Dangerous Critters by gjmpzlaezgx

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									Dangerous Critters?


WY MSHA State Grant Program
Gillette Campus of Sheridan College
Western Wyoming Community
College, Green River Center
                MICE?




Are these
“critters”
REALLY
dangerous?
                        MOSQUITOES?


     SPIDERS?
Dangerous Critters
   Venomous Spiders
   Mice & Rats
   Mosquitos
                        Rice Rat



 Mosquito                               Hobo
                                        Spider
                                        (male)



             Hobo
             Spider
             (female)
                                   Cotton Rat
                           Black
Yellow Sac
                           Widow
spider

White-
footed                  Deer
mouse                   mouse
                                           Brown
                                           Recluse
DANGEROUSLY
VENOMOUS SPIDERS
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS
SPIDERS
  Hobo Spider
  Widow Spider
  Recluse Spider
  Yellow Sac Spider
Hobo/Brown Recluse Spider
distribution
Hobo Spider
           Pacific Northwest is normal range
           Enter homes July thru October
           Rarely found high on walls/ceilings
Male       Like mosquito bite, but turns into
           slow healing blister-like lesion –
           easily infected
           Female 8-11 mm, Male 11-16 mm
           Light to Med brown, 2 dark stripes on
           thorax, light strip on midline of
           abdomen broken by light chevron
  Female   markings
Hobo Spider poisoning
   Male venom may be more potent than female
   Subadults venom may be more potent than
   adults
   Red area immediately after bite
   Fades to “mosquitoe-like” bump
   Incorrectly referred to as an “aggressive”
   house spider…very fast spider…very poor
   eyesight
Hobo Spider poisoning
                  Within 24-48 hrs, blisters
                  may occur
                  Next 24 hrs, blisters may
                  rupture, leaving open
                  ulceration
                  Next few days a scab
                  forms, giving a “bulls-eye
                  appearance
                  Scab sloughs, leaving a
                  scar in +/- 45 days
                  Some instances, as with
                  fatty tissue areas, lesions
                  can become deep and
                  extensive (2-3 yrs to heal)
Hobo Spider poisoning

   Other long-term effects:
     Intractable burning pain…
     Damage to blood vessel valves…
     Cyst formation…
     Multiple lesions from gravitational drift…
   15% of cases severe enough to require
   hospitalization
   In severe cases, bone marrow failure can
   develop, which causes death
Black Widow Spider
           Throughout US
           Indoors year round, also outdoors
           Usually in seldom disturbed
           locations
           Web is approximately 12” in
           diameter
           Black color with red or orange
           hourglass marking on underside
           of abdomen (female only)
  Female   Male 7-10mm, Female 12-13mm
Black Widow Spider Bite
                   Two tiny red dots,
                   painful immediately
                   Increased body
                   temperature,
                   sweating, nausea
                   Some victims
                   experience anxiety,
                   profuse sweating,
                   hair standing on end,
                   increased blood
                   pressure
Black Widow Spider Bite
   No tissue necrosis
   Potent neurotoxin induces severe
   muscle cramping & spasms, beginning
   in large muscles of legs or abdomen
     Abdomen can exhibit board-like rigidity
   Severe cases include paralysis, stupor,
   and convulsions, death in small
   percentage of cases (small children,
   elderly)
Brown Recluse Spider
(Violin Spider)
           Midwest and southern US
           (may be some apparent
           reports in WY)
           Sticky webs under rocks,
           etc.
           Enter homes, cellars, barns
           Male & Female 6-12mm
           Tan to dark brown
           Fiddle shape markings on
           top of thorax
Brown Recluse poisoning
                   Bite usually not
                   felt, but produce
                   immediate
                   stinging like bee
 Day 2
                   sting
                   Tissue becomes
                   swollen
                   Flu-like symptoms
                     Fever, nausea,
                     chills, aches
Brown Recluse poisoning
                   Painful ulceration
                   develops
                   Skin and musscle
   Day 6
                   tissue dies, leaving a
                   deep infected
                   wound that
                   enlarges, fails to
                   heal or heals slowly
                   (necrosis)
Yellow Sac Spider
           Throughout US
           Indoors year round, mostly early
           autumn
           Build a silken sac in upper
           corners of ceilings
           Bite is slight burning sensation
           Some swelling
           Male 4-8mm, Female 5-10mm
           Pale yellow to green in color, legs
           and abdominal midline slightly
           darker
Yellow Sac Spider bite
   Least known clinically significant spider
   Capable of causing a painful bite with
   necrotic lesion
     Not as severe as brown recluse or hobo
   Bites sometimes cause systemic effects
   Very prone to bite defensively (more
   than other significantly venomous
   spiders)
Yellow Sac Spider bite
   Some bites in unusual areas (autos,
   swimming pools)
   Likely that many US cases of necrotic
   arachnidism ascribed to brown recluse
   are actually yellow sac spider bites
HANTAVIRUS
PULMONARY SYNDROME
(HPS)
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY
SYNDROME - SOME HISTORY
First noted during an “outbreak” in the Four Corners
area in May 1993 with several young & apparently
otherwise healthy young people dying
Researchers discovered a previously unknown type of
hantavirus, carried primarily by the deer mouse
Virus called Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and the disease it
caused was named Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
(HPS)
Further medical research revealed that HPS was not
new and located the first case (through records and
tissue analysis) in Utah in 1959
RODENTS KNOWN TO CARRY
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY
SYNDROME

