strands by suiqizheng


									Problem-based learning

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an active learning approach that involves students in solving
problems similar to those they may find in life. In a PBL environment, teachers act as facilitators and
coaches, enabling students to take responsibility for learning and developing higher order thinking

Inquiry-based learning

Inquiry-based learning is a student centred or active learning approach that takes as its starting point
the natural process of inquiry, building on this to develop information processing and problem-
solving skills. The focus is on 'how we know' rather than 'what we know', with students actively
involved in the construction of their own knowledge.

Bloom's taxonomy

Bloom's taxonomy is a useful model for ensuring that higher order thinking tasks are included in
curriculum planning. It was revised by Anderson in 1999 and is based on a six-level classification of
cognitive development:







Six thinking hats

The six thinking hats and the Cognitive Research Trust technique (CoRT) programs were developed
by Edward de Bono.

The six thinking hats are a model for the direct teaching and practising of parallel thinking. Each hat
represents a different type of thinking and students are initially formally taught the meaning of each
hat and the rules for their use.

The six hats are:
•white hat – information

•red hat – feelings

•black hat – caution/problem

•yellow hat – benefits/value

•green hat – ideas/creativity

•blue hat – facilitating/organising.


In planning activities and managing assessment, teachers should ensure that assessment is based on
a variety of tasks and is inclusive of the learning needs of all students. Multiple sources of
information should be used to make judgments about specific skills and depth of understanding.
Assessment tasks need to be developed with the goals and objectives of the unit in mind and must
reflect the learning objectives outlined. These sources include:

•negotiated tasks with negotiated assessment criteria

•self assessment and reflection

•group assessment


•learning journals




•peer evaluations

Negotiated tasks and assessment

A collaborative approach to developing assessment criteria for different purposes and audiences can
enable students to become better focused and engaged in learning. In relating assessment criteria to
clearly developed learning expectations within a given task, students think carefully about what is
being assessed and the kinds of evidence that would need to be provided to show their
understanding. The negotiation of assessment tasks is central to contract work and teachers need to
maintain accurate records of the tasks being undertaken to ensure that students are demonstrating
their skills and knowledge across a wide range of options.
Teachers lead the discussion by presenting students with options for decision-making about the
kinds of evidence that might be provided to assess negotiated tasks. (For example, see options
under Group assessment)

Reflection, peer and self-assessment

Self-assessment is a powerful tool in empowering students to monitor their learning and set goals
for improvement. Effective self assessment includes the student as an active partner, enabling them
to evaluate their strengths and attitudes, analyse their progress in a particular area, and set goals for
future learning. With practice, students who self-assess become more conscious learners, able to
apply knowledge of their learning needs and styles to new areas of study.

Before engaging in self assessment students must be aware of the assessment criteria and objectives
of the unit being taught. Within this framework they need to examine their work and think about
what they do well and in which areas they still need help. Once students have reflected on their
learning they are ready to set new goals for themselves. As they work toward these goals they
should be encouraged to reflect on their learning journey at regular intervals.

The quality of the self-assessment will depend on the tools, support and modelling given by the
teacher (which will depend on the age and skill level of the students), the way in which self-
assessment is built into the learning process, the guiding questions asked and the opportunity to
regularly engage in self-assessment.

Possible tools, self-assessment checklists and inventories to aid self-assessment include PMI graphic
organiser, de Bono’s six thinking hats and Reflective journals.

Peer assessment

This is assessment of students by other students. It benefits the learning for the student receiving
the feedback and the student conducting the assessment. It encourages student autonomy and
higher order thinking skills as students develop skills in evaluating and justifying the decisions they
Peer and self assessment are often undertaken together as evaluating the work of other students
helps students to reflect on their own work and learning more effectively. Peer assessment is most
effective when it is embedded into the learning in the unit and students are provided with the
opportunity to learn from their mistakes in a non threatening environment.

