All Idealists (NFs) share the following core characteristics:
Idealists are enthusiastic, they trust their intuition, yearn for romance, seek their true self, prize meaningful
relationships, and dream of attaining wisdom.
Idealists pride themselves on being loving, kindhearted, and authentic.
Idealists tend to be giving, trusting, spiritual, and they are focused on personal journeys and human
Idealists make intense mates, nurturing parents, and inspirational leaders.
Idealists, as a temperament, are passionately concerned with personal growth and development. Idealists strive to
discover who they are and how they can become their best possible self -- always this quest for self-knowledge and
self-improvement drives their imagination. And they want to help others make the journey. Idealists are naturally
drawn to working with people, and whether in education or counseling, in social services or personnel work, in
journalism or the ministry, they are gifted at helping others find their way in life, often inspiring them to grow as
individuals and to fulfill their potentials.
Idealists are sure that friendly cooperation is the best way for people to achieve their goals. Conflict and
confrontation upset them because they seem to put up angry barriers between people. Idealists dream of creating
harmonious, even caring personal relations, and they have a unique talent for helping people get along with each
other and work together for the good of all. Such interpersonal harmony might be a romantic ideal, but then Idealists
are incurable romantics who prefer to focus on what might be, rather than what is. The real, practical world is only a
starting place for Idealists; they believe that life is filled with possibilities waiting to be realized, rich with meanings
calling out to be understood. This idea of a mystical or spiritual dimension to life, the "not visible" or the "not yet"
that can only be known through intuition or by a leap of faith, is far more important to Idealists than the world of
Highly ethical in their actions, Idealists hold themselves to a strict standard of personal integrity. They must be true
to themselves and to others, and they can be quite hard on themselves when they are dishonest, or when they are
false or insincere. More often, however, Idealists are the very soul of kindness. Particularly in their personal
relationships, Idealists are without question filled with love and good will. They believe in giving of themselves to
help others; they cherish a few warm, sensitive friendships; they strive for a special rapport with their children; and
in marriage they wish to find a "soulmate," someone with whom they can bond emotionally and spiritually, sharing
their deepest feelings and their complex inner worlds.
Idealists are relatively rare, making up no more than 15 to 20 percent of the population. But their ability to inspire
people with their enthusiasm and their idealism has given them influence far beyond their numbers.
Idealist Portrait of the Counselor (INFJ)
Counselors have an exceptionally strong desire to contribute to the welfare of others, and find great personal
fulfillment interacting with people, nurturing their personal development, guiding them to realize their human
potential. Although they are happy working at jobs (such as writing) that require solitude and close attention,
Counselors do quite well with individuals or groups of people, provided that the personal interactions are not
superficial, and that they find some quiet, private time every now and then to recharge their batteries. Counselors
are both kind and positive in their handling of others; they are great listeners and seem naturally interested in
helping people with their personal problems. Not usually visible leaders, Counselors prefer to work intensely with
those close to them, especially on a one-to-one basis, quietly exerting their influence behind the scenes.
Counselors are scarce, little more than one percent of the population, and can be hard to get to know, since they
tend not to share their innermost thoughts or their powerful emotional reactions except with their loved ones. They
are highly private people, with an unusually rich, complicated inner life. Friends or colleagues who have known them
for years may find sides emerging which come as a surprise. Not that Counselors are flighty or scattered; they value
their integrity a great deal, but they have mysterious, intricately woven personalities which sometimes puzzle even
Counselors tend to work effectively in organizations. They value staff harmony and make every effort to help an
organization run smoothly and pleasantly. They understand and use human systems creatively, and are good at
consulting and cooperating with others. As employees or employers, Counselors are concerned with people's feelings
and are able to act as a barometer of the feelings within the organization.
Blessed with vivid imaginations, Counselors are often seen as the most poetical of all the types, and in fact they use
a lot of poetic imagery in their everyday language. Their great talent for language-both written and spoken-is usually
directed toward communicating with people in a personalized way. Counselors are highly intuitive and can recognize
another's emotions or intentions - good or evil - even before that person is aware of them. Counselors themselves
can seldom tell how they came to read others' feelings so keenly. This extreme sensitivity to others could very well
be the basis of the Counselor's remarkable ability to experience a whole array of psychic phenomena.
