CONTENTS 6 Housing for All
The National Housing & Habitat Policy
Messages for Municipalika 2
2007 tackles the problem of urban housing.
From the Editor 3
Kumari Selja, Minister of State,
Best Practices 42
(Independent Charge), Housing and
The Common Man and the City 61
Urban Poverty Alleviation, assures inclusive
Urban Links 90
growth in Indian cities with shelter for all
Last Word 92
Planning for Urban Growth 4 Finance
Speeding up urban reforms is a priority 5
Financing urban development 82
Ensuring quality of life 9 Roadmap matters the most:
Heights of prosperity and depths of poverty 13 USAID 85
“Mayors are the link between people and bureaucrats” 14
JNNURM: India’s ambitious urban reforms mission 16
Inclusive growth with space for the service classes 18 Services
Classification of cities 19
Sustaining supply 87
Municipalika 2008: A Report 43 Promoting sanitation 88
NCR Planning Board: Managing a dynamic region 21 Police reforms are a long way off:
Defusing Mumbai’s urban crisis 25 Kiran Bedi 91
MMRDA: Towards creating a hassle-free Mumbai 28
PM charts plan for urban renewal in India 31
Planned route for government agencies: APJ Abdul Kalam 32
Living in style: The Tatas 33
Technology is the key: Chandrababu Naidu 36
Opportunities in healthcare: Apollo 38
Speciality retailing: Reliance Retail 40
Managing waste is a state of mind-Ramky 62
Promise of zero energy commnunities: US Energy Department 64
Eco-budget concept 65
Indo-US city partnership in energy and environment 66
Spatial Index 72
Carbon credits for urban local bodies 75
Environment education for tomorrow’s India 76
JNNURM: An opportunity to design safe cities 79
April - June 2008 1
Good Initiative A message from Sister Cities International
The Good Governance India and the Municipalika initiative, I congratulate the Good Governance India magazine on the
promoted by the Good Governance India Foundation, has relaunch.
brought together all city management stakeholders for the first
time in India. I appreciate the initiative and wish all the best to As the urban India is poised for a major transformation in terms
the people who have made this effort. of economy, housing, industry, infrastructure, and governance,
Rohtas Goel the magazine has a promising role to play.
National Real Estate Development Council With your energetic and accomplished team, I believe, the
(NAREDCO) magazine will provide comprehensive, balanced, and inclusive
voice to urban agenda leading towards a development that is
Sharing Best Practices just and environmentally sustainable.
– Vatsal Bhatt, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Good Governance India is a good platform for sharing various
developments in the urban sector.
It should project successful best practices for giving hope and Winning the Nobel Peace Prize for environment
guidance to urban practitioners.
Prof. EFN Ribeiro
Consulting Urban & Regional Planner
Now or Never
Good Governance India Foundation felicitates the Inter-
The 74th Amendment came into force on 1st June, 1993. It is
governmental Panel on Climate Changes headed by Dr
well-known that beyond the “conformity legislation”, this
Rajendra Kumar Pachauri, on winning the 2007 Nobel Peace
Amendment fell short of exploiting its full potential.
Prize. This Prize is shared with Al Gore, the former Vice-
President of the United States.
JNNURM reform agenda as ushered in December 2005, with
its financial levers, has now provided a once in a lifetime
Dr R K Pachauri, an Indian environmentalist has been working
opportunity to move forward the urban reform agenda, both
on Global Warming and its impact. The Panel has been
under the 74th Amendment and JNNURM, all the way. This is a
awarded for its efforts to build up and disseminate greater
‘now or never’ opportunity which must not be missed.
knowledge about man-made climate change and to lay the
R.M. Kapoor, Chief
foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract
Local Governance Synergy
Creating Inclusive Cities
Dr Pachauri, who has been the IPCC’s chairman since April
2002, has a double PhD from North Carolina State University,
Glad to learn about the ensuing Municipalika-2008 Conference
Raleigh, USA, in industrial engineering and economics. He
and the thrust on good urban governance initiatives needed for
headed The Energy Research Institute (formerly the Tata
inclusive and sustainable development. Creating inclusive cities
Energy Research Institute) in New Delhi since 1981, first as
to take care of the needs of the marginalized and disadvantaged
Director, and since April 2001 as Director-General.
urban poor for gainful employment, shelter and basic services is
an imperative need for creating sustainable cities - taking care
of the other half of the cities. It is heartening that Good
Governance India would give focussed exposure to these needs
in the magazine.
A. Jockin, President,
National Slum Dwellers Federation
Good Governance India Foundation thanks all the Exhibitors, Speakers,
SPARC, Mumbai Delegates, and visitors of Municipalika 2008 - 5th International
Magsaysay Award winner Exhibition and Conference, and all visiting Mayors and City Managers
2 April - June 2008
Trustee, From the
Good Governance India Foundation
Prof Amitabh Kundu
Prof EFN Ribeiro
India lives in the villages, said Mahatma Gandhi when he began his
Prof KT. Ravindran campaign of creating a movement that would ignite the masses in India.
R M Kapoor At the time of Independence majority of India stayed in its six lakh
Paritosh C Tyagi villages and urbanisation was only 14 per cent. The agrarian economy
Dr Prithvish Nag
was the major driver. After 60 years of Independence, urban India
cumulatively contributes about 75 per cent of the country’s GDP.
V Suresh It took 5000 years of civilisation for India’s population to be 32 crore
at the time of Independence. But the two decades between 2001-2021
Municipalika Team is seeing India’s population increase by 35 crore! Majority of this
G. Ibrahim, Ramesh Vartak, Rajarshi De, Minu Ramchandran, growth is now concentrated in 5,161 cities and towns.
R. Ramadass, Falguni, Philomena, Rosy, Soumya, Neha
Today 30 per cent of India stays in its urban centres, expected to swell
Content and design by to 40 per cent by 2021 - still lower than the global urbanisation level of
Magicbricks.com 50 per cent achieved in 2007.
Photos Indian cities have recorded an exponential growth in the last three
Times Archives, Anil Thapa, Anita Khemka, decades in the built environment. Most of the cities and towns are
Randhir A Malhan already bursting at the seams with deficient urban infrastructure and
challenges for water, waste-management, sewerage, sanitation,
Good Governance India Foundation is the only forum in the country for transport, power utilities and social infrastructure.
communication and exchange amongst the service providers to the
government and public, the procurement decision makers and other
stakeholders in the effective administration of the country related to public Today urban infrastructure development is receiving priority attention
works, municipal services and urban development.
of Central, State and Local governments with dedicated funds of Rs
Good Governance India magazine is published by Sanjiv Agarwal, 1,00,000 crore under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal
Trustee, Good Governance India Foundation, with its Registered office at
25C/1, Belvedere Road, Kolkata 700 033.
Mission (JNNURM) dove-tailed with leveraged funds. All this can
actually result in improving the quality of life of cities and its citizens
Opinions and views expressed in the articles published in the magazine only if there is a quantum jump in infrastructure development.
are that of the respective authors and not necessarily that of the
The economic liberalisation of 1991 resulted in a dramatic jump in the
All possible efforts have been taken to present factually correct
information. However, the publishers are not responsible, if despite this, GDP growth rate in the country from a mere 4 per cent to over 8 to 9
errors may have crept inadvertently or through an oversight. per cent. The Rs 1,00,000 crore JNNURM funds can show similar
results only if it is backed with adequate reforms at the policy and
Offices institutional levels, intense capacity building and ability for technology
Mumbai: D-1, Plot No.76, RSC 6, MHADA, S.V.P. Nagar, Andheri(W),
Mumbai 400 053, Tel: 91-22-2637 2883 / 2895 Fax: 91-22-2637 2760
Can India leverage the JNNURM advantage?
New Delhi: 216A/1, Gautam Nagar, New Delhi 110 049,
Tel: 91-11-2686 6874 / 75, Fax: 91-11-2686 8073
Kolkata: 25 C/1 Belvedere Road, Alipur, Kolkata 700 027
Tel: 91-33-2479 0010 - 14 Fax: 91-33-2479 0019
April - June 2008 3
“Global urbanisation is of
the order of 50 per cent,
while in India it is only 30
per cent. There is scope
for more urbanisation, and
planning for urban growth
is the need of the hour.”
Cities across India are looking for solutions
to the pressing problems of urban
governance. The legislations created for
Delhi are robust and can function as a
model for the rest of the country. The
JNNURM is a trigger for concentrated
urban reforms in India. Minister for Urban
Development, S. Jaipal Reddy, speaks
about the reforms process and what the
government is doing to speed it up.
Speeding up urban reforms is a priority
outh Korea is the best model for India to follow because that allows people to use it conveniently. Today cities are opting
they achieved all this growth in just the last 40 years. If for the metro rail and suburban trains, and 10 cities have opted
India has to grow to become a functioning modern country, for the Bus Rapid Transit Service (BRTS)
there is no option but to go for vertical growth. The Floor Area
Ratio and Floor Space Index norm needs to be greatly facilitated. Regional planning today is a crying need. Statistics show that the
population migration to the National Capital Territory of Delhi
As real estate is a state subject, the Centre can’t dictate to the has declined from 49 to 37 per cent after the suburbs came up.
States how these norms have to be implemented. But we create Now the challenge is to integrate Delhi with its suburbs with good
codes for Delhi which can function as a model for the rest of the public transport.
Cities are struggling with the problem of slums. We need in situ
The Masterplan of Delhi 2021 has provisioned for infrastructural development. We are evolving a transparent system of auctions
services. City Development Plans for the 63 Jawaharlal Nehru of slum land for planned development. We are now seeking
National Urban Reforms Mission (JNNURM) cities have been solutions to the problem of how to provide for maintenance of
formulated and we already see the requirement of Rs 3,50,000 elevators in multistoried homes for the poor.
crore to tackle this task. I am not even talking about the remaining
5,000 small towns. The demand in cities is for smaller and affordable apartments.
Andhra Pradesh has managed affordable housing through proper
Policy changes are required in urban planning. I strongly believe planning and dove-tailing of public funds and PPP ventures to
that the lower tax rates increase compliance. The objective is to make the ventures more affordable.
reduce stamp duty rates from the present 6 per cent, further to
below 5 per cent. I liked the idea of Special Residential Zones for affordable homes
and will look into how this can be made a reality. We will offer
The Public Private Partnership (PPP) model seems to be working. incentives for creation of small size apartments.
For instance, the Delhi Development Authority started by
planning for a convention hall with a capacity of 2,000. Now with To clean up the city’s housing problems we have to tackle
private participation we are creating one with a capacity of 12,000. problems like rent control laws. The Delhi draft is under
When the demand is in thousands, we cannot create just a few preparation. The Bill will be tabled in 2008.
We need regulation of the real estate industry to improve its
Just 6 per cent of Delhites own over 4 million cars. But as a functioning, and the process of creating a draft for Delhi is
government agency we are trying to improve the public system currently on.
April - June 2008 5
Housing for all
The National Housing & Habitat Policy 2007 tackles
the problem of urban housing. Kumari Selja, Minister
of State, (Independent Charge), Housing and Urban
Poverty Alleviation, assures inclusive growth in Indian
cities, with shelter for all.
At the beginning of the 11th Five Year Plan, housing shortage Reservation of land for housing the poor has to be undertaken with
in urban areas was 24.71 million with a major component appropriate provisions in urban development/zoning/master
covering the shortfall for the weaker sections. To achieve the planning laws/regulations. The Master Plans in the States have
target of providing housing to the weaker sections at affordable not provided reservation of land for the poor for housing, informal
prices, the National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy (NUHHP) activities etc., in the past. Under Jawaharlal Nehru National
envisages reserving 20 to 25 per cent housing stock and 10 to 15 Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) one of the reforms
per cent of land for the poor, by private players or the contemplated is revamping master planning/zoning/town planning
government. What are the problems in getting this policy regulations for housing the poor. However, if developers have to
implemented at the state and city levels? What measures need to reserve land for housing on cross-subsidisation basis, they have to
be taken to make sure that this policy intention is met by states? be compensated with proper spatial and/or financial incentives,
particularly zoning/building-related incentives such as increase in
Although housing is primarily a State subject, the Central Floor Space Index (FSI), land use charge for provision for
Government has been formulating National Housing Policies commercial space (local shopping complexes etc.). The Ministry
since 1986 to provide guidance to the State Governments to meet of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation has written to the State
the growing housing shortage. The NUHHP 2007, seeks to Governments to initiate necessary reforms in Master
promote optimal utilisation of land by innovative spatial Planning/Town Planning/Zoning Regulations to provide for
incentives like relaxation of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) for ensuring reservation of land for the poor for housing and informal sector
that 10 to 15 per cent of land or 20 to 25 per cent of the FAR are activities.
reserved for EWS/LIG units or issuance of Transferable
Development Rights for clearance of transport corridors and By planning for inclusive development of cities, will the
availability of FAR in outer zones. The policy also considers an problem of access to civic services also be met? Please elaborate.
upward review of the presently authorised FAR in line with
international practice of making more efficient use of scarce urban Urban areas in our country are characterised by severe
land through construction of high rise buildings in consonance shortage of basic services like potable water, well laid out drainage
with densities specified in statutory Master Plans. system, sewerage network, sanitation facilities, electricity, roads
6 April - June 2008
and appropriate solid waste disposal and under JNNURM, is in-situ slum this then serve the purpose of poverty
policy focus on housing with basic services upgradation. Housing for the poor must be alleviation through creation of employment
is therefore required. By inclusive located near their place of work so that opportunities as well as providing housing
development, the policy intends to their livelihood concerns are taken care of. for this section of the population?
promote sustainable development of In a way, in-situ housing guarantees
habitat in the country ensuring equitable employment, if the poor are located in a NUHHP 2007 gives primacy to
supply of land, shelter and services at part of the city where they can easily get provision of shelter to the urban poor at
affordable prices to all sections of society. jobs of informal/formal sector types. their present location or near their work
place. Efforts will be made to ensure that
Inclusive development means "inclusive" However, in-situ upgradation is not always the rights provided are non-transferable for
planning, "inclusive" project preparation, possible due to the fact that in some places a period of 10 to 15 years. Only in cases
"inclusive" project implementation, land involved is objectionable being on where relocation is necessary on account
"inclusive" project monitoring and water courses, eco-fragile areas, of severe water pollution, safety problems
"inclusive" project evaluation. The idea reservation for other purposes in the on account of proximity to rail track or
is that the disadvantaged sections of Master Plan etc. Our preference is that, other critical concerns, relocation of slum
society - Scheduled Castes, Scheduled wherever possible, in-situ upgradation dwellers will be undertaken. In such cases,
Tribes, minorities, women and other should be the first choice. special efforts will be made to ensure fast
deprived sections, who have been left out and reliable transportation to work sites.
of the mainstream of the development
process are fully involved from concept to The Policy seeks that efforts will be made
commissioning in case of development Inclusive development to provide good quality training to
projects. Inclusive development applies to means inclusive construction workers with a view to
housing, provision of basic amenities and improve their skills in tandem with
also to decisio making and implementation technological advancements in the
processes. preparation, construction sector. This could be dove-
implementation, tailed with poverty alleviation and
Should there be a cross-subsidisation employment generation programmes of
of prices of basic civic services when both Central and State Governments.
tackling uniform access to these services evaluation
by all sections of society? Skill development is very critical for the
urban poor. Government of India is
There should be cross-subsidisation of Do you think the slum housing issues launching a National Skill Development
prices for basic services when tackling can be resolved by the end of JNNURM Mission in the 11th Plan. Ministry of
uniform access to services by all sections 2012 time frame? Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation has
of the society. The poor will be in no proposed a new scheme called Skills
position to pay for the full cost of services. Slum housing issues are colossal and Training for Employment Promotion
Therefore, user charges need to be levied require huge funds. A significant amongst the Urban Poor (STEP-UP) in the
on the rich so as to cross-subsidise the improvement in the slum housing position 11th Plan. Under the Swarna Jayanti
poor. This is the practice all over the world. is proposed to be achieved by the end of Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), which is
the JNNURM time frame. In addition to being revamped, skill upgradation of the
Slum housing has been one of the tackling the problem of slum housing urban poor, especially women, is given
biggest challenges in the present urban through JNNURM, several other measures emphasis.
scenario. While earlier there was talk of are also being emphasised by the Ministry
relocating slum dwellers to cheaper as mentioned in the new NUHHP 2007. Is there a phased action plan for
fringes of city locations, currently the plan tackling the problem of urban housing
seems to be that of repositioning slum With real estate and construction shortage - we mean the needs of low
dwellers in their place of economic emerging as one of the biggest employers income and middle income as the real
activity? How does this work? Is it always in the urban scenario, can the plan of estate developers cover the needs of high
feasible? relocation of slum dwellers also be income groups and the urban poor is
combined with imparting skills to them to covered through JNNURM and other
The priority of the Ministry, especially integrate them into the workforce? Will programmes?
April - June 2008 7
Out of the total housing shortage of housing to cover the shortfall of over Rs 3 proposition for developers.
24.71 million dwelling units, shortage of lakh crore for capital investment in
Low Income Groups (LIG) is 2.89 million housing. The per unit margin of profit in case of
units i.e. 11.70 per cent of the total housing housing for lower and lower-middle
shortage. An interest subsidy scheme for While the private sector real estate income categories of consumers will be
facilitating affordable institution housing groups have been doing very well to take small. However, when per unit profit
finance to LIG category beneficiaries is on care of the demand from the upper middle margin is multiplied by the base of number
the anvil. income and high income group, do you of prospective buyers for housing, the
envisage a role for them to contribute to amount will be huge.
The HIG and MIG households have a the needs of the lower middle, low income
shortage of 0.04 million dwelling units and groups as well as the weaker section? Prof. Prahalad's theory of the "bottom of
it comprises 0.16 per cent of the total the pyramid" suggests that low income
housing shortage. It is expected that the Given the magnitude of the housing housing could be a "market"/ remunerative
new policy initiatives would usher in shortage and budgetary constraints of both proposition for developers.
affordable housing for all categories and the Central and state governments, the
meet requirements of these categories also. Policy focuses the spotlight on multiple Will the private sector's contribution be
stakeholders including the private sector in terms of funds or technology or both?
The NUHHP released recently, is to be Is there any incentive scheme on the anvil?
implemented as a joint programme of
Central Government, state governments, Given the magnitude of Energy saving construction techniques
local bodies, para-statals and private sector the problem, the Policy and prefabricated factory-made building
including developers. Action plan for components, both from the public and
tackling housing will be prepared in focuses the spotlight on private sector, will be encouraged for mass
consultation with the state governments multiple stakeholders housing, to achieve speedy, cost effective
and other stakeholders in due course. including the private and better quality construction.
How much investment is required to sector for labour and Various types of PPPs involving both
tackle this problem? Has the government employee housing technology and finance will be developed.
made any plans for substantial investment
directly and indirectly towards removal of Till now the contribution of the private
the housing shortage? for labour housing and employee housing. sector for low income housing has not
Further, in order to ensure that 10 to 15 per been significant. The Ministry will be
During the 11th Plan period, for the cent of land or 20 to 25 per cent of pursuing with the private sector to focus on
75.01 million urban households, the total FAR/FSI whichever is greater, is inclusive housing where parts of the
housing requirement including the backlog earmarked in every new public/private housing colonies could be reserved for the
of 24.71 million units and additional housing project for EWS/LIG housing. LIGs.
requirement of 1.82 million dwelling units Appropriate spatial incentives will be
during 11th Plan period, is estimated as developed by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) With the indication of interest rates
26.53 million dwelling units. and Development Authorities. In this reductions on all fronts, is the Ministry
manner the private sector will be taking up with the Ministry of Finance and
A staggering investment of Rs. 3,61, associated directly and through cross- the RBI to bring down the housing finance
318.10 crore is required during the 11th subsidisation in EWS/LIG housing. interest rates to make EMIs more
Plan period to overcome this shortage. An affordable? More so for the urban poor,
amount of Rs. 40,000 to 50,000 crore is The Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty low income and middle income?
expected to be mobilised through Centre Alleviation believes that the "bottom of the
and state urban housing schemes. Efforts pyramid" principle can work in practice in The Ministry of Housing & Urban
will also be made to channelise the funds the housing sector. Although, developers Poverty Alleviation is taking up with the
through various types of Public Private will be in a position to garner sizeable Ministry of Finance regarding subsidy on
Partnerships (PPP) including focus on profit per unit of housing from the upper interest rate on housing programmes for
multiple stake holders including private income groups, housing for lower income the EWS and low income categories.
sector for labour housing and employee groups could also be a very attractive
8 April - June 2008
JNNURM rewards governments with funds for executing projects on urban renewal. But the process has to
involve citizens actively, says M. Ramachandran, Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development, in a
free-wheeling interview with V Suresh and E Jayashree Kurup
t has been estimated that urban India the contribution of urban sector to India's there are more job opportunities.
would contribute about 75 per cent of GDP has increased from 29 per cent in Therefore, there would be increased
gross domestic product (GDP) by 1950-51 to 47 per cent in 1980-81, about demand for services and therefore a
2021. This higher productivity depends 62 to 63 per cent of the GDP currently and pressure on infrastructure.
largely upon the availability and quality of expected to increase to 75 per cent by
infrastructure services such as power, 2021. What do you attribute this growing With the right emphasis and thorough
telecom, roads, water supply, and mass contribution of urban areas to the planned development, the effort should be
transportation, coupled with civic country's GDP to? Is this a healthy trend? to emphasise that a person living in the city
infrastructure, such as sanitation and solid should be comfortable there, with access
waste management. This is a trend the world over. Cities to basic services.
have contributed dramatically to national
M. Ramachandran, Secretary, Ministry of economies largely because the drivers of How do you ensure a basic quality of
Urban Development, spoke to the Editor of economic growth are here. In our country life to urban citizens?
Good Governance India, V Suresh and there have been ideological issues on
Executive Editor, E Jayashree Kurup on whether to allow the urban growth to We should learn lessons from abroad.
the challenges in upgrading the quality of replace the rural focus of the government. No city in the world is allowed to burst at
service delivery in a rapidly urbanising the seams. When the city reaches the limit
India. But today the effort is to see that if urban of its service potential, it is frozen at that
areas contribute to the GDP, what should level. A new city or suburb is planned to
Despite one of the lowest degrees of we do to sustain it. It is logical that in a accommodate the growth in population.
urbanisation in the world, with 27.8 per country with problems such as
cent living in urban areas in the country, unemployment, people would go where Our concept of urban planning is a little
April - June 2008 9
different. In a city like Delhi, 30 per cent of For instance, 24x7 water supply will inclusive. You have an ambitious target of
the population lives in slums and another require better operations & maintenance making available to the entire population
30 per cent in unauthorised colonies. where the private sector will find more in urban areas water supply and sewerage
Effectively, only 40 per cent of the opportunities. systems by the end of the 11th Five-Year
population lives in planned areas. plan. What is the roadmap? What are the
Even when solid waste management basic services that every urban citizen
Workers coming to a city in search of jobs systems are put in place, the private sector should have a right to?
look for a place to stay in and when the interest should be generated and act as a
system does not provide for their needs, trigger for further growth. Today 23 basic services have been
they look for open spaces to live in. identified for municipal governments to
A small investment in the Metro Rail, for access JNNURM funds. Identifying key
The Master Plan has become a policy instance, is expected to lead to many more areas for improving services is a dynamic
document only now. We should have done activities. Similarly, an investment in process and currently a group of 4 to 5
this long ago so that people who came in urban transport, housing for the secretaries are part of a committee on the
then should also have been a part of the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and second generation of JNNURM reforms.
city's planning. water supply will result in substantially
better managed cities. SR Rao, Principal Secretary, Urban
It is important to understand that for every Development, Gujarat, is the convenor of
one job generated in the formal sector, the group. We are encouraging cities to
seven more are generated in the informal become a leader and set a trend. They
sector. There should be effective
No city in the world is come to us to first access funds for
enforcement of development planning allowed to burst at the development but the dynamic ones will
controls, taking into account the seams. When the city also become role models for others to
requirement of various kinds of people. emulate. Urban reforms can't be viewed in
reaches the limit of its isolation.
There is currently no system of accounting service potential, it is
to take stock of the various investments frozen at that level. A Now with the Peer Experience And
being made in the city. For instance, Reflected Learning (PEARL) network, a
organised retail is expanding. But the
new city or suburb is platform is available for sharing
middle class are big shoppers and want planned information and views. The country has
grocery, etc. available in their been divided into zones or groups. A group
neighbourhood. So those kind of stores are of local bodies can share their best
present in neighbourhoods. practices.
Earlier EWS housing used to be far away
These are taking over due to compulsion, from the place of economic activity. Today We have found that regional aspirations are
but these issues don't get addressed in a we are getting the private sector players definitely on the rise. Or similar areas –
planned manner yet. such as the DLF to construct EWS housing hilly, plains, coastal, semi-arid and arid.
along with premium housing, to The idea is if they share their experiences
The common refrain across the country accommodate service staff such as drivers, with each other, best practices can be
is for better infrastructure. The Deepak maids, guards, etc. relevant to others in the group and be
Parekh report projects a shortfall of $129 implemented there too. This would
billion at 2005-06 prices over the required Even if you take the present city scenario, expedite the process of reforms.
$384 billion at 2005-06 prices for the two classes are bound to co-exist. We
provision of infrastructure. Where, in your find slums in upmarket areas because the Has the process of planning for change
view, should these finances come from? residents of slums service the needs of the undergone a change?
premium areas. If planned together as a
The direction we are trying to take is to social requirement, we will be able to plan We are encouraging new plan
generate lively activities in our cities. The the basic social requirements for the urban documents in all cities under the
Rs 1,00,000 crore under the JNNURM poor too. JNNURM. Many Master Plans are
should trigger these activities in cities. outdated and many others were never
The new mantra is to make cities more prepared – only roadmaps exist. We are
10 April - June 2008
seriously considering JNNURM funding Resident's Welfare Associations (RWAs) drainage, water sector and waste
for preparation of Master Plans. can come forward and undertake small management. This may vary locally.
local improvement projects that cost upto
This exercise is not a perfect exercise in Rs 1 lakh each. Monitoring will be once a year and the
our country. Normally, it is more of a table outcome of this should be transparency in
exercise by the town and country planning The idea is to get all interested parties to legislature.
departments. It is also very time participate in the city renewal process.
consuming. This needs to undergo The appallingly poor human resource
thorough change. The JNNURM has addressed many of capabilities of multi-disciplinary
these urban issues in a structured manner background needed to deal with the
The broad objective is to strengthen the for the first time in the history of urban complex challenges for city development,
local bodies. We can draw up the general planning in the country. It is also offering management and governance is in focus
norms. The state governments must also finance options to local bodies. How soon today. What is being done for capacity
address the issue at their level. Ultimately will the city dwellers start feeling the building, training and institutional
for a speedy and efficient process, the effects of this change? strengthening?
