recommendation:
until water service was restored because of   Construction and improvement of drains
health and fire hazards.                      and storm water drains                        The city areas having high water table and
                                                                                            sandy soils should be studied for
Recommendation:                               Recommendation:                               determination of liquefaction potential
                                                                                            under seismic conditions particularly in
Wherever new water supply reservoirs or       Stability of all drains including storm       Seismic Zone IV & V areas and the soil
over head tanks are proposed, they should     water drains may be checked using the         condition improved as found necessary
be designed to be safe under the postulated   provisions of earthquake resistant design     while laying the transportation routes.
earthquake forces. A special standard         standards available for the design of
IS:1893 (Part - 2) namely Liquid Retaining    retaining walls used for retaining earth in   All transportation structures namely
Structures has now been drafted and           Indian Standard 1893 of 1984.                 flyovers, bridges and culverts should be
should be used for insuring structural                                                      designed for appropriate seismic forces as
safety of over head water supply tanks.       • Urban transportation including              per the Indian.
                                              roads, highways, expressways,
• Sewerage          and   solid    waste      MRTS, and metro projects                      • Parking lots and spaces on PPP
management                                                                                  basis.
                                              Direct loss of life due to collapse or
Sewers:                                       structural failure of the lifeline            Recommendation:
As a result of loss of power and damage to
pump station buildings and equipment,         Indirect loss of life due to inability to     The multi-storied parking lots need to be
sewage would overflow from manholes           respond to secondary catastrophes, such as    designed using the appropriate BIS Codes
into city streets, back up into basements,    fires, and/or provide emergency medical       for earthquake safety.
and run into drainage conduits.               aid

Sewers in areas that suffer significant       Delayed recovery operations
permanent ground deformation would be
destroyed completely. Sewers in less-         Release of hazardous products (e.g., losses
affected areas might sustain damage that      from tank cars derailed by track failure,
would go unnoticed, presenting a hazard to    gas leaks from ruptured utility lines)

April - June 2008                                                                                                                     81

                           Financing Urban Development
                           Looking for the Additional Nine Rupees
                           By V Suresh,
                           Housing and Urban Development Specialist and Former CMD, HUDCO

              ities will absorb two thirds of the   The requirements of core infrastructure for    4.7 per cent of GDP in 2005-06 to 8 per
              population growth in the future.      modernisation / upgradation of highways,       cent by 2011-2012. The CIF had indicated
              This will result in a massive         modernisation /expansion of rail networks,     that this may increase to US$ 475 billion
     increase in demand for the already             modernisation/expansion of airports,           at current prices. The World Bank study
     deficient utility, social and commercial       providing quantum jump in port capacity        has observed that while investment in
     infrastructure.                                generating additional 1 lakh MW power          urban infrastructure in Chinese cities was
                                                    alone would need Rs 12.3 lakh crore as per     of the order of 6-7 per cent of GDP, Indian
     The Rakesh Mohan Committee’s India             the assessment made by the Prime               cities were spending less that 0.5 per cent
     Infrastructure Report 1994 identified Rs       Minister's apex committee on core              of GDP.
     2,50,000 crore required for urban              infrastructure. Including the residual
     infrastructure to cover backlog, new           sector, (urban, telecom and other              This is in line with Mao's thoughts to
     investments      and     operations    and     infrastructure fund requirements) the          "Keep the flies and mosquitoes away for
     maintenance costs. The extent of funds         projected requirement was Rs 14.5 lakh         clean sustainable cities." In this one
     available from the existing sources during     crore ($320billion) as the investment          thought he covered all the investments
     the Ninth and Tenth Plan period has been       needed by 2012. This works out to just         needed for sewerage, drainage, sanitation
     of the order of Rs 25,000 crores. This         over Rs 2.5 lakh crore per year.               and waste management. The World Health
     effectively means that of every Rs 10                                                         Organisation (WHO) has clearly identified
     required for funding urban infrastructure      The Report of the Committee on                 that 85 per cent of all diseases are due to
     only Rs.1 is available through the             Infrastructure Financing (CIF) headed by       bad quality water supply, lack of
     conventional budgetary sources of the          Deepak Parekh, has already indicated that      sanitation, drainage, waste disposal and
     centre, state and local governments. India     this is underestimated especially in respect   environment pollution. While it is
     has been scouting for the additional Rs 9      of the residual sectors. The government        heartening to note that the Government of
     out of every Rs 10 required.                   envisages that the investment on               India is coming up with a massive National
                                                    infrastructure would rise gradually from       Urban Health Mission with expanded
     The Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal
     Mission (JNNURM) announced in
     December 2005 is a major step forward in
                                                     Financing of Infrastructure Schemes
     identifying Rs 100,000 crore, during 2005-
     2012 for supporting urban development                Budgets of
     initiatives. In the 10-year period between           • Central Government
     the Ninth and Tenth Plans the budgetary              • State Goverments
     allocation was Rs 25,000 crore while in the
                                                          • Local Governments
     JNNURM period of seven years four times
     the amount has been provided for.                    Raising loans from LIC, HUDCO, IDBI, ICICI, ILFS,
     This also provides for leveraging the
                                                          IDFC, Banks, other DFI’s
     budget     funds    through     additional
                                                          Loans from International Funding Agencies like
     institutional financing as well as
     investments from private and community               OECF (JBIC), World Bank, ADB, KfW, USAID etc
     sectors. The 2007 estimates for urban
     infrastructure funds is of the order of Rs
                                                          Grand funds from donor agencies like DANIDA,
     2,90,000 crore.                                      DFID, CIDA, National Trust/Missions