  Deer Mouse
  White-footed Mouse
  Rice Rat
  Cotton Rat
             Head & body about
Deer Mouse   2-3 inches long-tail
             adds another 2-3
             inches
             Gray to reddish
             brown
             Underbelly always
             white
             Tail has sharply
             defined white sides
             Found almost
             everywhere in North
             America
             Prefers woodlands,
             but found in desert
             areas also
                     Hard to distinguish from
White-Footed Mouse   Deer Mouse
                     Head & body about 4
                     inches-tail adds 2-4
                     inches
                     Pale brown to reddish
                     brown
                     Underside and feet are
                     white
                     Found southern New
                     England, Mid-Atlantic,
                     southern, midwestern,
                     western states & Mexico
                     Prefers wooded & brushy
                     areas
Rice Rat   Head & body 5-6
           inches-plus a 5-7
           inch tail
           Short, soft, grayish
           brown fur on top,
           gray or tawny
           underneath
           Feet are whitish
           Likes marshy areas
           and is semiaquatic
           Found in the
           southeastern US &
           Central America
Cotton Rat   Head & body 5-7
             inches w/ tail 3-4
             inches more
             Hair is longer and
             courser than deer
             mouse, grayish
             brown to grayish
             black
             Prefers overgrown
             areas w/ shrubs &
             tall grass
             Found in
             southeastern US,
             Central & South
             America
SYMPTOMS OF HPS
  Early symptoms include:
    Fatigue, fever, muscle aches (especially large
    muscle groups – thighs, hips, back, shoulders) –
    universal symptoms
    May also have headaches, dizziness, chills,
    abdominal problems (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
    pain) – experienced by +/- ½ of victims
  Incubation time is unclear at this time
    Limited info indicates 1 to 5 weeks
SYMPTOMS OF HPS
  Late symptoms include:
    Coughing, shortness of breath – universal
    symptoms
  Very uncommon symptoms:
    Earache, sore throat, and rash
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY
SYNDROME
  Person to person contamination of HPS is
  unlikely
  Deer mice (cotton & rice rats-SE US, white-
  footed mice-most of US) are the most
  common “carrier” of HPS
  Rodents “shed” the virus in their urine,
  droppings, and saliva
  Mainly transmitted to humans when we
  breathe air contaminated with the virus
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY
SYNDROME
  Contamination happens when fresh rodent
  urine, droppings or nesting material is stirred
  up into the air we breathe – this process is
  called “aerosolization”
  Rodent bites are very rare mode of infection
  May be able to contract virus if you touch
  contaminated object, then touch your nose or
  mouth
  Suspected that you can be infected by eating
  food contaminated with rodent urine,
  droppings, or saliva
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY
SYNDROME
  Disease transmission can happen any place
  rodents have infested such as: homes,
  barns, sheds, outbuildings, warehouses,
  summer homes, etc.
  Preventing rodents from infesting areas
  where you live and work is extremely
  important
  Disinfecting rodent-infested areas is very
  important to preventing the disease
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  Avoid contact with rodent infested
  areas
    Closed up rooms, cabins, warehouses
    Housecleaning activities in rodent infested
    areas
    Really stirring up the dust
    Large populations of rodents
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  Make your home, workplace, summer
  home or campsite unattractive to
  rodents
   If you don’t provide rodents with food and
   nesting material…
   You are much less likely to come into
   contact with them!
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  Recent research indicates that…
    Many people who became ill with HPS got
    the disease after frequent contact with
    rodents and/or their droppings around
    home or work
  Therefore…it makes sense to try to
  keep your home, vacation place,
  workplace, or campsite clean
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  Indoor Prevention Strategies…
    Keep your space clean…
    Keep tight lid on garbage…
    Set & keep spring loaded traps…
    Set EPA approved rodent bait…
    Use flea killer if bubonic plague is an area