Master Plan has to be created by somebody
who has a better understanding of the town This is an area of attention. We accept
and its issues. that the capacity of our municipal officers
Local bodies have to
needs upgrade and we are not good project
Today the National Urban Information announce budgets managers. The project implementation is
Service (NUIS) and the Geographical annually and create from the Centre. The financial monitoring
Information Service (GIS) systems are is from here. The local body can opt for a
available to share data at local levels. model concession document.
How important is people's Regional centres and universities are
participation? bringing out compilations of PPP. Mayors
The first reforms agenda is till 2012. and elected representatives will be given
The 74th Amendment of the The changes have to be milestones in the rapid training.
Constitution has provisions for Area net qualitative change in urban practices.
Sabhas being set up below the ward The parameters for judging will be: We need a good municipal cadre for states.
committees. There is resistance to the Area More services online State Finance Commissions are looking
Sabha concept today as some states think Awareness in the local area into the state of finances and allocating
that it is cutting at the roots of the Educating people more sources of revenue. Through
corporators’ jurisdiction. JNNURM, project collections and
The citizens will first get to know what measures of stepping up efficiency of
The JNNURM has transparency provisions projects are being undertaken with collections is being determined. Resource
where the users can ask questions and must JNNURM funds in their city through level improvement and more technology,
get answers. The city has to take a scheme hoardings prominently displayed at project formulation, implementation and
and benchmark it too. We are going to different parts of the city. strengthening of delivery, and collection
insist that they tell people about mechanisms are important.
improvements proposed and the long-term For instance in Andhra Pradesh there is a
measures that will be taken to ensure that it project for replacing pumping equipment Earlier urban local bodies were a state
is taken care of over a period of time. The in the city. People should know that this is subject. States were also caught up in the
user charges are a precondition for being done and why. This project will be rural versus urban debate and most of the
JNNURM funds but the user must know linked to the availability and distance from allocations went to the rural sector.
what he is being charged for and the the proposed pumps. Integrated Development of Small and
condition of the service. Medium Towns (IDSMT) water project
It is also required by local bodies to was earlier Rs 1,000 crore. Now the
There is also a community participation announce their budgets every year and allocation for city improvements is Rs
scheme where people themselves can create service level benchmarks. There 100,000 crore. The ministry's budget has
propose any small local level upgrade. The will be a technical advisory group on gone up significantly after JNNURM
April - June 2008 11
The proposed MBA in urban
The elected components of the local bodies will be able to plan for management will create a pool of
five years and will be able to announce to their constituencies that
‘I have got so much done’.
trained city managers
KILA and Vashda are two of the training programmes that are citizens. It should facilitate citizens asking the city management
doing well. The JNNURM is training people. The Mission's questions and getting answers for the same.
efforts are to make PPP possibilities happen. A good percentage of
people are now being trained. The city specific schemes have to be publicised through the
media. It has to be announced that this is a JNNURM scheme,
Actually municipal authorities are amongst the poorest paid in the what the plan is, and when it will be implemented. The city
country. The Mussoorie’s academy is being asked to conduct a management has to pass a resolution and own it.
capacity building programme on urban development and
management. The course is being structured and is in the initial The collection of user charges is a key function and mayors too are
stages. There is also a plan for an MBA in urban management like coming up with projects to be implemented with the funds
the Integrated Rural Management (IRM). Some centres have been allocated to them.
identified for building institutions. In Gujarat, Indian Institute of
Management (IIM) graduates are being inducted into local bodies. The next installment of funds will only be given when they inform
They should be able to understand urban planning and spatial the JNNURM cell about the progress.
planning. This pool of city managers must have opportunities for
growth. Housing Boards had been created for effective planning,
Master Planning and providing housing to city dwellers. That role
The new concept of SEZs will be able to absorb these city seems to have changed to that of simply consolidating and selling
managers with some urban local body experience. They need to land. Does that need to be beefed up to provide effective housing
understand urban planning as a concept from the beginning. That for all?
you can't throw your garbage into the neighbouring area, and that
solid, waste and sewerage linkages should be planned as a Housing Boards should be able to address weaker section
manageable continuum. housing. Governments have to address the problem of housing
requirements in the city. This has been an area of weakness. This
One of the major problems that we are grappling with, is that is also a state subject.
of a large number of para-statal agencies. Do we need an
integrated utility planning authority? The present system provides a good opportunity for the state
government to assess the demand for the next 20 years or so. The
The NUIS now has the wherewithal for integrated utility cities have to find their own solutions on who can meet the
mapping and its monitoring. The policy is to give all these demand – development authorities themselves or the private
functions to the urban local bodies. The extreme example is Bihar sector.
where overnight all the functions were handed over to the elected
representatives. The state's housing policy has to be facilitative. They could make
land available in the joint venture. In fact, we are going to
We would like this to happen at least in a phased manner with the emphasise on that.
local body and the elected representatives. Normally we would
insist that the broad water supply project that is being executed The Urban Development Ministry has sought a massive Rs
by one of the para-statal agencies should keep the local body in the 2,89,615 crore in the 11th Five Year Plan to develop
know of it and they should be aware of the project being infrastructural facilities in urban areas. What all will this cover?
The first recommendation was to have an Integrated Metro
What are the functions that e-governance will cover? Transport Authority. This is chaired by the Lieutenant Governor
and is a step forward towards integration of different authorities
E-governance gives the handy status of the city development in the transport segment – trains, buses, roads. We plan to extend
plan - the project, the status, interactive mechanisms to involve this facility to other major cities.
12 April - June 2008
The second round of JNNURM would be
giving incentives for cities which are already
implementing reforms or those that have done
More resource generation, effective
management, and public delivery of services
is another. We are incentivising availability of
funds to those who have effective delivery
Once the consumer gets basic services of good
quality, then we will encourage them to take
up transportation within the region. The
Heights of Prosperity &
beneficiary could be the city, state or
government which takes up this activity.
The first targets are the seven mega cities, then
the 27 Class I cities. That way we are working
towards a 20 year period of effective transport
Depths of Poverty
This will also include intelligent transport
Eminent social economist Professor Amitabh Kundu stresses
systems where the traffic flow management at that cities continue to attract the poor but are also increasingly
intersections will be managed by IT systems. becoming more hostile. But they also spur consumer aspirations
The National Urban Transport Authority is
at the cost of basic facilities such as food.
working towards pedestrianisation of cities.
There is a 27 point charter where good Poverty has systematically gone down from 55 per cent in 1973-74 to 23 per cent
sidewalks and proper parking spaces are part currently. Even though the national GDP is now growing at 9 per cent, for certain
of the plan for city redevelopment. sections it may be 14 to 15 per cent and for some others it may have been 1to 2 per
Any specific plans to make at least four to
five globally competitive cities? However, despite the fact that poverty has gone down, the aspirations across sections
including those below the poverty line has gone up. If you look at the definition of
Mumbai as an international financial city poverty, the word aspiration is not included anywhere. Exposure to global markets,
is already being worked out. Infrastructure is media, and so many influences, have not been factored in anywhere while
a major issue and there is substantial quantifying poverty.
additional funding for drainage, etc. Currently,
the pattern of international mega cities is at the Even though there is a decline in poverty, there is a decline in calorie intake. An
forefront. average adult requires 2100 per capita calories and 2400 in the rural areas due to
more physical labour. The fact is that they may rather buy petrol for their scooter than
Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad and 28 have a proper meal. With the change in lifestyle pattern, while food consumption
others are in the plan. The development of may be less, there are expenses on health, transport, housing, clothes, and
satellite townships and rendering of basic entertainment.
services is a key issue.
The percentage of population with access to drinking water has gone up over the
Regional planning has been included in years. Piped water from MCD has improved only by a small percentage but tube-well
consultation with the states. The formation of water, driven by individual initiative has improved tremendously. There has also
metro planning committees has already begun been an improvement in access to sanitation facilities.
and we expect it to pick up.
April - June 2008 13
As Mayor, we are the link
between people and the
The first lady Mayor of Uttarakhand, Manorama Dobriyal Sharma
is the immediate past Chairperson of the All India Council of
Mayors, and the Chairperson of the Asian Council of Mayors. She
talks about the constructive role of a Mayor, and what all she has
done for -Dehradun
he role of a Mayor is that of a Jan dengue, pollution, illegal construction, We are battling the problem of
Pratinidhi (representative of the street lights, beggars, and city traffic unauthorised construction. I have found
people). Any project picked up by a management. that it works to take the public into
Mayor should typically have this theme or confidence while creating cut-off dates.
should be a project linked to the people. There are problems at the city level We have assured that we will not remove
People perceive us as the link between because services such as fire and city older encroachments but newer ones will
themselves and the bureaucratic traffic management are at the state level. be removed.
machinery. Even water services and sewage is with the
Jal Sansthan and not with the city I believe in moving forward with people's
We have been voted to power and typically management. The Mayor has to write to participation. We wanted to privatise waste
understand the common man's problems the concerned authorities for getting these management and the 1500 strong staff
and how to fix them. I have, in fact, created implemented. I have been advocating that went on strike. My councillors. and I led
a helpline where people can directly access these services should come under our the sweeping and cleaning movement and
me and tell me about their problems. jurisdiction. For instance, the cover of a finally managed to end the strike in 11
sewer tank was broken and a child fell into days without giving in to their demands.
Mayors of Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, it. The public will raise the issue with the We have also started a drive against plastic
Dehradun, cities in Uttar Pradesh, Mayor, not with different authorities. to reduce non-recyclable waste.
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh are Shopkeepers have been given three months
elected directly by the people for five We have a huge floating population of to utilise unused stock. After that plastic
years. Councillors in other cities hold pilgrims and tourists and need adequate will be banned. About 30 per cent already
offices for between one to two-and-a-half public transport and pedestrian services to have given up the use of plastic.
years. meet their needs. We have asked for a
Central grant to construct four flyovers, A masterplan of markets is being created.
The elected local team consists of the escalators, subways and a tube road. Under The new dairies, fruits and vegetable
Mayor and the councillors. Each district JNNURM, we are seeking funds for a bus markets, meat and fish markets and the
has specific problems and funds are terminal. slaughter house have been removed
distributed to the councillors on the basis outside the town.
of requirements. While Members of To ensure that our city is safe and clean we
Parliament and Members of the have stepped up efforts around markets, As Chairperson of the Asian Council of
Legislative Assembly deal with macro bus and railway stations. We have roped in Mayors I am involved in cross-country
issues, Mayors and their councillors. tackle traders, hawkers, and the public to help in issues such as global warming. The drive
ground level problems such as solid waste keeping these places clean. Traffic control against plastic is one of the efforts towards
management, state of roads, disposal of around the Inter-State Bus Terminus creating a sustainable city.
bodies of dead animals, etc. Most of the (ISBT) and outside Transport Nagar has
effort is on prevention of diseases such as become a priority.
14 April - June 2008
India's ambitious urban reforms mission
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), the most ambitious urban
programme in the history of India, aims at encouraging fast track planned development, and providing
the enabling framework across 63 identified cities.
Mission Statement administered by the Ministry of Urban flow of investment into the urban
Development through the Sub-Mission infrastructure sector across the country.
The aim is to encourage reforms and fast Directorate for Urban Infrastructure and Funds from the Central and state
track planned development of identified Governance. The main thrust of the Sub- government will flow directly to the
cities. Focus is to be on efficiency in urban Mission will be on infrastructure projects nodal agency designated by the State,
infrastructure and service delivery related to water supply and sanitation, as grants-in-aid.
mechanisms, community participation, and sewerage, solid waste management, road d) Incorporating Private Sector
accountability of Urban Local Bodies network, urban transport and Efficiencies: In order to optimise the
(ULBs)/Parastatal agencies towards redevelopment of old city areas with a view life cycle costs over the planning
citizens. to upgrading infrastructure therein, shifting horizon, private sector efficiencies can
industrial and commercial establishments be inducted in development,
Objectives of the Mission to conforming areas, etc. management, implementation and
financing of projects, through Public
a) Focussed attention on integrated Sub-Mission for Basic Services to the Private Partnership (PPP)
development of infrastructure services Urban Poor: This will be administered by arrangements.
in cities covered under the Mission. the Ministry of Urban Employment and
b) Establishment of linkages between asset Poverty Alleviation through the Sub- Duration of the Mission
creation and asset management through Mission Directorate for Basic Services to
a slew of reforms for long term project the Urban Poor. The main thrust of the Sub- Duration of the Mission would be seven
sustainability. Mission will be on integrated development years beginning from the year 2005-06.
c) Ensuring adequate funds to meet the of slums through projects for providing Evaluation of the experience of
deficiencies in urban infrastructural shelter, basic services and other related implementation of the Mission would be
services. civic amenities to provide utilities to the undertaken before the commencement of
d) Planned development of identified cities urban poor. Eleventh Five Year Plan and if necessary,
including peri urban areas, outgrowths the programme would be calibrated
and urban corridors leading to dispersed Strategy of the Mission suitably.
e) Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and a) Preparing City Development Plan: Financial Assistance under
provision of utilities with emphasis on Every city will be expected to formulate JNNURM
universal access to the urban poor. a City Development Plan (CDP)
f) Special focus on urban renewal indicating policies, programmes and The Government of India has proposed
programme for the old city areas to strategies, and financing plans. substantial assistance through the
reduce congestion. b) Preparing Projects: The CDP would JNNURM over the seven-year period.
g) Provision of basic services to the urban facilitate identification of projects. The During this period, funds shall be provided
poor including security of tenure at ULBs / parastatal agencies will be for proposals that would meet the Mission's
affordable prices, improved housing, required to prepare Detailed Project requirements.
water supply and sanitation, and Reports (DPRs) for undertaking
ensuring delivery of universal services projects in the identified spheres. It is Assistance under JNNURM is additional
for education, health and social security. essential that projects are planned in a Central assistance, which would be
manner that optimises the life-cycle provided as grant (100 per cent Central
Scope of the Mission cost of projects. grant) to the implementing agencies.
c) Release and Leveraging of Funds: It
Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure is expected that the JNNURM Further, assistance from JNNURM is
and Governance: This will be assistance would serve to catalyse the expected to facilitate further investment in
16 April - June 2008
the urban sector. To this end, the census - 28 Convergence of health, education and
implementing agencies are expected to Selected cities/UAs (State Capitals and social security schemes for the urban
leverage the sanctioned funds under other cities/UA of religious/historic and poor.
JNNURM to attract greater private sector tourist importance) - 28
investments through PPP that enables Inadmissible Components for
sharing of risk between the private and The cities should have elected bodies in JNNURM Assistance
public sector. position.
Projects pertaining to the following are not
Total support from GOI is Rs 50,000 crore Sectors and projects eligible for assistance eligible for JNNURM assistance:
with matching contribution by cities/states under the sub-mission directorate for basic Power
over next six years (2006-2012). services to the urban poor. Telecom
Integrated development of slums, Health
Investment of around Rs 1,50,000 crore is housing and development of Education
envisaged. infrastructure projects in slums in Wage employment programme and
identified cities. staff components.
Areas of Assistance under JNNURM Projects involving development, Creation of fresh employment
Assistance for capacity building, CDP, improvement, and maintenance of basic opportunities
DPRs, community participation, services to the urban poor.
information, education, and Slum improvement and rehabilitation Agenda of Reforms
communication (IEC) of projects.
Investment support component Projects on water supply, sewerage, The thrust of JNNURM is to ensure
drainage, community toilets, baths, etc. improvement in urban governance and
Cities Eligible for Assistance under Projects for providing houses at service delivery so that ULBs become
the JNNURM affordable cost for slum dwellers, urban financially sound and sustainable for
poor, economically weaker sections undertaking new programmes. It is also
The JNNURM shall give assistance for (EWS) and lower income group (LIG) envisaged that, with the charter of reforms
infrastructure development in the eligible categories. that are followed by the state governments
cities/ urban agglomerations (UAs) (See Construction and improvement of and ULBs, a stage will be set for PPPs.
Table below) across states in the country. drains and storm water drains.
Environmental improvement of slums Mandatory Reforms at the Level of
These cities/ UAs have been selected based and solid waste management. ULBs, and Parastatal Agencies
as per the following criteria: Street lighting.
Cities/UAs with 4 million plus Civic amenities like community halls, Adoption of modern accrual-based
population as per 2001 census - 07 child care centres etc. double entry system of accounting in
Cities/UAs with 1 million plus but less Operation and maintenance (O&M) of ULBs and parastatal agencies.
than 4 million population as per 2001 assets created under this component. Introduction of a system of
Urban Infrastructure and Governance Funding Pattern Grant ULB/Parastatals/Loan from
Centre State Financial Institutions
Cities with 4 million population 35% 15% 50%
Cities with million plus but less than 4 million population 50% 20% 30%
Cities in North Eastern States and J&K 90% 10%
Other States 80% 10% 10%
Setting up Destinations plants 80% 10% 10%
April - June 2008 17
e-governance using Information Regulation Act buildings, development of site etc.
Technology applications, such as Reform of Rent Control Laws Simplification of legal and procedural
Geographical Information Services balancing the interests of landlords and frameworks for conversion of land
(GIS) and Management Information tenants. from agricultural to non-agricultural.
Services (MIS) for various services Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to bring Introduction of Property Title
provided by ULBs and parastatal it down to no more than 5 per cent Certification System in ULBs.
agencies. within next seven years. Earmarking at least 20 to 25 per cent of
Reform of property tax with GIS. Enactment of the Public Disclosure developed land in all housing projects
Levy of reasonable user charges by Law to ensure preparation of medium- (both public and private agencies) for
ULBs and parastatals with the objective term fiscal plan of ULBs and parastatal EWS and LIG category with a system
that the full cost of O&M or recurring agencies and release of quarterly of cross subsidisation.
cost is collected within the next seven performance information to all Introduction of computerised process of
years. stakeholders. registration of land and property.
Internal earmarking, within local Enactment of Community Parti- Revision of bye laws to make rain-
bodies, budgets for basic services for cipation Law to institutionalise citizen's water harvesting mandatory in all
the urban poor. participation and introduce the concept buildings and adoption of water
Provision of basic services to the urban of the Area Sabha in urban areas. conservation measures.
poor including security of tenure at Assigning or associating elected ULBs Bye laws for reuse of recycled water.
affordable prices, improved housing, with "city planning” function. Administrative reforms i.e. reduction in
and water supply and sanitation. establishment costs by adopting the
Optional reforms Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS),
Mandatory Reforms - State Level not filling posts falling vacant due to
Reform of Rent Control Act retirement etc., and achieving specified
Implementation of decentralisation Optional Reforms (common to States, milestones in this regard.
measures as envisaged in 74th ULBs and Parastatal Agencies) Structural reforms.
Constitutional Amendment Act. Revision of bye laws to streamline the Encouraging PPP.
Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and approval process for construction of
Inclusive growth with space for the service classes
Small towns, large towns support. Today each household living in a legal dwelling and
and metropolitan cities working in formal offices is served directly and indirectly by 30-
are all places where 50 people who work in their homes or sweep their streets.
increasing number of
poor people live in self- Yet we don't value their participation and we feel no obligation to
built houses, made provide any mobility for income or status to them.
initially from recycled
material but gradually, as The city administrations are hostile to the poor. But clearly within
they sense some security, JNNURM and within the mandate of the government there are
this housing is improvised. Their lives are deeply connected with duties and obligations to develop a framework for addressing their
the city whose labour force are these poor people without whom poverty.
the city would not run.
It is the responsibility of the cities to proide basic amenities. Delay
When we plan cities and their development, we forget very leads to technical complications, and therefore, increased financial
conveniently to earmark places and spaces for their work and burden.
habitat. When we plan amenities and services for the city, we
somehow exclude these locations. And when we assess law and Poverty in cities cannot be measured by income levels alone or
order situations, we deem everything about them, their work, their caloric values. Urban poverty, land tenure, and basic amenities are
homes, everything, as illegal. critical to alleviate poverty. These remain our largest challenge in
combating poverty in urban areas.
Cities hold hope for the poor. Their capacity to find informal
Sheela Patel, Director SPARC; Local Government Quarterly,
employment despite being harassed by the city is amazing.
Imagine what they could achieve if they were assisted or had
18 April - June 2008
Classification of cities
April - June 2008 19
NCR Planning Board
Managing a Dynamic Region
Year 1985 saw the enactment of National Capital Region Planning Board Act by the Union Parliament,
with participating states of Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. With growth in Delhi, its problems
of land, housing, transportation and utilities such as water supply, power, sewerage became more
acute and the need for regional planning was felt. Member Secretary PD Sudhakar Reddy talks
about the problems of planning for the region and how it was tackled.
The NCR Planning Board has the
mandate to systematically develop the The NCR is one of the largest Inter-State
NCR, which is 33,578 square kilometres Urban Regions not only in the country but
covering NCT-Delhi and part of Haryana,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (and Punjab and
also in the world
Madhya Pradesh for counter magnet
areas). How complex is your problem of and senior officers of the States as (including mass transport systems) well
regional development? members of the Board. Sector-wise integrated with the land use patterns to
priorities, however, vary from state to support balanced regional development
The NCR Planning Board, a statutory state. in such identified settlements;
body constituted under the National Minimising the adverse environmental
Capital Region Planning Board Act, 1985 With all complexity of the Region, the impact that may occur in the process of
with the concurrence of the Constituent Board tries at all forums like the NCR development of the NCR;
States i.e., Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Planning Board, Planning Commission, Developing selected urban settlements
Pradesh and National Capital Territory of Statutory Committee of the Board and so with urban infrastructure facilities such
Delhi was passed by the Parliament in on that special emphasis is given to NCR as transport, power, communication,
January, 1985. It received the assent of the in development of different sectors and drinking water, sewerage and drainage
Hon'ble President of India on 9th February, projects both at Centre and state level for comparable with Delhi;
1985. balanced, planned and harmonised Providing a rational land use pattern,
development of the Region. and;
The Preamble of the Act has mandated the Promoting sustainable development in
preparation of a plan for the development In this process, the NCR Planning Board the region for improving quality of life.
of the NCR, coordinating and monitoring prepared the Regional Plan for the NCR
the implementation of such plan and for for the perspective year 2021 which was It is one of the largest Inter-State Urban
evolving harmonised policies for the notified on 17th September, 2005. The Region not only in the country but also in
control of land-uses and development of Regional Plan-2021 for NCR aims to the world. The complexity in the
infrastructure in the NCR to avoid any promote economic growth and balanced dynamism of the Region widens due to its
haphazard development of that region. development in NCR and seeks to attain vastness in size with the peculiarity of
these through: being spread over four states.
The Board is chaired by the Union Providing suitable economic base for Geographically, the NCR is 1.06 per cent
Minister for Urban Development with future growth by identification and of total India's land area, about 86 per cent
Union Ministers for Power, development of regional settlements of Kerala, 75.9 per cent of Haryana and
Communication & IT, Road Transport and capable of absorbing the economic 66.67 per cent of Punjab. Almost 23 times
Highways, Railways and Chief Ministers, development impulse of Delhi; of one of the mega-cities of India i.e.,
Lieutenant Governor of Delhi, Urban Providing efficient and economic rail NCT-Delhi which is also a state on its own
Development Ministers, Chief Secretaries and road based transportation networks and more than the combined area of three
April - June 2008 21
To develop and Other constraints for its development,
manage such a apart from resource crunch, are land and
large area of water, various environmental and safety
diversity a huge issues both from natural and man made
financial hazards. Though due considerations have
backing is been given in the Regional Plan-2021,
required. If we activities such as Dedicated Freight
compare the Corridor and Delhi-Mumbai Industrial
geographical Corridor were not included. The current
area of NCR, development plans which could be
with some other integrated in the Sub-regional Plans, are
states along under preparation and later on could be
with the funds incorporated in the Regional Plan after the
allocation in five years mandatory review.
yearly plans, the The Regional Plan provided for Special
fund allocation Economic Zones in each sub-region
for NCR is not outside NCT-Delhi, with atleast one
even equivalent number in each sub-region. It was not
to one year fund visualised that there is a need to put a limit
allocation to the on this number in each sub-region or
states. district as it has been seen that about 85 per
cent of the SEZs of the Constituent States
This Region is of U.P. and Haryana have been proposed
dynamic and the in NCR up to November, 2007. Such
NCR Planning issues will keep on arising and would be
Board has been adequately addressed while carrying out
focusing to the review of the Plan. It requires regular
develop the monitoring of development and economic
Region in a trends. Reviewing the overall development
planned manner of the Region is important so that the
States of Tripura, Nagaland and Sikkim as per the current economic boom, ultimate goal of harmonised and balanced
(27,885 square kilometres), forms the urbanisation trends, and requirements. development is maintained and ensured
entire NCR. Simply put, NCR occupies an
area larger than the territories of the three
States of Nagaland, Goa and Tripura and
State/Region Area in sq. % w.r.t. NCR Projected Outlay (Rs. in
the two Union Territories of Chandigarh kms. Crores)
and Pondicherry taken together. It is
NCR 33,578 100.00 224 350
characterised by the presence of highly
ecologically sensitive areas like extension
Kerala 38,863 86.00 16,100 24,000
of the Aravalli Ridge, forests, wildlife and
bird sanctuaries, rivers Ganga,Yamuna and Haryana 44,212 75.90 9,310 10,285
Hindon and is home to 371 lakhs
population living in 108 towns.
Punjab 50,362 66.67 11,500 18,657
Of these, 17 are Class I cities and more
than 7,500 rural settlements. In addition, Uttaranchal 53,483 63.00 NA 7,630
there are five Counter-Magnet Areas:
Hissar in Haryana, Kota in Rajasthan, Himachal
Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh, Patiala in
55,673 60.31 5,700 10,300
Punjab, and Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.
22 April - June 2008
with bare minimum effect on the natural economy through Model Industrial schemes are under implementation
resources. Estates, Special Economic Zones etc. including expansion of DMRC corridors.