82                                                                                                                         April - June 2008

resource, it would be relevant to note that
while healthcare related issues would stand
                                                                 Some Innovative ‘User pay’ Instruments
addressed, the cause for the same would be              Infrastructure Type                      Innovative user pay Instruments
missed. It is going for the trees and losing                                            Advance registration chargesAdvance registration charges,
the forest. It is also recognised that every                                            Connection charges, Enhancement of water tariff, Water
Rs. 1 crore spent in urban infrastructure                     Water Supply              benefit tax/water tax, Betterment charges, Development
                                                                                        charges, Utilization from other sources such as octrol, property
provision NOW, saves Rs. 10 crore on
                                                                                        tax, sale of plots etc. and Charges from water Klosks
public healthcare LATER.
                                                                                        Connection Charges, Sewerage Cess Tax, Conservancy Tax,
                                                              Sewerage                  Sale of Renewable waste, Sale of Sludge and Sale of Nutrient
One of the standing examples is the
                                                                                        rich wastewater.
initiative of the citizens of Alandur - a
small municipality outside the Chennai                                                  Collection Charges, Cess, Sale of Renewable waste, and
                                                              Solid Waste               Fines for dumping waste.
Municipal Corporation, but part of
Chennai city. The lack of a good sewerage                     Roads/Fly-overs/
                                                                                        Toll Tax, Land as a Resource and Advertising
or drainage system resulted in outbreaks of                   Bridges
many diseases, pushing the expense to
Rs. 2500-3500 on family medical expenses                      Airports/Rly.stations/ Surchargeon tickrts, using land as a resource Toll Tax User,
                                                              Bus Terminals          Charges for transportation terminals and advertisiting rights.
per month. The 20,000 families felt that
there was a clear need for a sewerage and
treatment plant and also surface drainage        collections by reforms in the property tax,        advertisements in leading dailies. Mumbai
to get over the problem of stagnant pools        expanding the data and information base            is also geared to it now. At the same time,
of sullage and sewage around, leading to         through e-governance and providing                 we have majority of the municipalities and
mosquito menace.                                 transparent accounting systems.                    corporation, who are not able to come out
                                                                                                    with financial statements at the end of the
Each family contributed Rs. 10,000 each          The additional sources have to take into           year identifying, the assets and liabilities.
creating a corpus fund of Rs. 20 crore only      account the capacity of the local bodies to
through residential contribution. This           raise resources for specific sectors of            This is where the reforms envisaged under
clearly indicates that citizens and cities get   projects from the market and institutional         JNNURM would substantially help in the
the infrastructure they desire and deserve.      financing. It has not been possible always         legal, fiscal and regulatory environments
                                                 for most of the local bodies to access             in urban local bodies and which in turn will
It has been proved that citizens are willing     additional resources in view of the weak           make them stronger organisationally and
to pay for the better quality of services.       financial set-up and inappropriate                 financially.
More than the willingness to pay, is the         accounting systems. Many cities have
issue of willingness to charge by the urban      benefitted as a result of reforms in accrual       There are ultimately no free lunches. If
local bodies for political reasons. Any          based accounting systems on commercial             people do not pay, the government has to
number of success stories are available          patterns. Consequently, they could raise           pay. And as often the government has
from Indian cities on citizens paying for        resources through municipal bonds with             competing demands for resources the city
better quality of services - for water supply,   good credit rating as well as further              infrastructure and development needs got
waste        management,           sewerage,     institutional finance from the domestic and        affected till the citizens themselves have
transportation systems including airports        international sources subject to certain           realised that this is not the role of the
by adopting innovative user-pay                  discipline being ensured in the overall            government alone and citizens and
instruments.                                     governance mechanism and also to make              communities should also participate and
                                                 the projects viable both technically and           contribute. Of course the poor,
All these clearly indicate the need for          financially.                                       marginalised and disadvantaged would
tapping additional sources of funding and                                                           have to be taken care of through
resources. The starting point is to expand       At a time when the corporate sector is             transparent, targetted and measurable
the revenue recovery from property tax           announcing quarterly results, it would be          subsidy for accessing the services as a part
and other city tax base and user charges for     of interest to note that at least one              of inclusive development.
civic services. We have excellent examples       municipal corporation in India - Bengaluru
of Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad,              does publicly announce the state of                Further, the need for Public-Private
Mumbai etc., showing quantum-jump in             financial health every quarter through             Partnership has been recognised for