Mohandas Gandhi, Sidney Poitier, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jane Goodall, Emily Bronte, Sir Alec Guiness, Carl Jung, Mary
Baker Eddy, Queen Noor are examples of the Counselor Idealist (INFJ).
Idealist Portrait of the Champion (ENFP)
Like the other Idealists, Champions are rather rare, say two or three percent of the population, but even more than
the others they consider intense emotional experiences as being vital to a full life. Champions have a wide range and
variety of emotions, and a great passion for novelty. They see life as an exciting drama, pregnant with possibilities
for both good and evil, and they want to experience all the meaningful events and fascinating people in the world.
The most outgoing of the Idealists, Champions often can't wait to tell others of their extraordinary experiences.
Champions can be tireless in talking with others, like fountains that bubble and splash, spilling over their own words
to get it all out. And usually this is not simple storytelling; Champions often speak (or write) in the hope of revealing
some truth about human experience, or of motivating others with their powerful convictions. Their strong drive to
speak out on issues and events, along with their boundless enthusiasm and natural talent with language, makes
them the most vivacious and inspiring of all the types.
Fiercely individualistic, Champions strive toward a kind of personal authenticity, and this intention always to be
themselves is usually quite attractive to others. At the same time, Champions have outstanding intuitive powers and
can tell what is going on inside of others, reading hidden emotions and giving special significance to words or
actions. In fact, Champions are constantly scanning the social environment, and no intriguing character or silent
motive is likely to escape their attention. Far more than the other Idealists, Champions are keen and probing
observers of the people around them, and are capable of intense concentration on another individual. Their attention
is rarely passive or casual. On the contrary, Champions tend to be extra sensitive and alert, always ready for
emergencies, always on the lookout for what's possible.
Champions are good with people and usually have a wide range of personal relationships. They are warm and full of
energy with their friends. They are likable and at ease with colleagues, and handle their employees or students with
great skill. They are good in public and on the telephone, and are so spontaneous and dramatic that others love to
be in their company. Champions are positive, exuberant people, and often their confidence in the goodness of life
and of human nature makes good things happen.
Joan Baez, Phil Donahue, Paul Robeson, Bill Moyer, Elizibeth Cady Stanton, Joeseph Campbell, Edith Wharton,
Sargent Shriver, Charles Dickens, and Upton Sinclair are examples of Idealist Champions
Idealist Portrait of the Healer (INFP)
Healers present a calm and serene face to the world, and can seem shy, even distant around others. But inside
they're anything but serene, having a capacity for personal caring rarely found in the other types. Healers care
deeply about the inner life of a few special persons, or about a favorite cause in the world at large. And their great
passion is to heal the conflicts that trouble individuals, or that divide groups, and thus to bring wholeness, or health,
to themselves, their loved ones, and their community.
Healers have a profound sense of idealism that comes from a strong personal sense of right and wrong. They
conceive of the world as an ethical, honorable place, full of wondrous possibilities and potential goods. In fact, to
understand Healers, we must understand that their deep commitment to the positive and the good is almost
boundless and selfless, inspiring them to make extraordinary sacrifices for someone or something they believe in. Set
off from the rest of humanity by their privacy and scarcity (around one percent of the population), Healers can feel
even more isolated in the purity of their idealism.
Also, Healers might well feel a sense of separation because of their often misunderstood childhood. Healers live a
fantasy-filled childhood-they are the prince or princess of fairy tales-an attitude which, sadly, is frowned upon, or
even punished, by many parents. With parents who want them to get their head out of the clouds, Healers begin to
believe they are bad to be so fanciful, so dreamy, and can come to see themselves as ugly ducklings. In truth, they
are quite OK just as they are, only different from most others-swans reared in a family of ducks.
At work, Healers are adaptable, welcome new ideas and new information, are patient with complicated situations,
but impatient with routine details. Healers are keenly aware of people and their feelings, and relate well with most
others. Because of their deep-seated reserve, however, they can work quite happily alone. When making decisions,
Healers follow their heart not their head, which means they can make errors of fact, but seldom of feeling. They
have a natural interest in scholarly activities and demonstrate, like the other Idealists, a remarkable facility with
language. They have a gift for interpreting stories, as well as for creating them, and thus often write in lyric, poetic
fashion. Frequently they hear a call to go forth into the world and help others, a call they seem ready to answer,
even if they must sacrifice their own comfort.