Everyone believes that the NCR Develop critical Project Plans which In order to provide an efficient Mass rapid
Planning Board gives emphasis to building are integral elements of the Transportation System in NCR, Delhi
water supply and sanitation infrastructure. development vision Metro Rail is being extended to the NCR
Please detail out initiatives in this area. towns, namely, Gurgaon, Noida and
Some of the initiatives which are at various Ghaziabad (Vaishali). It is also proposed to
Not only water supply and sanitation stages of implementation by the respective be extended to Faridabad and Bahadurgarh
infrastructure, NCR Planning Board nodal authorities and have directly in the next phase.
emphasises development of all kinds of contributed to the growth of the NCR by
physical and social infrastructure in the providing for an efficient and effective The Board has been financing 75 per cent
Region. It includes transportation network, transport network to facilitate movement of the estimated cost of various
mass commuter system well integrated of traffic and commuters in the Region, infrastructure projects in the form of loan.
with land use pattern, power supply, water and creating industrial infrastructure for These include not only water supply and
supply, sewerage, solid waste the growth and development of industrial sanitation projects but also roads, bridges,
management, drainage, shelter, activities in NCR are: power plants, power distribution, tunnels,
telecommunication, disaster management, The construction work on proposed etc. It also finances rural water supply
and economic development in the form of Western and Eastern Peripheral schemes.
model industrial estates. In addition to this, Expressway around Delhi in the
it addresses the rationale land use pattern Regional Plan-2021 is in progress Some of the important projects financed by
in the Region and environmental Upgradation of existing National the NCR Planning Board are listed below:
consideration in the planning and Highways to Expressway standards Augmentation of rural drinking water
sustainable development of the Region. proposed in the Regional Plan-2021 is supply for Mewat region-Phase-I.
in progress. Extension and Augmentation of Water
Better connectivity and improved physical Supply, Sewerage and Solid Waste
infrastructure in the Region will aim to Management, Patiala.
have balanced and harmonised
Better connectivity and Integrated Industrial Township, Loni,
development. improved physical Tronica City.
infrastructure in the Strengthening of Transmission and
Thrust areas of the Regional Plan-2021 Distribution Network of Meerut
prepared by the NCR Planning Board are
region will aim at Division by UPPCL.
as follows: balanced development Development of Industrial Model
Lays down land use at the regional level Township at Manesar.
in terms of a harmonious pattern Augmentation of water supply at
emerging from a careful examination Feasibility Study for upgradation of sectors serviced by Municipal
of natural features, including National Highways in NCR is being Corporation, Faridabad
susceptibility to natural disasters and carried out by the Ministry of Shipping, Hathkargha Nagar (Lohia Nagar) work-
socio-economic activities Road Transport & Highways. On the basis cum-shelter scheme, Meerut.
Proposes development of Metro and of the recommendations, further widening NOIDA-Greater NOIDA expressway.
Regional Centres as powerful growth work would be taken up Augmentation of water supply of trans-
nodes to attract major activities Hindon area by carriage of 50 cusecs of
Provide regional transport linkages and Regional Plan-2001 and its Functional water from Upper Ganga Canal,
Mass Commuter System Plan on Transport-2001 emphasised the Ghaziabad.
Construction of peripheral need for Mass Commuter System in Delhi. Development of Industrial Township,
expressways and orbital rail corridor Functional Plan emphasised that Delhi Phase-III, Bhiwadi.
around Delhi University-Central Secretariat Construction of Railroad Over Bridge,
Development of core urban underground metro line should be Alwar.
infrastructure (transport, power, water constructed on priority. This corridor has Jindoli Ghati Bypass Tunnel, Alwar -
supply, sewerage, drainage, etc.) already been implemented. To cover Delhi Bharatpur road, Alwar.
Facilitate development of the region's with mass commuter system various Development and construction of 9 km
April - June 2008 23
The NCR Planning Board, is a government or their agencies collect
Public private statutory body created under an Act of external development charges from the
partnerships are Parliament, and thus, as per functions buyers of the plots (in case of plotted
allocated to the Board, is a planning and development) and from developers (in case
possible in housing, coordinating organisation. The Board of group housing) to lay the trunk
solid waste prepares the Regional Plan for NCR which infrastructure which is a kind of private
management and O&M is a macro-level plan for the entire NCR partnership in development of an area.
that contains broad policies and proposals.
of sewage treatment The NCR Planning Board also prepares In case of plotted development, land
plants functional plans relating to sectors such as acquisition is done by the development
transportation, power and water. It has authority which is an old model of
been playing an important and critical role development. Nowadays, in order to
stretch of Dharuhera - Bhiwadi road. in providing regional framework to promote Public Private Partnership (PPP),
Construction of Integrated Township at sectoral development. the development authorities issue licenses
Srinathpuram, Kota and SADA, for development as per Master Plans to the
Gwalior. The constituent states prepare Sub- developers who come forward after
200 bed hospital at Gurgaon. Regional Plans for their respective negotiating land purchase from the owners.
Power plant at Hissar sub-regions within the policy framework
of the Regional Plan. At the local level, the These developers develop housing
What about other social and state governments prepare complexes or plotted development in the
infrastructural intervention including Master/Development Plans (for the towns area where license has been issued to them
health, education, employment and shelter and other local area)/zonal plans within the and internal services/civic infrastructure is
requirements as well as good utility and framework of the Regional Plan and Sub- laid by the developers and is included in
transport infrastructure? Regional Plans. the cost of development of the
township/colony by the developer.
As stated above, the Regional Plan- Broad policies related to shelter, including
2021 for NCR addresses social the slums areas as given in the Regional The government confines itself to the
infrastructure also. Policies have been laid Plan, are to be indicated in the Sub- licensing fee and external development
down in the Regional Plan for Regional Plans which are to be further charges, which it utilises to develop the
development of housing, education, health, translated into action programmes for each trunk infrastructure.
law and order, etc. It has emphasised town/settlement individually and to be
creating an economic base with model incorporated in the Master/Development Other sectors where PPP can be promoted
industrial estates and Special Economic Plans by the state government to meet the is solid waste management where
Zones in the Region which will create shortage and demand of housing collection and transportation of garbage to
employment opportunities for the people. requirement for each town in NCR. the disposal side could be handled by one
Development authorities develop various private agency. Its treatment could be
Due care has also been taken to provide sectors of residential areas as per Master handled by another agency.
better living environment in terms of Plans which include the specific
health, education, recreational and quality percentages for the EWS also. One has to be very careful while handing
of shelter requirements. over these works to the private sector. At
Any scope for private participation in least skeleton staff should be maintained
Some of the industrial areas, which have urban governance? by the local body to look after 40-50 per
come up with the efforts of NCR Planning cent of the work so that the private agency
Board are, IMT-Manesar, Industrial Area- Land development for residential / does not take them for a ride.
Bhiwadi, Industrial Area-Panipat, commercial / industrial / institutional
Industrial Area-Kundli, etc. Even Greater projects in new areas/urban extensions is Operation and maintenance of sewage
NOIDA has come up with the efforts of the carried out by the state government and treatment plants through private sector has
NCR Planning Board. their agencies. Trunk infrastructure such as also been found to be successful in
roads, water supply lines, power supply Haryana and West Bengal and reduce
Any efforts towards providing adequate lines, sewerage, drainage, etc. is laid by the demand for more staff in these works.
housing for all sections of society? concerned development authorities. State
24 April - June 2008
Defusing Mumbai’s urban crisis
Functions discharged by State Government in other
cities is done by BMC in Mumbai
(BMC), is the man who has
championed an "open door"
policy for people to have easy
access to civic officials. Having
worked in diverse departments
such as urban development,
education, food and civil
supplies, and rural development,
Phatak is well aware of
Mumbai's issues. He speaks
about the city, its issues and the
The budget of the Municipal
Corporation of Greater Mumbai is more
than that of most states and cities. What
governance mechanism is in place to
optimally manage this huge corpus?
The budget of the Municipal
Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM)
is Rs.12,000 crores and is much more than
that of many states in India such as
Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttaranchal,
Himachal Pradesh and all the North
April - June 2008 25
Eastern states except Assam. The city also serves a population of Improved transparency and credibility due to better
12 million which is larger than most of these states. governance and internal controls.
The city actually discharges functions normally discharged by Waste management is one of the biggest challenges in Mumbai,
authorities other than the Municipal Corporation in other parts of as it generates the largest quantity of waste as compared to other
the country, e.g., apart from being the Municipal Corporation like indian cities. Could you throw some light on the waste
elsewhere, it also runs Water Supply and Sewerage Board, three management initiatives in Mumbai?
Medical Colleges, a large number of hospitals, 170 primary
schools, prepares development plan for the city and runs a Waste management for any city has got three main aspects:
transport undertaking with 3400 buses. Sweeping of streets/roads.
Collection and transportation of waste from households/
These functions are discharged in other cities by separate para- commercial/industrial establishments.
statal agencies or by the state government itself. Landfill management.
We learnt about the substantial financial reforms undertaken MCGM has taken initiatives in all the three spheres of waste
by MCGM. Kindly share details with us. management in the city. We have introduced mechanisation in
sweeping of streets on a pilot project basis. In collection and
Financial Reforms in MCGM include the following: transportation, latest generation of compactor vehicles have been
Accrual based double entry accounting Listing, Verification introduced and house to house collection has been increased from
and Valuation of Assets Codification Structure and Charter of 22 per cent to about 50 per cent. GPS based computerised tracking
Accounts. of garbage vehicles have been introduced. We are in the process
Budgeting Reforms and Budgetary Controls. of implementing integrated waste processing and development of
Periodic and Real Time Reconciliation, Financial Statements, sanitary landfill projects, with the involvement of private sector,
Audit and Internal Controls. based on PPP model, where Government of India has sanctioned
Uniform codification structure has been introduced in Rs. 62.57 crore under JNNURM.
accordance with the principles of the National Municipal
Accounting Manual in MCGM budget for the year 2007- As mentioned above, technology initiatives have been introduced
2008. in all the three spheres of waste management in the city. However,
the result of these technology and other initiatives taken up to keep
Mumbai clean under "Clean up Mumbai Campaign", basically
The result of technology and other depends upon the citizens of Mumbai themselves, as it has to do
with their civic behaviour and their sense of ownership for the
initiatives depends on the citizens of city. It requires cultural and attitudinal changes, which is not
Mumbai and their sense of ownership achievable in a short span of time.
for the city
There have been several initiatives recently to keep Mumbai
clean. What are the significant technology initiatives to manage
the city's waste and what has been the result?
What efforts are being made or have been made to ensure
transparency in rendition of civic services in Mumbai? To cater to the increasing demands in civic services, MCGM
has embarked on an ambitious computerisation initiative to
Benefits of integrated systems are: convert its vision into reality. It believes that computerisation will:
Reduced closing cycle time due to real time reconciliation Enhance responsiveness to citizens' needs
through integration of other municipal functions. Increase operating efficiency and effectiveness
Reduced process cost and enhanced value of accounting staff. Improve financial health
Improved access to information for better decision making. Display greater transparency
Reduced time to complete budgets.
Real time controls against budgets. The deficiencies of the present system, namely, lack of integrated
Real time Budget Vs Actual Comparison and Analysis. systems, inefficient work procedures, lack of up to date and
Effective Management of Cash Flow. accurate databases, lack of data sharing, etc. will be eliminated
Reduced cost for processing fixed asset transactions. with the help of digitisation.
26 April - June 2008
E-governance has emerged as a major attendance of its over one-lakh policies, as well as a lack of adequate
means of ensuring good civic governance. employees. maintenance over the years, obsolescence
What steps has Mumbai taken in this Health care system to be web enabled and decay. Does the Corporation have any
direction? and deployed in 25 hospitals. policy towards guidelines for maintenance
Disaster recovery site is planned to be of built assets as well rehabilitation and
We have implemented SAP based ERP set up at MCGM Headquarters. retrofitting of old structures? If the
solution which covers the following Building Proposed System. building is decaying beyond rehabilitation,
functions: Legal Management System. would you then consider inner city revival
Finance Geographical Information System of those areas?
Human resources (yet to be released) You have recently expressed strong Dilapidated buildings are being
Fleet and Workshop Management. views on the role of civic agency on the redeveloped as per provisions under
Citizens' portal and Ward subject of building safety as well as the Development Control Regulations.
Management. responsibilities of builder, architects and
Project systems. engineers in the buildings they construct. Most of the private buildings are cessed
Real Estate Management (yet to be Please elaborate on the roles and properties and Mumbai Building Repairs
released). responsibilities of each. & Reconstruction Board is the authority to
decide course of action. Development
The key benefits of ERP are as follows: permissions for redevelopment of the
Opportunity for re-engineering with cessed properties are being granted by
global best practices and templates. MCGM.
For every construction,
High level of integration across
departments and wards. a qualified and Mumbai is a city with a strong heritage
Sharing of data from a single registered structural movement. What role does the Corporation
information repository. have and who are the other agencies that
Streamlining or eliminating inefficient are/should be involved in the same?
manual processes. supervisor is insisted
Integrated, organisation wide common upon Heritage Regulations were sanctioned
tools, processes and systems. in 1995 under Development Control
Control of budgeting, planning and Regulation No.67. Government of
financial management processes. Maharashtra has prescribed composition of
Organisation wide reporting and There are two aspects of safety i.e. (i) the Heritage Conservation Committee
decision support. structural safety and (ii) fire safety. (HCC) to advise Municipal Commissioner
Other systems in Operation. Regarding structural safety, latest codes of in matters related to conservation of
Octroi. ductile detailing for earthquake resistance heritage buildings/precincts, etc.
Billing. and other codes are insisted for design of
Property Tax. buildings while granting permission. For For any development work including
Vehicle Tracking System. every construction, a qualified and repairs, recommendations from the HCC
registered structural engineer/architect/site are obtained by MCGM before approving
Infrastructure Created supervisor is insisted. any development.
A state of the art Data Centre Regarding fire safety, requisite NOC from Agencies like MMR Heritage
Wide Area Network-Connectivity to Chief Fire Officer and compliance of the Conservation Society assign study groups
all the major buildings conditions stipulated by Fire Brigade to identify new heritage structures/areas in
Local Area Network in all major Department are insisted. Specific NOC is the Mumbai City as well as areas under
buildidngs also insisted while granting occupation MMRDA jurisdiction and prepare draft
permission to ensure fire safety. guidelines for development of such
Proposed Systems heritage areas. Some NGOs like INTACH,
Mumbai is also a city with ageing UDRI, etc. are also involved in the field of
Biometric based Access Control buildings, crumbling structures because of heritage work.
System to ensure accurate recording of coastal regulations and other such
April - June 2008 27
Towards Creating a Hassle-Free Mumbai
Drastic measures need to be taken to counter the effects of indiscriminate growth and unplanned
explosion of commercial activities. Ratnakar Gaikwad, Metropolitan Commissioner of Mumbai outlines
the steps taken to sort out the city’s problems
umbai, the commercial capital of India contributes education and health services are also causes for grave concern.
significantly by generating over 50 per cent of direct
and indirect taxes. It has also emerged as a formidable To improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai,
force in the Asian region. Economic growth is poised to jump by MMRDA is in various stages of planning and implementing
2.4 per cent and the GDP is fast approaching the double-digit ambitious and innovative projects such as Mumbai Urban
figure over the next decade, thus creating more than 0.5 million Infrastructure Project (MUIP), Resettlement and Rehabilitation,
additional jobs. Metro Railway, Flyovers Project, Refurbishment of Marine Drive
and Mithi River Development Project. We have various new
However, indiscriminate growth and unplanned explosion of projects also undertaken under the MMR, such as Nirmal Mumbai
commercial activities has taken its toll on the city. Rapid economic Metropolitan Region Abhiyan (Open defecation free MMR),
growth has put tremendous pressure on the city's infrastructure, Skywalk and Monorail.
drastically affecting the overall quality of life. Housing, transport
and other city infrastructure is over stressed and bursting at the The MMRDA has started implementing these projects. Apart from
seams. Drastic steps need to be taken to maintain and accelerate these, new projects undertaken are-: Eastern Freeway - Elevated
the rate of economic growth and the Government of Maharashtra road from Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum to Ghatkopar (approved
is committed to this. by JNNRUM with a projected cost of Rs 531 crores), Sahar
Elevated Road - International Airport connectivity (approved by
Many policy makers and the general public have serious the JNNRUM with a projected cost of Rs. 287 crores) and Milan
reservations on whether this crumbling city can be turned around subway ROB - from Milan Junction (SV road) to Service road
to a world-class city. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (Western Express Highway) with a project cost of Rs 42 crores.
Development Authority (MMRDA), a nodal planning authority
of the Government of Maharashtra, has been given this daunting Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP)
task. It is responsible for the development of Mumbai
Metropolitan Region (MMR), which comprises of the mega city The MUTP concentrates mostly on improvement of rail, road and
of Mumbai along with the rapidly growing hinterland. MMRDA Resettlement and Rehabilitation component of the Government
firmly believes that to ease the load of the overcrowded of Maharashtra. The MUTP is being implemented with the
metropolis, the whole MMR needs to be developed. financial assistance of World Bank. The objective of this project
To achieve balanced development of MMR, MMRDA has
embarked on a multi-pronged development programme. This To achieve balanced development of
programme provides a blueprint for the overall development of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the
the Region that will transform Mumbai into a vibrant international
MMRDA has embarked on a multi-
metropolis and a world-class city. The key areas that needed
immediate attention are the overburdened public transport system pronged development plan that will
and the road infrastructure. Other issues retarding the pace of transform Mumbai into an international
growth are lack of affordable housing leading to generation of
slums. Issues like safety, environment, pollution, water, sanitation,
28 April - June 2008
To increase health standards in the slums, there is need to provide basic health
facilities, public toilets and bathrooms, solid waste management, underground
drainage systems and storm - water systems
is to enhance capacity, efficiency and railway level crossings. The proposed railway stations for the convenience of the
financial viability. The cost of this project scheme for road development comprises of pedestrians. The project, proposes the
is Rs 4, 526 crore. Under this project, rail Eastern Sub. Western Sub. and Island City, construction of a skywalk near 20
is allocated Rs 3,140 crores, road, Rs 829 wherein the estimated cost is Rs 2,647 suburban railway stations. The estimated
crore, and Rehabilitation and Resettlement crore. cost of the project is Rs 600 crore. The
component, Rs 500 crore. Under the road pilot project will be implemented at the
component, construction, widening and The MUIP had undertaken the widening Bandra railway station. The MMRDA will
beatification of two vital link roads to and beautification of key corridors to ease build an elevated deck at the eastern
connect eastern and western suburbs viz. traffic congestion. These are Western direction costing approximately Rs 20
JVLR (costing Rs 115 crore) and SCLR Express Highway, Eastern Express crore.
(costing Rs 127 crore) has already been Highway, LBS Marg, SV Road, Main
undertaken. Linking Road, Goregaon Mulund Link The Skywalks will facilitate easy entry and
Road, Jogeshwari Vikhroli Link Road exit from railway station, speedy access to
The primary objective of all the projects is (JVLR), Andheri Ghatkopar Link Road, bus stop, rickshaw, taxi stand, and would
well defined. The MUTP aims to ease out Santacruz Chembur Link Road (SCLR), therefore save valuable travel time. The
Mumbaikars’ commuting hassles and to Sion-Dharavi Link Road, Sahar Road, Saki overall traffic situation will improve
make available 101 new trains (999 new Vihar Road, missing links to Sahar Airport drastically with the construction of the one
railway coaches will be added in Mumbai), from AK Road, Dhaku Marg, Marol pillar skywalk.
also, to develop new railway routes (the Maroshi Road, Mahakali Caves Road,
work of Borivali-Virar fourth lane has to Andheri Kurla link Road, Jari Mari Road, Monorail
be completed). The project will also ensure JP Road and Anik Panjarpol Road. Of the
improved rail travel comfort and work undertaken on 20 roads, work on The Government of Maharashtra had
pedestrian safety, provide enhanced rail seven have been completed and handed formed a committee to implement Monrail
frequency, reduce delays in road journey, over to MCGM. Work on the remaining 13 in Mumbai in 2005. The various Municipal
resettlement of PAPs in permanent housing roads is progressing in full swing and is Corporations governing the MMR have
and finally design 644 new eco-friendly expected to be completed before the onset demanded that the scope of the project be
buses for BEST. This has already been of monsoon. extended to their region also. The project
accomplished. will help decongest roads and complement
Flyovers the public transport. MMRDA has urged
Mumbai Urban Infrastructure the Corporations of Thane, Navi Mumbai,
Project (MUIP) Under the Flyover project, 16 flyovers Bhiwandi, Kalyan - Dombivili, Mira-
comprising of a total length of 10,677 m in Bhayander and Ullasnagar to present a
The main objective is to improve the road length will be built as per international joint proposal to MMRDA. To begin with,
network and provide benefits to the standards and keeping aesthetics in mind. three routes in Mumbai city and one route
pedestrians and public transport users. The The expected cost of construction for these in MMR will be implemented. The first
MUIP will facilitate connectivity between flyovers will be Rs 421.62 crore. The route covering 25 km will be from Malabar
the North-South road links, East-West construction work of all the flyovers will hill to Bandra Kurla Complex through
connectivity and safe, convenient and be completed by December 2008. Wadala and Sion. The second route of 10
efficient movement for pedestrians. It will km will run from Chembur to Mahul and
also ensure high capacity uninterrupted Skywalk the third route of 10 km will be from
connectivity to international airport, Lokhandwala Complex, Oshiwara, to
efficient and fast public transport, The MMRDA has also undertaken the Kanjurmarg through JVLR. In the MMR,
corridors, bus terminals/depots with Skywalk project that is designed to the Monorail is proposed to be executed
integration facilities, and elimination of decongest the areas around the suburban between Thane and Bhiwandi, covering a
April - June 2008 29
distance of 25 km. The total estimated cost of all the four routes NGO's have been appointed to implement the project.
will be Rs 1500 crore.
Resettlement and Rehabilitation Project
The Monorail Project will enable traffic and signal free, pollution- The Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) project is almost
free, and comfortable travelling. It will save travel time and ensure complete. The works under the MUTP, the MUIP, Metro Project,
minimum investment in Rehabilitation and Resettlement. Mahatma Gandhi Footpath Scheme and Mithi River Development
Project required the shifting of 65,000 slum dweller families
Mumbai Metro Rail Project residing in the way of roads and safety margins on the Rail
The Mumbai Metro Rail Project has been conceived to attract
commuters to use public transport rather than private modes of About 20,000 slum dwelling families are affected by the MUTP,
transport. The 146.5 km Mumbai Metro Rail Master Plan - worth about 35,000 slum dwelling families under the MUIP, 3500
Rs 20,000 crore - will be executed in three phases. The first phase families under Metro Rail, 2500 families under Mahatma Gandhi
would connect the western suburbs of Versova, passing through Footpath Scheme, and about 3000 families under Mithi River
Andheri to the eastern suburb of Ghatkopar. It will cover a total Development Project, totalling 65,000 project-affected families.
distance of 15 km. The second route would be a 32 km section
beginning from Charkop and passing through Bandra to culminate The MMRDA has constructed 55,000 tenements with all the
at Mankhurd. The third route of 20 km, will provide northwest physical and social infrastructure for resettlement of 4 lakh slum
connectivity on the Coloba-Bandra route on Line-3. The total dwellers at 32 different locations in Mumbai. The tenement of 225
estimated cost for the 67 km three lines metro rail is about Rs sq ft with all infrastructure and amenities will be allotted free of
20,000 crore. cost to each project-affected family. The MMRDA has so far
resettled about 19,000 under the MUTP, 14,000 under the MUIP,
Mithi River Development Project 3500 families under Metro Rail, 2,500 families under Mahatma
Gandhi Footpath Scheme and about 3,000 families under Mithi
The Mithi River originates from Vihar lake and meets the Arabian River Development Project.
Sea at Mahim. The total length of the river is 17.83 km and it
passes through Powai, Marol, Sakinaka, Santacruz, Kurla and Marine Drive Refurbishment Project
Bandra. The challenges of Mithi River are encroachments, solid
waste, plastics, and constricted waterway. The plan was to be Marine Drive, the 5 km promenade, also known as Queens
completed in two phases. The first phase, which included Necklace due to the glittering effect that the street lights produce
desilting, widening and deepening of the river, has been completed in this stretch, was developed in the early 1920s and has emerged
as per plan at a cost of Rs 24 crore. Work on the second phase is as one of the city's favorite recreational spot. Over the years the
in progress. promenade had deteriorated and deserved a revamp. The
MMRDA under the MUIP will refurbish the Marine Drive.
Nirmal Mumbai Metropolitan Region Abhiyan (Open
Defecation free MMR) The makeover is intended to strengthen and enhance the Marine
Drive's image, yet maintain its basic characteristics. Work on the
The seven Municipal Corporations and 13 Municipal Councils first phase is almost complete at a cost of Rs 26 crore.
belong to the MMR. More than 40 per cent of the people here live
in slums, and therefore, the health standards are very low. To JNNURM
increase the health standards in these areas, there is a need to
provide basic health facilities, public toilets and bathrooms, solid Sponsored by the Central Government, the Jawaharlal Nehru
waste management and underground drainage systems. About 70 National Urban Renewable Mission (JNNURM) was launched
per cent of the total population, which comes under the MMRDA, towards the end of 2005. By September 2007, the Government of
do not have a storm water drainage system. That is why the 'Open Maharashtra received the highest share of the funds released by
Defecation-Free MMR (Nirmal Abhiyan)' is being implemented. the Government of India. The state government, through the
MMRDA has facilitated loans for urban infrastructure at 7 to 8
The key objectives of Open Defecation-Free MMR 'Nirmal per cent per annum for all the 20 municipal corporations and
Abhiyan' will be to increase the basic health standard and councils in the MMR including the MCGM. The total amount
cleanliness in the area of the Urban Local Body, reduce diseases, provided so far is over Rs 2,200 crore, till the end of July, 2007.
and increase the standard of living of the local people. Three The interest rates were lowered in 2006.