April - June 2008                                                                                                                                          83

 providers of some of the services including          enhancement. While Philippines has a                All this is due to the lack of initial
 operation and maintenance. This helps in             federal legislation for PPP, Gujarat                investment needed for comprehensive
 bringing increased resources, introduction           government was the first State to come up           project formulation for well-structured
 of state-of-the-art technologies and                 with      the    Gujarat     Infrastructure         projects which are technically viable,
 putting in place effective project                   Development Act in 1999, the benefits of            financially feasible, bankable, and
 management and continuous operations of              which is discernible in the high quality of         environmentally sustainable.
 the systems in an effective, efficient and           Infrastructure in most of the Gujarat cities
 economic manner.                                     - Surat, Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Rajkot etc.           This is where project initialisation/
                                                      Equally important is the contribution of the        innovative/development fund is needed. It
 All this needs an enabling environment for           AP government for creation of                       has to be recognised that investments upto
 all the stakeholders to play the role of             infrastructure       authority        under         1-2 per cent for preparing DPRs is
 partners. We need a level-playing field.             Infrastructure Development Enabling Act             imperative if these are to be implemented
 This is where the urban regulatory                   (IDEA).                                             within costs, time and ensuring quality and
 mechanism for urban development and                                                                      durability.
 infrastructure is acutely felt. While India          Here again, substantial participation and
 has done well in bringing in the regulatory          investments could be ensured through                Mechanism for pre-funding are now
 set-up for telecom (TRAI), power (SERC               private sector stakeholders for city                available for such projects which can be
 & CERC), Insurance (IRDA), highways                  infrastructure like the examples       in           made part of project costs for funding.
 (NHAI), we do not still have a regulatory            Hyderabad, Vijayawada and Rajkot.
 authority on the lines of the Australian                                                                 It is important that this significant message
 Utilities Commission, Ofwats of UK and               Indian experience in conceptualising,               of viable financing options be spread to all
 State Regulatory Commissions in all US               designing,       constructing       and             the stakeholders, including citizens of
 states.                                              commissioning any infrastructure project            cities to ensure sustainability and
                                                      has been mired with time and cost                   timeliness of projects.
 Further, the legal systems also need                 overruns and quality deficiencies.

 Planning for growing cities and their finances
 K T Ravindran, India's prominent urban design expert and Dean of the School of
 Planning & Architecture talks about the holistic development of cities and where the
 finances should come from
          nauthorised colonies have been out of mainstream-bringing the         They even want to bring in the metro to Mumbai and Bangalore. However,

 U        informal into the normal governance fold is the challenge. I prefer
          to call it non-formal instead of informal. There is an Institute of
 Urban Designers which has only 500 planners for the entire country and
                                                                                even the smaller projects are bankable such as micro credit, revise
                                                                                repayment schemes but its all about putting processes into place. A good
                                                                                city is one which expands but does not work at the cost of the
 that is grossly insufficient.                                                  environment. Delhi is probably the best city and is not a bad example
                                                                                amongst all India's metros. Delhi has its other complications-the land is
 In 1991 International Monetary Fund (IMF), put a rider on how the local        owned by Central Government.
 body could directly borrow money. The IMF said there should be political
 responsibility for borrowing and repaying, and loans will not be given         Within the Central Government, it is the Lieutenant Governor who has the
 unless the local body has a system of recovery. Where this system does         policing function. The various municipalities function through the Home
 not exist, the projects are not bankable.                                      Ministry, day-to-day functioning is looked after by the Ministry of Urban
 JNNURM has been implemented for introducing reforms-USAID helped
 draft it and they wanted 4 things-remove the land ceiling Act, repeal the      Then there is the Delhi Government which controls the Public Works
 rental act (World Bank has been pushing for it since the 80s), the 74th        Department and there is one Cantonment board. Delhi has a huge inter
 amendment to be put in place, and e-Governance. Why is it that large           state system, huge areas in natural forest. Delhi is performing despite all
 projects are getting sanctioned under JNNURM? The answer to this               this.
 question is that these projects especially transport projects are bankable.