Princess Diana, Richard Gere, Audrey Hephurn, Albert Schweiter, George Orwell, Karen Armstrong, Aldous Huxley,
Mia Farrow", and Isabel Meyers are examples of a Healer Idealists.
Idealist Portrait of the Teacher (ENFJ)
Even more than the other Idealists, Teachers have a natural talent for leading students or trainees toward learning,
or as Idealists like to think of it, they are capable of calling forth each learner's potentials. Teachers (around two
percent of the population) are able - effortlessly, it seems, and almost endlessly-to dream up fascinating learning
activities for their students to engage in. In some Teachers, this ability to fire the imagination can amount to a kind
of genius which other types find hard to emulate. But perhaps their greatest strength lies in their belief in their
students. Teachers look for the best in their students, and communicate clearly that each one has untold potential,
and this confidence can inspire their students to grow and develop more than they ever thought possible.
In whatever field they choose, Teachers consider people their highest priority, and they instinctively communicate
personal concern and a willingness to become involved. Warmly outgoing, and perhaps the most expressive of all the
types, Teachers are remarkably good with language, especially when communicating in speech, face to face. And
they do not hesitate to speak out and let their feelings be known. Bubbling with enthusiasm, Teachers will voice their
passions with dramatic flourish, and can, with practice, become charismatic public speakers. This verbal ability gives
Teachers a good deal of influence in groups, and they are often asked to take a leadership role.
Teachers like things settled and organized, and will schedule their work hours and social engagements well ahead of
time-and they are absolutely trustworthy in honoring these commitments. Valuing as they do interpersonal
cooperation and harmonious relations, Teachers are extraordinarily tolerant of others, are easy to get along with, and
are usually popular wherever they are.
Teachers are highly sensitive to others, which is to say their intuition tends to be well developed. Certainly their
insight into themselves and others is unparalleled. Without a doubt, they know what is going on inside themselves,
and they can read other people with uncanny accuracy. Teachers also identify with others quite easily, and will
actually find themselves picking up the characteristics, emotions, and beliefs of those around them. Because they slip
almost unconsciously into other people's skin in this way, Teachers feel closely connected with those around them,
and thus show a sincere interest in the joys and problems of their employees, colleagues, students, clients, and loved
Mikhail Gorbachev, Oprah Winfrey, Pope John Paul II, Ralph Nader, John Wooden, and Margaret Mead are examples
of Teacher Idealists.
Maximizing Your Study Environment
Pt.3: Idealists - Study Where The Heart Is
By The College Advisor
Idealists are the most variable in their needs for a
study environment. However, one thing that can
strongly affect their ability to study is the emotional
temperature around them, even if it doesn't directly
include them. Idealists find that a positive aura has a
synergistic effect on their work output.
Healers (INFP) are the most sensitive to the
underlying emotional current. If that current is
negative and they can't fix it, they will find a way to withdraw. Brendan finds that he does his most creative
work when he goes in his room, closes the door, and gets to work. For more typical grunt work, he tries to
find a study partner for each class.
Counselors (INFJ), like Healers, often spend a fair amount of time studying alone. If their study area is
cluttered, their brain feels cluttered. They like things organized but still visible. Taylor liked doing her
calculus and economics homework with one or two study partners. She enjoyed predicting the correct
method or answer, in part because she was right more often than her partners.
Teachers (ENFJ) are likely to enjoy being in study groups. However, they usually function as a tutor,
learning as they help others. Crystal loves her biology study group. As she studies before meeting with the
group, she works to predict what others students will have problems with. In doing this, she has found she
can often figure out the professor's pet questions.
Champions (ENFP) need a study environment that is stimulating. They have a very difficult time working
alone and quietly. They work best when their ideas bounce off someone else. Paul studied and studied for
his psychology mid-term. It didn't seem to help. Then he went to a study session. As he started talking and
getting feedback, he was amazed at how much he actually knew. He aced the exam.
Finding Your Passion or What Makes a Job Right for You?
Idealists - Finding Meaning and Unique Identity
In this five-part series, we're examining each personality type and job fit. Idealists are the most likely of all
types to resonate with the Boomer phrase, "Finding Your Passion." Idealists strive to find Meaning and
Unique Identity in their lives.