30 April - June 2008
PM charts plan for urban renewal in India
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh's address to the nation on the occasion of the 61st Independence
Day on August 15, 2007 was significant for a different reason. He spelled out his vision for the new
India where urban renewal was a thrust area. In a country where politicians have been traditionally
soaked in the socialist principle of subsidies for farmers and the rural areas, this speech made clear the
government's intent to reduce the rural-urban divide and also focus on urban areas and their problems.
e have helped increase farmers' generate demand for
income by raising substantially first rate infrastructure.
the support price for wheat and
rice. Through Bharat Nirman, we are The expansion and urbanisation will generate
investing in rural connectivity - road, modernisation of our demand for first rate
electricity and telephone connectivity. highways, roads,
Bharat Nirman is our effort at bridging the railways and airports is
urban rural divide. visible proof of our
efforts to meet this
It is essential that we create new demand. Much more is needed and will be development and economic growth. It is
employment opportunities outside of done. necessary to increase investment in
agriculture. Remember, there is no backward areas to improve the regional
developed country today anywhere in the We need to do much more to generate and balance in development.
world, that is not an industrial economy. distribute more power more efficiently.
Industrialisation is critical for progress. If Everyone should get good quality power at Towards this end, we have created the
employment generation is the best weapon affordable prices. I appeal to the state Backward Regions Grant Fund covering
against poverty, then industrialization is governments to take this matter seriously 250 districts. Over a period of time, these
the most effective means to create new job as a weak power situation can become a funds and our other initiatives will see that
opportunities. handicap in industrialisation and job these regions catch up with other parts of
creation. the country.
Industrialisation would also mean
urbanisation. As more and more people For every one of our people to benefit from Every state, every district, every village,
live in urban areas, we need to have a more new employment opportunities being every person must be touched by the hand
creative process of urbanisation. created across the economy, we must of progress.
ensure that every Indian is educated and
This requires greater foresight in urban skilled. In the rush of modernisation and the race to
planning and development. Adequate develop we must not forget the value of
compensation must be paid to those No nation can progress unless its people conserving our resources.
displaced and urban space must be used in are educated. We have shown our
an economical manner. government's commitment in this regard Water is one such scarce resource. I want
by tripling public spending on education in each and every citizen to pay special
We need to have adequate drainage the last three years. attention to water conservation and how to
facilities so that life in our cities does not store and use water.
come to a standstill during heavy rains. I request states also to give priority to
education, as education alone is the I urge states to look upon water as a
The day is not far off when half a billion foundation on which a progressive, national asset and work to resolve inter-
people will be living in our cities and we prosperous society can be built. state disputes over water sharing with an
need to prepare for that day. attitude of give and take.
There are many less developed regions in
Industrialisation and urbanisation will the country that must also benefit from
April - June 2008 31
A planned route for government agencies
Expressing his vision for the well-planned urban development in India, the former President of India, Dr.
APJ Abdul Kalam, urged construction departments, like CPWD, to focus, evolve and implement the
following suggested missions in the next two decades.
Building design should use maximum solar energy and reduce incorporation in future assets and cost effective modernisation
energy consumption per square metre by half compared to the of existing assets.
present practice. Evolve a responsive management structure for implementation
Water harvesting, recycling and management in all buildings. of networked e-governance solutions - for transparency and
Reduce fresh water consumption by 50 per cent in five years. intelligent buildings
Earthquake and disaster protection for all buildings - to reduce
damage and wastage of precious natural resources. Urban development represents one of the great challenges for
Water-proof for at least ten years without any India over the next two decades. Given the socio-political reality
maintenance/repair costs. in India, it will be difficult for the private sector to bring about
Plan all civil, electrical, water, drainage, gas, and changes in the pattern of investment in infrastructure without the
communication services and integrate in the conceptual stage state becoming an active partner, bringing about the required
-avoid needless wastage in construction later. legislative and administrative changes. A satisfying outcome will
Make all buildings disabled friendly. depend on the formulation of effective public policy to accelerate
Use green building materials from agricultural and industrial all-round development of smaller urban centres and to refashion
wastes with least energy costs the role of the state as an effective facilitator to compensate for the
Seek ISO certification and use competent contractors. deficiencies of the market.
Propagate state-of-the-art technologies and knowledge for
32 April - June 2008
Ratan Tata, Chairman of the Tata group, made news earlier this year with the Tata Nano, the Rs 1 lakh
small car which is expected to change the way people live and move. He is now in the news for cracking
the Jaguar-Land Rover deal, and earlier he made headlines for securing Corus as part of the Tata family.
But theTatas are also a group that spends time, effort and money on securing comfortable lifestyles for
their own employees in their flagship town - Jamshedpur - and a host of others across the country. They
are the only player in the private sector that set-up a service company, JUSCO, to take care of its
township’s civic services. We present the Tata Group’s vision and roadmap for urban governance.
April - June 2008 33
he Tata group’s vision for township and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu prepared, with the help of renowned
management did not come from temples, Mohammedan mosques and architect Karan Grover, to improve the city
any one individual. It was part of a Christian churches.” further. This is in the Tata tradition of town
process that visionary founders stated and planning, pioneered in India almost a
which has been adhered to and perfected Tata Steel maintains Jamshedpur’s public century back — through the Jamshedpur
over the years. Excerpts: utilities much like a municipality, only model — by architect F. C. Temple.
better. It takes care of road maintenance,
The cities and towns around Tata industrial water and electricity supply, streetlights, Complementing the contribution that Tata
facilities reflect originality in concept and healthcare, sanitation and more. Steel has made to Jamshedpur, albeit on a
execution. Jamshedpur, Mithapur, Babrala lesser scale, is Tata Motors, which has a
and Mathigiri are unique in their own The standard of these activities is so good 1,200-acre township of its own within the
ways, different from one another in tone, that Tata Steel floated JUSCO— precincts of the city.
tenor and character, but there is a similarity Jamshedpur Utilities and Services
of principle that underpins all four — mere Company Limited—as a separate entity so Tata Motors provides accommodation to
functionality has taken a backseat to a as to share its knowledge and expertise, all its employees and there are about
blending of the practical and the aesthetic which is unparalleled in the country. 40,000 residents in the township. Here
with the environment in which these cities there are facilities for water treatment and
are rooted. The water here is of such high quality that sewage disposal, a well-equipped hospital
Jamshedpur is one of the few Indian cities with 500 beds, dispensaries, markets, a
“Each city is an archetype rather than a where one can drink directly from the tap. sports stadium, playgrounds, parks and
prototype, an exaggerated example from Tata Steel arranges for the cleaning up of recreation centres, academies for theatre,
which to derive lessons for the typical,” over 120,000 tonnes of garbage a year, music and dance, and a hobby hub that
said American architect Robert Venturi. keeping the city squeaky clean. fosters creativity in employees and their
The Tata cities are tangible manifestations It provides electricity, well enough for
of a commitment to infrastructure residents to take the service for granted. Mithapur and Babrala
development. Just as importantly, they are The company also spends Rs. 25 crore a
catalysts for the development of the year on the Tata Main Hospital, which As with Jamshedpur and Tata Steel, so
regions and the people surrounding their takes care of employees as well as the with Tata Chemicals and the two centres it
suburbs. general public. has created around its operations: Mithapur
in coastal Gujarat and Babrala in Uttar
The Tata companies that sustain these Jamshedpur is among the greenest of Pradesh. Distinct in layout and geography,
cities are cast in the mould of caretakers India’s cities, with a plethora of parks, Mithapur and Babrala serves the needs,
rather than gatekeepers. playgrounds and tree lined streets. It is also and then some of the company’s chemicals
a fine example in education, having a and fertilisers plants respectively.
Jamshedpur literacy rate of 75 per cent that is
unparalleled in eastern India. The Mithapur story began in 1939, when
Jamshedpur is home to majority of Tata the Tatas took over the Okha Salt Works.
Steel’s operations and a significant part of Tata Steel runs eight primary schools, nine Okhamandal, the region where Mithapur is
Tata Motors’. It is tied to an idea espoused high schools and a college, while situated, was an undeveloped and desolate
by Jamsetji Tata, the founder of the Tata supporting many more schools indirectly. place where many kingdoms and
Group. Community initiatives are as high on the civilisations had thrived in the past.
Tata agenda as education and this has Mithapur, privately owned by Tata
Writing to his son Dorab Tata in 1902 spawned a wide variety of programmes, Chemicals, is part of the 5,398 acres of
about his concept of a city for the workers most notably on AIDS awareness and drug freehold land obtained in the 1930s from
of the proposed Tata Steel plant, he stated: abuse. the government of the erstwhile princely
“Be sure to lay wide streets planted with state of Baroda.
shady trees, every other of a quick- The Tatas spend about Rs 139 crore
growing variety. Be sure that there is annually on keeping Jamshedpur in the Spread across 663 acres of land, Mithapur
plenty of space for lawns and gardens. pink of health. That, evidently, is not good enjoys the advantages of urban
Reserve large areas for football, hockey enough, given that plans are being infrastructure along with the beauty of its
34 April - June 2008
idyllic surroundings. A department within Tata Chemicals takes Mathigiri
care of Mithapur’s administration.
In the late 1980s, Titan zeroed in on Hosur in Tamil Nadu’s
This department is responsible for developing and maintaining impoverished Dharmapuri district for its manufacturing operation.
residential houses, schools, medical facilities, public spaces and Several companies followed in its wake and the influx of
welfare and sports activities. Mithapur has a high school, three industrial workers put a severe strain on the infrastructure in the
primary schools, two junior schools and one pre school; together area. While mapping the needs of its burgeoning employee
they provide education to some 8,000 children and employment to community, Titan discovered that housing resources were meagre
over 200 teachers. and substandard. Having provided its large, young workforce with
decent disposable incomes, the watchmaker was now faced with
A well-equipped hospital, a mobile clinic, a family planning unit, the task of meeting the requirement of enjoyable living.
and child immunisation centres look after the healthcare needs of
company employees as well as the people living in the 42 villages In 1991 Titan established a township spread over 110 acres at
of Okhamandal. Other facilities include a market with 300 shops, Mathigiri. Constructed with the help of acclaimed architect
a hospital, a cinema hall and six parks. The town has an Charles Correa, it was designed in a manner that blended urban
assortment of parks and gardens to go with a 2 km long beach and landscapes with the semi-rural milieu of the region, from where
the two lakes at its outskirts attract a variety of migratory birds in the majority of the company’s employees came. “We did not want
the winter months. to unsettle our employees by providing a total urban
environment,” says N. Sekar, Senior Officer,
Tata Chemicals operates all the municipal Training and Development, Titan.
services in the town, and delivers an Environment is a key
uninterrupted supply of electricity from its issue in Babrala and Currently about 130 families live at
captive co-generation power plant. The
Mithapur - both of which Mathigiri, which has rows of duplex houses
company provides for the cultural and arranged in clusters around landscaped
recreational needs of the community through are ISO 14001 certified. courtyards. Every house has an open space
the libraries, clubs, cinemas, playgrounds Awareness drives and a in the front and a private garden in a
and public gardens it has established. To common courtyard at the back. There is a
no-plastic policy helps
cater to the diverse needs of its staff and the conveniently located shopping centre, a
local community, Tata Chemicals supports a medical clinic, a sprawling recreation centre
large number of social and cultural institutions through grants. and other facilities aimed at encouraging a vibrant communal life.
Water is a precious commodity in Mithapur, which falls in the Blacktopped roads and landscaped common areas make this area
drought-prone Jamnagar district. Water is recycled back to a flush- pleasing to the eye.
pumping station and used to nourish plants and maintain gardens.
The company also addresses the education needs of this
About 1,400 kilometres to the north of Mithapur, in the midst of community. The Titan School, started in 2001, teaches almost 350
a densely forested area, lies Babrala, developed in 1992 when Tata children in classes ranging from pre primary to the fifth standard.
Chemicals’ fertiliser plant was set up here. This school has an alternative approach and emphasises holistic
rather than merely academic education.
This settlement is home to nearly 1,000 employees and their
families. This, too, is an urban dwelling in a rural setting. Wide Children use the unconventional sight and phonetic reading
roads and a green environment characterise the town layout. Tata method to learn. The school has no examinations till the fourth
Chemicals has provided plenty of amenities in Babrala: spacious standard.
houses, a shopping centre, a clubhouse, a library, and health and
sports facilities. The DAV Public School instructs students in both “We believe in the integrated curriculum approach that does not
English and Hindi. burden a child, but allows for total personality development,” says
Sajeetha Barathi, the school’s Headmistress.
Environment is a key issue in Babrala and Mithapur, both of
which are ISO-14001 certified. The emphasis is on waste The company was also able to employ its spirit for innovation to
reduction, proper garbage disposal and conservation of natural circumvent some of the problems it encountered. Water shortage,
resources. Environmental awareness drives are held regularly and the norm in Hosur, is unheard of in Mathigiri.
both towns have a ‘no plastic policy’.
April - June 2008 35
Technology is the key
N Chandrababu Naidu is credited to be the first Chief Minister of a state who laid down principles of
governance to boost economic reforms. Use of technology to bring transparency and accountability is
the key, he tells E Jayashree Kurup.
or Indian cities to work, all city
governments must have
accountability and transparency.
Information Technology and new concepts
of management are tools that can help. The
excuse that cities are crowded and
therefore the infrastructure does not match,
does not hold. Look at pilgrim cities like
Badrinath which have provided all the
facilities for the common man. Once IT
systems are deployed, there is no loss of
time and corruption is reduced. I strongly
recommend the use of IT for governance.
In Hyderabad, we created the E-Seva
project where a large number of services
of the municipal corporations were taken
This way we integrated all possible
services from birth to death. Even the
municipal department's functioning was
streamlined by bringing together all
documentation and accounting of
payments, travel and entertainment.
The day-to-day functions of each
department were on its own server and all
departments update their own data
continuously. These individual servers
were linked to a central server.
The single window provision helped
streamline municipal functions
tremendously. The process of verification
ws simplified. The departments of
registration, for instance, reduced the
process of issuing encumbrance
certificates from 7-10 days to just 2
The registration process was standardised
36 April - June 2008
and these documents can be secured from anywhere in the state.
Tremendous cost saving was effected through the system of e- Creativity and mission must be backed
procurement. It also brought in efficiency and accountability. with infrastructure upgrade. The
An IT revolution should not be restricted to government offices of planning for a city goes hand in hand
even commercial establishments. It should seep into the lives of with this vision
the citizens. In Hyderabad all houses are wired.
What should be done to revive old cities and modernise them?
The poor citizens got access to the service through the E-Seva Special funds have been earmarked for maintenance of schools,
centres. Others could access it from their own homes. roads etc. Regular maintenance makes repair and management
cheaper. For all these, we need to create fixed money, plan
Usage was slow in the initial stages but eventually all the driving allocation and non-plan allocation.
licenses to bill chalans were given electronically. Finally we had
a delegation from Singapore visiting us to study how this was Metro Rail is a must in growing cities - there is no other way. But
made possible. we need to integrate the entire transport planning to reduce road
The departments only needed to learn to provide these systems
and use the advantage of being networked. City planning is a continuous process. Facilities of cleaning of
roads can be outsourced for efficiency. I had made a pact with my
Creativity is very important in city management. I and my team cleaning staff that they could continue till they retire.
studied best practices from all over the world. And then we tried
to implement them with local variations. Today we have the best But private parties were used for overall cleaning where night time
convention centre, the best companies in the world working here, cleaning was introduced. Actually I feel city management depends
the best educational institutions working here. on leadership. The same money can be made to go a lot further
with good management.
This has to be backed by adequate infrastructure upgrade. The
development of the international airport as a greenfield project is India is moving forward. The quality of governance too is
a step in this direction. improving. However, corruption is at its peak and poses a big
Planning for growth in a city is very important. The city has to be
planned - this was a step in that direction. This opens up new Bureaucrats and city managers need constant training globally to
avenues of growth in the city. remain competitive. I had sent them to Singapore for training.
There should be continuous capacity building. Willingness is
When the prime city is overcrowded, the orientation of the original important among bureaucrats.
city has to be changed.
Local area planning is a key initiative that will ensure regular
When you plan for renewal of a city you have to look after all participation of citizens in the planning process. Money is not a
aspects of it. The old part adds heritage value. But you have to constraint, the will to do is important.
reduce the crowd there and enhance its traditional features through
planning. Structured planning of business and entertainment in We increased revenue 10 to15 times and efficiency was up 7 to 8
this region will enhance its value. per cent. People showed a willingness to participate and pay for
better service quality. When a city grows, water reqirements
Entertainment and shopping in inner city areas are a must to increase. The planners and administrators have to consider where
ensure its revival. But back this up with suburban development the additional resources would come from. We needed to tackle
where planned commercial and residential development will the issue of where to bring water from. Plan well and the problem
ensure that crowds dissipate to the suburbs. finds a solution.
Asset management in a growing city is a must. We have been Civic services have to be dealt with as a unified whole. Sewers,
ignoring this aspect but to make the city acceptable in the modern water, electricity, telecommunication can be integrated into
context we must ensure proper asset management. channels so that roads are not dug frequently. Plan well and cities
April - June 2008 37
Growing Need of Healthcare in Urban
A growing city population requires provision of quality healthcare. But inclusive health facilities require
policy interventions encompassing education, sanitation, inclusive housing and medical facilities.
Founder chairman of Apollo Hospitals Group, Dr. Pratap C Reddy, gives his vision of the opportunities
that exist in urban healthcare.
The poor are the hardest hit by growing out-of-pocket
spending on healthcare and lack of public policy on
very complex one indeed. This was especially significant because of
the complex nature of the healthcare
Aligning supply with demand, therefore, is system in urban areas, as they face a dual
not a problem unique to the healthcare burden of communicable and non-
sector alone, particularly in the context of communicable diseases. But there was also
urbanisation and its demands. What is a downside. This saw increasing instances
unique, however, is the low priority for of healthcare spending in India coming
fter more than four decades as a urban health, with greater focus reserved from out-of-pocket expenditures of its
closed economy and fourteen for rural areas, even though statistics for people, as also the lack of focus of public
years of reform, India has urban poor can rival those for rural poor. policy on urban health in comparison to
ascended the world stage and laid the Of the estimated 328 million urban rural health.
groundwork for rapid growth. An populations, over 180 million urban poor
inevitable outcome of the process of have only 1,083 family welfare centers to The hardest hit, in the bargain, are the poor,
growth and modernisation has been the diagnose their diseases. At least 300 also because of lack of credible data for
phenomenon of uncontrolled urbanisation. additional urban health and family welfare urban poor related planning, and the
This phenomenon is owed to the premature centres need to be set up annually to cater illegality that they face with the clusters of
migration of very large number of people to the needs of the 215 million urban by slums overlooked by official enumeration
from rural areas to urban ones, causing 2020, says a report by the Associated systems. Though several NGOs are doing
considerable strain to urban infrastructure. Chambers of Commerce and Industry of commendable work in slums, there is weak
India (ASSOCHAM). coordination among the government and
Studies have established that people who other stakeholders, including NGOs,
move to the cities do so either to become Traditionally, the spatial strategies of leading to few examples of coordinated,
better educated and look for jobs in the tertiary care hospitals have necessitated planned slum health programs in most
burgeoning services sector, or to meet with their location in urban centers. This states.
the demand for labour for the development strategy only found continuum with the
activities in cities. More economic growth advent of corporate healthcare in India. The low access of public health services to
has only led to more migration, and more What changed for the better with the the poor is also owed to the weak referral
migration has meant that we almost keep advent of corporate healthcare though, was linkages from community and primary
standing where we are with regard to the availability of a better value facilities, and the lack of risk pooling and
development activities, which goes to proposition for India's urban citizens with health insurance mechanisms for the poor.
make the phenomenon of urbanisation a regard to healthcare delivery. Overall, rapid urbanisation has certainly
38 April - June 2008
By optimising performance, it is possible to reconcile the objectives of access, quality and
cost in healthcare
led to sharp disparities in the access to healthcare. opening up to a variety of players, has been the concerted move
to redefine public health as both a private and public good, seeing
To introduce reforms, policies aimed at promoting urban health them as complementary and not in opposition. This shifting of an
must necessarily focus on reducing the amount of sickness and age old mindset assumes greater significance in the context of the
injury, as it is important to reduce demand in order to align better growing worldwide interest in the Indian healthcare industry's
with supply. Obvious as this opportunity might seem, many domestic agenda. How we plan to leverage our reputation on the
reformers prefer to deal with more complicated matters before global healthcare scenario to address the needs of our own people
addressing it. The opportunities are actually multifarious: certainly depends on what steps both government and industry
promoting basic levels of hygiene through proper sanitation; take.
ensuring clean drinking water; building safe roads for
transportation and ensuring safe, reliable energy consumption; But our population is huge, and any intervention that we design
reducing environmental hazards, because illness is inevitably must have both scale and permanence. Interventions that center
linked to pollution levels; establishing effective and on philanthropy, often lack scale and permanence, unless when
comprehensive immunisation programs; and encouraging healthy they partner the government, in which case they may end up
lifestyles as increased risk of diabetes, heart disease and cancer is lacking efficiency and efficacy. We need to pursue public private
linked with poor diet, sedentary lifestyles and smoking. As has partnerships with business houses, and also with committed NGOs
been seen in the US and the UK, public education campaigns can and other groups, targetting models that have the capacity and
be quite powerful and effective, because since the 1980s, tobacco experience to deliver consistent value. Our experience in working
consumption has reduced by approximately 50 percent. with the government and other groups on path breaking initiatives
such as Yashaswini in Karnataka that covers over 2 million
So, the opportunities in healthcare in urban governance cannot be members, and other notable projects such as with the Maharashtra
limited to the domain sector alone. It needs an arsenal comprising State Police, All India Weavers' Cooperative and the Bharat
education, healthcare, housing, access to basic services, and Swaasth model have demonstrated that it is possible to combine
access to capital, for a major focus for restructuring the system efficacy and efficiency with scale and permanence.
must most certainly create a universal access mechanism which
also factors in the private sector as a major player. Health When we have interventions that combine idealism and
insurance is an evolving mechanism, that can adequately address experience with social entrepreneurship, we will find more and
the healthcare needs of the urban poor and the rich. By offering more businesses committed about ventures that make money for
insurance products and community based micro-insurance investors while providing tangible social benefits. In my
schemes for slum dwellers and poorer sections, we can address experience, people always adopt any solution that delivers better
the issue of access to healthcare. Insurance offers exciting value. But our challenge now lies in delivering the solution at
opportunities for several players including life insurers and banks, better value and at a lower cost. By working together to prevent
who all view the sector as a value add to consumers, as is apparent disease, improving access mechanisms to healthcare and
from the advertisements on the subject. optimising performance, it is possible to reconcile the objectives
of access, quality and cost in healthcare.
In fact, one encouraging development with regard to the sector's
April - June 2008 39
The transformation of the
Indian consumer has
begun. India was
dismissed as a country
beset by social problems,
inhabited by the poverty-
stricken and ruled by
socialist principles, where
considered taboo and
ostentatious display of
wealth and lifestyle was
not encouraged. Bijou
Kurien, President & CEO
of Reliance Lifestyle,
shares his vision for an
emerging India with Good
The New India
Challenges of Civic Development and Specialty Retailing
ith the emergence of a new, by the lucre of a 1 billion large consumer cities. There is a yearning amongst
young and confident India market. Indians for a world class retail experience.
which is more internationally
aligned and less tradition oriented, the The opportunity is huge. The middle class, There is a need to source quality products,
stage is set for organised retailing and variously estimated between 150 to 250 transport them in an efficient and speedy
retailing of lifestyle categories to take off. million and growing by leaps and bounds, manner to the stores, create the right
is craving the lives they often wished but mindset and attitude among those who
Driven no longer by need but by could not afford or aspire to. The size of work within the stores; and support it by
aspiration, Indians are now demanding the consuming class can be huge - the technology and processes which ensure a
wider range of products and brands, newer mobile phone and wireless telephony profitable, responsive and flexible
stores, better experiences and greater market bear witness to massive changes business.
access. Impulse shopping is creeping that can be wrought by new value
ahead of planned purchase. Focus is on propositions. India has archaic land laws. Large parcels
fashion and form rather than utility. In of land are still held by the government.
many cases, the replacement cycle has The Indian retail market, estimated at There are no zoning laws and it is perfectly
dropped sharply leading to ownership of approximately $300 billion, is largely possible to have residential and
multiple brands and products for different dominated by small independent retailers commercial developments exist side by
wear and usage occasions. With import spread across the width and breadth of the side.
restrictions being gradually removed, country. International formats such as
more and more international brands are hyper markets or super markets have only Re-development of large land banks and
flocking to the shores of India, captivated been recently established in a couple of tenancy rights are mired in the
40 April - June 2008
bureaucratic or judicial processes of the and public sector can collaborate in potential national income and employment
country. All this puts pressure on the price developing our future cities. value that organised retail and brands can
of land and the consequent price of mall or add, and is taking steps to address these
retail space. The retailers seek out property For India to become a shopping destination issues.
and land parcels, competing with other which conforms to international standards,
users, without any specific reservation, we have to adopt international laws and There is a compelling economic need to
recognition or subsidy, hoping to be able norms. Making shopping 24X7 is currently trigger consumption growth, which in its
to turn a venture into a profitable business. hampered by the limitations imposed by wake, will bring infrastructural and
the Shops & Commercial Establishments industrial growth, and propel the
State governments and local civic bodies Act. Similarly, the Standards of Weights & development of a strong support industry
need to consider town planning in a Measures Act force products or brands to for the retail sector. The retail industry
radically different manner. Creeping, or in go through several secondary packaging which is the second largest employer in
some cases, galloping expansion of processes like price marking, affixing India, has the potential to drive growth and
construction, without any distinction manufacturer's details etc., which grow along with the economy. What it
between housing, shopping, commercial or sometimes makes products look like a needs is collaborative working amongst all
industrial or even the provision of lung mass of labels and slows down the entire stake holders and a national policy which
spaces, will make it difficult to create supply chain. Transparent inter-state rules encompasses the vision that all such stake
towns and cities which can measure up to and regulations and taxation systems for holders subscribe to.
international standards. We need the movement and sale of goods would help
political will and the bureaucratic zeal to speed up logistics. But slowly the
build and implement such a vision. Private government is beginning to realise the
April - June 2008 41
Urban Governance Best Practices
The Good Governance India Magazine showcases the best practices initiated by various bodies
involved in urban development, management and governance. In this issue, we bring forward
the best practices under various themes of environment, energy, solid waste management, water
& sanitation, and disaster management.
streets for disposal.
It has resulted in collection of 18 per cent
Community Links for Clean of Chennai’s garbage per day and creation
Environment - India of 1500 jobs. The advent of Civic
EXNORAs has led to a more effective
Excellent Novel and Radical (EXNORA) system of garbage collection and disposal.