84                                                                                                                                   April - June 2008

                                          It's the road map
                                     that matters the most
As Director, Office of Economic Growth, USAID,
Rebecca Black, in her four and a half year stint in India
has had a ring side view of the way India's infrastructure
sector has changed. In her response to an e-mailed
questionnaire, Black talks about the ways in which the
demand-supply gap in the sector can be bridged.

    What in your view is the best way to            East and South Asia are quite different.   governance. Private investors seek
meet this shortfall in the short, medium        China has been pouring money into its          certainty, transparency, and familiarity, as
and long term?                                  urban infrastructure for some time,            well as profitable returns. India's federated
                                                financed by public and private sources,        political      system      and       variable
    The Government of India has made a          including using land assets.                   implementation of the 74th amendment
tremendous commitment of resources                                                             has too often resulted in roles and
towards improving urban infrastructure          Manila's water utility was just recognised     responsibilities related to services and
and services through the launch of the          by the World Bank as a global prize winner     infrastructure investment not being clear
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal         in terms of service quality and efficiency.    and vulnerability to political interference,
Mission       (JNNURM).        However,         South Asia is more similar to India's          differences among states and cities require
government funds will not be sufficient to      situation in terms of having large             considerable knowledge on investment,
adequately meet current and ongoing             infrastructure gaps. Though Nepal has at       and a lack of transparency on process and
needs without additional resources from         least one small city that has successfully     cost.
the private sector.                             instituted continuous water supply and Sri
                                                Lanka's national water utility provides        Appropriate regulatory controls are often
In the short term, central and state funds      better services than that in much of India.    lacking, making quality standards and
are likely to be heavier contributors than      India's major advantage over other South       pricing uncertain. Private investors will not
urban local bodies, but over time if the        Asian countries is having a sophisticated      invest unless there is a financial return;
reforms under JNNURM are applied, a             and liquid financial sector, as well as        prices relative to costs have to be
growing share of funds can be raised at the     private companies able, and increasingly       predictable-and profitable. There are also
local level, including from private finance     interested, in participating in urban          related issues such as land acquisition,
sources. In addition to funding, private        infrastructure services                        environmental regulation, and timing of
participation can be a major force in                                                          funding and other actions that can
improving the efficiency of capital                    How can private players be              dramatically increase risk or derail project
investments and improving quality of            incentivised in Public Private Partnerships    investment.
service delivery. India's infrastructure        and what needs to be done to speed up
needs require a partnership between             private sector involvement in partnership      To increase private investment, a number
private and public-neither can do it alone.     projects in infrastructure? What are the       of steps could be taken:
                                                problems-long gestation periods, bankable      1) Clarify responsibility and make lines
       How similar are India's funding          projects or is it simply the lack of a clear         of authority simple, so that
problems in upgrading infrastructure, vis-      regulatory framework?                                performance can be clearly linked to
à-vis the rest of Asia? Are there any lessons                                                        individuals;
to be learnt?                                       A very short answer is perhaps good        2) Make decision-making processes

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          85

                                                                                                      and fees), and to improve the quality of
                                                                                                      their expenditures.

                                                                                                          Will JNNURM funds be able to bridge
                                                                                                      this gap? How can the long term
                                                                                                      sustainability of these projects be ensured?