Group assessment

Groups of students (class or small groups) negotiate and develop their own criteria for participation
in discussion and in teamwork. For example:

•listens to, builds on or challenges the ideas of others through questions of clarification and

•poses and answers questions clearly

•responds sensitively to other participants

•encourages others to participate

•responds flexibly to group interactions

•deals with interjections

•maintains eye contact with speakers and listeners.

Criteria for assessing contribution to teamwork might include:

•participates constructively in group activities

•helps to define team goals and tasks

•fulfil and, where required, modifies a particular role

•identifies problems and poses solutions collaboratively

•supports group decisions.

A portfolio is a structured collection of samples of individual student's work, for example, reports,
electronic files, posters, summary notes, annotated illustrations, models, design briefs, business
plans, photos, multimedia presentations and reflections – designed to provide a record of the
student's activities and achievements in relation to teaching and learning goals over time.

A record of skills and evidence of performance (both ongoing and summative) incorporating self,
peer and teacher assessment, is an essential element of a student's portfolio. Teachers and students
work collaboratively to ensure that appropriate choices of materials are made that provide evidence
of a student's performance in terms of purpose and audience.

Portfolios can be electronic or hard copy documents depending on the focus and intention of the
final product. Portfolios are most effective when they are embedded into a triangulated interview
where they provide a discussion point for teachers, parents and students. Wherever possible
students should be given the opportunity to present or speak to their portfolios, outlining the
learning they achieved and the strategies which helped them achieve their goals.


Observations are a powerful way of gathering ongoing evidence of students' learning development.
They can take place in a variety of settings, across many activities, using a range of tools.

When planning to observe students, teachers should consider who they want to observe, what to
observe, and how to evaluate and document what they see. Teachers may choose to select smaller
groups of students over longer periods of time and focus on particular skills or knowledge to be
observed. Observational checklists can be developed to act as a recording guide for progress
towards the standards.

Observations Date Comment - examples Follow up to occur

1 Monitors own behaviour

2 Takes on group roles
3 Respects the opinions of other people

4 Shows empathy for others feelings

5 Reflects on values and beliefs of individuals and groups

6 Uses a range of strategies to manage conflict

Presentations, demonstrations and interviews

These are authentic assessment tools which help students to develop key, transferable skills, highly
valued by the community, and to make the connection between their learning and real world
learning contexts. The ability to actively engage in the assessment process through the verbalisation
or demonstration of their learning provides students with the opportunity to apply a range of skills
in meaningful, everyday situations.

Interviews or conferences, which can include any combination of student, peer, teacher, or parent,
assist students in reflecting upon and demonstrating their learning in another context. Students are
given an outline, program or criteria to guide them in preparation for the interview or conference.
They are also given time and assistance in developing support materials and gathering samples of
work to illustrate their learning and skill development. During their interview students are active
participants in discussing their learning, in demonstrating how they have developed this
understanding, and in setting goals for their future development. This process can be used in
conjunction with a portfolio or learning journal which contains samples of the students work and
reflections over time

The Arts - Level 4

Learning in the Arts draws on the arts disciplines of Dance, Drama, Media, Music, and Visual Arts
(Art: two-dimensional and three-dimensional) individually and in combination. Learning and
teaching programs allow students to develop skills, knowledge and understanding relevant to
specific arts disciplines with increasing competence. At this level students begin to explore the
interdisciplinary nature of arts disciplines; for example, by making installations that incorporate a
number of Visual Arts forms, by creating performances that include combinations of Music, Dance
and Drama, and/or by combining visual and performance arts forms. In programs associated with
Level 4, students should have experience in at least two arts disciplines.

Learning focus
As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in the Arts, they investigate a range
of traditional and contemporary arts forms, styles, media, materials, equipment and technologies in
the arts disciplines of Dance, Drama, Media, Music and Visual Arts – Art (two-dimensional and three-
dimensional) individually and in combination. They learn about ways to design, improvise, represent,
interpret, make and present arts works that communicate feelings and their interests and
understanding of themselves, their relationships and other people. For example:

•in Dance, students mirror the movements of a partner and then perform the same movements
expressing contrasting emotions

•in Drama, students role-play situations and events, sustaining role/character throughout their
group or solo performance.