International is a broad based voluntary,
Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) Garbage is being collected and disposed in
in Chennai. It has created wide spread a more organised manner by households.
environmental and civic awareness by Greater awareness has been generated
promoting community / street directly among the communities about the need for
involved in a voluntary effort in waste maintaining a systematic method for
collection, removal, recycling and keeping garbage clearance and removal. As a result,
their environment clean and green. households in general are taking a more
active role in keeping their surroundings
The local units of EXNORA have made clean. EXNORA is also concerned with
innovations to this scheme by adopting other special and environmental issues.
different methods of disposal, recycling, Housing and Urban Development.
reuse and composting of waste, which Therefore, it has initiated supported
reflects initiative and a conscious decision activities towards creating a clean and The CEIP incorporates environmental
making process. green environment for all. management strategy priorities, such as the
restoration of Beira Lake, improving the
The entire scheme is managed by the Environment Improvement garbage collection system, constructing a
residents of each street/community. For the Programme - Colombo new sanitary landfill and transfer stations,
Corporation's experiment to be successful, construction of two centralised industrial
garbage would have to be placed directly On the invitation of the Government of Sri effluent treatment plants, and also for
into the hydrocontainers so that Lanka, MEIP-Colombo was set up and has developing a robust, well-planned
Corporation workers could later mount assisted the city of Colombo in developing Geographic Information System (GIS) for
them directly on trucks. an Environmental Management Strategy Colombo.
(EMS) and Action Plan which has been
These hydrocontainers were made effectively used to assess key Another significant achievement towards
available at the end of every street so that environmental problems, identify options, sustainability was the preparation and
the garbage could be dumped into it devise strategies, implement action plans, acceptance of Clean Air 2000 Action Plan
directly and not strewn in and around the and institutionalise the approach. as government policy for air quality
The major achievement of MEIP-Colombo
From here the containers would be hauled was that in the short space of six years it Among the consequences of its
onto the Corporation trucks and taken to prepared a "down-stream" investment implementation were the setting up of an
the dumping sites. The residents found it project, the Colombo Environment air quality monitoring network,
inconvenient to carry the garbage from Improvement Project (CEIP) currently introduction of unleaded petrol and setting
their respective houses to the end of the being implemented by the Ministry of environmentally related standards.
42 April - June 2008
5th International Conference on “Good Urban Governance for
Inclusive and Sustainable Cities” and
5th International Exhibition on “Municipal Services,
Urban Development and Public Works”
unicipalika 2008 covering the
5th International Conference
and Exhibition was held at
MMRDA Grounds, Bandra-Kurla
Complex, Mumbai from 31st January to
2nd February 2008. It had the participation
of over 600 delegates representing 35
mayors, 48 Municipal commissioners and
Secretaries from 19 states. Besides the
participation of all professionals,
technology providers and other stake
holders including civil society groups.
Municipalika 2008 was inaugurated by
Shri M. Ramachandran, Secretary,
Ministry of Urban Development,
Government of India. The inaugural ICMA – South Asia, Shri V Suresh, Shri M. Ramachandran, Secretary,
session was presided by Smt. Manorama Conference Co-ordinator and Advisor, Ministry of Urban Development,
Dobriyal Sharma, Chairperson, All India Good Governance of India Foundation, Government of India. The Exhibition
Council of Mayors. The other dignitaries Shri Govind Swarup, Advisor, Good showcasing technology, services and
in the inaugural session were Shri T.C. Governance India Foundation and Shri managerial systems incorporated into a
Benjamin, Principal Secretary, Urban Sanjiv Agarwal, Founder and Trustee, common space of over 2000 sq.mts., was
Development, Government of Good Governance India Foundation. highly appreciated by the Secretary and
Maharashtra, Dr. J V Modi, President, All other dignitaries.
India Institute of Local Self Government, Subsequent to conference inauguration, the
Mr. Marc Ginsberg, EERE Board of 5th International Exhibition on “Municipal The 3day conference had 13
Directors, Department of Energy, Services, Urban Development and Public Technical Sessions :
Washington, Mr. Jon Bormet, Director, Works” was inaugurated by
Theme: City Development
Challenges and Good Urban
CS 01 Growing Cities and Urban
Challenges, CS 02 Leading and Best
Practices for Good Urban Governance,
CS 03 Urban Reforms Agenda (Sound
Financial Management including Double
Entry Accounting System, Enhancement
of Resource Base, Property Tax Reforms
and Resource Mobilization from Capital /
Bond Market and National / International
Agencies) and CS 04 Disaster Mitigation
April - June 2008 43
and Management including Fire Protection
and Safety, Vision Address – Sustainable
Theme: Integrated Water Supply,
Sanitation, Waste, Transport &
CS 05 Integrated Water and Waste Water
Management Practices – Water, CS 06
Integrated Waste Management Practices
(collection, transportation, treatment and
disposal) - Domestic and Municipal Waste
Management, CS 05 Integrated Water and
Waste Water Management Practices -
Waste Water, CS 06 Integrated Waste
Management Practices - Biomedical, toxic
and hazardous waste including e-waste, CS
07 Integrated Transport Management, CS
08 Integrated Energy Efficient City
Services and Built Environment and CS.09
City Development in Regional Context
including SEZ & Satellite Towns.
Theme: Inclusive & Sustainable City
Development and E-Governance:
CS 10 Housing and Infrastructure by high quality floor interventions.
Development For Slum-Less Cities &
Integrated Housing and Slum In addition, the event also had 3 vision
Development Programme (IHSDP), Basic addresses on the team of sustainable cities
Services for Urban Poor (BSUP) and given by Mr. Adi Godrej, Ms. Minja Yang
Public - Private - People Partnership and Mr. Mark Ginsberg.
(PPPP), CS 11 E Governance & IT
Applications in Municipal/Urban Further there was a video conference
Management and Services, CS.12 Public- between US and Indian Cities covering
Private Partnerships / Real Estate Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Ahmedabad,
Development as Engines of Growth and Atlanta, Columbus, Denver and Chicago.
CS 13 Remote Sensing / GIS / GPS / GIT
Applications for Urban Planning, One of the significant events was the open
Development and Management. house interface between the citizens and
Mayors and City Managers’. and to take care of the needs of the poor,
Each of the sessions highlighted the marginalised and disadvantaged for
challenges, major initiatives and actionable Dr. H.S. Anand, Secretary, Housing and housing and basic services for Sustainable
agenda needed for creating sustainable and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Govt. of India, City Development. Dr. H S Anand also
inclusive cities. The sessions had over 120 in his Valedictory Address exhorted the gave the awards for the best displays in
presentations by expert speakers followed imperative need for inclusive development Municipalika Exhibition.
44 April - June 2008
Clockwise from top left:
Adi Godrej, Chairman, Godrej Group
Minja Yang, Director, UNESCO India
L to R: Manorama Dobriyal Sharma,
Mayor, Dehradun, Dr. H.S. Anand,
Secretary, Min. of Housing & Urban
Poverty Alleviation (H&UPA), Govt. of
India, Sanjiv Agarwal, Trustee, Good
Governance India Foundation (GGIF),
Govind Swarup, Advisor, GGIF:
Dr. H.S. Anand giving away the
Municipalika 2008 Awards in the
presence of V. Suresh, Advisor-GGIF &
Conference Coordinator, and Manorama
Mark Ginsberg, Board of Directors,
US Department of Energy
April - June 2008 45
and manmade disaster has to be heart and soul is needed in this
Recommendations one of the major areas that require connection – a paradigm shift.
attention at the local body level. Keeping in view the development
The following major points of Most of the cities are ill-prepared. need in coastal cities with over
observations and recommendations Keeping in view the limited land 6000 kms. of sea front, the existing
emerged from Municipalika and high costs, high rise coastal zoning regulations would
conference: development has become need revamp.
Cities with vision documents are necessary. The safety aspects from Considering the limited
the ones that come forward with all point of view have to be kept in availability of land, there is
best practices and best conceived mind and the building bye laws sufficient scope to increase
projects under JNNURM. The and enforcement have to take care FAR/FSI commensurate with
vision document guides the action of the same. infrastructure addition.
plan and support should be As part of the slum development There is a crying need to conserve
provided. strategy under JNNURM, IHSDP the present built environment and
It is desirable to analyse the and BSUP in addition to efforts for heritage along with new
unfinished agenda for reforms in providing adequate and affordable developments. Cultural past is the
2008 to see that these are shelter and basic services, equal pillar for future growth
completed within the time frame. attention should be given for Modern tools of GIS/GPS and
The potential of decentralisation is poverty alleviation, job creation Remote Sensing to be utilized for
immense and should involve and skill impartation. city based information system and
stakeholders at the local level and Sulabh toilets, socially, culturally properties, natural resources and
monitoring and execution of acceptable, appropriate, affordable infrastructure both above and
projects in the decentralised model and indigenous need to be below grounds.
is far more efficient. encouraged. E-Governance to be given top
There should be a uniform code of All efficient water management priority for transparency,
selection and conduct for mayors, system including waste water information sharing, provision of
city managers for all local recyling has to be introduced services to the citizens in user
governments. compulsorily Revive traditional friendly manner.
Professionalism and transparency systems and also involve The initiatives for Public-Private-
of functions is required for communities to deal with the People’s Partnership (PPPP) to be
efficient city management. present crisis encouraged for housing and
Culture is changing fast and we There is a greater need for infrastructure initiatives for all
have to adapt to new realities, and utilisation of state-of-the-art groups.
plan policies accordingly, with technologies for waste The potential of land as a resource
cities adopting new technologies management of all categories has to be fully tapped for
and skill–sets to execute them. including conversion waste to enhancing the resource base as
Possible flexibility needed for wealth. well as providing equitable and
diverse regional needs. Keeping in view the large scale inclusive solutions benefiting all
Regional aspirations are on the rise automobile revolution in cities, groups.
and cities in the region are being there is an urgent need to There is an imperative need to
encouraged to participate and encourage and strengthen public strengthen local bodies through
share experiences and solutions to transportation modes. capacity building at the level of
problems. Considering the larger impact of mayors, councellors, city
30 cities have been credit rated. global warming and climate managers, service providers to deal
Municipal bonds are a good source change, there is a major need to with the multi-dimensional
of raising resources. This has to be adopt, technologies and practices, development needs to make cities
expanded and for smaller local which will contribute to creating work. Appropriate training
bodies pooled bond scheme should environment friendly, ecologically modules suiting each groups have
be launched. appropriate and energy saving and to be evolved.
Disaster mitigation and built environment. A major
preparation to deal with natural attitudinal change of mind, body,
46 April - June 2008
5TH INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION ON “MUNICIPAL SERVICES, U
he 5th International Exhibition on Municipal
Services, Urban Development and Public Works
was organised at Bandra-Kurla Exhibition
Complex, Mumbai during 31st Jan - 2nd February 2008
with elicited display of products, projects, technologies,
systems and services from large number of manufacturers,
developers, utility providing agencies, construction
RBAN DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC WORKS”
entities, technology/service providers, financing
institutions, NGO’s and national and international agencies.
Based on the quality of display, the impact made, publicity
material distributed, demonstration display, visitors
interface provided, the jury decided to bestow recognition
for the display under various categories.
Energy Conservation Program -
The Vadodara Municipal Corporation
(VMC) did not have a uniform lighting
system working efficiently.
There was a problem from installation and
electrical energy consumption point of
Moreover, street lights had been installed
in an unplanned manner resulting in an
uneven, inefficient and poor lighting
system in the city.
Another disadvantage of this unplanned
street lighting is that the VMC has to bear wattage, Luminous flux and average
high operational, capital and maintenance burning life in hours. The new administrative officials at the
cost. Kromeriz focused on bringing to an end
All these efforts made VMC to achieve the uncontrolled waste dump and pollution
VMC has tried to improve illumination by overall savings of 52.50 per cent in of both subsoil and surface water.
consuming minimum possible electrical electrical consumption.
energy. Through the initiative, the pond was
Biogas from Household Waste - cleaned and the eco-system balance
Thus the VMC has achieved maximum Kromeriz restored.
possible electricity efficiency and serve
function and benefits of public lighting by Kromeríz lies at the southern edge of the Biogas was tapped and re-vegetation of the
implementing a series of measures Haná, Czech Republic and has a entire area, to provide a green park for the
including the following: population of about 30,000 people. inhabitants of the nearby housing estate,
Utilisation of biogas from household waste was done together with providing a cheap
Concept of Procuring lighting not is based on an exhausted and disused clay source of household heating energy.
Lighting Materials - VMC invited pit that was an environmental hazard.
lighting design oriented tenders. The pumping operation under the biogas
The Kromeriz Town Hall administrative utilisation conditions facilitates heating of
Code of practice for lighting of public officials had turned the pit into a dumpsite hot water for 200 households during
through fares to achieve required and for household waste. The layer of the winter. Since the beginning of the project,
uniform illumination, which saves deposited material reached up to 12m. The 3,37,177 m3 of biogas has been tapped and
capital cost and electrical energy. total volume of the deposited waste pumped from the deposit.
amounted to 1,80,000 m3.
Energy Saving by Time Management- The lesson learnt from this project is that
Annual programmable switches were The deposited subsoil consisted of clay, there is potential to generate biogas from
preferred taking consideration the sun- with substantial layers of eroded sandstone household waste when proper technology
rise and sunset timings preferred rather and sand-clay. As a consequence, the eco- is employed.
than the conventional manual ones. system of a nearby pond was destroyed.
The biogas utilisation project is being
Selection of Energy Efficient Lamps Leach from the deposit polluted the subsoil replicated in other towns of the Czech
and Luminaries - Selection of lamps water and the deposit's biogas escaped to Republic.
and Luminaries were based on the ambient environment.
April - June 2008 51
Integrated Wetland System for
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Municipal Waste - Kolkata
The Government of West Bengal and the
Kolkata Metropolitan Authority developed
a three-part strategy for the reuse of waste-
water: vegetables are grown on garbage
substrata with treated sewage used to
irrigate the garbage farms; next, 3,000
hectares of fish ponds integrate sewage
treatment with fish farming - the sun
destroys most harmful bacteria and the fish
feed from the ponds; finally, the treated
sewage is used to grow crops.
Through this process, all the sewage from The main objective of the Sewage Surat Municipal Corporation has
Kolkata is treated, the garbage fields Disposal Education Programme is to create
adopted Solid Waste Management
produce 150 tonnes of vegetables per day, a better understanding of the workings of
the fishponds produce approximately the sewerage system amongst
8,000 tonnes of fish per year, and the communities, especially first time users of Improve the system of transportation
paddy fields produce 16,000 tonnes of these services. This is done through a of waste by identification of suitable
winter paddies. number of innovative educational one-time handling of waste.
interventions, which encourage interactive Mitigate and control the reduction in
The project, managed by community and participative learning. Educational quantity of wastes plying out of
groups, utilises appropriate technology resources and toolkits have been designed landfill sites.
with entrepreneurs taking away all sales for use in schools and at informal Identify sources of income from the
proceeds in return for rental of land and education settings, such as clinics. processing of MSW, thereby
water. enhancing agricultural productivity.
Road-show and street theatre
Sewage Disposal Education performances are presented at informal Strategies Adopted
Programme - Durban settings to a broad spectrum of the Decentralisation and Coordination.
community, reaching out to less literate Better Public Grievance Redressal
Durban Metro Water Service's Sewage members of communities. System
Disposal Education Programme arose out Solid Waste Management Strategies.
of the need to curb high levels of sewage The education programme has made a Public Private Concept.
pollution and maintenance costs incurred quantitative impact. In Umlazi (population
through the abuse and misuse of sewerage 2,62,000) for example, blockages have Results Achieved
systems in the Durban metropolitan area. been reduced from approximately 1,300 The level of sanitation is increased
per month to 300 to 400 per month, after a from 40 to 98 per cent.
This education programme has become a period of about one and a half to two years. Increased garbage removal from 400
vehicle of broader social reconstruction TPD to 960.
and development. Directed by Durban Sewage blockages throughout the Metro Spraying and fogging to control
Metro Water Services, it involves Public- area have resulted in savings equivalent to mosquitoes increased by 200 per cent.
Private-Partnerships (PPP), and aims to US$ 2,00,000. The education campaign Increased number of garbage bind
establish a climate of civic responsibility, has reached 1,41,646 learners and 2,12,104 from 700 to 1721.
calling on communities to support their adults. Increased piped water supply coverage
local government and businesses in the from 60 to100 per cent.
construction and development of their Rapid Public Grievance Redressal
living environments. System.
52 April - June 2008
Innovative Partnerships -
Infrastructure conditions in the slums of
Ahmedabad were in a poor state. The
quality and quantity of water supply was
Many of the slums were not connected
with the sewerage, solid waste disposal
was inadequate or limited with no landfill
sites, and flooding and epidemics were a
frequent phenomena. Public parks and
gardens were the scenes of crime and other
anti social behaviours.
The Sabarmati River was heavily polluted
while traffic management was
characterised by unauthorised
construction, congested traffic, no parking Society Organisations; Corporate Sector; Funding for the project, interestingly, was
or pedestrians facilities. CBOs and NGOs; and financial provided by three tiers of government
institutions such as SEWA Cooperative which worked in partnership with the
Bye-laws were violated in every sense of Bank. The innovative urban partnerships private sector.
the word. are based on the concepts of investments,
each partner investing a portion of the The project cleared the surrounding streets
Conditions of municipal hospitals and project. of public transport activity. This activity
level of primary education in municipal was an obstacle to traffic on inner city
schools were degrading day-by-day. Organising Park Central Taxi Rank - roads as well as to commercial
Johannesburg development within the city by providing a
The municipal council had budget deficit, parking area for 2,000 taxis.
costs overrun, unpaid overdrafts and Johannesburg is South Africa's largest and
credits, and delayed payments. most vibrant city. Transportation problems There is more efficient and safer
Consequently, riots and demonstrations arising from the taxi industry are transportation services for 160,000
against the administration were becoming considered the biggest problem faced by commuters per day.
frequent, especially in the slum areas.The South Africa's inner cities. This was no
Innovative Urban Partnerships in exception for Johannesburg's Jack Mincer The success of the project represents much
Ahmedabad cover a wide range of local area where taxis invaded a 15-block area more than just an improved transportation
government functions - slum causing a urban decay of the surrounding hub and the revitalisation of a community.
improvement, public administration, area.
municipal finance, water and sanitation, It represents the successful coming
urban forestry etc. The infiltration of taxis in the area caused together of public and private enterprise in
the roads to become nearly impassable and a concerted manner in a serious attempt to
They involve many groups of partners: made crime nearly inescapable. revitalise the Inner City.
government and public sector units;
international agencies such as US Agency In response to the urban decay in the area, Contact: Greater Johannesburg
for Indernational Development (USAID), the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Tel: 27(11)407-6733
UK Department for International Council (GJMC) put out a proposal for the
Development (DFID), and United Nations development of a formalised taxi rank in
Development Programme (UNDP); Civil the area.
April - June 2008 53
Building Raised Houses for Flood
Protection - Assam
In Assam, the agrarian society has always
settled on the banks of rivers owing to the
availability of fertile lands and water.
However, due to various environmental
and man made reasons, water started
entering the homes of people and great
damage was done to life and belongings
which needed to be solved.
As a practice of coping with the damage
caused by floods, these houses are built on
raised wooden stilts or strong bamboo,
cement concrete pillars (stilts) and CGI
sheet roofing are used. In case such houses
were not there, the community would have Rehabilitation & Upgrading Informal Residents are provided with a soft loan, 90
to migrate in search of greener pastures Settlement - Cairo per cent of which is required to be paid
and shift to relief camps. over 40 years, giving the residents a sense
The Rehabilitation and Upgrading of The of ownership.
The best effect of this practice is that the Manshiet Nasser Informal Settlement,
houses are saved from the ravages of located in the heart of Cairo City, is a The project is based on participatory
flood. The wear and tear of the houses is unique initiative to improve the living socio-economic survey and mechanisms
less and the maintenance intervals are environment of more than 500,000 of transparent dialogue with local
longer. If these houses are made of timber inhabitants. inhabitants in both the planning and
(stilts and platforms), they stand for more management processes.
than 40 years without major repairs and The project, which was initiated by the
remain safe from the high moisture content Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Major achievements of the project include
of the otherwise mud houses. During Communities of Egypt, is focused entirely affordable housing options to the poor;
floods as people do not come in direct on relocating a percentage of inhabitants empowered civic engagement at early stages of
contact with water they are safe from into a close-by planned settlement decision making, etc.
various health hazards. Most importantly, equipped with all services and amenities,
the livestock is saved also. The children and developing and renewal of the site of This resulted in an institutionalised participatory
can continue to study, the pregnant, the existing slum. urban management; maintained and enhanced
elderly, disabled and sick are safe from livelihood systems of inhabitants; preserved
drowning and other related dangers. The process consists of nine phases, and is social capital and ties of original dwellers; and
expected to complete the biggest project of socio-economic sustained development.
These houses are extensively used by the its kind in Egypt by building 70,000
Mishing community in the plains of housing units. The initiative has demonstrated in a powerful
Bramhaputra river basin. The main manner, that empowerment of local inhabitants
concentration of Mishing people are in the The settlements are fully equipped with to effectively participate in decision making at
Dhemaji, Lakhimpur, Majuli and Sadia complete piped networks of water supply an early stage of planned interventions can
areas of Assam. and sanitation, roads network, open space, reduce the scope of conflicts, and enable
vocational training and heath care centres, mobilisation of resources for effective
libraries, schools, phone service network, implementation.
Contact: Rural Volunteers Centre and environment friendly crafts
Tel: 03753-246306/246436 workshops. Contact: Eng. Hussein El-Gebaly,
54 April - June 2008
Grassroot Level Strategy for Low-
Cost Housing - India
Housing inadequacy is largely felt at the
level of low income and more so with
continuous rise in cost of construction at
all levels. This necessitates the use of
appropriate and cost effective technologies
in house construction. The Building Centre
movement in India therefore, emerged as
a grassroot-level intervention with the
objectives of transfer of technology,
training of artisans, production of elements
and construction and guidance. From the
first Nirmithi Kendra in Quilon in Kerala,
to the latest one in Jammu , is the journey
from south-to-north criss-crossing the
length and breadth of the country through per cent over conventional cost. Most of job creation. Each of the 12 project sites
385 building centres. the State Governments / local initiatives has created approximately 50 jobs within
have come forward to link the building the community; the majority of these jobs
The movement was meant to provide centre movement with housing go to local craftsmen and artisans.
institutional intervention for putting into programmes.
practice, at the grassroot level, the new The environment is another concern of the
research and development and appropriate Contact: Secretary / DHUPA, organisation. It has worked closely in
technologies. The movement aimed to Govt. of India Tel: (+91+11) 23017444) partnership with the Departments of
'enable' and 'empower' people by evolving Agriculture and Forestry, WUSC, and
appropriate housing delivery system with Low-Cost Partnership Housing - Peace Corps to strengthen its response to
people's participation, by using Malawi environmental degredation and the needs
environment-friendly solutions and by of the communities in which it works. The
developing the right level of skills among Habitat for Humanity (Malawi) works in organisation has resulted in building of
the local artisans. This has helped in partnership with local communities and the 3,027 low-cost houses and latrines in
creating 'awareness' about the available government to build simple, decent houses Malawi. An estimated 461 communities
alternative options and also an and latrines. A locally-elected committee have participated in the scheme,
'appreciation' of these options not only in works with the local, district, and national encouraging self-help and community
terms of cost effectiveness but also in government as well as with traditional organisation in the country. It has
terms of structural, functional and aesthetic authorities in planning and introduced the HydraForm M5
sufficiency. implementation. Blockmaking Machines which produces a
dense, compacted brick that can be dry-
It is also catering to the geo-climatological The key to the programme's success is that stacked, allowing for quick construction
context from hilly terrain to plains to the community is emphasized over the without the need for mortar. The
coastal areas. Wide variations of output. Partnerships are foundational to the technology is perfectly suited for such self-
temperature, rainfall, wind, natural organisation and are formed at all levels help projects as clinics, schools,
disasters have clearly demonstrated the for the strengthening, funding and government and several donor agencies.
sutasinability. This movement has now furthering of the work. In addition, it is
spread all over India with 385 Building working in urban centres to address the Contact: Habitat for Humanity/
Centres. It has received national, regional growing need for shelter and sanitation in National Office, Malawi
and international attention and the rapidly growing cities. By maintaining Tel: (265) 643-117
appreciation. Over 55,000 artisans are an active revolving fund, more and more
trained on appropriate technologies, in families are being provided with adequate
various community / residential building homes in the growing cities of Malawi.
construction, with the saving of 15 to 40 Another outcome of (Malawi)'s work is
April - June 2008 55
Water & Sanitation
Urban Governance in Public financial powers to ten commissioners the citizens brought about transparency
Health - Surat (six zonal chiefs together with four among council officers and workers
functional heads of water supply, which changed their style of functioning.
The city of Surat was one of the filthiest sewerage; town planning and finance
cities in India till early 1990s. In divisions). Within a period of 18 months, Surat had
September of 1994, the city was turned from the filthiest city to the
traumatised by a plague outbreak. The resulting decentralisation and second cleanest city of India. The
empowerment of work units broke the internal revenue collection increased due
Basic municipal services such as street departmental barriers and lifted the to efficient tax recovery, transparency in
cleaning, collection of solid waste, water morale of the staff. A micro-planning tax assessments and plugging of
supply and sewerage services, drains, exercise based on extensive field input loopholes in tax administration.
street lights, parks and gardens, roads was carried out to lay down equitable
and schools were only covered by about norms for effective and efficient A sense of pride among the sanitation
45 per cent of the city residents. provision of services to the citizens with workers was restored, through provision
best use of the available resources. of proper equipment and consdieration
Morbidity rate due to water-borne and of their grievances.
water-related public health diseases was The citizens were involved in the
high. A new Mayor was posted to the decision making process through a Provision of basic services increased to
city as the Chief Executive Officer grievance redressal system and feedback over 95 per cent of the residents, while
(CEO) in the late 1990s and he mechanism. Inculcating public capital expenditure also increased by
decentralised all his administrative and awareness and civic participation among about 450 per cent.