                                                                                                           The JNNURM will go a long way in
                                                                                                      stimulating reform among a good number
                                                                                                      of states and cities. The matching grant
                                                                                                      funds are important, and will make
                                                                                                      infrastructure investment happen faster,
                                                                                                      but ultimately it is the governance reforms
                                                                                                      that will enable cities to raise the resources
                                                                                                      they need, to use them to build needed
          systematic, transparent and certain;       or length of availability of services such as    infrastructure.
     3)   Establish regulatory controls that         water supply?
          provide clarity in standards and                                                               Is the lack of information disbursal and
          pricing,                                       It is my sense that there is a significant   involvement of the public in city
     4)   Pricing for service set to allow profit;   change happening in the municipal sector.        management issues a problem area? How
     5)   Build      the     capacity     among      The JNNURM itself represents a major             can it be addressed?
          government bodies to enable the            recognition      and      commitment       by
          public sector to play its role relative    Government to India's cities-also the                 Establishing systems that effectively
          to its private partner; and                continuing attention to Mumbai as and            translate user-citizens and businesses-
     6)   Ensure that human and financial            other lead cities as the engines of economic     interest into clear demand is not always as
          resources are available to support the     growth. The number of cities that have           easy as it sounds, and certainly needs to go
          facilitation of projects.                  accepted continuous water supply as a goal       further than just voting at election time.
                                                     and are taking steps to achieve it, is
     For the kind of inclusive growth                growing every year, for instance.                Public involvement has two sides-what the
 planned under the Eleventh Plan, reliable                                                            government can do to enable involvement,
 services such as power, water or                    On order of priority: Autonomy and               but also getting the public interested
 transportation networks are critical. What          accountability of managers; cost recovery;       enough to get involved in a useful way.
 kind of a road map should be evolved and            performance benchmarks and rewards/              The JNNURM's inclusion of citizen
 at what levels-city, region, national levels?       penalties; continuous water supply. Often        participation as part of the reform process
                                                     it is the road map of how to get there that      is a great start, as is the right-to-know law.
      Each of these sectors already has              matters the most, having these principles        Part of the solution is breaking down
 different issues and problems and these             established as goals, a realistic plan for       government functions into understandable
 need to be factored into policy documents.          how to achieve them in specific steps, and       pieces and making those available to
 India's federated system also limits to an          monitoring progress-with penalty or              people through media, government run
 extent the influence that plans can have on         reward for meeting the targets.                  communication systems, NGOs or
 the implementation of projects and                                                                   business chambers, etc. Getting input on
 services. But significant steps have already           Is the weak financial status of urban         priorities for action; engaging citizens on
 been taken in a number of areas with                local bodies a bottleneck?                       performance standards and monitoring is
 policies, regulations, and funding sources                                                           the second part of the solution.
 being made available.                                     Yes, urban local bodies are not
                                                     typically financially strong, though there is    One of the functions of user charges is, in
     Has there been any change in the way            considerable variability. It is critically       fact, engaging users in how their services
 cities have started to address priorities in        important for Indian cities to establish         perform-if people have to pay, they tend to
 urban municipal services? What in your              transparent and effective financial              focus more attention on what they are
 view should be the order of priority-               management systems, to increase their            getting.
 efficient delivery, recovery of user charges        own source revenues (from property taxes

86                                                                                                                             April - June 2008

Continuous water supply is not
only sustainable but will
actually lead to a 30 per cent
saving in water consumption by
eliminating leakages. Former
Chairman of the Central
Pollution Control Board,
Paritosh C Tyagi talks about the
bottlenecks and best practices
in water and sanitation.

        he problems in municipal water         Those who can pay for mineral water             water is worse?
        supply systems are largely the         bottles or domestic water purifiers are not
        result of long neglect towards         in need of as much attention as those who       By having decentralised sewage treatment
leakage from water pipes and fittings and a    cannot afford them at all. In terms of          plants, it is possible to return the treated
low outdated tariff. Intermittent water        numbers, the latter deprived persons may,       effluent for flushing toilets and irrigating
supply became a necessity for an unduly        even in the urban areas, be more than two       the parks within residential area.
leaky system. In a way, low tariff is also a   thirds of the urban population.
case of neglect that is towards revenue, for                                                   Where the buildings are centrally air-
whatever reason. The major casualty is         We are a poor nation. Yet we adopt systems      conditioned, chillers can be cooled with
water quality and the major sufferers are      in which we install a service and also its      waste water treated up to the tertiary level.
the poor.                                      standby. And we do not even question that       There would be no waste water left if
                                               this state of affairs is not sustainable.       waste water is utilised for cooling. For
Several kinds of enterprises gained                                                            flushing the toilets with treated waste
advantage from problems created by the         Our policies and programmes have to give        water, dual plumbing is required on the
intermittent water supply system. Not to       a priority to the less privileged sections of   inflow side.
mention the medical practitioners, clinics     the society, especially when that section is
and hospitals, the enterprises that gained     so overwhelmingly in majority.                  An alternative arrangement is to introduce
include the following: the bottled water                                                       dual plumbing at the outlet side. This
industry, point-of-use devices, such as        In the light of these facts, experts who are    means that the effluent from wash hand
Aquaguard, vending water through tankers       convinced of the need and feasibility of all    basin and the water closet is segregated
and booster pump manufacturers.                measures that can replace intermittent          and allowed to flow through the existing
                                               water supply with continuous supply             sewers to sewage treatment plants.
These enterprises have flourished because      should concentrate on convincing the
the consumer had no assurance about the        authorities to ensure that water in the taps    The other component of effluent from
quality and continuous availability of         has to be safe to drink and continuously        homes, i.e. from the kitchen and bathroom
municipal water. All of them will be           available. In a water supply system which       may be taken to a decentralised unit. In
threatened if the water supply systems are     is charged all the time, the quality of water   most cases, such decentralised unit may be
operated continuously. But the common          is easily ensured.                              located in the park existing in all
man will gain tremendously. Not only                                                           residential sectors. Relatively simple
would the quality of water be assured, but     Decentralised Sewage Treatment                  treatment will be needed for this
the total requirement of water will also                                                       component of effluent and it can be very
come down by about 30 per cent from the        Leakage is waste of water. But the flushing     conveniently used for flushing the water
savings in leakage.                            of toilets with filtered and chlorinated        closets.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          87