They experiment with imaginative and innovative ways of generating ideas and manipulating arts
elements, principles and/or conventions to explore the potential of ideas, gaining inspiration from a
broad range of sources, including arts works from different cultures, styles and historical contexts.
For example:

•in Art, students view and discuss examples of portraits by artists from different cultural contexts,
then using mixed media, they create a work using techniques from a culture that is not their own

•in Music, students listen to and discuss the mood created in selected advertisement jingles or
sound tracks for a cartoon or a theme for a movie character, then using a variety of sound sources
and a range of sounds they create two arrangements of group-devised music to convey two different

Students research, improvise, practise and rehearse skills, techniques and processes, using a range
of media, materials, equipment and technologies. With some guidance, they maintain a record of
their planning and development (for example, in a visual diary or multimedia journal) noting when
they are achieving their aim. They also record the refining of specific aspects of the work when ideas
or attempts are not realising their intended purpose. Students learn to evaluate their own and other
people’s arts works showing some understanding of selected arts forms and their particular
techniques and processes as well as an emerging understanding of the qualities of arts elements,
principles and/or conventions. They independently and collaboratively explore and experiment with
different ways of presenting arts works and consider appropriateness of presentation for intended
audience. Through exploring and responding, students begin to develop a vocabulary of appropriate
arts language they can use to describe and discuss the content and structural qualities of their own
and other people’s arts works. They begin to research, and with guidance, analyse arts works to
interpret and compare key features, symbols and cultural characteristics of arts works in a range of
contemporary and traditional forms from different historic, social and cultural contexts. For
•in Media, students research media texts focusing on the use of a range of media technologies in the
production and presentation of news in different historical contexts, and then create a real or
imagined news item for their school community by working collaboratively from pre-production to
post-production and presentation of the news item.

They begin to reflect on their responses to other people’s works and consider other’s perspectives
when discussing arts works.

Further examples of arts discipline-specific learning approaches for Level 4 will be published soon.


Creating and making

At Level 4, students independently and collaboratively experiment with and apply a range of skills,
techniques and processes using a range of media, materials, equipment and technologies to plan,
develop, refine, make and present arts works. They investigate a range of sources to generate ideas
and manipulate arts elements, principles and/or conventions in a range of arts disciplines and forms
as they explore the potential of ideas. In their arts works, they communicate ideas and
understandings about themselves and others, incorporating influences from their own and other
cultures and times. They evaluate the effectiveness of their arts works and make changes to realise
intended aims. They consider purpose and suitability when they plan and prepare arts works for
presentation to a variety of audiences.

Exploring and responding

At Level 4, students discuss traditional and contemporary arts works using appropriate arts language
to describe the content, structure and expressive qualities of their own and other people’s works
from a range of arts disciplines and forms. They interpret and compare key features of arts works
made in a range of times, places and cultures. They identify and describe influences on their own
works and discuss the purposes for which arts works are created in different historical and cultural

English - Level 4

Learning focusAs students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in English, they
consolidate and build on their foundational learning in English related to texts and language.

Students compose, comprehend and respond to an expanding range of texts in print and audiovisual
and electronic forms that contain increasingly unfamiliar concepts, themes, information and issues.
With guidance, they reflect on reading, viewing, writing, speaking and listening in ways that develop
considered and critical approaches to a range of texts. These include extended literary texts such as
novels, short stories, poetry and non-fiction; everyday texts; and media texts including newspapers,
film and websites.

Students explore the relationship between the purpose and audience of texts and their structures
and features, for example: sentence and paragraph structure, grammar, figurative language and
organising structures in print texts; features of visual texts; and sound effects, characterisation and
camera angles used in film. They develop their knowledge of how texts are constructed for particular
purposes, and examine and challenge generalisations and simplistic portrayals of people and social
and cultural issues. They learn how to draw evidence from texts to support their points of view. They
experiment with several strategies when interpreting texts containing some unfamiliar ideas and
information, for example, reading on, using diagrams, and differentiating between statements of
fact or opinion.