April - June 2008 57
Water Conservation Conscious - Other measures include an integrated third part provides reclaimed water to any
Fukuoka water distribution monitoring system to large new buildings within the city. Total
ensure efficiency. The city has also savings are approximately 7 million litres
Without abundant water resources and embarked on protecting water sources (1.85 million gallons) of potable water
subject to serious periodic droughts, through tree planting campaign. Currently, each day.
Fukuoka faced an enormous challenge in the per capita water consumption in
securing a stable water supply to serve Fukuoka City is less than what it was in Wastewater reclamation has the greatest
population of over 1.3 million. To respond 1978, despite a 30 per cent increase in potential in urbanised areas as the costs
to this alarming situation, the Fukuoka city population. It consumes approximately 20 associated with building a separate
in partnership with the citizens and private per cent less water than other comparably distribution system are high. Even though
sector launched various initiatives sized cities. it is sold to consumers for less than potable
promoting a "Water Conservation water, Fukuoka recoups a small margin on
Conscious City". The city also built a three-part collection the sale of reclaimed water- approximately
and distribution system for the reuse of US$1/M3. The Fukuoka example indicates
Water-saving apparatus was introduced grey water for non-drinking purposes. One that the reuse of water for residential toilet
and currently about 96 per cent of users part of the system redistributes reclaimed flushing and urban irrigation (parks, golf
have water flow reducing devices installed water to 7.7 sq km (3 square miles) in the courses) can be economically and
in their faucets. Water savings have been central part of the city (which includes the environmentally justified, especially in
realised with an average family saving up City Hall and subway stations). Another water scarce areas.
to 1,000 litres per month. part provides reclaimed water to several
apartment complexes which have their Contact: Hiroaki Goda
Water conservation consciousness own treatment facilities that re-circulate Tel: 81-92-711-4022
amongst residents is promoted through reclaimed water within the complexes. The
"Save Water Campaign" held annually in
June. Guidelines on saving water are
distributed to homes and educational
materials to primary schools. More than 85
per cent of citizens are involved in some
kind of efforts to conserve water.
The Fukuoka City Water Bureau has been
addressing water leakage by replacing old
pipes with new ones. Through such effort
Fukuoka has achieved the lowest water
leakage rate in Japan, which was under 2.7
per cent in 2001.
The city is also actively promoting reuse
of treated waste water. Using the Wide-
Area Circulation System and Individual
Circulation System for large-buildings,
used and treated water is utilised for flush
toilets and watering plants. The amount of
water conserved by this approach is about
7,000 cubic metres a day.
The City supplements its fresh water
supplies by converting seawater into
freshwater, using the Reverse Permeability
system, to produce 50,000 cubic metres of
58 April - June 2008
April - June 2008 59
60 April - June 2008
The Common Man and the City
Managing Waste is a state of mind
The solutions to urban waste management lies in Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW) Rules 2000, say experts at Ramky, the solid
waste management group. Urban managers simply need to
change their mindsets.
What are the critical elements of waste problems. We in India today have
management that cities need to consider developed the art of establishing and
before creating waste management master maintaining landfills. Ramky on its own Koyanbedu, Chandigarh, Hyderabad and
plans? has established more than 20 landfills and Vijayawada have managed to convert
all operational plants are effective as per waste into a resource, through various
Population, growth pattern, present the design as well as operations. means and practices.
practices, availability of infrastructure like
vehicle, disposal sites, their proximity and The main issue with sanitary landfills is the What kind of financial investments will
funds for capex as well as operation and identification and availability of sufficient this entail? How can city managers involve
maintenance. land. ULBs need to plan for land for the other stakeholders in this effort?
current and future needs. This should be
Above all is the spirit of the Urban Local one of the main functions/responsibilities There exists considerable enthusiasm
Body (ULB) in implementing good waste that they have sufficient land for treatment in the entrepreneurs as far as Public Private
management practices and give a good and disposal of waste. Partnership (PPP) in this sector is
service quality in this sector to its citizens. concerned. Not much of effort is needed on
It's high time that all ULBs realise the the part of the managers - even general
The generation of solid waste is far importance of this aspect and then they public can start participating in a green
beyond the handling capacities of urban would not face problems associated with development programme once operation is
governments and agencies. How can the landfills. good and helpful to improve environment.
problems of sanitary landfills be
addressed? Most city managers complain about the Waste management practices differ for
quality of waste in the city? Why hasn't developed and developing nations, for
This statement is debatable. The segregation and management become a urban and rural areas, and for residential
generation levels are within the handling thrust area in our country? and industrial producers. Can you
capacities of the local bodies. Even a 10 elaborate on the key differences in these
per cent deficiency will make the cities It is mainly the lack of determination practices?
stink within 10 days, and therefore on the part of the administration and lack
efficiency must be improved. of awareness among the public. Door to The entire system revolves around the
door collection either by the local body or subsidies available from the State. The
Sanitary landfills do not have any NGOs has proved to be successful. level of subsidies abroad is so high that the
private operators could invest high
Just trying to Given the way things are moving ahead, amounts to transport, process, and recycle
we feel that segregated collection should the wastes.
bring in some Public not be a hurdle in near future.
In India, the entire brunt is to be borne by
Private Partnership How can city managers convert this the PPP entrepreneur. Sometimes, the local
operator will not solve waste into a resource? Are there any bodies insist that the land required for the
examples that you can cite? processing and disposal should also be
the problem of Waste acquired by the PPP operator.
Yes. Cities, for instance, Bangalore,
Management Coimbatore, Nasik, Surat, Jaipur, The Urban Management has to start
62 April - June 2008
thinking that this activity is not a mere done in these areas. The TSDF is required to have a team to
economic one but a social one too. reach the generators to explain and educate
All the five form integral parts of the waste them of the need for participating actively
Broadly, there are three categories of waste management; be it urban or rural, and one in environmental protection programs by
i.e., 1) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), 2) needs to focus on all these areas for improving on compliance with regulations.
Bio-Medical and 3) Industrial, which effective waste management
includes 'e-waste' also. Most organisations are now trying to
Does each city need to evolve its own cope with e-waste. Many are not even
We have to tackle-in urban issues first solutions or is there any basic format that aware of the magnitude of the problem.
before stepping into rural areas. needs to be evolved, which each city can Any suggestions on how to deal with this
customise according to its requirements? issue?
What is the solution to city waste
management problem - is it about The solution is one and same for all the E-waste disposal has come into
involving the community and the private cities in the country. This system already attention due to the sudden burst of usage
sector or about involving innovative stands well-defined in MSW Rules 2000 of electrical and electronic gadgets. There
technologies and disposal methods; or and needs only effective implementation. is a need to have a clear legislation from
involving behaviour changes and the Central Ministry/Pollution Control
spreading awareness? Medical and hazardous waste has also Board and invite entrepreneurs to set up e-
become a major cause of concern in recent waste Management Facilities across India.
What is basically needed is change of times? Are there any best practices you
mindset of urban managers. They should would like to advocate in this field? Ramky is endeavouring to set up facilities
start looking at this issue in a broader in various states as well as a Central
sense. The government needs to set up Facility for recovery/safe disposal of the
hazardous and bio-medical waste residual and toxic heavy metals, in
Just trying to bring in some PPP operator management facilities in each state. On the collaboration with a foreign e-waste
will not solve the problem. They have to part of owner/operator of the Treatment management company.
strive to create congenial atmosphere for Stabilisation Disposal Facilities (TSDF), it
PPP operators to come forward, establish is required to comply with the regulatory In the meantime, involvement of
and let them sustain. conditions in management and proactively government with private parties for
coordinate with the regulatory body to permitting collection, prevention of
Once urban managers are able to improve on the efficiency of collection of unauthorised collection and disposal, are
implement MSW Rules, the much needed hazardous waste/bio-medical waste from required to expedite the process of
change in behavioral attitudes will be the generators. managing e-waste.
achieved and awareness will be generated.
The available technologies are good
enough for our conditions.
Out of the 4 key aspects of waste
management - disposal, processing,
recycling and minimisation - where are we
focused currently and where should we be?
Another important aspect of waste
management is collection and
transportation which was not given above.
We are presently focused on transportation
Collection, arrangement, recycling,
processing and safe disposal are still in a
very nascent stage in India and a lot is to be
April - June 2008 63
The Promise of
Zero Energy Communities
Mark Ginsberg, U.S. Department of Energy
s the world seeks answers to If we can think of a community as a system
rising energy consumption, and apply the concept of systems
pollution, climate change and engineering or whole community design,
economic development, the U.S. we can see the time when communities or
Department of Energy has been even cities can become more self sufficient
developing the concept of net Zero Energy and become net Zero Energy
Buildings (ZEB). Communities.
10 times longer! Yes, they may cost more
For over a decade, the idea has been to All of this is predicated on the design now, but they pay for themselves quickly.
apply all our energy efficiency, renewable understanding that my friend, the visionary And the cost will continue to go down as
energy technologies and practices, in the William McDonough, advocates that they are produced in mass quantities and
design of buildings that generate their own "everything is a resource, nothing is as new technologies make the
renewable energy and are so energy waste." Making use of municipal solid manufacturing even more efficient.
efficient that, over the course of a year, waste, for example, has the benefit of not
they produce as much energy as they need trucking it to a distant landfill and risking Even transportation fuels can be produced
to operate comfortably. the water table. By separating the locally. The next generation of bio-fuels
recyclables, capturing the methane and can be produced from grass cuttings or
These design principles are being applied utilizing the remaining waste for energy municipal waste. Our concept is to develop
in thousands of homes and some larger production, one can make a nuisance waste local bio-refineries that would utilise non-
buildings throughout the United States as into a useful resource. food cellulosic material and process it into
we move towards ZEBs. We are finding ethanol or bio-diesel. And communities
right now that we can build homes that are Similarly, making use of every rooftop and can reduce the demand for transportation
30-50 per cent more energy efficient than open field to harness the sun to produce fuels by improving public transit and
typical homes and do it cost-effectively. electricity or hot water can be part of the designing walkable neighbourhoods that
integrated community solution. There are have services and jobs, so we don't have to
Our research goal is 70 per cent. When similar issues in water conservation. drive to work or stores.
you add current generation photovoltaic,
geothermal heat pumps or even small wind At the same time, the community or city A city, a community fund, utility, or energy
turbines, we are confident we can achieve can do everything possible to reduce the service company could make these
the goal of producing as much energy as need for electricity and heating. As a investments and benefit the entire
the building needs. As our research community, they can invest in energy community. Cities already invest in
continues in energy efficiency and efficiency. They will create jobs needed to streetlights. Why not make them the
renewable energy technologies, the make, install and maintain the next highest efficiency and maybe operate them
deliverable energy will increase and cost generation insulation, efficient windows, with small photovoltaic panels and battery
will decrease. The ZEB concept is based lights and heating-cooling systems, etc. At storage? Cities already invest in municipal
on a design principle of "systems the same time, they will significantly solid waste. Why not make those facilities
integration" or "whole building design." reduce energy waste. into resources instead of garbage dumps?
The next logical step in the process is Zero Consider that current compact fluorescent Imagine a city of the future that
Energy Communities. Even though it is light bulbs (CFLs) use just a fraction of the incorporates these design concepts into its
more ambitious and complicated, it is electricity needed for an old, hot planning. Harness all the resources we
based on the same design concept. incandescent bulb and they last as much as currently consider waste. Utilise our
64 April - June 2008
natural resources more effectively: wind, productivity, reduce energy waste, help the Find a willing locale and bring the public
sunshine, geothermal heat. Construct environment and revitalise the entire area. and private sectors together to consider
buildings that generate their own energy. their opportunity to remake their
Design a neighborhood in a way that the I am confident those communities will be community or to require new development
entire community benefits from the more sustainable and successful. They to adhere to these principles.
synergy of reduced waste and increased will be at the forefront of technology and
efficiency. will be admired. They will offer their All it takes is leadership, a willingness to
citizens more efficient services which will get started, some creativity and a
Provide incentives to builders who be less dependent on outside sources of commitment to work toward the goals of a
incorporate these principles: accelerated energy and less vulnerable to power Zero Energy Community. I am confident
approval processes, greater density zoning, outages. the human genius will continue to find
possibly tax incentives. Or an existing solutions through technologies and best
neighborhood could be remodeled. If How do we get started? I joke that it took practices. It is challenging. But it is
everyone signed up to get better lights, us decades to get into this mess, and it will achievable!
windows, or insulation, a talented team of take time to get out! But that's why I start
remodelers could go through the entire with the concept of a Zero Energy
neighbourhood. That would increase Community, maybe a neighbourhood or a
building values, improve employee large new multi-use development.
The ecoBUDGET concept
The ecoBUDGET concept delivers local environmental water and soil/land. Each local body is free to identify
budgeting using a politically ratified environmental budget locally relevant resources, and thus able to create targets
together with an associated management process, the that are relevant for local politicians and the local
environmental budget cycle. Together they form the community.
ecoBUDGET environmental management system. The
ecoBUDGET method is rooted in three fundamental For e.g: In 2006 the Municipal Corporation of Guntur, India
principles: created a Master Budget for 'environmental expenditures'
in order to manage their natural resources in the same
1. It is based on analogies with the principles and budgetary way that financial resources are managed.
procedures of financial budgeting, which form the Municipal staff in Guntur identified the green surface area
guidelines for the individual methodological stages of of the municipality as an environmental indicator.
the environmental budget cycle.
Considering the international scenario, the Municipality of
2. It comprises a full management cycle of "plan-do-check- Kalithea which is situated at the northeast of the island of
act", known as Deming Cycle, first introduced in 1956. Rhodes in Greece with a population of 10,000 is the
smallest and also youngest ecoBUDGET Municipality.
3. The ecoBUDGET method accepts sustainable
development as a guiding target regime. Thus, strong The focus of Kalithea's ecoBUDGET is to improve the
political commitment and community involvement are general environmental situation and thus introduce the
both prerequisites for ecoBUDGET. community to sustainable development.
The resources used in ecoBUDGET are not restricted to Implementation of ecoBUDGET concept requires technical
fundamental environmental resources such as land, water work as well as political decision making and its undoubted
and air. advantage is that it ensures unwavering attention to
Environmental resources would include elements or
components of ecosystem that support human life, and Reference: THE ecoBUDGET GUIDE by Holger
include raw materials, climate stability, peace and quiet, air, Robrecht, ICLEI Europe, 2004
April - June 2008 65
ccording to the United Nations As increasing energy demands are consumer rebates, eco clubs, consumer
estimate, about 90 per cent of outpacing supply, it is critical for cities to education and others.
future growth will take place in provide enough energy on a reliable basis,
cities. By mid-2008, more than half of the and at prices that will not diminish A paper on the Promise of Zero Energy
world's population will be urban. economic growth. Along with energy Communities by Mark Ginsberg in this
challenges, cities are facing numerous publication highlights such initiatives and
By 2030, when the global population will problems of economic development and respective benefits.
have risen from currently 6.5 to 8.2 billion environmental protection.
people, about 60 per cent of all humans Growing concerns about energy security
will live in cities. Rapidly growing Indian Inclined to give stopgap measures priority, and environmental sustainability prompted
cities will be home to nearly 40 per cent of they tend to regard long-term solutions, the US and India to launch various
Indians by 2021. like demand-side management, distributed Collaborative Dialogues in recent years,
generation and clean energy sources, as mainly on Energy, Environment and
Considering both the challenge and secondary. However, such solutions would
potential in global urbanisation, it is of bring multiple benefits to the community.
vital importance to focus natural-scientific Long term
and social-scientific research on pressing In many cities of the world, innovative
issues of cities. Increasing urbanisation initiatives and accomplishments show that solutions such as
strains infrastructures and resources, at energy and environmentally smart
times which leads to a deteriorating strategies have begun to take root in every demand-side
environment and compromised quality of aspect of the City's operations and in the
life. way they partner with the citizens and management and clean
Cities, national economic growth, energy energy sources would
demand and environmental quality are Initiatives vary by size and scale including,
significantly interdependent. Rapidly programs like; green buildings, energy bring multiple benefits
urbanising cities consume more than 75 efficiency, supply and reliability, green and
per cent of global energy and produces renewable power, alternative fuel vehicles, to the community
nearly similar share of greenhouse gas city greening, green government
emissions. purchasing, alternative recycling,
66 April - June 2008
Climate Change, which reflect the Participating cities have been selected on
transformed strategic relationship between the basis of their specific links based on the Existing partnerships
the world's two largest democracies. Sister Cities partnership, or other such
collaborations promoting economic between cities
Various US agencies, including the US development, education partnerships,
Department of Energy (DOE), the US media and cultural exchange. will be expanded
Agency for International Development, the
US Environmental Protection Agency and Existing partnerships between cities will to share best
others, have been working with Indian be expanded to share best practices on the
counterparts in strengthening the US-India issues of energy and environment. The US- practices on the issues
partnership. India Cities cooperation will provide a
win-win situation for all partners, of energy
The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean including U.S. cities, as the partnership is
Development and Climate and other US- expected to be interactive, long-term and and environment.
India Dialogues on Energy, Climate sustainable.
change and Environment are examples of
such shared efforts. Highlighting the path forward, the cities
(Mayors) will pledge to work together and The working group will arrange
The Brookhaven National Laboratory expand the ongoing sister cities or similar workshops, technical exchanges, business
(BNL) of the US DOE is in the process of partnership to include issues of clean partnerships, establish collaborative
initiating a collaborative US-India Cities development, energy and environment. In projects, etc. in furtherance of the
partnership focusing on the issues of the same forum, the cities will be able to partnership.
mutual interests based on clean briefly highlight their best practices.
development, energy and environment. In a recent trend, US cities / states /
Secondly, work bilaterally with partnering counties are developing official business
The purpose is to share the lessons learnt city to establish mechanisms (e.g. MOU) offices in collaborating cities / states /
from every city's experience to augment for sharing best practices, which will counties in other countries. If there is
other participating cities capabilities to mainly involve issues of mutual interest. enough interest, such activities may be
identify and respond to a range of barriers anticipated.
that limit implementation and management Understanding the issues of mutual interest
of sustainable urban development practices may involve bilateral discussions with City Academic/research institutions may be
and plans. officials either over digital media or with involved, in both cities, to make such
official visits on a regular basis. partnerships enriching and sustainable.
In the absence of a comprehensive national Centres of excellence for research,
or state policy, cities can be at the forefront Mainly, issues of collaboration will evolve development and information
of implementing ground breaking policies, from bilateral discussions. Establishment dissemination can be established in such
as evident from various national and of short and long-term action items in institutions, which will act as incubators
international cities energy and climate consultation with partnering city under this for knowledge diffusion and proliferation
change initiatives. MOU will help steer the process for a of such activities in other cities.
For an example, 780 US mayors have Mayors will participate in a face-to-face
already signed the US Mayor's Climate Signing of MOU may involve a conference meeting with other US and Indian city
Agreement. in either city and may be attended by both Mayors arranged later next year to discuss
the Mayors with a delegation involving the progress. This forum may be a vehicle
BNL has involved Indian cities like, New city agencies and businesses, which may to collaborate with other participating
Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, be considered a second step to showcase cities on issues of mutual interest.
Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar and Vadodara and share best practices.
for collaboration with U.S. cities like, – Vatsal Bhatt,
Chicago, Atlanta, New York, Denver, A working group involving respective city Brookhaven National Laboratory
Columbus, Los Angeles, Edison, San agencies/businesses may be established in
Francisco and Seattle. each of the cities to followup on MOU.
April - June 2008 67
Codes & Policies
rise and special buildings 21. Complete revision of provision on
National Building Code of India 2005 5. Provision for periodic renewal building and plumbing services in line
certificate of occupied buildings from with applicable international practices
The National Building Code of India structural, fire and electrical safety 22. Provisions on rain water harvesting
(NBC), a comprehensive building Code, is point of view 23. Inclusion of all new chapter to cover
a national instrument providing guidelines 6. Provision for empowering engineers landscaping needs
for regulating the building construction and architects for sanctioning plans of
activities across the country. residential buildings up to 500 m2 Applicable to: It serves as a Model Code
7. Inclusion of detailed town planning for adoption by all agencies involved in
The Code mainly contains administrative norms for various amenities such as building construction works by the Public
regulations, development control rules and educational facilities, medical Works Departments, other government
general building requirements; fire safety facilities, distribution services, police, construction departments, local bodies or
requirements; stipulations regarding civil defence and home guards and fire private construction agencies.
materials, structural design and services
construction (including safety); and 8. Revision of parking requirements for Enforcing authority: Bureau of Indian
building and plumbing services. metro and mega cities Standards (BIS)
9. Updation of special requirements for
Created by: Bureau of Indian Standards low income housing for urban areas Enforceable by - Recommendatory
(BIS) and expert panels including 10. Inclusion of special requirements for
architects, designers, urban planners, low income housing rural habitat Green Building Code
engineers, structural engineers, fire planning
professionals, and plumbing, water and 11. Revision of the provisions for A code is a set of guidelines that offer a
sanitation experts buildings and facilities for physically broad, subjective set of recommendations/
challenged means that may be followed in order to
Year of adoption: The Code was first 12. Fire safety norms completely achieve a certain end. The end in this case
published in 1970 at the instance of revamped through detailed provisions is a 'green building', or a structure that has
Planning Commission and then revised in on Fire Prevention, Life Safety and a minimal negative impact on the
1983. Thereafter, three major amendments Fire Protection environment, and consumes minimal
were issued, two in 1987 and the third in 13. Inclusion of new categories of starred resources (water, energy, construction
1997. hotels, heritage structures and materials, etc.) during its construction,
archeological monuments for fire operation and demolition stages. In other
Salient features: safety provisions words, over its entire 'life cycle'.
1. Inclusion of a complete philosophy 14. Substitution of halogen-based
and direction for successfully fire/extinguishers fire fighting system There are NO green building codes in
accomplishing the building projects 15. Promotion to new/innovative building India. What there are, are rating systems
through Integrated Multi-disciplinary materials/technologies based on existing national and
Approach right through the conceptual 16. Inclusion of latest provisions for international "building codes" (NOT
stage to planning, designing, earthquake resistant design and 'green' building codes but regular codes
construction, operation and construction such as the Energy Conservation Building
maintenance stages of the project to its 17. Inclusion of details on multi-disaster- Code, the National Building Code, etc.).
conclusion. prone districts Such as the USGBC developed (now
2. A series of reforms in building permit 18. Inclusion of new chapter on design and IGBC adapted) LEED (Leadership in
process construction using bamboo Energy and Environmental Design) rating
3. Provisions to ensure and certification 19. Chapter on prefabricated and system, and the TERI developed (now
of safety of buildings against natural composite construction for speedier endorsed by the Ministry of New and
disaster by engineer and structural construction Renewable Energy, Government of India)
engineer 20. Updation of provision of safety in GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated
4. Provision for two stage permit for high construction Habitat Assessment) rating system.
68 April - June 2008
These systems help compare the function from TERI itself, as was the case safe, affordable, quick, comfortable,
"greenness" of your buildings with earlier. reliable and sustainable access for the
nationally/ internationally acceptable growing number of city residents to
standards (and in GRIHA's case - Enforceable by - Recommendatory jobs, education, recreation and such
benchmarks) to determine whether you other needs within our cities. This is
deserve a 5 star rating for your efforts to Background sought to be achieved by:
preserve the environment, or lesser such b) Incorporating urban transportation as
ratings. Rapid economic growth happens on the an important parameter at the urban
back of concentrated activity in the urban planning stage rather than being a
The Energy Conservation Building Code areas which must provide for an easy and consequential requirement
(ECBC), as prepared by the BEE under the sustainable flow of goods and people. c) Encouraging integrated land use and
Ministry of Power, is a code that helps Today, billions of man hours are lost with transport planning in all cities so that
make a (essentially air-conditioned) people "stuck in traffic". travel distances are minimised and
building energy efficient. However, that access to livelihoods, education, and
doesn't help categorise a building as green, The primary reason for this has been the other social needs, especially for the
which needs to address other issues such explosive growth in the number of motor marginal segments of the urban
as water and waste management, vehicles, coupled with limitations on the population is improved
renewable energy applications, low amount of road space that can be provided. d) Improving access of business to
embodied energy materials use, etc. With population growth, cities have tended markets and the various factors of
to sprawl and increased travel distances production
1. Created by: TERI (in case of have made non-motorised modes e) Bringing about a more equitable
GRIHA), and the IGBC (Indian Green impossible to use and thus, increasing the allocation of road space with people,
Building Council) in case of LEED cost of traveling, especially for poor. rather than vehicles, as its main focus
2. Year of Adoption: The GRIHA system f) Encourage greater use of public
was adopted by the MNRE (Ministry Travel in the city has become more risky transport and non motorised modes by
of New and Renewable Energy) on the with accident rates having gone up from offering Central financial assistance for
1st of November, 2007 1.6 lakh in 1981 to over 3.9 lakh in 2001. this purpose
3. Enforcing Authority: A code is not Increased use of personal vehicles has led g) Enabling the establishment of quality
enforced. It is voluntary, unless it is to increased air pollution. focused multi-modal public transport
made part of a local byelaws. Like the systems that are well integrated,
National Building Code of India 2005, Vision providing seamless travel across
which is a voluntary code, but since it modes.
is a part of most states' local bye-laws A) To recognise that people occupy h) Establishing effective regulatory and
it is mandatory. center-stage in our cities and all plans enforcement mechanisms that allow a
would be for their common benefit and level playing field for all operators of
The ECBC shall also be eventually well being. transport services and enhanced safety
integrated with state bylaws and become B) To make our cities the most livable in for the transport system users.
mandatory. GRIHA has based itself on the the world and enable them to become i) Establishing institutional mechanisms
ECBC and other such national codes that the "engines of economic growth" that for enhanced coordination in the
already exist, so as not to burden the power India's development in the 21st planning and management of transport
architects/engineers/contractors with 'yet century systems.
another' norm to go by. This also goes to C) To allow our cities to evolve into an j) Introducing Intelligent Transport
highlight that a 'green building' can be built urban form that is best suited for the Systems for traffic management.
in India, simply by adopting local codes unique geography of their locations k) Addressing concerns of road safety and
and standards, and our traditional and is best placed to support the main trauma response.
knowledge of architecture. social and economic activities that take l) Reducing pollution levels through
place in the city. changes in traveling practices, better
In case of GRIHA, the implementing enforcement, stricter norms,
authority is MNRE, that shall ensure it be Objectives technological improvements, etc.
linked to some financial incentives that are m) Building capacity (institutional and
yet to be finalised. The secretariat shall a) The objective of this policy is to ensure manpower) to plan for sustainable
April - June 2008 69
urban transport and establishing (f) A need exists to build capacity for secure access to these resources.
knowledge management system that urban transport planning as also (c) Inter-generational Equity: To ensure
would service the needs of all urban develops it as a professional practice. judicious use of environmental
transport professionals, such as (g) A need exists to take up coordinated resources to meet the needs and
planners, researchers, teachers, capacity building, research and aspirations of the present and future
students, etc. information dissemination to raise the generations.
n) Promoting the use of cleaner overall level of awareness and skills. (d) Integration of Environmental
technologies. Concerns in Economic and Social
o) Raising finances, through innovative Introduction Development: To integrate
mechanisms that tap land as a environmental concerns into policies,
resource, for investments in urban National Environment Policy - 2006 plans, programmes, and projects for
transport infrastructure. economic and social development.
p) Associating the private sector in The National Environment Policy seeks to (e) Efficiency in Environmental Resource
activities where their strengths can be extend the coverage, and fill in gaps that Use: To ensure efficient use of
beneficially tapped. still exist, in light of present knowledge environmental resources in the sense
q) Taking up pilot projects that and accumulated experience. It does not of reduction in their use per unit of
demonstrate the potential of possible displace, but builds on the earlier policies. economic output, to minimise adverse
best practices in sustainable urban The National Environment Policy is environmental impacts.
transport. intended to mainstream environmental (f) Environmental Governance: To
concerns in all development activities. apply the principles of good
Need For National Policy governance (transparency, rationality,
The dominant theme of this policy is that accountability, reduction in time and
(a) Although the responsibility for while conservation of environmental costs, participation, and regulatory
management of urban areas (and thus resources is necessary to secure independence) to the management and
urban transport) rests with the State livelihoods and well-being of all, the most regulation of use of environmental
governments, a Central policy is secure basis for conservation is to ensure resources.
considered necessary as: that people dependent on particular (g) Enhancement of Resources for
(b) Several key agencies that would play resources obtain better livelihoods from Environmental Conservation: To
an important role in urban transport the fact of conservation than from ensure higher resource flows,
planning work under the Central degradation of the resource. comprising finance, technology,
government, with no accountability to management skills, traditional
the State government Objectives knowledge, and social capital, for
(c) Several Acts and Rules, which have environmental conservation through
important implications in dealing with (a) Conservation of Critical mutually beneficial multistakeholder
urban transport issues, are Environmental Resources: To partnerships between local
administered by the Central protect and conserve critical ecological communities, public agencies, the
Government systems and resources, and invaluable academic and research community,
(d) A need exists to guide State level natural and man-made heritage, which investors, and multilateral and bilateral
action plans within an overall are essential for life support, development partners.
framework. livelihoods, economic growth, and a
(e) The launching of the JNNURM has broad conception of human well- Principles
provided a timely platform for being.
providing significant financial support (b) Intra-generational Equity: (a) If the costs (or benefits) of the
from the Central Government for Livelihood Security for the Poor: To externalities are not re-visited on the
investments in urban transport ensure equitable access to party responsible for the original act,
infrastructure. environmental resources and quality the resulting level of the entire
As such, this offers an opportunity for for all sections of society, and in sequence of production or
a meaningful national policy that particular, to ensure that poor consumption, and externality, is
would guide Central financial communities, which are most inefficient.
assistance towards improving urban dependent on environmental resources (b) Efficiency of resource use may also be
mobility. for their livelihoods, are assured accomplished by the use of policy
70 April - June 2008
instruments that create incentives to
minimise wasteful use and Vision
consumption of natural resources.
