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civil war ppt-1.ppt - mabryonline.org mabryonline.org

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									Civil War
           The Civil War-
    April 12, 1861-April 9, 1865
 THE   BEGINNING
 April 10, 1861, Confederacy
  orders surrender of Fort Sumter
  (S.C.)
 April 12, Confederate troops fire
  on Fort Sumter.
       Preparations for War

 Both, North and South began training
  troops and gathering supplies.
 Number of seceded states rose to 11
  by start of war. VA, NC, TN, AK
  followed the original 7
 MO, KY, MD, and DE all remained in
  Union, but allowed slavery (border
  states)
 Lincoln called for volunteers to only
  serve for 90 days. War lasted 1, 458
  days. After 1st year recruits asked to
  enlist for 3 yrs.
 By summer 1861, Confederacy had
  112,000 soldiers and union had
  187,000.
 By end Confederacy had 850,000 and
  union 2.1 million.
 Union: 200,000 black soldiers, and
  10,000 Hispanic.
      Northern Advantages

 Superior RR system
 75% nation’s wealth

 Control of sea

 Industrial capacity

 Access to overseas supplies and
  markets
 4 times as many people
 Larger army
 More war ships

 Better banking system (raise money)

 Abraham Lincoln (great and wise
  leader)
      Southern Advantages

 Large territory
 Well trained officers

 Robert E. Lee

 Fighting for independence

 Didn’t need victory, only a draw

 Defensive Strategy
 Public opinion in the north was
  divided on war.
 Many northerners believed south
  would win based on American
  Revolution
 Strong support of white population to
  war.
       Conditions in North
 22 million people
 Strong, well trained army

 Manufactured weapons

 RR built to carry heavy loads of
  manufactured goods
 Industrial society

 23 northern and western states

 Smooth functioning governments

 Able to get into war quickly
        Conditions in South

 9 million people (3 1/2 million slaves)
 No strong navy or trained army

 Didn’t manufacture guns or
  ammunition.
 RR built to carry light loads of farm
  products.
Soldiers
•Nicknamed Johnny Reb and Billy
Yank
•Usually under 21
•25,000 were 16 yrs. Old or younger
•Most came from lower economic
group (not slave owners)
•Most were not well trained in
military.
Soldier’s
Clothing
•The Union usually wore Blue
uniforms and the Confederacy wore
Gray.
•Many did not have official uniforms
and many were hand made.
•Some soldiers did not receive
uniforms and therefore only wore
everyday clothing.
•Each branch had different colored trim
on uniforms. Ex: Artillery had red trim,
Infantry-blue, cavalry-yellow.
•Soldiers carried knapsacks to hold any
paper, pictures, books, and toilet
articles. Some carried these items
wrapped in blankets.
•Also carried a musket and a leather
box for ammunition.
Union soldier’s usually ate better than
southern soldiers because they were
able to get supplies easier than the
south (blockades)
Each side received daily rations, or
portions of food. Ex: 20 ounces of
beef, 2.56 ounces of dried beans, 1.6
ounces of green coffee, 2.4 ounces of
sugar, and .64 ounces of salt.
Many had to depend on food from the
woods or taken from farms.
Some of the weapons included:
Bowie Knife, bayonet, field
cannon, grenades, land mines,
musket, navel mines, navel swivel
cannon, pistol, revolving rifle,
revolver, rockets, Gatling gun.
Hot Air Balloons in the
        Military
Ironclad Ships
Gatling Gun
Other firsts:
•Railroad artillery
•Submarine
•“snorkel” breathing device
•Periscope for trench warfare
•Land-Mines
•Field Trenches
•Flame Throwers
•Wire entanglements
•Military telegraph
•Navel torpedoes
•Antiaircraft fire
•Repeating rifles
•Telescopic sights for rifles
•Long-range rifles
•Organized medical and nursing corps
•Hospital ships
•Army ambulance corps
•Legal voting for servicemen
•U.S. secret service
•Income tax
•Tobacco tax
•Cigarette tax
•The Medal of Honor
•Corps of press correspondents in battle
areas
•Photography of battle
•Negro U.S. Army Officer (Major M.R.
Delany)
•American President assassinated
•Department of Justice (Confederate)
Blockade Strategy: Obstruct all
Confederate ports and seize the
Mississippi river. Was put into place to
stop south from selling cotton and from
getting supplies. Seizing Mississippi was
to split the Confederacy in half leaving
Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana
stranded. This was the Anaconda Plan.
Capture of Richmond: This plan failed
because Robert E. Lee was able to hold
off Union armies.