Students write texts for a range of purposes that demonstrate their developing understanding of the
way imagery, characterisation, dialogue, point of view, plot and setting contribute to the meaning of
written and multimodal texts. They use this reflection, and their developing knowledge of the
generic structures of different types of texts (such as narratives, reports and arguments), as the basis
for composing an increasing range of written and spoken texts. Students become more systematic in
their use of strategies for writing (including note-making, using models, planning, editing and
proofreading) and make decisions about appropriate structures and features of language in texts for
different purposes and audiences. They develop terminology or metalanguage to talk about and
describe particular structures and features of language. They develop a multi-strategy approach to
spelling, applying morphemic knowledge and an understanding of visual and phonic patterns, and
select vocabulary for precise meaning.

Students engage in exploratory talk to share and clarify their ideas, to formulate simple arguments
and to seek the opinions of others. They participate in oral interactions for different purposes,
including entertaining, informing and influencing others. Students learn to sustain a point of view,
and provide succinct accounts of personal experiences or events.

They experiment with spoken language features such as pace, pitch and pronunciation to enhance
meaning as they plan, rehearse and reflect on their presentations. They build their capacity to
combine verbal and visual elements in texts to communicate ideas and information by using, for
example, presentation software or overheads.

When listening, students practise identifying the main idea and supporting details of spoken texts
and summarising them for others. They begin to identify opinions offered by others, propose other
viewpoints, and extend ideas in a constructive manner.

National Statements of LearningThis learning focus statement, in conjunction with aspects of the
Communication Level 4 learning focus statement, incorporates aspects of the Year 5 National
Statement of Learning for English.


At Level 4, students read, interpret and respond to a wide range of literary, everyday and media
texts in print and in multimodal formats. They analyse these texts and support interpretations with
evidence drawn from the text. They describe how texts are constructed for particular purposes, and
identify how sociocultural values, attitudes and beliefs are presented in texts. They analyse imagery,
characterisation, dialogue, point of view, plot and setting. They use strategies such as reading on,
using contextual cues, and drawing on knowledge of text organisation when interpreting texts
containing unfamiliar ideas and information.


At Level 4, students produce, in print and electronic forms, a variety of texts for different purposes
using structures and features of language appropriate to the purpose, audience and context of the
writing. They begin to use simple figurative language and visual images. They use a range of
vocabulary, a variety of sentence structures, and use punctuation accurately, including apostrophes.
They identify and use different parts of speech, including nouns, pronouns, adverbs, comparative
adverbs and adjectives, and use appropriate prepositions and conjunctions. They use a range of
approaches to spelling, applying morphemic knowledge and an understanding of visual and phonic
patterns. They employ a variety of strategies for writing, including note-making, using models,
planning, editing and proofreading.

Speaking and listening

At Level 4, students plan, rehearse and make presentations for different purposes. They sustain a
point of view and provide succinct accounts of personal experiences or events. They adjust their
speaking to take account of context, purpose and audience, and vary tone, volume and pace of
speech to create or emphasise meaning.

When listening to spoken texts, they identify the main idea and supporting details and summarise
them for others. They identify opinions offered by others, propose other relevant viewpoints and
extend ideas in a constructive manner.

The Humanities - History - Level 4

Learning focusAs students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in History, they
develop an understanding of change and continuity over time through the history of the
establishment and growth of Australia. They learn about the organisation and lifestyle of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander communities in the past, the impact of European settlement and as
enduring cultures today. They learn about the significance of key events, such as European
settlement, the establishment of the colonies, the development of the wool industry, the gold
rushes, the moves to self-government, Federation and World War I. They learn about key people in
Australia’s history (for example, James Cook, Caroline Chisholm, Edmund Barton, Vida Goldstein,
William Barak) who have brought about change. Through structured activities they explore links and
comparisons with contemporary Australia.