The Idealists are the group most attuned to values and seeking
the greater good. Famous Idealists are Martin Luther King, Jr.,
Mahatma Ghandi, and Oprah Winfrey.
Of all the Idealists, the Teacher (ENFJ) is the most likely to
seek leadership positions in the private or public sector. The
Teacher is drawn to careers in education or social services, such
as college professor, high school teacher, social worker, or non-
profit director. In business they are often trainers, sales
managers, recruiters, or executives. Since they are good at
building relationships, they may be fund raisers or recruiters.
They also are found in jobs such as a health advisor, clergy, facilitator, or counselor. Says Rene, "It's very
important to me to really connect with my students. I need to feel that I am making a difference in their
The Counselor (INFJ) is a more private person than the Teacher. They, too, can be found in the field of
education as a professor , teacher, counselor, or educational consultant. Sometimes they feel a strong
calling toward the religious life as clergy, nun, or director of religious education. Social service jobs, such as
social worker, social scientist, or mediator can fit their needs. Some Counselors work in human services,
marketing, or as a job analyst. Others are drawn to the arts as a novelist, designer, or artist. Says Benito,
"My art is very personal. It expresses who I am at the same time reaching out to draw the viewer in. My art
changes the viewer's perspective of reality."
People naturally confide in the Champion (ENFP). That's why they make such good mediators, counselors,
teachers, consultants, and reporters. Any position that outreaches to others can fit the Champion. They can
be columnists, journalists, publicists, copy writers, advertising account executives. In the arts they can be
character actors, cartoonists, art educators. If they choose jobs such as restaurateur, be sure that their
business sites will be unique and designed for a particular type of customer. Don't be surprised to see them
as an inventor. This type of personality wants to experience the whole of life and may change careers more
often than many other types. Says Charles, "I've had a number of jobs and when there is nothing left to
create, I move to something new. I want my life to be spiced with newness, love, and joy."
The most sensitive of the Idealists is the Healer (INFP). While their list of jobs may echo that of other
Idealists, they are more drawn to express their own unique vision of the world that all other types, so their
work cannot help but be unique. They interpret their visions in the world of music, art, entertainment, or
dance. As a professor or teacher, counselor or social worker, they often unlock the mysteries of life for those
they encounter. In business they are drawn to organizational development and human resources careers.
They may have a religious calling or seek work as a librarian. Their careers need to be in alignment with
their personal values. Says Kay, "I chose health education so I could touch the lives of others to help them
make better choices about their lives. I know I've done some good."
All Idealists seek to have a life of meaning, to help themselves and others grow to be the best that they can
be. They do not want to be a copycat of someone else, but want to be seen as a unique and valuable
People want to have a life that gives them a sense of personal satisfaction. Here are links for the other three
All Artisans (SPs) share the following core characteristics:
Artisans tend to be fun-loving, optimistic, realistic, and focused on the here and now
Artisans pride themselves on being unconventional, bold, and spontaneous.
Artisans make playful mates, creative parents, and troubleshooting leaders.
Artisans are excitable, trust their impulses, want to make a splash, seek stimulation, prize freedom, and
dream of mastering action skills.
Artisans are the temperament with a natural ability to excel in any of the arts, not only the fine arts such as
painting and sculpting, or the performing arts such as music, theater, and dance, but also the athletic, military,
political, mechanical, and industrial arts, as well as the "art of the deal" in business.
Artisans are most at home in the real world of solid objects that can be made and manipulated, and of real-life
events that can be experienced in the here and now. Artisans have exceptionally keen senses, and love working with
their hands. They seem right at home with tools, instruments, and vehicles of all kinds, and their actions are usually
aimed at getting them where they want to go, and as quickly as possible. Thus Artisans will strike off boldly down
roads that others might consider risky or impossible, doing whatever it takes, rules or no rules, to accomplish their
goals. This devil-may-care attitude also gives the Artisans a winning way with people, and they are often irresistibly
charming with family, friends, and co-workers.
Artisans want to be where the action is; they seek out adventure and show a constant hunger for pleasure and
stimulation. They believe that variety is the spice of life, and that doing things that aren't fun or exciting is a waste of
time. Artisans are impulsive, adaptable, competitive, and believe the next throw of the dice will be the lucky one.
