Communications Promoting Through Communications

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					Promoting Through Communications

After planning a social product’s availability and accessibility through distribution, the social marketer will promote the product and its adoption through a communication programme

• • The first step is to differentiate target adopters as a mass and as individuals For target adopters as a mass, the most effective technique is the use of mass communications


For target adopters as individuals, direct approach is more appropriate, which includes:
– – Selective communications: Direct mail, telemarketing Personal communications: Word of mouth, One-to-one


These three channels of communication are mutually reinforcing
– They can and should be used together

The Mass Communications Process

Function of mass communications
• The key function of mass communication is:
– – – – – To inform and persuade Within a given period The largest possible number of target adopters About how the social product fits into their needs And how it fits better than alternative products

The hierarchy-of-effects model
• Informing and persuading takes places in a ‘hierarchy-of-effects’ process that starts with a learning effect
– – – – – – Awareness Knowledge Conviction Liking Preference Purchase

Mass communications decisions
• In using mass communications, the social marketer has five decisions to make:
– – – – – What communication objectives should be set What to say in the communication How to say it Where to place the communication How to time the communications

1. What objectives should be set
• Social marketer draws the objectives from objectives of social change campaign

• The key question is, what behavioural process of target adopters is likely to be involved?
• If behavioural process is one of learning, then objective is to promote awareness, recall & a favourable image of product • If adopters’ behavioural process starts with low involvement, then objective is to create awareness through attention-getting devices so that a trial adoption of the product can be triggered

2. What to say in communication
• The purpose of a communication message is to convey the superiority of the social product in satisfying the target adopter’s need
• In generic marketing terms, the message strategy

3. How to say it
• After deciding what communication should say, social marketer must frame the message so it’s attention getting and persuasive
• Three types of execution are available:
– Rational execution – Emotional execution – Non-verbal elements execution

Rational execution
• Key question to ask is whether an argument is more effective if it presents one or both sides of an issue
• Studies have identified that one-sided messages appear to work best with people who are already favourably predisposed to an idea or practice and who have a low level of education

• But two-sided messages work best when people are not predisposed to the product and have a higher level of education

Emotional execution
• Research has shown that negative messages work better when a social product presents a real solution to a problem
• While positive messages are appropriate to social products that offer a means of satisfying a personal goal or objective

Use of ‘fear appeals’
• The most often used negative appeal is ‘fear’ • Fear messages work best with those who have not thought of themselves as market for a social product

• Decision to execute fear-based messages should take several factors into account:
– A strong fear-based appeal is persuasive to those who have previously been unconcerned about a particular problem – Strong fear-based appeal works when accompanied by forcefully stated solutions to a perceived fear that can be easily implemented – A credible source stops people from discounting or underestimating a fear-based appeal

Use of ‘humour’
• Humour might be effective in social campaigns if used at the right place, at the right time and at the right dosages • Humour becomes stale if it is repeated too frequently
• Humour works well as long as the basic message is simple
– It is inappropriate for complex messages

Nonverbal elements
Nonverbal elements influence communication effectiveness:
• Vocal expression: Vocal characteristics are particularly critical in radio messages • Facial expressions: Facial cues can convey primary emotions viz., happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger disgust/contempt and interest • Body movement: Media viewers pay attention to body movements and gestures as cues to character and intention • Eye contact: Media figures who sustain eye contact with their audience have a persuasive effect • Spatial distance: Execution of a message can be affected by the spatial distance between senders and receivers

• Physical appearance: A physically attractive media figure is more persuasive than is an unattractive one

4. Where to place communication
• The next decision in planning mass communication is to select media through which to channel message
• The first task is to find media that match the communication programme’s requirements • The second task is to find media that match a social product’s personality • The social marketer must also evaluate media for their informational & persuasive appeal and impact

5. How to time the communications
• The timing and phasing of a communication is a scheduling decision
• The aim is to synchronize timing of a media message with hierarchy-of-effects stage of target adopters • Social marketers must make specific decisions about the timing of communications when the target adopter will be the greatest

Evaluating effectiveness
• Once the social marketer has put together a mass communication programme, the programme should be pre-tested
• After the programme is launched, it should be post-tested

Promoting Through Selective Communication

Mass communications can inform and persuade a large group of people in a brief time

Yet, complete knowledge of, say AIDS, depends on intensive, detailed communications, and may be beyond the ability of the mass media to communicate

High AIDS-high-risk people, need even more information than do others

This information is likely to come from selective types of media, rather than from the mass media

Selective communications
• Selective communication can do what mass communication cannot
• It can inform and persuade a predetermined set of target adopters in an interactive and flexible way • Selective communication may be used to supplement mass communication
– As a follow up technique that offers more intensive info – As a market segmenting technique which more precisely targets segments of a mass audience that social marketer seeks to reach

Techniques of selective communication
• Direct mail
– Can segment target into more uniform and definable clusters than can mass media and thus cuts down on wasted media reach – Can be personalized – Is more flexible than is mass communication – Can present opportunity for adoption by offering directions on how to adopt a product etc.,

• Telemarketing is the use of a telephone to perform the needed communication and promotional tasks • Telephone can be used in two ways:
– Inbound telemarketing – Outbound telemarketing

• Telemarketing is most suitable:
– To follow up mass communication and direct mail – To encourage and reinforce adopter loyalty – To obtain names of target adopters who may be more effectively persuaded

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