Students develop an understanding of the histories of the cultural groups which have contributed to
the Australian identity. This could include some history of source countries for Australian
immigration such as Italy, Greece, Poland, Sudan, Ireland, Chile or Vietnam. They explore the
concepts of nation, culture and identity in both Australian and regional contexts, and learn that
identity is complex, multifaceted and evolving.

Students apply their understanding of culture by investigating the history of an Asian country or
countries in the Australian region such as Indonesia, East Timor, India, China and Japan. They
consider how other societies are organised, how they express their beliefs and make meaning of
their world. They investigate significant people and events in that country’s recent history and learn
about daily life, religious traditions, customs and governance. They learn about links between other
countries and Australia, develop ideas about Eastern and Western traditions, and about the values
that are important to other societies and their own.

Students use a range of written, visual, oral and electronic sources to study the past. With support,
they frame research questions and plan their own inquiries using historical language and concepts
such as time, sequence, chronology, continuity, change, culture and, tradition. They begin to
question sources and make judgments about the viewpoints being expressed, the completeness of
the evidence, and the values represented. They learn to develop explanations in a range of forms
such as timelines, oral presentations, posters, multimedia presentations, reports and narratives.

National Statements of LearningThis Learning focus statement incorporates aspects of the National
Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship, Year 5.


Historical knowledge and understanding

At Level 4, students demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of significant events in
Australian history including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, European settlement, the
development of the colonies, the development of the wool industry, the 1850s gold rushes; the
moves to self-government, Federation; and World War I. They demonstrate an understanding of the
histories of some cultural groups which make up Australia today. They make links and appropriate
comparisons with contemporary Australia.

Students demonstrate an understanding of key aspects of an Asian country or countries within the
Australian region. They explain significant events and people in the history of that country or
countries. They describe aspects of governance, customs, religious traditions and daily life. They
explain the values important to other societies and their own and links between other countries and
They compare and contrast the values and beliefs of Australians and people of other cultures. They
compare aspects of different cultures and countries, in both the past and present, and ask questions
about their own society. They sequence events and describe their significance in bringing about
particular developments.

Historical reasoning and interpretation

At Level 4, students use a range of primary and secondary sources to investigate the past. With
support, they frame research questions and plan their own inquiries. They comprehend and
question sources and make judgments about the views being expressed, the completeness of the
evidence, and the values represented. They use appropriate historical language and concepts to
develop historical explanations. They present their understandings in a range of forms.


Thinking Processes - Level 4

Learning focusAs students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Thinking Processes,
they make observations and pose questions about people and events within and beyond their own
experience, and develop a growing awareness of the complexity of the world around them.

Using these questions as a basis, students undertake investigations independently and with others.
Their investigations include time for sustained discussion, deliberation and inquiry, with teachers
providing appropriate tools and support in this process. Students develop strategies to find suitable
sources of information and they learn to distinguish between fact and opinion. They develop an
understanding of how our views are socially constructed and not always based on evidence.

Students increase their repertoire of thinking strategies for gathering and processing information.
These include identifying simple cause and effect, elaborating and analysing, and developing logical
arguments. They begin to consider which strategies may be most appropriate for particular learning
contexts. They increasingly focus on tasks that require flexible thinking for decision making,
synthesis and creativity.

Students participate in activities in which they identify problems that need to be solved. They use a
range of techniques to represent the problem and, working individually and with others, develop a
range of creative solutions and explore the advantages of generating unconventional rather than
conventional solutions. They begin to develop criteria to select and prioritise possible solutions.

They learn to make links between ideas and use portfolios and/or journals to reflect on how their
ideas and beliefs change over time. In structured activities, they practise transferring their
knowledge to new contexts.

Reasoning, processing and inquiry

At Level 4, students develop their own questions for investigation, collect relevant information from
a range of sources and make judgments about its worth. They distinguish between fact and opinion.
They use the information they collect to develop concepts, solve problems or inform decision
making. They develop reasoned arguments using supporting evidence.