They can also be generous to a fault, always ready to share with their friends from the bounty of life. Above all,
Artisans need to be free to do what they wish, when they wish. They resist being tied or bound or confined or
obligated; they would rather not wait, or save, or store, or live for tomorrow. In the Artisan view, today must be
enjoyed, for tomorrow never comes.
There are many Artisans, perhaps 30 to 35 percent of the population, which is good, because they create much of
the beauty, grace, fun, and excitement the rest of us enjoy in life.
Artisan™ Portrait of the Composer (ISFP)
More than the other Artisans, Composers are in tune with their senses, and so have a sure grasp of what belongs,
and what doesn't belong, in all kinds of works of art. While the other Artisans are skilled with people, tools, and
entertainment, Composers have an exceptional ability-seemingly inborn-to work with subtle differences in color, tone,
texture, aroma, and flavor.
Although Composers often put long, lonely hours into their artistry, they are just as impulsive as the other Artisans.
They do not wait to consider their moves; rather, they act in the here and now, with little or no planning or
preparation. Composers are seized by the act of artistic composition, as if caught up in a whirlwind. The act is their
master, not the reverse. Composers paint or sculpt, they dance or skate, they write melodies or make recipes-or
whatever-simply because they must. They climb the mountain because it is there.
This ability to lose themselves in action accounts for the spectacular individual accomplishments of some Composers,
and yet on their social side they show a kindness unmatched by all the other types. Composers are especially
sensitive to the pain and suffering of others, and they sympathize freely with the sufferer. Some have a remarkable
way with young children, almost as if there were a natural bond of sympathy and trust between them. A similar bond
may be seen between some Composers and animals, even wild animals. Many Composers have an instinctive longing
for the wilds, and nature seems to welcome them.
Composers are just as plentiful as the other Artisans, say nine or ten per cent of the population, but in general they
are very difficult to observe and thus greatly misunderstood. Very likely the difficulty comes from their tendency not
to express themselves verbally, but through their works of art. Composers are usually not interested in developing
ability in public speaking, or even in the art of conversation; they prefer to feel the pulse of life by touch, in the
muscles, in the eyes, in the ears, on the tongue. Make no mistake, Composers are just as interested as other types in
sharing their view of the world, and if they find a medium of non-verbal communication-some art form-then they will
express their character quite eloquently. If not, they simply remain unknown, their quietness leaving their character
all but invisible.
Bob Dylan, Jackie Kennedy Onassis, Cher, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mel Brooks, Steven Spielberg, and Neil Simon
are examples of a Composer Artisans.
Artisan Portrait of the Crafter (ISTP)
The nature of Crafters is most clearly seen in their masterful operation of tools, equipment, machines, and
instruments of all kinds. Most us use tools in some capacity, of course, but Crafters (as much as ten percent of the
population) are the true masters of tool work, with an innate ability to command tools and to become expert at all
the crafts requiring tool skills. Even from an early age they are drawn to tools as to a magnet-tools fall into their
hands demanding use, and they must work with them.
Like all the Artisans, Crafters are people who love action, and who know instinctively that their activities are more
enjoyable, and more effective, if done impulsively, spontaneously, subject to no schedules or standards but their
own. In a sense, Crafters do not work with their tools, but play with them when the urge strikes them. Crafters also
seek fun and games on impulse, looking for any opportunity, and just because they feel like it, to play with their
various toys: cars, motorcycles, boats, dune-buggies, hunting rifles, fishing tackle, scuba gear, and on and on. They
thrive on excitement, particularly the rush of speed-racing, water-skiing, surfing. And Crafters are fearless in their
play, exposing themselves to danger again and again, even despite frequent injury. Of all the types, Crafters are
most likely to be risk takers, pitting themselves, or their technique, against chance or odds.
Crafters are hard to get to know. Perhaps this is because they tend to communicate through action, and show little
interest in developing language skills. Their lack of expressiveness can isolate them at school and on the job, and
even though they hang around with their own kind in play, they let their actions speak for them, and their actual
conversation is sparse and brief.