 Estimates show that the cost of installation
 of dual plumbing for meeting the demand
                                                Managing urban environment
 and separately conveying the aforesaid
 components of effluent will be saved in
                                                and promoting sanitation
 about three to six years depending on
 many variables of water tariff and cost of     By Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder and Chairman,
 construction.                                  Sulabh International Social Service Organisation

 The outstandingly important advantage is a
 saving of nearly 40 per cent of daily

                                                        he debilitating effects of insanitary   country have access to toilet facilities. The
 requirement of water. In economic terms,               living conditions and deteriorating     toilet facilities in the urban areas are
 the advantages extend over avoided cost in             environment lower the productive        available to 74 percent of the households
 augmenting water supply and sewerage           potential of the very people who can least      which also includes about 70 lakh bucket
 systems because of the decrease in demand      afford it. Among the poor, the women and        privies.
 and flow into sewers. In real terms of water   children suffer the most.
 resources, the incomparable advantage is                                                       The enormity of the problem can be
 the reduction in stress on the freshwater      The phenomenon of rapid urbanisation            gauged from the fact that hardly 46.1 per
 resources.                                     creates huge demands for services like          cent of the urban households have access
                                                water, sanitation, drainage, refuse disposal,   to flush arrangements connected to
 Conclusion                                     electricity, transport and housing etc. and     sewerage & septic tank systems, 14.6 per
                                                the gap between the demand and supply of        cent have access to pit latrines, 13 per cent
 The combined advantage of continuous           these services and amenities worsens the        have bucket or dry privies and the
 water supply and decentralised sewage          situation further. This results in crowded      remaining 26.3 per cent do not have access
 treatment is significant reduction in          living conditions, inadequate housing,          to any latrine facility. Thus in urban
 freshwater demand and in installed             water and sanitation and traffic and creates    settlements, less than one-third of the
 capacity of water distribution and             acute adverse impact on the health of the       people defecate in the open and about 7
 sewerage systems. This itself is sufficient    people.                                         million use manually cleaned latrines
 reason to select this combination without                                                      which require the services of large number
 delay. Better health will be a bonus.          The 74th Amendment of the Constitution          of scavengers.
                                                gives directive to the State Governments to
 Some time ago, I shared my breakfast table     endow the municipal government with             Besides the prevalence of the practice of
 with a visitor from Britain who was            such powers and authority as may be             open defecation, the major cause of
 travelling through India with an exhibition    necessary to enable them to function as         concern is the existence of millions of
 on Shakespeare.                                institutions of self-government. However,       bucket and dry latrines. The last census has
                                                much is still desired for empowerment and       reported that about thirteen million
 To find out what would catch his fancy in      strengthening of municipal governments.         households have dry latrines, of which
 India, I asked him, "What would you like       The Municipalities have the responsibility      nearly seven million exist in the urban
 to take back from India?" He pondered for      as well as the powers to guide the growth       areas and six million in the rural areas.
 a while and replied solemnly, "My health,      and development of areas under their
 I suppose." I was stunned but this short       jurisdiction, but to meet the ever growing      It is a common site to find excreta flowing
 reply has a very long message for              demand, they lack adequate institutional        in open drains due to defecation by
 authorities engaged in water supply,           capacities and resources. It is therefore       children as well as many a time by adults.
 sanitation, health, commerce and tourism.      essential that the municipal governments        The age old unhealthy practice of open air
                                                are strengthened with appropriate               defecation and use of bucket/ dry privies
                                                professional capacity to undertake this         are a potential hazard to health and hygiene
                                                stupendous task effectively.                    and expose the entire community to foul
                                                                                                environment and pollute the rivers and
                                                Sanitation Status                               other water courses.

                                                The Census of 2001 has revealed that only        The selection of technological option
                                                36.40 percent of the total households in the    should take into account the magnitude of

88                                                                                                                      April - June 2008

the problem, the availability of resources
for implementing the programme of
sanitation, cost effectiveness as well as
socio-cultural aspect. In order to identify
the appropriate technology it will be useful
to refer in brief the merits and demerits of
various options:

Options for appropriate technology

Sewerage System: Limitations and
Constraints in Indian Urban Context

Sewerage involves enormous investment
in laying sewer lines, treatment plants and
related works, besides high operational and
maintenance costs. In developing countries
like India neither the government nor the
local authorities or the beneficiaries can
bear the capital or the operational on the
maintenance cost.
                                                The way unplanned sewerage systems with        limitations are mentioned below:
Moreover the sewerage requires skilled          inadequate treatment of the final effluent
persons and good management to operate          are functioning in many developing             Need for a Cost-effective & Appropriate
and maintain it. It needs considerable          countries like India, they will have serious   Option
quantity of water to function properly.         adverse impacts on the public health as
                                                well as aquatic ecosystem.                     If the municipal governments are to
For flushing toilets connected to sewers                                                       accelerate the extension of sanitation,
almost 6 times more water is required than      The use of sewer systems would totally         future     policies     and      investment
that for pour-flush system.                     destroy the aquatic ecosystems in the          programmes must place greater emphasis
                                                developing world, posing enormous threats      on cost effective and appropriate
There can be serious outbreaks of water         both to public health and aquatic bio-         technological option, which are relatively
borne diseases from:                            diversity.                                     simple, limit investments in the central
                                                                                               infrastructure and are easy to construct and
(i) River pollution because of untreated        Septic Tank: Not an Appropriate Option         maintain compared to conventional
      sewage outfalls;                                                                         systems.
(ii) Groundwater contamination because          Although septic tank was developed about
      of leaky sewer lines;                     400 years back and introduced in India         Sulabh Shauchalaya (twin-pit pour-
(iii) Contamination of piped water supply       about 150 years back, yet even in urban        flush water-seal toilet)
      systems because of leaky sewer lines      areas about only 20 per cent of the houses
      leading to infiltration of pathogens      have septic tank toilets.                      When we compare Sulabh Shauchalaya
      into drinking water pipelines,                                                           technology with sewerage and septic tank
      especially when they are not under        The septic tank has some advantages like       system we find that in the Indian
      positive pressure, which is the case in   flexibility and adaptability to a wide         conditions obtaining this is most suitable
      many cities in developing countries       variety of individual households. It is        cost-effective technology which will
      with intermittent water supply.           suitable for scattered houses with space for   ensure wider coverage with the least
(iv) Sewage backflows because of badly          septic tank construction.                      investment.
      maintained and blocked sewers or
      because of increasing use of non-         However, the limitations of septic tank        It fulfills all the criteria of an appropriate
      biodegradable materials like plastic      outweigh some of the advantages which          technology designed to the needs of the
      bags.                                     have been mentioned above. Some of the         user.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                           89
 urban links   cover story                                                
     The website of National Institute of Urban Affairs gives a            Metropolis is a worldwide association of metropolis and
     comprehensive list of all the activities being undertaken by the      capitals. Its main goal is to enhance the well-being of their
     organisation.                                                         citizens through an exchange of experiences, a cooperation and
                                                                           knowledge of transfer in all fields.
     It lays down the vision of the organisaiton and also gives an
     insight into the resource institutes, status of the infrastructure    The global association represents the large metropolitan areas
     projects and other key documents. The site also provides links        in the international bodies and closely cooperates with numerous
     to important central government agencies.                             other organisations, network, NGOs, scientific and research
                                                                           institutes as well as commercial enterprises such as UN-Habitat,                                                     especially the United Nations Advisory Committee of Local
     The website of Ministry of Environment & Forests hosts details        Authorities (UNACLA).
     of the National Environment Policy. The site has important
     information like good practices, NGO directory and          
     publications. The site has further links to Clean Development         The Cities Alliance is a global coalition of cities and their
     Mechanism, India and elaborates the details of India's                development partners committed to scaling up successful
     association with the UNFCCC                                           approaches to poverty reduction.
     .                                                     This alliance brings cities together in a direct dialogue with
     Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS)           bilateral and multilateral agencies and financial institutions.
     is one of India's leading infrastructure development and finance
     companies. Their site is a gateway to their work in the power,        The Alliance provides matching grants in support of -
     infrastructure and finance sectors. The site has a corner for         (i) City Development Strategies (CDS) which link the process
     present projects, invitations to new bids and a section dedicated          by which local stakeholders define their vision for their city
     to grievances. The site has news items running on top that give            and its economic growth, environmental and poverty
     a brief idea of the recent happenings in the infrastructure                reduction objectives, with clear priorities for actions and
     segment. The site also offers complete chapters on the ongoing             investments;
     projects.                                                             (ii) Citywide and nationwide slum upgrading                                 
     Infrastructure Professionals Enterprise (IPE) is a pioneer            Good Governance India Foundation provides updated initiatives
     organisation, working on the fundamentals of physical and             on various issues in Urban Development, Management and
     social infrastructure complementing the fine tuning of capacity       Urban Governance including dissemination of best practices in
     building, policy, institutional and industrial infrastructure. This   Indian and global cities.
     informative website of IPE has links to various projects on
     public-private partnership.
     URBANET is the network for GTZ staff, associated
     professionals and researchers working in the fields of municipal
     and urban development, decentralisation and regionalisation. It
     provides ready for download, documentation, analysis of key
     political and practical relevance in this semantic area. Staff from
     GTZ projects and other institutes share their expertise and
     present and discuss the result of their work. It also promotes the
     exchange of knowledge and information, interdisciplinary
     cooperation among actors in municipal and urban development,
     as well as debates and conceptual refinement of key issues. In
     addition, it provides technical and advisory support for its