At Level 4, students use creative thinking strategies to generate imaginative solutions when solving
problems. They demonstrate creativity in their thinking in a range of contexts and test the
possibilities of concrete and abstract ideas generated by themselves and others.

Reflection, evaluation and metacognition

At Level 4, students use a broad range of thinking processes and tools, and reflect on and evaluate
their effectiveness. They articulate their thinking processes. They document changes in their ideas
and beliefs over time.

Communication - Level 4

Learning focusAs students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Communication,
they use their understanding of communication conventions to communicate effectively with peers
and to respond appropriately when they are part of an audience; for example, by waiting for the
communication of others to be completed before responding. They practise listening attentively to
identify and communicate main points to others. They reflect on the implicit messages received
through body language and begin to understand that verbal and non-verbal messages do not always
correspond. They practise sending consistent messages during their interactions.

Students experience a variety of aural, written and visual communication forms in both formal and
informal settings; for example electronic communication, performance and oral presentations. With
support, they interpret these forms and begin to understand that their interpretation may be
influenced by their own knowledge, values and beliefs, by persuasive devices such as emotive
language, and by the opinions of others. When making meaning, students continue to develop skills
in asking clarifying questions and seeking validation of their interpretations from their peers. They
compare and contrast differing interpretations and explore why they differ.
Students begin to recognise the purpose of specialised language across the curriculum and to use
this appropriately in their own communication; for example, ‘the system known as the Earth and
Moon operate within the solar system’ or, when describing characteristics of a music composition, ‘I
used dotted rhythms and lots of staccato to give a feeling of energy’.

Students develop their skills in organising ideas and information logically and clearly to suit their
purpose and the needs of their audience. For formal presentations they begin to select appropriate
forms for sharing knowledge and influencing others; for example, adding sound to presentation

In response to audience feedback, students experiment with ways to improve their communication;
for example, projecting their voice to be heard clearly and making sure that the audience can see
any visual aids. With support, students use provided criteria to evaluate and reflect on the
effectiveness of their communication and to provide feedback on the communication of others.

National Statements of LearningThis Learning focus statement incorporates aspects of the National
Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship, Year 5.


Listening, viewing and responding

At Level 4, students ask clarifying questions about ideas and information they listen to and view.
They develop interpretations of the content and provide reasons for them. They explain why peers
may develop alternative interpretations. They describe the purpose of a range of communication
strategies, including non-verbal strategies, and evaluate their effectiveness for different audiences.


At Level 4, students summarise and organise ideas and information, logically and clearly in a range of
presentations. They identify the features of an effective presentation and adapt elements of their
own presentations to reflect them. Using provided criteria, they evaluate the effectiveness of their
own and others’ presentations.


Personal Learning - Level 4

Learning focusAs students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Personal Learning,
they explore individual strategies and skills that assist in their learning, such as the use of T charts to
develop effective listening skills and concept webs to link ideas. With support, they consider a range
of approaches to learning and reflect on how the approaches they use influence the quality of their
learning. They explore learning styles which may not be their preferred style and consider why such
experimentation is an important aspect of their learning.

Students seek and use teacher feedback to develop their content knowledge and understanding and
reflect on how their prior knowledge has changed. They explore how personal values, perspectives
and attitudes contribute to the development of content knowledge and understanding.

They identify the many contexts in which learning occurs both within school (such as learning
activities in the classroom, and developing physical skills in the playground or through
extracurricular sporting activities) and beyond school (such as reading a book at home, visiting an
aquarium or exploring physical features of local environments).

In selected reflective activities, students explore the impact of various emotions on their learning
and they learn to maintain a positive attitude. They consider the impact of impulsive behaviour in
themselves and others on their learning and implement strategies for managing their own impulsive
behaviour; for example, ensuring they understand directions fully, and developing a plan or strategy
for addressing issues that arise. They discuss the value of persistence and effort, and reflect on how
these qualities affect their learning. As a class or in groups, students recognise their responsibilities
for managing their learning, such as staying focused and on task.

