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Intuitively clearer proofs of the sum of squares formula

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									Intuitively clearer proofs of the
    sum of squares formula


          Jonathan A. Cox
       SUNY Fredonia Sigma Xi
         December 7, 2007
                 Riemann sums




Area under curve ≈ sum of areas of rectangles
Δx=width of each rectangle

      Σ
Area ≈ f(xi)Δx
Handy formulas for computing Riemann sums
Handy formulas for computing Riemann sums

• Sum of integers
Handy formulas for computing Riemann sums

• Sum of integers

• Sum of squares
Handy formulas for computing Riemann sums

• Sum of integers

• Sum of squares

• Sum of cubes
Handy formulas for computing Riemann sums

• Sum of integers

• Sum of squares

• Sum of cubes

• Even fourth powers!*


 *D. Varberg and E. Purcell. Calculus with Analytic Geometry. Sixth Ed.
Why is   ?
                  Why is                           ?
Gauss Legend



1 + 2 + 3 + ∙ ∙ ∙ + 49 + 50 + 51 + 52 + ∙ ∙ ∙ + 98 + 99 + 100
                  Why is                           ?
Gauss Legend



1 + 2 + 3 + ∙ ∙ ∙ + 49 + 50 + 51 + 52 + ∙ ∙ ∙ + 98 + 99 + 100
                  Why is                           ?
Gauss Legend



1 + 2 + 3 + ∙ ∙ ∙ + 49 + 50 + 51 + 52 + ∙ ∙ ∙ + 98 + 99 + 100


50 pairs, each with sum 101
Standard proofs of sum of squares
Standard proofs of sum of squares
• Induction
  Induction Proof of                       .

• Base case: Let n=1. Then



• Induction step: Assume the formula is holds
  for n and show that it works for n+1.
Standard proofs of sum of squares
• Induction
• Telescoping sum of cubes
Standard proofs of sum of squares
• Induction
• Telescoping sum of cubes




These proofs are not intuitively clear!
     Regrouping the sum by odds
• Every perfect square is a sum of consecutive
  odd numbers.
• 36=1+3+5+7+9+11
• Write each square in the sum as a sum of odds.
• Regroup all like odds together and add these
  first.
• These two different ways of summing the
  squares give an equality which can be solved
  for the desired sum.
Regrouping the sum by odds
Regrouping the sum by odds
     Regrouping the sum by odds
• Better, but not intuitively clear
     Regrouping the sum by odds
• Better, but not intuitively clear
• Involves algebraic acrobatics
    Regrouping the sum by odds
• Better, but not intuitively clear
• Involves algebraic acrobatics
• Had this explanation been discovered
  previously?
     Regrouping the sum by odds
• Better, but not intuitively clear
• Involves algebraic acrobatics
• Had this explanation been discovered
  previously?
• Martin Gardner’s skyscraper construction
  (Knotted Doughnuts and other Mathematical Entertainments)
  The quest for an intuitively clear proof
• Benjamin, Quinn and Wurtz give a proof by
  counting squares on an n x n chessboard in 2
  different ways. (College Math. J., 2006)
• Benjamin and Quinn give another “purely
  combinatorial” proof in Proofs that Really Count.
• There are more than 10 different proofs!
• And………………….
• SOME OF THEM ARE INTUITIVELY CLEAR! 
• We’ll look at up to five of the remaining proofs
  (as time permits).
       Solving a linear system
• By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
        Solving a linear system
• By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
• Assume the formula is a polynomial in n
        Solving a linear system
• By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
• Assume the formula is a polynomial in n
• First, what’s the degree of the polynomial?
          Solving a linear system
•   By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
•   Assume the formula is a polynomial in n
•   First, what’s the degree of the polynomial?
•   The third differences are constant, so the
    formula will be cubic.
        Solving a linear system
• By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
• Assume the formula is a polynomial in n
• First, what’s the degree of the polynomial?
• The third differences are constant, so the
  formula will be cubic.
• Want to find the 4 coefficients (variables)
        Solving a linear system
• By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
• Assume the formula is a polynomial in n
• First, what’s the degree of the polynomial?
• The third differences are constant, so the
  formula will be cubic.
• Want to find the 4 coefficients (variables)
• First 4 sums of squares give 4 equations
         Solving a linear system
• By Don Cohen, from www.mathman.biz
• Assume the formula is a polynomial in n
• First, what’s the degree of the polynomial?
• The third differences are constant, so the
  formula will be cubic.
• Want to find the 4 coefficients (variables)
• First 4 sums of squares give 4 equations
• Solve system of 4 linear equations in 4 variables
Looking to geometry
                   Looking to geometry
A sum of squares          ≈ volume of a pyramid with
                                 square base