Crafters can be wonderfully generous and loyal to their friends, teammates, and sidekicks, often giving up their
evenings or weekends to help with building projects or mechanical repairs-house remodeling, for example, or
working on cars or boats. On the other hand, they can be fiercely insubordinate to those in authority, seeing rules
and regulations as unnecessarily confining. Crafters will not usually go against regulations openly, but will simply
ignore them. More than anything, Crafters want to be free to do their own thing, and they are proud of their ability
to do it with an artist's skill.
Bruce Lee, Michael Jordan, Woody Allen, Alan Shepard, Chuck Yaeger, Michael Douglas, Lance Armstrong, and
Kathrine Hephurn are examples of Crafter Artisans.
Artisan™ Portrait of the Performer (ESFP)
Performers have the special ability, even among the Artisans, to delight those around them with their warmth, their
good humor, and with their often extraordinary skills in music, comedy, and drama. Whether on the job, with friends,
or with their families, Performers are exciting and full of fun, and their great social interest lies in stimulating those
around them to take a break from work and worry, to lighten up and enjoy life.
Performers are plentiful, something over ten percent of the population, and this is fortunate, because they bring
pleasure to so many of us. Performers are the people for whom it can truly be said "all the world's a stage." Born
entertainers, they love the excitement of playing to an audience, and will quickly become the center of attention
wherever they are. Performers aren't comfortable being alone, and seek the company of others whenever possible-
which they usually find, for they make wonderful playmates. Performers are smooth, talkative, and witty; they always
seem to know the latest jokes and stories, and are quick with wisecracks and wordplay-nothing is so serious or
sacred that it can't be made fun of. Performers also like to live in the fast lane, and seem up on the latest fashions of
dress, food, drink, and music. Lively and uninhibited, Performers are the life of the party, always trying to create in
those around them a mood of eat, drink, and be merry.
The Performers' talent for enjoying life is healthy for the most part, though it also makes them more subject to
temptations than the other types. Pleasure seems to be an end in itself for them, and variety is the spice of life. And
so Performers are open to trying almost anything that promises them a good time, not always giving enough thought
to the consequences.
Like the other Artisans, Performers are incurably optimistic - "Always look on the bright side," is their motto - and
they will avoid worries and troubles by ignoring them as long as possible. They are also the most generous of all the
types, and second only to the Composer Artisans [ISFPs] in kindness. Performers haven't a mean or stingy bone in
their body-what's theirs is yours-and they seem to have little idea of saving or conserving. They give what they have
to one and all without expectation of reward, just as they love freely, and without expecting anything in return. In so
many ways, Performers view life as an eternal cornucopia from which flows an endless supply of pleasures.
Elizabeth Taylor, John Goodman, Marylin Monroe, Judy Garland, Magic Johnson, Pablo Picasso, Bill Clinton, Ronald
Reagan, Elvis, and Leonard Bernstein are examples of Performer Artisans.
Artisan™ Portrait of the Promoter (ESTP)
There are lots of Promoters, maybe ten or so percent of the population, and life is never dull around them. In a
word, they are men and women of action. When a Promoter is present, things begin to happen: the lights come on,
the music plays, the games begin. Clever and full of fun, Promoters live with a theatrical flourish which makes even
the most routine events seem exciting. Not that they waste much time on routine events. In work and in play,
Promoters demand new activities and new challenges. Bold and daring at heart, and ever-optimistic that things will
go their way, Promoters will take tremendous risks to get what they want, and seem exhilarated by walking close to
the edge of disaster. Because of this, they make the very best trouble-spot administrators and negotiators, and they
can be outstanding entrepreneurs, able to swing deals and kick-start enterprises in a way no other type can.
Promoters also have a hearty appetite for the finer things of life, the best food, the best wine, expensive cars, and
fashionable clothes. And they are extremely sophisticated in social circles, knowing many, many people by name, and
knowing how to say just the right thing to most everyone they meet.
Charming, confident, and popular, Promoters delight their friends and investors with their endless supply of stories
and jokes. At the same time, these smooth operators are usually something of a mystery to others. While they live in
the moment and lend excitement - and unpredictability - to all their relationships, they rarely let anyone get really
close to them. They have a low tolerance for authority and commitment, and are likely to leave situations where they
are expected to toe the mark, or where they must play second fiddle. Promoters understand well the maxim, "He
who travels fastest, travels alone," although they are not likely to be lonely for long, since their boldness and sense
of adventure tends to make them highly attractive to many other people.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Ernest Hemingway, John F. Kennedy, Donald Trump, Madonna, George C. Patton, Evita
Peron, Winston Churchill, Grace Slick, and Teddy Roosevelt are examples of the Promoter Artisan temperament.