90                                                                                                                        April - June 2008
                                                                                                              urban tadka

Police reforms are a long way off
Kiran Bedi

    have always had very clear ideas about         Complaints about marital disputes and
    police reforms. And during the 35              brawls between landlords and tenants are
    years that I was in the service, I tried       ignored till they become grievous. And
implementing at least some of them,                when it reaches that stage, it is reduced to
despite innumerable systemic deficiencies.         a case of simple hurt or sorted out.
But I must confess, nothing has changed
over the past three decades. On the                Cheating in Nithari
contrary, the situation has worsened.
                                                   Recall the Nithari killings? The police said
I have used every opportunity that came            nobody lodged complaints about the
my way to emphasise the need for police            missing children. On the other hand, the
reforms. Many a time, I saw looks of               parents said the cops refused to listen to
disapproval on my seniors' faces as they           them. The complainants had nothing to
believed keeping quiet was a safer option.         prove their claims. All I saw was a stamped
The department from where I took                   piece of paper which bore no signatures.
voluntary retirement (BPRD) was a                  The police later denied the existence of the
toothless one. The most overused                   document. This was another form of
statement in 'police reform' is that 'police       cheating.                                      This ensures him an electronic receipt.
is a state subject'.                               Cops avoid registering cases for various       Also, the cops now can't say they did not
                                                   reasons. To begin with, it can't cope with     receive the complaint.
But it does not exclude the Central                the work load. Also, nobody wants to face
Government. India has a Union Home                 the seniors' wrath for an increasing crime     We are creating a panel of empowered
Ministry with Union Territories directly           rate.                                          professionals and citizens who can help in
under it. Union Government has an equally                                                         case of need.
huge range of central police forces.               Policing in India does not care much about
                                                   the 'high public trust quotient'. It thrives   All of us must demand that the police
No Registration                                    on 'low crime statistics'.                     record all the complaints freely and
                                                                                                  truthfully. Only then will we know what
Not a single officer in the country can say        Last week, my team and I launched an           we need to reform in policing.
that crime is fully registered. It is either not   e-portal to take
registered at all or severely minimised.           unattended, unacknowledged, unregistered       The onus is on the shoulders of the police
Mobile phone thefts, pick-pocketing,               police complaints. On receipt of these, we     leadership - they should dare for the sake
robberies and burglaries are not easy to           will send the complaint electronically with    of the future of this country.
register.                                          an acknowledgement to the complainant.

April - June 2008                                                                                                                          91
             last word

                                                                              Last Word
     n the first issue of Good Governance India (GGI)             eminent domain of acquiring property for a public purpose.
     magazine (Nov-Dec 2003, page 56) Dr. Behnam Ta’i
     had written an eloquent piece on what Good                   We will ask, what constitutes a public purpose? Can it
 Governance is about. He mentioned, as is widely believed,        include private benefit of a business enterprise at the cost of
 Good Governance includes democracy, rule of law,                 a private person? How are such issues handled the world
 accountability, transparency and participation of civil          over? We will examine some of the most burning issues
 society.                                                         facing India and much of the developing world, from the
                                                                  perspectives of Governance, Economics, Politics and
 While we have been covering hard aspects in Governance           Human Rights. Is it Left or Right to say that the property
 mainly concerned with urban planning and management,             rights of the farmer must be protected? We will discuss if
 in future we would also write about some of the burning          human rights include the right to property.
 soft issues. Because it is our belief that no amount of
 improving hard things like buildings, roads and bridges will     While addressing the above issues, we will concentrate on
 work ultimately if we don’t establish good democracy on          their ramifications in Governance, as the literature in Law,
 the basis of genuine rule of law, to protect life, liberty and   Economics and Politics is sanguinely in favour of tight
 property, of all citizens.                                       protection of private property rights against expropriation
                                                                  by state. Public good cannot and need not be financed at
 For example, in the coming issues, we will address land          private cost is the dictum.
 acquisition policy for various economic projects like
 industries, housing, SEZs etc. Of late, there has been a hue
 and cry against such acquisitions in places like Singur, and
 Nandigram, followed by Goa scrapping SEZ notifications,
 and dissent brewing in other parts of the country like in                              (Sanjiv Agarwal)
 Maharashtra. In this context, we will examine the value of       Publisher
 property rights, which sadly have always been seen with          Trustee, Good Governance India Foundation
 suspicion in our country. We will analyze the limits of

92                                                                                                             April - June 2008

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