Through participation in a variety of group and whole-class activities, students begin to articulate the
advantages of learning effectively with, and from, their peers. They seek feedback from peers and
consider the validity of the feedback they receive. They identify the values that underpin the
creation of a classroom environment that will support the learning of all students such as respect,
equity and inclusion.

Students develop, justify and monitor their own learning goals. They learn to apply strategies for
managing the completion of both short and extended tasks within timeframes set by the teacher
and they reflect on how effectively they were able to use these strategies. They are provided with
opportunities to manage and monitor progress of some tasks independently, and they compare how
they undertake independent tasks and teacher-directed tasks. They review their work for accuracy
before presenting it for assessment.

As students prepare for the transition to secondary school, they reflect on the progress they have
made with their learning and set goals for the future focusing on their attitudes towards and
management of their learning.


The individual learner

At Level 4, students identify, with support, their preferred learning styles and use strategies that
promote learning. They monitor and describe progress in their learning and demonstrate learning
habits that address their individual needs. They seek and respond to teacher feedback to develop
their content knowledge and understanding. They identify and explain how different perspectives
and attitudes can affect learning. They negotiate learning improvement goals and justify the choices
they make about their own learning. Students actively develop, monitor and refine protocols that
create a positive learning environment in the classroom.

Managing personal learning

At Level 4, students develop and implement plans to complete short-term and long-term tasks
within timeframes set by the teacher, utilising appropriate resources. They undertake some set tasks
independently, identifying stages for completion. They describe task progress and achievements,
suggesting how outcomes may have been improved. They persist when experiencing difficulty with
learning tasks. They seek and use learning support when needed from peers, teachers and other
adults. They practise positive self talk. They demonstrate a positive attitude to learning within and
outside the classroom.

Interpersonal Development - Level 4

Learning focusAs students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Interpersonal
Development, they develop skills and behaviours for connecting with a variety of groups, including
peer and community groups. Students participate in a range of classroom activities where they
explore the similarities and differences in the values and beliefs of a range of individuals and groups.
They begin to reflect on what this may mean for themselves when building and maintaining
relationships with a diverse range of people. They explore and discuss behaviours which
demonstrate sensitivity to cultural differences in their interactions with others.

Students compare their beliefs and values with others, and consider how these influence feelings
and behaviour. Through discussion and activities such as role-play, they reflect on inclusion,
belonging and tolerance. They consider how it feels to be excluded from a group. They identify
examples of bullying in a range of contexts. They explore the impact of bullying on people’s sense of
self-worth and are assisted to identify, discuss and use different strategies to reduce, avoid and
resolve bullying.

Students begin to recognise and discuss the influence that peers can have on their behaviour and
consider response options.

Students explore a range of contexts, both within and beyond school, in which individuals are
required to work effectively as part of a team. They discuss appropriate knowledge, skills and
behaviours in these contexts and the importance of developing these.

Working in different teams, students are provided with opportunities to complete tasks of varying
length and complexity. In doing so, they learn to identify the characteristics of members in effective
teams and to develop descriptions for particular roles such as leader, recorder and participant.
Students contribute to the development of and use criteria for evaluating their own and the team’s
effectiveness in team work.

National Statements of Learning This Learning focus statement incorporates aspects of the National
Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship, Year 5.


Building social relationships

At Level 4, students demonstrate, through their interactions in social situations, respect for a diverse
range of people and groups. Students describe the impact of bullying. They accept and display
empathy for the points of view and feelings of their peers and others. They identify and use a variety
of strategies to manage and resolve conflict.

Working in teams

At Level 4, students work effectively in different teams and take on a variety of roles to complete
tasks of varying length and complexity. They work cooperatively to allocate tasks and develop
timelines. Students accept responsibility for their role and tasks. They explain the benefits of
working in a team. They provide feedback to others and evaluate their own and the team’s


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