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• Jeans are casual pants made from denim, noted
  for their strength and comfort.

• The name for blue jeans was derived from the
  color of the fabric used to make them.

• Denim cloth itself has an unusual history. The
  name comes from serge de Nimes, or the serge of
  Nimes, France.
• The name for blue jeans was derived from the
  color of the fabric used to make them. Denim was
  treated with a blue dye obtained from the indigo

• Blue jean manufacturers imported indigo from
  India until the twentieth century, when synthetic
  indigo was developed to replace the natural dye.
• The first two steps in blue jeans manufacture are
  carding and spinning. In carding, the cotton is put
  through a machine with bent wire brushes.

• The brushes clean, disentangle, straighten, and
  gather the cotton threads into sliver. After
  several slivers are joined together, they are put
  on spinning machines that twist and stretch the
  cotton to form yarn.
   Preparing the cotton yarn

1 There are several steps between ginned cotton
   (cotton after it has been picked from fields and
   processed) and cotton yarn. The incoming cotton
   is removed from tightly packed bales and
   inspected before undergoing a process known as
   carding. In this process, the cotton is put through
   machines that contain brushes with bent wire

• Unlike many other cloths, denim is dyed before it
  is woven. The dye used is generally a chemically
  synthesized indigo.
The denim is dipped in the dye vat several times so
 that the dye forms many layers. This explains why
 blue jeans fade after washing.
 The yarn is then woven on large shutle-less looms.
    The blue threads are woven with white threads,
    but because the blue threads are packed closer
    together than the white ones, the blue color
    dominates the cloth.

 2. Other machines join several slivers together, and
    these slivers are then pulled and twisted, which
    serves to make the threads stronger. Next,
    these ropes are put on spinning machines that
    further twist and stretch the fibers to form
         Dyeing the yarn
3. Some cloths are woven and then dyed, but denim
   is usually dyed with chemically synthesized indigo
   before being woven. Large balls of yarn, called
   ball warps, are dipped in the indigo mixture
   several times so that the dye covers the yarn in
   layers. Although the exact chemicals used in such
   dyeing procedures remain trade secrets, it is
   known that a small amount of sulfur is often used
   to stabilize the top or bottom layers of indigo
Dyeing and Weaving the yarn
       Weaving the yarn
4 .The dyed yarn is then   slashed; that is, it is coated
  with sizing (any one of a variety of starchy
  substances) to make the threads stronger and
  stiffer. Once this operation is complete, the yarn
  threads are ready to woven with undyed filling
  yarn threads .

5 .The yarn is then woven on large mechanical looms.
   Denim is not 100 percent blue, as the blue dyed
   threads forming the warp(long, vertical threads)
   are combined with white threads forming the
   weft (shorter, horizontal
The denim cloth
   Denim is woven with the blue threads packed closer
    together than the white threads and with the blue
    threads covering three out of four white threads,
    the blue threads dominate.

6. At this point the denim is ready for finishing, a term
     referring to a variety of treatments applied to cloth
     after it is woven. With denim, finishing is usually
     fairly simple. The cloth is brushed to remove loose
     threads and lint, and the denim is usually skewed in a
     way that will prevent it from twisting when it is
     made into clothing. The denim may then be
     sanforized, or preshrunk. Preshrunk denim should
     shrink no more than three percent after three
  Making the blue jeans

7. Once the desired design is selected, patterns
    from the design are cut from heavy paper or
    cardboard. Up to 80 different sizes are
    possible from one pattern. The pieces of denim
    are then cut with high speed cutting machines
    from stacks 100 layers thick. Excluding rivets,
    buttons, and zippers, a pair of blue jeans
    contains about ten different pieces, from the
    pockets to the leg panels to the waistband and
    belt loops.
• 8 The pieces of denim are ready to be sewn at this
  point. Sewing is done in an assembly line fashion, with
  rows of industrial human-operated sewing machines.

•  First, the various pockets and belt loops are
  assembled. Next, one sewer attaches the pockets to
  the leg seams, another then sews the leg seams
  together, and still another attaches the waist-band.
• Once the waist band is secure, the belt loops may be
  stitched on and the buttons attached.