    concern…
    Seal all entry holes ¼ inch and larger
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  Outdoor Prevention Strategies…
    Clear brush, grass, & junk from around
    buildings
    Use metal flashing around base of wooden,
    earthen, adobe (to 12” + above ground, 6”
    into ground)
    Elevate hay & woodpiles
    Trap rodents outside
    Encourage presence of natural preditors
    (snakes, owls, hawks, etc.)
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  Remember…getting rid of all rodents
  isn’t feasible…but with ongoing effort,
  you can keep populations very low…
COMMON SIGNS OF RODENT
INFESTATION
  You see rodent droppings…
  You see signs of rodent nesting…
  You find food containers that appear to be
  “nibbled”
  You find signs of “feeding stations”
  You find evidence of gnawing
  You notice an odd, stale smell
  You see a mouse in your area
How to clean up infested areas
   Open buildings or closed areas and air them
   out before cleaning
   Wear personal protective equipment…
     Latex or nitrile gloves and P100 respirator
   Don’t stir up dust by sweeping or vacuuming
   Thoroughly wet contaminated areas…let
   stand 5 minutes
     Most general purpose disinfectants, household
     detergents are effective
     Hypochlorate solution (mix 1 ½ cups bleach in 1
     gallon of water) may be used in place of
     commercial disinfectant
How to clean up infested areas
   Once contaminated area is wet, take up
   contaminated materials with damp towel,
   then mop or sponge area with disinfectant
   Spray dead rodents with disinfectant…double
   bag with all cleaning materials and bury or
   burn
   Disinfect gloves before taking them off
     After taking off the gloves, thoroughly wash hands
     with soap and warm water
WEST NILE VIRUS
WEST NILE VIRUS
  No documented cases in Western Hemisphere
  until 1999
  In 1999 & 2000 WNV encephalitis reported in
  New York City Metro area, New Jersey, and
  Connecticut – 83 cases, 9 deaths
  In 2001 WNV occurred in 10 states w/ 66
  cases, 9 deaths
  In 2002 WNV spread to 44 states w/4,156
  cases, 284 deaths
Overview of West Nile Virus
(WNV)
   WNV is a mosquito-borne disease that
   can cause encephalitis or meningitis
     Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain
     tissue
     Meningitis is an inflammation of the
     membranes that envelop the brain or
     spinal cord
WEST NILE VIRUS
  Transmitted to humans via mosquito bites
  Mosquitoes are infected by feeding on
  infected birds that have high level of WNV in
  their blood
  WNV is NOT transmitted from person to
  person
  No evidence that people get WNV from
  handling live or dead infected birds (use
  barriers as a precaution anyway)
WEST NILE VIRUS
  Most WNV infected humans have no
  symptoms
  Small proportion develop mild symptoms
  including fever, headache, body aches, skin
  rash, swollen lymph glands – West Nile fever
  More serious infections include high fever,
  headache, neck stiffness, stupor,
  disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions,
  paralysis – West Nile encephalitis
WEST NILE VIRUS
  Less than 1% develop more severe
  symptoms including meningitis or
  encephalitis
  Estimated 1 in 1000 (0.1%) developing
  encephalitis die
  No specific treatment or vaccination
WEST NILE VIRUS
                  Prevention is your
                  best course of
                  action!
                  Avoid mosquito
                  bites-use “DEET”
                  Clean out
                  mosquitoes where
                  you work and play
WEST NILE VIRUS US
Distribution (from USGS)
                          West Nile was first
                          isolated in
                          1937…known to
                          cause infection and
                          fever in humans in
                          Africa, West Asia,
                          and Middle East…
Human Positive
Avain (Bird)
                 Deaths
Negative
WEST NILE VIRUS US
Distribution (From CDC)
WEST NILE VIRUS WY
Distribution
               Avian (Bird) cases
               by county:
WEST NILE VIRUS WY
Distribution
               Animal cases by
               county
WEST NILE VIRUS WY
Distribution
               Human Cases By
               County:
WEST NILE VIRUS Prevention
  When outdoors, wear clothing that covers the
  skin
  Apply effective insect repellent to clothing &
  exposed skin (DEET, etc.)
  Curb activity during dawn & dusk
  Apply screens to doors & windows & regularly
  maintain them
  Reduce the amount of standing water around
  home or work
PLEASE REMEMBER!


Safety and Health IS NOT just a “9
to 5” job! You should be safe AT
HOME as well as AT WORK!

								
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