(c) The principle of legal liability may be Integrated Energy Policy - 2006
viewed as an embodiment in legal
doctrine of the "polluter pays" The broad vision behind the energy policy is to reliably meet the demand for
approach, itself deriving from the energy services of all sectors including the lifeline energy needs of vulnerable
principle of economic efficiency. households in all parts of the country with safe, clean and convenient energy
(d) Environmental standards must reflect at the least-cost. This must be done in a technically efficient, economically
the economic and social development viable and environmentally sustainable manner using different fuels and forms
situation in which they apply. of energy, both conventional and non-conventional, as well as new and
(e) It is preferable to prevent emerging energy sources to ensure supply at all times with a prescribed
environmental damage from occurring confidence level considering that shocks and disruption can be reasonably
in the first place, rather than attempting expected.
to restore degraded environmental
resources after the fact. Need for an integrated policy
The need to have an integrated policy arises because different fuels can
Strategies and Actions substitute for each other in both production and consumption. Alternative
technologies are available and there is substantial scope for exploiting possible
(a) Action plans would need to be synergies to increase energy system efficiency and to meet requirement for
prepared on identified themes by the energy services.
concerned agencies at all levels of
Government - Central, State/UT, and The Approach
Local. The traditional approach to the energy policy is no longer appropriate. We must
(b) A judicious mix of civil and criminal provide policies that create an enabling environment and provide incentives to
processes and sanctions will be decision makers, consumers, private firms, autonomous public corporations,
employed in the legal regime for and government departments, to behave in ways that result in socially and
enforcement, through a review of the economically desirable outcomes. It is not necessary to compare precisely the
existing legislation. economics of alternatives as the policy does not mandate which alternative
(c) The causes of degradation of should be used and when.
environmental resources lie ultimately
in a broad range of policy, and The institutional structure in the public sector that we have so assiduously built
institutional including regulatory up during the last 55 years or so to promote self sufficiency and self-reliance
shortcomings, leading to the direct in energy, has led to a monopolistic market structure and led to the systemic
causes. infirmities that are inherent in cases of majority public ownership.
(d) It is essential that women play a greater
role in the management of natural Concluding Comment
resources. (a) Reducing energy requirements through energy efficiency and
(e) Access to environmental information conservation.
is the principal means by which (b) Augmenting energy resources and supply.
environmentally conscious (c) Rationalisation of fuel prices to mimic free market prices that promote
stakeholders may evaluate compliance efficient fuel choice and substitution.
by the concerned parties with (d) Promoting coal imports.
environmental standards. (e) Accelerating power sector reforms.
(f) Cutting cost of power.
(g) Encouraging renewables and local solutions.
Urban Links (h) Enhancing energy security.
(i) Promoting on energy R&D
j) Promoting household energy security, gender equity and empowerment
see page 90 through entitlements for the poor.
April - June 2008 71
72 April - June 2008
April - June 2008 73
Local Bodies can also go for
Local bodies can be paid for using sustainable technologies through
Carbon Credits, says N Kalidas
ntegrating civilization with sustainable Board. We worked on the project for five results in saving diesel and compute for
development is one of the biggest years before grounding the same in 2006. carbon credits. Encourage only battery cars
challenges of urban management Many approaches were articulated by us in the heart of the cities.
today. It involves changes in lifestyles, within the frame of 'Bundling', which have
consumption patterns, utility concepts, become reference tools for banks and other Use of wastes:
water and waste management. But how agencies throughout the world. Aim to tap methane from sewerage water
many Corporations and Municipalities are and municipal waste. This is one project of
geared up to this mechanism of sustainable The bricks are produced throughout the carbon credits.
development? Do we have syllabus and country by various walks of entrepreneurs
technological rulebooks to guide our urban such as, builders, unemployed youth, self- Use methane as a substitute to fossil fuel
planners? help groups in rural areas, building centers, to generate electricity, which is another
masons-tuned as entrepreneurs, clay-brick project of carbon credits.
India is slowly realising the potential of producers turned into FaL-G producers
carbon trading through Clean and corporates. Electricity:
Development Mechanism (CDM). Most of Operate colony-based solar power systems
the potential in this initiative is believed to The challenges to urban local bodies lie in and make the colony-dwellers responsible
be in the Small Scale Industries (SSI). A managing various urban amenities with the for maintenance and operation. All street
study indicates that over 45 per cent of agenda of sustainable development. The lights should have used solar-based power.
India's potential in carbon credits lie in the list is exhaustive and the suggestions Advertisement is a luxury having no
small scale segment. However, they are appear to be impractical. barriers on budgets. Why to provide
often intimidated by the high transaction regular power? Insist hoardings to use
costs and low quantity generation (of When water could be sold at par to the cost solar power if they are keen to light their
credits). of milk today (which was posed as a display.
challenge next to impossibility prior to
Institute for Solid Waste Research & 90s) every thing is possible. The only need The earnings through carbon credits to
Ecological Balance (INSWAREB) has is to beat the nerve of the consumer with urban local bodies are meager. They can
undertaken the role of a Project Entity that right philosophy. earn the credits only through bundling. The
bundles or aggregates several small-scale State government should set up a task
CDM projects, deals with all On water front: force/CDM Board at state level to pool the
documentation, filing and statutory issues. Encourage water harvesting at every house activities of various cities and towns within
The conditions of the CDM executive to improve ground water. Restore all old the state, bundle them and promote as
board are met, but the individual SSIs do water tanks amidst of cities to receive rain CDM project.The rules are common who
not need to deal with the verification water and thereby charging ground water. ever the promoter be.
mechanisms and the transaction costs are This would minimise water tanks, ease
distributed among many, making it traffic congestion and earn carbon credits The concept of carbon credits can be
affordable to the SSIs. for saving diesel. popularised by counselling and class room
lectures at grass root levels. The target
The FaL-G bricks mechanism is different On transport: groups should be identified and pooled for
because it involved bundling. It is Encourage mass transport system. imparting motivation.
articulated based on the provisions of Decongest each junction with flyovers and
bundling offered by CDM-Executive avoid stagnation of traffic. Calculate the
April - June 2008 75
As Supreme Court makes
environment education mandatory
nvironment education is moving gaps that they inevitably identify in their assess themselves.
out of the realm of simply planting current practices so that they can become
trees or shutting taps. Schools ecologically sustainable micro habitats. So how do they assess themselves?
across the country are in the process of
quantifying their habits of water usage, It has two primary components: Typically, these are parameters that are
waste generation and land use as part of an difficult even for established organisations
innovative scheme evolved by the Centre a)A manual, which is a do-it-yourself to monitor. But schools have come up with
for Science and Environment. guidebook, which sets down the basic innovative means of measuring these
rules of the audit process. The five intangibles.
Explains Sumita Dasgupta, coordinator of resources audited are: water, air,
CSE's Green Schools Programme, "When energy, waste and land. The manual In Daramdin School, Sikkim, for instance,
the Supreme Court mandated also includes comprehensive the school's source of water to the taps was
environmental education as part of the background on each of these resources, a natural stream and the amount of water
school curriculum, we saw an opportunity explaining their ecological, social and used could not be documented. So the
here for actually getting students and economic significance; and school used a measuring cup for two days
schools interested in what the practical b)A 2-day workshop for teachers to brief to serve out the water to children which
aspects of environmental education are, them on how to use the manual. allowed them to arrive at tangible usage
and how can they become a part of the levels.
process." However, nothing comes free to schools.
They have to pay for the training and the Being Green
The outcome was CSE's Gobar Times kit but savings come in the form of energy The schools that won and showed the way:
Green Schools Program. This is designed saved over a period of time. Government Senior Secondary School,
as a tool to help school communities to Boormajra (Ropar), Punjab - this school is
audit the use of natural resources within Recognition, however, can come a winner second time round.
their own premises. immediately when they participate in a
competition where the various competing In 2006, the team beat all other contenders
It also provides them the methodology to schools are judged on the basis of their in the fray, by presenting remarkably
assess themselves as environmental performance on the prescribed parameters. precise audit documents. The data also
managers. reflected the effort that the school
What is interesting is that the school community with limited resources had
And finally, it tells them how to plug the administration, students and teachers made in managing its water.
76 April - June 2008
Water Air Land Waste
What is the percentage of
How much water does the Is the school community’s What are the sources of
green area in the school
school use? use of Oxygen balanced? energy used in the school?
What is the level of air
Are the sanitation facilities How much land area is How much energy does it
pollution in the area where
adequate? covered by trees? consume?
the school is located?
How much Respirable
Does the school follow basic Does the school follow
Suspended Particulate What is the per capita
water conservation energy conservation
Matter do the members of constructed and field area?
the community inhale?
How many species of plants
How much water does the How eco-friendly are the How much energy does the
and animals does the school
school harvest? vehicles in the school? school save?
How does each member Which pesticides does the
How much does it recycle?
travel to school? school use?
The team believes that one can make do welfare associations at block levels or other
It was reusing almost 50 per cent of the with little if the resource is managed institutions such as hospitals and hotels.
spillage from taps to irrigate the school prudently. The school has also worked
grounds. In 2007, the students and teachers hard on preparing waste generation data, Says Dasgupta,"The Green School programme
of Boormajra had produced minutely and now knows exactly how much will be an opportunity for legitimate region wise
detailed information, not only on water, solidwaste is generated on its premises. data which can than be useful in evolving a
but on land, air and energy, as well. Today, manual of best practice." For the participating
the school is practicing sustainable use of For CSE, this data generated by schools student and teacher communities as well, this
natural resources and constantly looking themselves becomes a very valuable authentic effort sensitises them not just in the schools but
out for new and more innovative ways of database which can then be used to monitor and in their home environment as well and makes
managing them. The school has now set up document other communities such as resident's them harbingers of change.
a rainwater harvesting system with the
help of funds from the state government.
Most importantly, it has been able to
motivate a large group of schools in
different parts of Punjab to participate in
Apeejay School, Pitampura (New Delhi) -
This Delhi-based school has got the overall
third position as well as top spot in the Best
Students' Team Category.
The school's team has earned the honours
for its meticulously prepared biodiversity
register, which is a feat in itself
considering the school's location in the
extremely crowded west Delhi.
April - June 2008 77
JNNURM guides upcoming projects for safety aspects
Dr Anand S Arya, National Seismic Advisor and Ankush Agarwal, Technical Officer (Hazard
he Jawaharlal Nehru Urban river erosion; close to 5,700 km long coast disaster prone regions. The losses of life
Renewal Mission (JNNURM), that line, is prone to cyclones and tsunamis. and property could be minimised in the
covers 63 cities consisting of seven Further, hilly areas are also at risk from future projects to be sanctioned/
major cities, 28 million plus cities and 28 landslides and avalanches. implemented in the cities (which lie in the
other identified cities with less than 1 disaster prone regions of the country), if
million population, provides a great It is, therefore, necessary that all the guidelines/recommendations enclosed
opportunity for improving not only quality investment going for creation of physical for each area, are incorporated in all the
but also safety of our cities. We seriously infrastructure as a part of this national stages of project formulation, sanction,
need to consider that each project, when development scheme (JNNURM) takes implementation and monitoring.
sanctioned particularly in disaster prone cognizance of the likely adverse impact of
regions, should include a component for natural hazards on the assets proposed to In the above, background
assessment of impact of natural hazards be created in the cities falling in the recommendations have been made for the
that may occur in the area and the likely
damage it may cause to life and assets to
be built in the scope of the project.
The earthquake in Japan's Kobe city in
1995 highlighted how the various service
sectors in the city were adversely affected
during the earthquake which caused
immense problems to the city dwellers as
well as the disaster management agencies
in meeting the situation. (See table)
The Disaster Mitigation and Management
Act, 2005 recognises the need to consider
Disaster Mitigation Measures and
Strategies as an integral part of all
development activities in the country,
specifically the Act provides as follows :-
Section 11 (3)(b) states that the National
Plan shall include measures to be taken for
the integration of mitigation measures in
the development plans; and
Section 23(4) (c) states that the State plan
shall include the manner in which the
mitigation measures shall be integrated
with the development plans and projects.
More than 59 per cent of the landmass is
prone to earthquakes of moderate to very
high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12
per cent of land) is prone to floods and
April - June 2008 79
Greater Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chennai, incorporating in the project proposals
Kokata and few others fall in Seismic Zone suitably. The assessing and monitoring
III that have moderate damage risk. There authorities should also consider all these
are several cities in Seismic Zone II which disaster related issues while approving the
is a low damage risk zone. projects.
Seven coastal cities like Chennai, Kolkata, Sector-wise problems and
Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneshwar, Agartala, recommendations
Puri and Pondicherry have been classified
as cyclone-prone cities. Another 10 cities Redevelopment of inner old city
Coimbatore, Shimla, Imphal, Shillong, areas.
Aizwal, Kohima, Gangtok, Dehradun,
Nainital and Srinagar (J&K) have been (1) Narrow streets
classified as cities that are prone to (2) Old buildings and structures which
landslides. were not designed/constructed
keeping in mind earthquake safety,
JNNURM an opportunity for (3) Poor infrastructure facilities like
disaster mitigation. exposed electric poles with hanging
following sectors which are to be covered The urban renewal mission provides a (4) Choked sewers, drains etc
under the JNNURM: great opportunity, while considering the
projects for urban renewal, to provide Recommendation:
i) Redevelopment of inner (old) city safety to the cities from the impacts of
areas natural hazards considered probable to a) Design & Construction of safer new
ii) Water supply (including desalination occur in the future. It will be most buildings as well as Seismic
plats) and sanitation. appropriate to carry out in each proposed retrofitting of unsafe existing
iii) Sewerage and solid waste project a study of disastrous impact of buildings
management hazards on the proposed development. (b) Most inner city areas are composed of
iv) Construction and improvement of masonry buildings of various types
drains and storm water drains This impact will have to be considered consisting of brick and/or stone. The
v) Urban Transportation including roads, from two angles:- information given in IS: 4326, IS:
highways, MRTS and metro projects 13828 and notably IS: 13935 will be
vi) Parking lots and spaces on PPP basis (a) How the elements of the proposed found most important in this regard.
vii) Development of heritage areas project would be adversely impacted (c) To safeguard against the collapse of
viii) Prevention and rehabilitation of soil by any one or more of the natural buildings on to narrow streets,
erosion and landslides (only in cases hazards and how to safeguard the reinforced concrete or steel frames of
of special category states, where such proposed development? special designs could be erected to
problems are common) (b) Whether the proposed projects will provide lateral support to the
ix) Preservation of Water bodies. have adverse effect in enhancing the buildings on both sides.
hazard proneness of the city and if so,
Hazard - prone cities then how to eliminate the features that States may be advised to establish panels
may cause such an adverse impact? of earthquake experts to carry out studies
JNNURM has identified some cities that in this regard and help develop the safety
are prone to hazards. Of these Guwahati, A few considerations and suggestions are systems for such areas.
Itanagar, Imphal, Shillong, Aizwal, given in the following paragraphs in regard
Kohima, Agartala & Srinagar fall under the to the nine sectors specified for eligibility (1) If such areas consist of burnable
Seismic Zone V and have very high under JNNURM. The Government of wooden buildings, special precautions
damage risk. There are 14 cities, including India's Ministry of Urban Development against fire safety may be carried out
Delhi, Patna, Ludhiana, Haridwar, etc. and Ministry of Urban Employment & for protection.
which fall in Seismic Zone IV, deemed Poverty Alleviation may provide these (2) Where new structures are proposed
high damage risk zone. Other 24 cities like recommendations to the States for for improvement of civic facilities, all
80 April - June 2008
such structures should be designed to health.
be earthquake resistant as per the
above BIS Codes. Sewage treatment plants: In an earthquake, Every segment
sewage treatment plants not designed for
• Water supply (including seismic resistance would sustain damage. of the problem has a
desalination plants) and sanitation Raw or inadequately treated sewage that
had reached the sewage treatment plant detailed solution.
Emergency facilities: would be discharged into the receiving
Water could be unavailable to serve water body. The problems
Recommendation: have to be identified
The cut off of water supplies with the For sewer lines the recommendations as and the appropriate
resulting shutdown of cooling systems for water supply mains are relevant.
could render computer-dependent tele- solution applied
communication systems inoperable. Any structures required for the sewerage
treatment plant will need to be designed
Water supplies: using the Earthquake Resistant Design Direct loss of property and utility service
If distribution systems were damaged, Codes. (e.g., the collapse of a bridge carrying
drinking water would have to be trucked in utilities).
until the water system could be restored. • Drains and storm water drains
Businesses would have to remain closed Recommendation:
until water service was restored because of Construction and improvement of drains
health and fire hazards. and storm water drains The city areas having high water table and
sandy soils should be studied for
Recommendation: Recommendation: determination of liquefaction potential
under seismic conditions particularly in
Wherever new water supply reservoirs or Stability of all drains including storm Seismic Zone IV & V areas and the soil
over head tanks are proposed, they should water drains may be checked using the condition improved as found necessary
be designed to be safe under the postulated provisions of earthquake resistant design while laying the transportation routes.
earthquake forces. A special standard standards available for the design of
IS:1893 (Part - 2) namely Liquid Retaining retaining walls used for retaining earth in All transportation structures namely
Structures has now been drafted and Indian Standard 1893 of 1984. flyovers, bridges and culverts should be
should be used for insuring structural designed for appropriate seismic forces as
safety of over head water supply tanks. • Urban transportation including per the Indian.
roads, highways, expressways,
• Sewerage and solid waste MRTS, and metro projects • Parking lots and spaces on PPP
Direct loss of life due to collapse or
Sewers: structural failure of the lifeline Recommendation:
As a result of loss of power and damage to
pump station buildings and equipment, Indirect loss of life due to inability to The multi-storied parking lots need to be
sewage would overflow from manholes respond to secondary catastrophes, such as designed using the appropriate BIS Codes
into city streets, back up into basements, fires, and/or provide emergency medical for earthquake safety.
and run into drainage conduits. aid
Sewers in areas that suffer significant Delayed recovery operations
permanent ground deformation would be
destroyed completely. Sewers in less- Release of hazardous products (e.g., losses
affected areas might sustain damage that from tank cars derailed by track failure,
would go unnoticed, presenting a hazard to gas leaks from ruptured utility lines)
April - June 2008 81
Financing Urban Development
Looking for the Additional Nine Rupees
By V Suresh,
Housing and Urban Development Specialist and Former CMD, HUDCO
ities will absorb two thirds of the The requirements of core infrastructure for 4.7 per cent of GDP in 2005-06 to 8 per
population growth in the future. modernisation / upgradation of highways, cent by 2011-2012. The CIF had indicated
This will result in a massive modernisation /expansion of rail networks, that this may increase to US$ 475 billion
increase in demand for the already modernisation/expansion of airports, at current prices. The World Bank study
deficient utility, social and commercial providing quantum jump in port capacity has observed that while investment in
infrastructure. generating additional 1 lakh MW power urban infrastructure in Chinese cities was
alone would need Rs 12.3 lakh crore as per of the order of 6-7 per cent of GDP, Indian
The Rakesh Mohan Committee’s India the assessment made by the Prime cities were spending less that 0.5 per cent
Infrastructure Report 1994 identified Rs Minister's apex committee on core of GDP.
2,50,000 crore required for urban infrastructure. Including the residual
infrastructure to cover backlog, new sector, (urban, telecom and other This is in line with Mao's thoughts to
investments and operations and infrastructure fund requirements) the "Keep the flies and mosquitoes away for
maintenance costs. The extent of funds projected requirement was Rs 14.5 lakh clean sustainable cities." In this one
available from the existing sources during crore ($320billion) as the investment thought he covered all the investments
the Ninth and Tenth Plan period has been needed by 2012. This works out to just needed for sewerage, drainage, sanitation
of the order of Rs 25,000 crores. This over Rs 2.5 lakh crore per year. and waste management. The World Health
effectively means that of every Rs 10 Organisation (WHO) has clearly identified
required for funding urban infrastructure The Report of the Committee on that 85 per cent of all diseases are due to
only Rs.1 is available through the Infrastructure Financing (CIF) headed by bad quality water supply, lack of
conventional budgetary sources of the Deepak Parekh, has already indicated that sanitation, drainage, waste disposal and
centre, state and local governments. India this is underestimated especially in respect environment pollution. While it is
has been scouting for the additional Rs 9 of the residual sectors. The government heartening to note that the Government of
out of every Rs 10 required. envisages that the investment on India is coming up with a massive National
infrastructure would rise gradually from Urban Health Mission with expanded
The Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal
Mission (JNNURM) announced in
December 2005 is a major step forward in
Financing of Infrastructure Schemes
identifying Rs 100,000 crore, during 2005-
2012 for supporting urban development Budgets of
initiatives. In the 10-year period between • Central Government
the Ninth and Tenth Plans the budgetary • State Goverments
allocation was Rs 25,000 crore while in the
• Local Governments
JNNURM period of seven years four times
the amount has been provided for. Raising loans from LIC, HUDCO, IDBI, ICICI, ILFS,
This also provides for leveraging the
IDFC, Banks, other DFI’s
budget funds through additional
Loans from International Funding Agencies like
institutional financing as well as
investments from private and community OECF (JBIC), World Bank, ADB, KfW, USAID etc
sectors. The 2007 estimates for urban
infrastructure funds is of the order of Rs
Grand funds from donor agencies like DANIDA,
2,90,000 crore. DFID, CIDA, National Trust/Missions
82 April - June 2008
resource, it would be relevant to note that
while healthcare related issues would stand
Some Innovative ‘User pay’ Instruments
addressed, the cause for the same would be Infrastructure Type Innovative user pay Instruments
missed. It is going for the trees and losing Advance registration chargesAdvance registration charges,
the forest. It is also recognised that every Connection charges, Enhancement of water tariff, Water
Rs. 1 crore spent in urban infrastructure Water Supply benefit tax/water tax, Betterment charges, Development
charges, Utilization from other sources such as octrol, property
provision NOW, saves Rs. 10 crore on
tax, sale of plots etc. and Charges from water Klosks
public healthcare LATER.
Connection Charges, Sewerage Cess Tax, Conservancy Tax,
Sewerage Sale of Renewable waste, Sale of Sludge and Sale of Nutrient
One of the standing examples is the
initiative of the citizens of Alandur - a
small municipality outside the Chennai Collection Charges, Cess, Sale of Renewable waste, and
Solid Waste Fines for dumping waste.