Destroy Cities: This plan was very
successful. The plan was to burn and
destroy every city and town so that
civilians would stop supporting the war.
Ex: Sherman’s march through GA.
Wear down the North: South thought
that many casualties would wear the north
down.
Destroy the Blockades: Used ironclads
and subs to sink the Union’s wooden ships.
Also used raiders (fast ships) to get past
blockades.
King Cotton Diplomacy: Stop selling
cotton to England and France and
eventually they would come and help
south win to keep receiving cotton. It
did not work.
On Sept. 22, 1862 Lincoln issued the
Emancipation Proclamation. This stated
that unless the south surrendered by
January 1, 1863, “all slaves in states
and districts in rebellion against the
United States on Jan. 1, 1863 will be
thenceforth free.”
If south had of surrendered, slavery
would not have ended at this point.
Battles
Bull Run: Also called the battle of
Manassas because it was located at
Manassas, Virginia. This was the 1st
major battle of the Civil War. Both sides
were not well trained. Stonewall Jackson
(Confederacy) became famous during
this battle. The Confederacy won, and
the Union realized that this would not be
a quick war. Many civilians came to
watch the event Confederacy did not
continue on to capture Washington D.C.
Antietam: The bloodiest one-day battle.
Fought near Antietam Creek in
Sharpsburg, MD. About 6,000 died and
17,000 wounded. Neither army was
defeated. Robert E. Lee’s orders were
found by a Union soldier, but George
McClellan the Union General was still not
able to defeat the south, so Lincoln fired
him and replaced him with General
Ambrose Burnside.
Gettysburg: Occurred in Gettysburg,
 Pennsylvania. Robert E. Lee attempted
 to break through and head to
 Washington D.C.
3 things affected the battle: 1. neither
  side had whole army when battle
  began.
2.General J.E.B. Stuart and his cavalry
  had gone in another direction.
3.James Longstreet failed to join Lee .
Estimated that 23,000 Union and 28,000
 Confederates died. This was a 3 day
 battle.
Fort Pulaski: On Tybee Island off the
coast of Savannah. First area to see
action in GA. On Jan. 3, 1861
Confederate Troops captured it.
In April 1862, Union took it back, after
the commander refused to give it up. A
day and a half battle took place.
Chickamauga: Located 7 miles south
of Chattanooga TN. Braxton Bragg
was the famous commander for the
south. He did not allow the North to
advance into GA. This was one of the
bloodiest battles of the war. Bragg
mistakenly did not follow the Union
army and push them further from GA.
This allowed Sherman to later advance
into GA
•Sherman’s immediate goal was to
capture Atlanta (transportation center of
south)
•He met resistance in Dalton, Resaca,
and New Hope.
•Because of the resistance it took
Sherman 4 months to reach Atlanta.
•Sherman was pushed back at
Kennesaw, but eventually advanced on.
•After remaining in Atlanta for 2 months,
he began his march to the sea, cutting a
path sixty miles wide and 300 miles
long, destroying everything in the path.
•On Dec. 24, 1864, Sherman gave
Lincoln a gift of the city of Savannah.
•Now the lower south was cut off from
the rest of the confederacy.
•On April 9,
1865, General
Lee surrendered
to General Grant
of the Union at
Appomattox
Courthouse in
Virginia.
          Terms of Surrender


•All officers and enlisted men in the
Confederate army would be paroled.
•All military equipment and weapons
had to be relinquished to the Union.
General
Ulysses S.
Grant of
the Union
General
Robert E.
Lee of the
Confederacy
            Cost of the War


•The war cost the U.S. government
about $2 million per day or about $6
billion total.
•The south spent about $4 billion on
the war effort.
•Around 620,000 soldiers died in the
Civil War

								
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