Source: David Bressoud, Calculus Before Newton and Leibniz: Part II,
   http://www.macalester.edu/~bressoud/pub/CBN2.pdf
    “Fiddling with the bits that stick out"
• Sum of squares = volume of the pyramid
• Why not just use volume formula for a pyramid?
• It’s not a true pyramid, more like a staircase….
  "A very pleasant extension to stacking oranges is to consider the
  relationship between the volume of the indicative pyramid and
  the sum of squares, taking cubic oranges of one unit of volume.
  This, eventually, after some fiddling to account for bits that stick
  out and bits that stick in, generates the formula for summing
  squares." (A.W., UK)
http://nrich.maths.org/public/viewer.php?obj_id=2497
    “Fiddling with the bits that stick out"




• Underlying pyramid has volume n3/3
• Add in the half-cubes (triangular prisms) above the slice
• Subtract off volumes of n little pyramids added twice
    Archimedes’ proof with pyramids
(D. Bressoud -- http://www.macalester.edu/~bressoud/pub/CBN2.pdf)
    Archimedes’ proof with pyramids
(D. Bressoud -- http://www.macalester.edu/~bressoud/pub/CBN2.pdf)
  Winner 1: The Greek rectangle method
Doug Williams, http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/PSTC/cc/pyramids.htm


• This is the same construction that Martin Gardner
  described using skyscrapers!
 Winner 1: The Greek rectangle method




Doug Williams, http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/PSTC/cc/pyramids.htm
Winner 1: The Greek rectangle method
  How Martin Gardner described it as a skyscraper
  Winner 1: The Greek rectangle method
Doug Williams, http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/PSTC/cc/pyramids.htm


• This is the same construction that Martin Gardner
  described using skyscrapers!
• Flesh out the skyscaper with a sequence of squares
  on each side to make a rectangle.
• Each sequence of squares has area                     !

• The rectangle has dimensions n(n+1)/2 and 2n+1 !
 Winner 1: The Greek rectangle method




Doug Williams, http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/PSTC/cc/pyramids.htm
                       By the way…
• The sum of integers formula can be proved
  with a similar geometric construction.
(D. Bressoud -- http://www.macalester.edu/~bressoud/pub/CBN2.pdf)
     Winner 2: The six-pyramid construction
      Doug Williams, http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/PSTC/cc/pyramids.htm


•   6 identical “sum of first n squares” pyramids
•   Fit them together to form a rectangular prism
•   It has dimensions n, n+1, and 2n+1
•   Thus



• It’s fairly easy to see that this works for n+1 if it
  works for n.
     Winner 2: The six-pyramid construction
      Doug Williams, http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/PSTC/cc/pyramids.htm


•   6 identical “sum of first n squares” pyramids
•   Fit them together to form a rectangular prism
•   It has dimensions n, n+1, and 2n+1
•   Thus



• It’s fairly easy to see that this works for n+1 if it
  works for n. (Induction?!)
What makes a good proof?
     What makes a good proof?
• It should convince the intended audience that
  the statement is true.
                   Appendix:
     Ways of proving sum of squares formula
1. Induction
2. Telescoping cubic sum
3. Regrouping as odds
4. Pyramid of cubes--fiddling to account for bits
5. Three lines on chessboard (Benjamin-Quinn-Wurtz)
6. Combinatorial (Benjamin-Quinn)
7. Archimedes: Fitting together three pyramids
8. Solving a system of 4 linear equations in 4 variables
9. Fitting together six pyramids
10.Greek rectangles (Martin Gardner's skyscraper)
11.Integration
                Sum of cubes
How many rectangles are there on a chessboard?
                                  9 horizontal lines
                                     9 vertical lines
                                Choose two of each



                       rectangles on an 8 x 8 board
                     In general,
there are         rectangles on an n x n board.
                 Sum of cubes
But the number of rectangles is also          !

                              There are k3 rectangles
                                     with maximum
                                        coordinate k.



Source: A. Benjamin, J. Quinn and C. Wurtz.
Summing cubes by counting rectangles, CMJ, 2006.
Can we do sum of squares on the chessboard?

• The number of squares on an n x n chessboard
  is
•   .




•                                             .




Perhaps choosing three total horizontal and
  vertical lines determines four squares….
This approach doesn’t seem to work.
Can we do sum of squares on the chessboard?
Yes!
Can we do sum of squares on the chessboard?
Yes!
Benjamin, Quinn, and Wurtz do this.
Can we do sum of squares on the chessboard?
Yes!
Benjamin, Quinn, and Wurtz do this.




This is still lacking in intuitive clarity….

								
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