Approach to Social Change Social Marketing Approach to Social Change by plybz18

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									Social Marketing Approach to Social Change

Social marketing is a strategy for changing behaviour

It combines the best elements of the traditional approaches to social change in an integrated planning & action framework and utilizes advances in communication technology & marketing skills

It’s a social-change management technology involving the design, implementation and control of programmes aimed at increasing the acceptability of a social idea or practice in one or more groups of target adopters

It utilizes concepts of
market segmentation consumer research product concept development and testing, directed communication, facilitation, incentives and exchange theory

to maximize target adopters’ response

The sponsoring agency pursues the change goals in the belief that they will contribute to the individual’s or society’s best interests

The three elements…
• A social idea or practice • One or more groups of target adopters • A social-change management technology

Social product
• Change from an adverse idea or behaviour or adoption of new ideas and behaviours is the goal of social marketing
• There are three types of social products:
1. Idea 2. Practice 3. Tangible object

1: Idea
Social idea may be a belief, attitude or value • Belief
– A perception that is held about a factual matter – Ex., Cancer detection, anti-smoking campaigns etc.,

• Attitude
– Attitudes are positive or negative evaluations of people, objects, ideas or events – Ex., Family planning programmes

• Value
– Values are overall ideas of what is right or wrong – Ex., Human rights campaigns

2. Social practice
• The second type of a social product is a social practice
• It may be the occurrence of a single act
– Ex., Showing up for a vaccination, turning out to vote etc.,

• Or it may be the establishment of an altered pattern of behaviour
– Ex., quitting smoking, using condoms for birth control etc.,

3. Tangible object
• Third type of social product is a tangible object
– Ex., Pills, condom etc., in family planning campaigns – Ex., Safety belt in safe driving campaigns

• It should be understood that the main product is not the pill, condom or safety belt
– These are tools to accomplish a social practice

• The tangible product base refers to physical products that may accompany a campaign

More on social products…
• Social marketers promote ideas and social practices
– Their ultimate aim is to change behaviour

• The aim of a nutrition campaign is not just to help consumers know about and desire better nutrition
– But to change their eating habits

• Social marketers aim to bring about ‘purchase and use’ and to ‘close the sale’

Target adopters
• Social marketers aims to target one or more groups of target adopters • This warrants knowledge of target adopters:
– Socio-demographics
• Social class, income, education, age, family size etc,

– Psychological profile
• Attitudes, values, motivation, personality etc.,

– Behavioural characteristics
• Behaviour patterns, buying habits, decision making etc.,

Target adopters
• Need to identify influence-holding groups or influentials who can affect
• For instance…
– Religious groups may oppose the programme – Physicians may have to be recruited – Legislators may have to be apprised

• The aim is to neutralize the opposition and gain the support of influentials for the programme

Influence-holding groups
• Permission-granting groups
– Regulatory bodies whose permission or legal authorization may be required

• Support groups
– Physicians whose active support is needed for delivery of services in a contraceptive programme

• Opposition groups
– Religious community whose non-opposition or tolerance may be called for

• Evaluation groups
– Legislative committees whose post-evaluation may have beneficial or adverse effects

Social management technology
A social-change management technology must answer:
• Defining the fit
– What’s the fit between idea/practice and what target is looking for?

• Designing the fit
– What makes a good fit?

• Delivering the fit
– How do I bring this fit to my target?

• Defending the fit
– How do I sustain or change fit to defend it against premature demise?

1. Defining the product-market fit
• Create a new social product to meet a need not being satisfied or design a better product than that’s available
• It is what is called the ‘marketing concept’, in generic marketing

• The degree of product-market fit determines the value to the target of what the social marketer is offering

2. Designing the product-market fit
• The next task is to present the solution effectively to the target adopter group
• Three marketing inputs are needed:
– Translate the fit into corresponding positioning of social idea – Dress it up to reinforce the chosen positioning – Develop a reinforcing image for the cause that is consistent with the nature of the cause

• For ex., the case of oral rehydration therapy in Asia

3. Delivering the product-market fit
• The social marketer now is ready to deliver the desired social practice to the target • The required steps are a function of two factors:
– Whether there is a tangible product base – Whether the social idea requires personal service

• The social marketer should initiate activities that motivate the target to act now rather than later
– In sales parlance, it’s called ‘closing the sale’ – It includes activities viz., special events, incentives, rallies etc., that pull target into delivery outlet to try the product

4. Defending the product-market fit
• Final task is to sustain or change product-market fit to respond to changes in environment and in target
• The three steps in this campaign are:
– The target’s condition must be researched and monitored – Utilization of research – Execution of needed changes in the marketing plan

• Case in point: The case of nutrition biscuits in Central America

Social-Marketing Management Process

Social-Marketing Management Process
1. Analyzing the social marketing environment 2. Researching the target adopter population 3. Designing social marketing objectives and strategies
4. Planning social marketing programmes 5. Organizing, implementing, controlling and evaluating the social marketing effort

1. Analyzing the social marketing environment
• The first step is to analyze the environment immediately surrounding the particular social campaign
• What in generic marketing terms is referred to as the ‘situation analysis’

2. Researching the target adopter population
• Social marketers need to a achieve a thorough understanding of the target group and its needs • Segment the target adopter population into clusters that have common characteristics
• The question of the needs of the target adopters now becomes more specific and strategic
– For ex., what does drug use satisfy?

• Other tasks here include: developing a positioning strategy, identifying competition etc.,

3. Designing social marketing objectives and strategies
• Strategy specifies the game plan for achieving the objectives of the social marketing campaign • Consists of basic decisions on total expenditures, marketing mix and marketing allocation
• Social marketers must set specific, measurable and attainable marketing objectives

• Aim is to start with broadly stated objectives but then identify specific behaviour and actions of target that manifest broadly stated objectives

Designating specific measurable objectives from broadly stated ones
Broad objectives
Prevention of accidents

Wearing seat belts Maintaining safe distances Reducing drunken driving Correct pedestrian behaviour Promoting energy consciousness Installing energy-saving devices Locking car doors Keeping valuables out of sight Keeping matches out of kids’ reach Safe warehousing practices

Energy conservation

Crime prevention Fire prevention

3. Researching the target adopter population (contd)
• Social marketers must next decide how to allocate budget to several tools in social-marketing mix
• The social marketing mix includes:
– Product, Price, Place, Promotion – Personnel, Presentation, Process

• Next step is to allocate the budget to various elements of social marketing mix
– How much should go to direct non-personal versus direct personal communication – To promotion incentives versus better service delivery?

4. Planning social marketing programmes
• After the broad strategy is formulated the management of more detailed social-marketing mix programmes must be prepared • The marketing-mix elements of mass and selective communication to be turned into tactical programmes
• Tactical programmes must also be developed for distribution, direct personal communication, pricing, delivery of services etc.,

5. Organizing, implementing, controlling and evaluating social marketing effort
• The final step in the process is:
– – – – To organize the marketing resources Implement the social marketing mix programmes Control the performance of the programmes Evaluate the results of that implementation

• Even the best, most carefully drawn plan gets nowhere until it’s effectively implemented and controlled

• This requires data about target’s responses to the implemented social programme
– Which is generated by social marketing research

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