Municipal Corporation, but part of
Chennai city. The lack of a good sewerage Roads/Fly-overs/
Toll Tax, Land as a Resource and Advertising
or drainage system resulted in outbreaks of Bridges
many diseases, pushing the expense to
Rs. 2500-3500 on family medical expenses Airports/Rly.stations/ Surchargeon tickrts, using land as a resource Toll Tax User,
Bus Terminals Charges for transportation terminals and advertisiting rights.
per month. The 20,000 families felt that
there was a clear need for a sewerage and
treatment plant and also surface drainage collections by reforms in the property tax, advertisements in leading dailies. Mumbai
to get over the problem of stagnant pools expanding the data and information base is also geared to it now. At the same time,
of sullage and sewage around, leading to through e-governance and providing we have majority of the municipalities and
mosquito menace. transparent accounting systems. corporation, who are not able to come out
with financial statements at the end of the
Each family contributed Rs. 10,000 each The additional sources have to take into year identifying, the assets and liabilities.
creating a corpus fund of Rs. 20 crore only account the capacity of the local bodies to
through residential contribution. This raise resources for specific sectors of This is where the reforms envisaged under
clearly indicates that citizens and cities get projects from the market and institutional JNNURM would substantially help in the
the infrastructure they desire and deserve. financing. It has not been possible always legal, fiscal and regulatory environments
for most of the local bodies to access in urban local bodies and which in turn will
It has been proved that citizens are willing additional resources in view of the weak make them stronger organisationally and
to pay for the better quality of services. financial set-up and inappropriate financially.
More than the willingness to pay, is the accounting systems. Many cities have
issue of willingness to charge by the urban benefitted as a result of reforms in accrual There are ultimately no free lunches. If
local bodies for political reasons. Any based accounting systems on commercial people do not pay, the government has to
number of success stories are available patterns. Consequently, they could raise pay. And as often the government has
from Indian cities on citizens paying for resources through municipal bonds with competing demands for resources the city
better quality of services - for water supply, good credit rating as well as further infrastructure and development needs got
waste management, sewerage, institutional finance from the domestic and affected till the citizens themselves have
transportation systems including airports international sources subject to certain realised that this is not the role of the
by adopting innovative user-pay discipline being ensured in the overall government alone and citizens and
instruments. governance mechanism and also to make communities should also participate and
the projects viable both technically and contribute. Of course the poor,
All these clearly indicate the need for financially. marginalised and disadvantaged would
tapping additional sources of funding and have to be taken care of through
resources. The starting point is to expand At a time when the corporate sector is transparent, targetted and measurable
the revenue recovery from property tax announcing quarterly results, it would be subsidy for accessing the services as a part
and other city tax base and user charges for of interest to note that at least one of inclusive development.
civic services. We have excellent examples municipal corporation in India - Bengaluru
of Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, does publicly announce the state of Further, the need for Public-Private
Mumbai etc., showing quantum-jump in financial health every quarter through Partnership has been recognised for
April - June 2008 83
providers of some of the services including enhancement. While Philippines has a All this is due to the lack of initial
operation and maintenance. This helps in federal legislation for PPP, Gujarat investment needed for comprehensive
bringing increased resources, introduction government was the first State to come up project formulation for well-structured
of state-of-the-art technologies and with the Gujarat Infrastructure projects which are technically viable,
putting in place effective project Development Act in 1999, the benefits of financially feasible, bankable, and
management and continuous operations of which is discernible in the high quality of environmentally sustainable.
the systems in an effective, efficient and Infrastructure in most of the Gujarat cities
economic manner. - Surat, Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Rajkot etc. This is where project initialisation/
Equally important is the contribution of the innovative/development fund is needed. It
All this needs an enabling environment for AP government for creation of has to be recognised that investments upto
all the stakeholders to play the role of infrastructure authority under 1-2 per cent for preparing DPRs is
partners. We need a level-playing field. Infrastructure Development Enabling Act imperative if these are to be implemented
This is where the urban regulatory (IDEA). within costs, time and ensuring quality and
mechanism for urban development and durability.
infrastructure is acutely felt. While India Here again, substantial participation and
has done well in bringing in the regulatory investments could be ensured through Mechanism for pre-funding are now
set-up for telecom (TRAI), power (SERC private sector stakeholders for city available for such projects which can be
& CERC), Insurance (IRDA), highways infrastructure like the examples in made part of project costs for funding.
(NHAI), we do not still have a regulatory Hyderabad, Vijayawada and Rajkot.
authority on the lines of the Australian It is important that this significant message
Utilities Commission, Ofwats of UK and Indian experience in conceptualising, of viable financing options be spread to all
State Regulatory Commissions in all US designing, constructing and the stakeholders, including citizens of
states. commissioning any infrastructure project cities to ensure sustainability and
has been mired with time and cost timeliness of projects.
Further, the legal systems also need overruns and quality deficiencies.
Planning for growing cities and their finances
K T Ravindran, India's prominent urban design expert and Dean of the School of
Planning & Architecture talks about the holistic development of cities and where the
finances should come from
nauthorised colonies have been out of mainstream-bringing the They even want to bring in the metro to Mumbai and Bangalore. However,
U informal into the normal governance fold is the challenge. I prefer
to call it non-formal instead of informal. There is an Institute of
Urban Designers which has only 500 planners for the entire country and
even the smaller projects are bankable such as micro credit, revise
repayment schemes but its all about putting processes into place. A good
city is one which expands but does not work at the cost of the
that is grossly insufficient. environment. Delhi is probably the best city and is not a bad example
amongst all India's metros. Delhi has its other complications-the land is
In 1991 International Monetary Fund (IMF), put a rider on how the local owned by Central Government.
body could directly borrow money. The IMF said there should be political
responsibility for borrowing and repaying, and loans will not be given Within the Central Government, it is the Lieutenant Governor who has the
unless the local body has a system of recovery. Where this system does policing function. The various municipalities function through the Home
not exist, the projects are not bankable. Ministry, day-to-day functioning is looked after by the Ministry of Urban
JNNURM has been implemented for introducing reforms-USAID helped
draft it and they wanted 4 things-remove the land ceiling Act, repeal the Then there is the Delhi Government which controls the Public Works
rental act (World Bank has been pushing for it since the 80s), the 74th Department and there is one Cantonment board. Delhi has a huge inter
amendment to be put in place, and e-Governance. Why is it that large state system, huge areas in natural forest. Delhi is performing despite all
projects are getting sanctioned under JNNURM? The answer to this this.
question is that these projects especially transport projects are bankable.
84 April - June 2008
It's the road map
that matters the most
As Director, Office of Economic Growth, USAID,
Rebecca Black, in her four and a half year stint in India
has had a ring side view of the way India's infrastructure
sector has changed. In her response to an e-mailed
questionnaire, Black talks about the ways in which the
demand-supply gap in the sector can be bridged.
What in your view is the best way to East and South Asia are quite different. governance. Private investors seek
meet this shortfall in the short, medium China has been pouring money into its certainty, transparency, and familiarity, as
and long term? urban infrastructure for some time, well as profitable returns. India's federated
financed by public and private sources, political system and variable
The Government of India has made a including using land assets. implementation of the 74th amendment
tremendous commitment of resources has too often resulted in roles and
towards improving urban infrastructure Manila's water utility was just recognised responsibilities related to services and
and services through the launch of the by the World Bank as a global prize winner infrastructure investment not being clear
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal in terms of service quality and efficiency. and vulnerability to political interference,
Mission (JNNURM). However, South Asia is more similar to India's differences among states and cities require
government funds will not be sufficient to situation in terms of having large considerable knowledge on investment,
adequately meet current and ongoing infrastructure gaps. Though Nepal has at and a lack of transparency on process and
needs without additional resources from least one small city that has successfully cost.
the private sector. instituted continuous water supply and Sri
Lanka's national water utility provides Appropriate regulatory controls are often
In the short term, central and state funds better services than that in much of India. lacking, making quality standards and
are likely to be heavier contributors than India's major advantage over other South pricing uncertain. Private investors will not
urban local bodies, but over time if the Asian countries is having a sophisticated invest unless there is a financial return;
reforms under JNNURM are applied, a and liquid financial sector, as well as prices relative to costs have to be
growing share of funds can be raised at the private companies able, and increasingly predictable-and profitable. There are also
local level, including from private finance interested, in participating in urban related issues such as land acquisition,
sources. In addition to funding, private infrastructure services environmental regulation, and timing of
participation can be a major force in funding and other actions that can
improving the efficiency of capital How can private players be dramatically increase risk or derail project
investments and improving quality of incentivised in Public Private Partnerships investment.
service delivery. India's infrastructure and what needs to be done to speed up
needs require a partnership between private sector involvement in partnership To increase private investment, a number
private and public-neither can do it alone. projects in infrastructure? What are the of steps could be taken:
problems-long gestation periods, bankable 1) Clarify responsibility and make lines
How similar are India's funding projects or is it simply the lack of a clear of authority simple, so that
problems in upgrading infrastructure, vis- regulatory framework? performance can be clearly linked to
à-vis the rest of Asia? Are there any lessons individuals;
to be learnt? A very short answer is perhaps good 2) Make decision-making processes
April - June 2008 85
and fees), and to improve the quality of
Will JNNURM funds be able to bridge
this gap? How can the long term
sustainability of these projects be ensured?
The JNNURM will go a long way in
stimulating reform among a good number
of states and cities. The matching grant
funds are important, and will make
infrastructure investment happen faster,
but ultimately it is the governance reforms
that will enable cities to raise the resources
they need, to use them to build needed
systematic, transparent and certain; or length of availability of services such as infrastructure.
3) Establish regulatory controls that water supply?
provide clarity in standards and Is the lack of information disbursal and
pricing, It is my sense that there is a significant involvement of the public in city
4) Pricing for service set to allow profit; change happening in the municipal sector. management issues a problem area? How
5) Build the capacity among The JNNURM itself represents a major can it be addressed?
government bodies to enable the recognition and commitment by
public sector to play its role relative Government to India's cities-also the Establishing systems that effectively
to its private partner; and continuing attention to Mumbai as and translate user-citizens and businesses-
6) Ensure that human and financial other lead cities as the engines of economic interest into clear demand is not always as
resources are available to support the growth. The number of cities that have easy as it sounds, and certainly needs to go
facilitation of projects. accepted continuous water supply as a goal further than just voting at election time.
and are taking steps to achieve it, is
For the kind of inclusive growth growing every year, for instance. Public involvement has two sides-what the
planned under the Eleventh Plan, reliable government can do to enable involvement,
services such as power, water or On order of priority: Autonomy and but also getting the public interested
transportation networks are critical. What accountability of managers; cost recovery; enough to get involved in a useful way.
kind of a road map should be evolved and performance benchmarks and rewards/ The JNNURM's inclusion of citizen
at what levels-city, region, national levels? penalties; continuous water supply. Often participation as part of the reform process
it is the road map of how to get there that is a great start, as is the right-to-know law.
Each of these sectors already has matters the most, having these principles Part of the solution is breaking down
different issues and problems and these established as goals, a realistic plan for government functions into understandable
need to be factored into policy documents. how to achieve them in specific steps, and pieces and making those available to
India's federated system also limits to an monitoring progress-with penalty or people through media, government run
extent the influence that plans can have on reward for meeting the targets. communication systems, NGOs or
the implementation of projects and business chambers, etc. Getting input on
services. But significant steps have already Is the weak financial status of urban priorities for action; engaging citizens on
been taken in a number of areas with local bodies a bottleneck? performance standards and monitoring is
policies, regulations, and funding sources the second part of the solution.
being made available. Yes, urban local bodies are not
typically financially strong, though there is One of the functions of user charges is, in
Has there been any change in the way considerable variability. It is critically fact, engaging users in how their services
cities have started to address priorities in important for Indian cities to establish perform-if people have to pay, they tend to
urban municipal services? What in your transparent and effective financial focus more attention on what they are
view should be the order of priority- management systems, to increase their getting.
efficient delivery, recovery of user charges own source revenues (from property taxes
86 April - June 2008
Continuous water supply is not
only sustainable but will
actually lead to a 30 per cent
saving in water consumption by
eliminating leakages. Former
Chairman of the Central
Pollution Control Board,
Paritosh C Tyagi talks about the
bottlenecks and best practices
in water and sanitation.
he problems in municipal water Those who can pay for mineral water water is worse?
supply systems are largely the bottles or domestic water purifiers are not
result of long neglect towards in need of as much attention as those who By having decentralised sewage treatment
leakage from water pipes and fittings and a cannot afford them at all. In terms of plants, it is possible to return the treated
low outdated tariff. Intermittent water numbers, the latter deprived persons may, effluent for flushing toilets and irrigating
supply became a necessity for an unduly even in the urban areas, be more than two the parks within residential area.
leaky system. In a way, low tariff is also a thirds of the urban population.
case of neglect that is towards revenue, for Where the buildings are centrally air-
whatever reason. The major casualty is We are a poor nation. Yet we adopt systems conditioned, chillers can be cooled with
water quality and the major sufferers are in which we install a service and also its waste water treated up to the tertiary level.
the poor. standby. And we do not even question that There would be no waste water left if
this state of affairs is not sustainable. waste water is utilised for cooling. For
Several kinds of enterprises gained flushing the toilets with treated waste
advantage from problems created by the Our policies and programmes have to give water, dual plumbing is required on the
intermittent water supply system. Not to a priority to the less privileged sections of inflow side.
mention the medical practitioners, clinics the society, especially when that section is
and hospitals, the enterprises that gained so overwhelmingly in majority. An alternative arrangement is to introduce
include the following: the bottled water dual plumbing at the outlet side. This
industry, point-of-use devices, such as In the light of these facts, experts who are means that the effluent from wash hand
Aquaguard, vending water through tankers convinced of the need and feasibility of all basin and the water closet is segregated
and booster pump manufacturers. measures that can replace intermittent and allowed to flow through the existing
water supply with continuous supply sewers to sewage treatment plants.
These enterprises have flourished because should concentrate on convincing the
the consumer had no assurance about the authorities to ensure that water in the taps The other component of effluent from
quality and continuous availability of has to be safe to drink and continuously homes, i.e. from the kitchen and bathroom
municipal water. All of them will be available. In a water supply system which may be taken to a decentralised unit. In
threatened if the water supply systems are is charged all the time, the quality of water most cases, such decentralised unit may be
operated continuously. But the common is easily ensured. located in the park existing in all
man will gain tremendously. Not only residential sectors. Relatively simple
would the quality of water be assured, but Decentralised Sewage Treatment treatment will be needed for this
the total requirement of water will also component of effluent and it can be very
come down by about 30 per cent from the Leakage is waste of water. But the flushing conveniently used for flushing the water
savings in leakage. of toilets with filtered and chlorinated closets.
April - June 2008 87
Estimates show that the cost of installation
of dual plumbing for meeting the demand
Managing urban environment
and separately conveying the aforesaid
components of effluent will be saved in
and promoting sanitation
about three to six years depending on
many variables of water tariff and cost of By Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder and Chairman,
construction. Sulabh International Social Service Organisation
The outstandingly important advantage is a
saving of nearly 40 per cent of daily
he debilitating effects of insanitary country have access to toilet facilities. The
requirement of water. In economic terms, living conditions and deteriorating toilet facilities in the urban areas are
the advantages extend over avoided cost in environment lower the productive available to 74 percent of the households
augmenting water supply and sewerage potential of the very people who can least which also includes about 70 lakh bucket
systems because of the decrease in demand afford it. Among the poor, the women and privies.
and flow into sewers. In real terms of water children suffer the most.
resources, the incomparable advantage is The enormity of the problem can be
the reduction in stress on the freshwater The phenomenon of rapid urbanisation gauged from the fact that hardly 46.1 per
resources. creates huge demands for services like cent of the urban households have access
water, sanitation, drainage, refuse disposal, to flush arrangements connected to
Conclusion electricity, transport and housing etc. and sewerage & septic tank systems, 14.6 per
the gap between the demand and supply of cent have access to pit latrines, 13 per cent
The combined advantage of continuous these services and amenities worsens the have bucket or dry privies and the
water supply and decentralised sewage situation further. This results in crowded remaining 26.3 per cent do not have access
treatment is significant reduction in living conditions, inadequate housing, to any latrine facility. Thus in urban
freshwater demand and in installed water and sanitation and traffic and creates settlements, less than one-third of the
capacity of water distribution and acute adverse impact on the health of the people defecate in the open and about 7
sewerage systems. This itself is sufficient people. million use manually cleaned latrines
reason to select this combination without which require the services of large number
delay. Better health will be a bonus. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of scavengers.
gives directive to the State Governments to
Some time ago, I shared my breakfast table endow the municipal government with Besides the prevalence of the practice of
with a visitor from Britain who was such powers and authority as may be open defecation, the major cause of
travelling through India with an exhibition necessary to enable them to function as concern is the existence of millions of
on Shakespeare. institutions of self-government. However, bucket and dry latrines. The last census has
much is still desired for empowerment and reported that about thirteen million
To find out what would catch his fancy in strengthening of municipal governments. households have dry latrines, of which
India, I asked him, "What would you like The Municipalities have the responsibility nearly seven million exist in the urban
to take back from India?" He pondered for as well as the powers to guide the growth areas and six million in the rural areas.
a while and replied solemnly, "My health, and development of areas under their
I suppose." I was stunned but this short jurisdiction, but to meet the ever growing It is a common site to find excreta flowing
reply has a very long message for demand, they lack adequate institutional in open drains due to defecation by
authorities engaged in water supply, capacities and resources. It is therefore children as well as many a time by adults.
sanitation, health, commerce and tourism. essential that the municipal governments The age old unhealthy practice of open air
are strengthened with appropriate defecation and use of bucket/ dry privies
professional capacity to undertake this are a potential hazard to health and hygiene
stupendous task effectively. and expose the entire community to foul
environment and pollute the rivers and
Sanitation Status other water courses.
The Census of 2001 has revealed that only The selection of technological option
36.40 percent of the total households in the should take into account the magnitude of
88 April - June 2008
the problem, the availability of resources
for implementing the programme of
sanitation, cost effectiveness as well as
socio-cultural aspect. In order to identify
the appropriate technology it will be useful
to refer in brief the merits and demerits of
Options for appropriate technology
Sewerage System: Limitations and
Constraints in Indian Urban Context
Sewerage involves enormous investment
in laying sewer lines, treatment plants and
related works, besides high operational and
maintenance costs. In developing countries
like India neither the government nor the
local authorities or the beneficiaries can
bear the capital or the operational on the
The way unplanned sewerage systems with limitations are mentioned below:
Moreover the sewerage requires skilled inadequate treatment of the final effluent
persons and good management to operate are functioning in many developing Need for a Cost-effective & Appropriate
and maintain it. It needs considerable countries like India, they will have serious Option
quantity of water to function properly. adverse impacts on the public health as
well as aquatic ecosystem. If the municipal governments are to
For flushing toilets connected to sewers accelerate the extension of sanitation,
almost 6 times more water is required than The use of sewer systems would totally future policies and investment
that for pour-flush system. destroy the aquatic ecosystems in the programmes must place greater emphasis
developing world, posing enormous threats on cost effective and appropriate
There can be serious outbreaks of water both to public health and aquatic bio- technological option, which are relatively
borne diseases from: diversity. simple, limit investments in the central
infrastructure and are easy to construct and
(i) River pollution because of untreated Septic Tank: Not an Appropriate Option maintain compared to conventional
sewage outfalls; systems.
(ii) Groundwater contamination because Although septic tank was developed about
of leaky sewer lines; 400 years back and introduced in India Sulabh Shauchalaya (twin-pit pour-
(iii) Contamination of piped water supply about 150 years back, yet even in urban flush water-seal toilet)
systems because of leaky sewer lines areas about only 20 per cent of the houses
leading to infiltration of pathogens have septic tank toilets. When we compare Sulabh Shauchalaya
into drinking water pipelines, technology with sewerage and septic tank
especially when they are not under The septic tank has some advantages like system we find that in the Indian
positive pressure, which is the case in flexibility and adaptability to a wide conditions obtaining this is most suitable
many cities in developing countries variety of individual households. It is cost-effective technology which will
with intermittent water supply. suitable for scattered houses with space for ensure wider coverage with the least
(iv) Sewage backflows because of badly septic tank construction. investment.
maintained and blocked sewers or
because of increasing use of non- However, the limitations of septic tank It fulfills all the criteria of an appropriate
biodegradable materials like plastic outweigh some of the advantages which technology designed to the needs of the
bags. have been mentioned above. Some of the user.
April - June 2008 89
urban links cover story
The website of National Institute of Urban Affairs gives a Metropolis is a worldwide association of metropolis and
comprehensive list of all the activities being undertaken by the capitals. Its main goal is to enhance the well-being of their
organisation. citizens through an exchange of experiences, a cooperation and
knowledge of transfer in all fields.
It lays down the vision of the organisaiton and also gives an
insight into the resource institutes, status of the infrastructure The global association represents the large metropolitan areas
projects and other key documents. The site also provides links in the international bodies and closely cooperates with numerous
to important central government agencies. other organisations, network, NGOs, scientific and research
institutes as well as commercial enterprises such as UN-Habitat,
www.envfor.nic.in especially the United Nations Advisory Committee of Local
The website of Ministry of Environment & Forests hosts details Authorities (UNACLA).
of the National Environment Policy. The site has important
information like good practices, NGO directory and www.citiesalliance.org
publications. The site has further links to Clean Development The Cities Alliance is a global coalition of cities and their
Mechanism, India and elaborates the details of India's development partners committed to scaling up successful
association with the UNFCCC approaches to poverty reduction.
www.ilfsindia.com This alliance brings cities together in a direct dialogue with
Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS) bilateral and multilateral agencies and financial institutions.
is one of India's leading infrastructure development and finance
companies. Their site is a gateway to their work in the power, The Alliance provides matching grants in support of -
infrastructure and finance sectors. The site has a corner for (i) City Development Strategies (CDS) which link the process
present projects, invitations to new bids and a section dedicated by which local stakeholders define their vision for their city
to grievances. The site has news items running on top that give and its economic growth, environmental and poverty
a brief idea of the recent happenings in the infrastructure reduction objectives, with clear priorities for actions and
segment. The site also offers complete chapters on the ongoing investments;
projects. (ii) Citywide and nationwide slum upgrading
Infrastructure Professionals Enterprise (IPE) is a pioneer Good Governance India Foundation provides updated initiatives
organisation, working on the fundamentals of physical and on various issues in Urban Development, Management and
social infrastructure complementing the fine tuning of capacity Urban Governance including dissemination of best practices in
building, policy, institutional and industrial infrastructure. This Indian and global cities.
informative website of IPE has links to various projects on
URBANET is the network for GTZ staff, associated
professionals and researchers working in the fields of municipal
and urban development, decentralisation and regionalisation. It
provides ready for download, documentation, analysis of key
political and practical relevance in this semantic area. Staff from
GTZ projects and other institutes share their expertise and
present and discuss the result of their work. It also promotes the
exchange of knowledge and information, interdisciplinary
cooperation among actors in municipal and urban development,
as well as debates and conceptual refinement of key issues. In
addition, it provides technical and advisory support for its
90 April - June 2008
Police reforms are a long way off
have always had very clear ideas about Complaints about marital disputes and
police reforms. And during the 35 brawls between landlords and tenants are
years that I was in the service, I tried ignored till they become grievous. And
implementing at least some of them, when it reaches that stage, it is reduced to
despite innumerable systemic deficiencies. a case of simple hurt or sorted out.
But I must confess, nothing has changed
over the past three decades. On the Cheating in Nithari
contrary, the situation has worsened.
Recall the Nithari killings? The police said
I have used every opportunity that came nobody lodged complaints about the
my way to emphasise the need for police missing children. On the other hand, the
reforms. Many a time, I saw looks of parents said the cops refused to listen to
disapproval on my seniors' faces as they them. The complainants had nothing to
believed keeping quiet was a safer option. prove their claims. All I saw was a stamped
The department from where I took piece of paper which bore no signatures.
voluntary retirement (BPRD) was a The police later denied the existence of the
toothless one. The most overused document. This was another form of
statement in 'police reform' is that 'police cheating. This ensures him an electronic receipt.
is a state subject'. Cops avoid registering cases for various Also, the cops now can't say they did not
reasons. To begin with, it can't cope with receive the complaint.
But it does not exclude the Central the work load. Also, nobody wants to face
Government. India has a Union Home the seniors' wrath for an increasing crime We are creating a panel of empowered
Ministry with Union Territories directly rate. professionals and citizens who can help in
under it. Union Government has an equally case of need.
huge range of central police forces. Policing in India does not care much about
the 'high public trust quotient'. It thrives All of us must demand that the police
No Registration on 'low crime statistics'. record all the complaints freely and
truthfully. Only then will we know what
Not a single officer in the country can say Last week, my team and I launched an we need to reform in policing.
that crime is fully registered. It is either not e-portal www.saferindia.com to take
registered at all or severely minimised. unattended, unacknowledged, unregistered The onus is on the shoulders of the police
Mobile phone thefts, pick-pocketing, police complaints. On receipt of these, we leadership - they should dare for the sake
robberies and burglaries are not easy to will send the complaint electronically with of the future of this country.
register. an acknowledgement to the complainant.
April - June 2008 91
n the first issue of Good Governance India (GGI) eminent domain of acquiring property for a public purpose.
magazine (Nov-Dec 2003, page 56) Dr. Behnam Ta’i
had written an eloquent piece on what Good We will ask, what constitutes a public purpose? Can it
Governance is about. He mentioned, as is widely believed, include private benefit of a business enterprise at the cost of
Good Governance includes democracy, rule of law, a private person? How are such issues handled the world
accountability, transparency and participation of civil over? We will examine some of the most burning issues
society. facing India and much of the developing world, from the
perspectives of Governance, Economics, Politics and
While we have been covering hard aspects in Governance Human Rights. Is it Left or Right to say that the property
mainly concerned with urban planning and management, rights of the farmer must be protected? We will discuss if
in future we would also write about some of the burning human rights include the right to property.
soft issues. Because it is our belief that no amount of
improving hard things like buildings, roads and bridges will While addressing the above issues, we will concentrate on
work ultimately if we don’t establish good democracy on their ramifications in Governance, as the literature in Law,
the basis of genuine rule of law, to protect life, liberty and Economics and Politics is sanguinely in favour of tight
property, of all citizens. protection of private property rights against expropriation
by state. Public good cannot and need not be financed at
For example, in the coming issues, we will address land private cost is the dictum.
acquisition policy for various economic projects like
industries, housing, SEZs etc. Of late, there has been a hue
and cry against such acquisitions in places like Singur, and
Nandigram, followed by Goa scrapping SEZ notifications,
and dissent brewing in other parts of the country like in (Sanjiv Agarwal)
Maharashtra. In this context, we will examine the value of Publisher
property rights, which sadly have always been seen with Trustee, Good Governance India Foundation
suspicion in our country. We will analyze the limits of
92 April - June 2008