 Finally, the rivets are placed in the appropriate places
  and the maker's label is sewn on last.
9 Some jeans are prewashed and/or stone-washed to
    alter the appearance or texture of the finished

•   Prewashing involves washing the jeans in industrial
    detergent for a short time to soften the denim.
    Stone-washing also means washing the jeans, but
    pumice is added to the load, resulting in a faded

   Small stones (less than one inch [one centimeter] in
    diameter) produce an even abrasion, while large
    stones (about four inches [10 centimeters] in
    diameter) highlight the seams and pockets and
    produce a more uneven appearance.
10. The completed pair of blue jeans is I0 then
    pressed. They are placed into a large pressing
    machine that steam irons the entire garment
    at once in about a minute. A size tag is
    punched into the material and the jeans are
    folded, stacked, and placed in boxes according
    to style, color, and size before being sent to
    the warehouse for storage. When the jeans
    are selected to be sent to a store, they are
    put in large shipping cartons and sent on
    freight trains or trucks.

• The process of cloth making involves treating the fabric
  with a number of chemicals in order to produce clothing
  with such desirable characteristics such as durability,
  colorfastness, and comfort.
• Byproducts of denim manufacture include organic pollutants,
  such as starch and dye, which can be treated through
  biological methods.

• To decompose, such waste materials utilize so much oxygen
  that the life forms in the body of water would be denied
  the oxygen necessary for survival.
          Quality Control

• Cotton is a desirable natural fiber for several reasons.
  Cloth made from cotton is wear resistant, strong,
  flexible, and impermeable.
• Blue jeans are only as good as the cotton that goes
  into them, however, and several tests exist for cotton

• All bales of cotton are inspected by the denim
  manufacturer for the desired color, fiber length, and
  strength. Strength is the most important factor in blue
  jeans. It is measured by using a weight to pull it.
• When the fiber breaks, the force used to break it is
  measured. The cotton's strength index (weight of weight
  divided by weight of sample) is then calculated.

• The finished denim cloth is carefully inspected for defects.
  Each defect is rated on a government-defined scale ranging
  from one point for very small flaws to four points for major

• Blue jeans are also inspected after they are completed. If a
  problem can be corrected, the jeans are sent back for re-
  sewing. The pair is then inspected again and passed.

• The buttons are inspected to ensure that they and the
  buttonholes are of the proper size; the snaps,metal buttons,
  and rivets are checked for durability and their ability to
  withstand rust
How do we make jeans? And why
       so cheap? Watch!

• First, a pattern maker draws a jeans pattern based upon
  measurements (of samples) that were supplied by the jeans
  designer or the buyer's merchandiser.

• It takes approximately 15 pieces that make up a
standard pattern for a pair of standard 5 pocket jeans.

• A person, or a computer program, will then calculate
the optimal fabric consumption by puzzling all the pieces
of the jeans pattern on a paper that is placed on top of
the denim fabric. After drawing the cutting lines onto
this paper:
• The fabric is ready to be cut, the denim
is aid out in layers on a cutting table. Up to
100 layers of denim are stacked and
 weights are put on top of it to hold the
Denim fabric in place, while it is being cut.

• The separate parts of the jeans are cut
with a textile cutting machine and each piece
 is then marked with it's size, using a piece
Of chalk so it won't show after washing.
• It takes about 1.6 meters of denim fabric,
 several hundred meters of sewing thread
 6 rivets, 1 or 5 jeans buttons, 4 labels
(usually imitation leather), and optionally a
zipper to make a pair of jeans. An average
 jeans factory can make about 2.500 pair
of jeans per day.
      Different machines for
         each handling

On average, it will take about 15 minutes
 and 12 steps to make one pair of blue
• After the denim jeans are sewn together, they go
  out to a jeans washing plant where they are
  washed in what could best be described as:
  standard, yet very big, washing machines.
• A stonewash for 150 pairs of jeans takes 150 kilos
  of pumice stone and more than 750 liters of
  water. Depending on how faded the look will have
  to be, they will be washed somewhere between 30
  minutes and 6 hours.
• After the stone-washing process the
  denim garment is inspected for faults and
  loose threads are cut.
• Next the button(s) and rivets are placed using a
  special type of press.
After that the jeans go on to the garment
 packing room where final quality inspection
  takes place and paper tags and labels are
             placed or attached.
• A typical pair of jeans will have a hang tag,
  joker ticket, pocket flasher, leg sticker,
  inside care label with product of origin and
  assorted product id tags. When all is done,
  the jeans will be placed in a poly bag with
  proper warning text.
• And than packed in a box or bag, depending on the
  destination country, as some countries or
  territories have more strict packing regulations
  than others.
Levis jeans vs. Spykar Jeans
       vs. Killer Jeans

     6                             women

         levis   spykar   killer
Market share

               levis - 20
               spykar - 23
               killer - 18
               diesel - 15
               others - 23
• There’s no business like jeans business!!



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