Finding Your Passion or What Makes a Job Right for You?
Artisans - Finding Freedom and Action
In this five-part series, we're examining each personality type and job fit. While Artisans might not
consciously substitute the words "Finding Freedom and Action" for the Baby Boomer phrase, "Finding Your
Passion," these are driving forces behind an Artisan's need to
find life satisfaction.
Artisans are usually pretty independent. However, some do
seek leadership positions. The two most likely Artisans to seek
leadership are the Promoter (ESTP) and the Performer
(ESFP). In fact, the book Presidential Temperament by Ray
Choinierre and David Keirsey (1992) names Franklin D.
Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Ronald
Reagan, and Bill Clinton as Artisans. The Promoter is a tougher
negotiator than the Performer who manages with a great deal
The Promoter is drawn to action careers such as paramedic, military personnel, police officer, and pilot.
Some have a fascination with finance and can become financial advisors or stockbrokers. They are also good
in sales positions and love the competition for prizes. Some may become news reporters, sportscasters,
auctioneers, fitness instructors, or skilled tradesmen. Says Roger, "I like meeting new people and
negotiating the deal on a new car. I like the change of pace - some days fast and some laid-back."
The Performer, like the Promoter, can also be good in sales, sports, or entertainment. They usually spend a
little more time with the customer than the Performer and enjoy the conversation so much that they
sometimes have to be reminded to close the sale. They may find careers in the entertainment industry as a
performer, promoter, or musician. In business they can be a PR specialist, a fund-raiser, or a labor relations
mediator. Says Brigitta, an emergency room nurse, "Some people might find my job too stressful, but I like
having to act fast. I'm good at calming people down while I'm dealing with their medical problems. Every
day is different."
Probably the most independent type of Artisan is the Crafter (ISTP). This personality type has the fastest
eye-hand coordination of all the types so it is common to see them using this skill. They may run their own
business as a chiropractor or optometrist. They may be a computer programmer or technician. Any of the
action jobs such as pilot, race car driver, marshal, intelligence agent may appeal to them. They may use
their analytical skills to become a banker, purchasing agent, or securities analyst. In construction, they can
be found in all of the trades. Says Bianca, "My dad was a marble mason. The pay was good. The guys said I
couldn't hack it and gave me a hard time. But I've got a real feel for how the marble should match up. I got
my union card!"
The most difficult to pigeonhole is the Composer (ISFP). They are driven by their values and usually have
a strong aesthetic sense. If they have a driving force to do good, you may find them in medical or veterinary
occupations or in social services or education. If they need to express their artistic talents, they may be a
painter, a potter, a jeweler, a fashion designer, a carpenter, or a chef. Some are called to more technical
occupations such as surveyor, botanist, or chemist. Still others are in the service industry as wait-people,
beauticians, or retail clerks. Some do a variety of clerical services and may be bookkeepers or legal
secretaries. Says Lorenzo, "Being a chef is more than making a good meal. The taste, aroma and
presentation of the food must be perfect - like creating a great symphony."
Having a life of action and freedom is what makes an Artisan tick and gives them a sense of being alive.
People want to have a life that gives them a sense of personal satisfaction. Here are links for the other three
Maximizing Your Study Environment
Pt.2: Artisans - What Study Area
By The College Advisor
Unlike Guardians who protect their study area, Artisans
often don't have a particular area at all. They are likely
to use their study area as a place to store everything
needed, but they are unlikely to spend much time
there. Their study area is likely to look very
disorganized, but often the Artisan student can find
anything within a few seconds.
Artisans are also likely to want to study while texting
friends, listening to their ipods, and watching TV.
Current research says that this kind of multi-tasking is very unproductive. However, there is a difference
between trying to do many different things at one time and using music and physical activity as an aide to
help learn. Many Artisans find they can't concentrate in complete silence.
Promoters (ESTP), like most Artisans, would generally rather be moving than sitting and studying. They
also like study groups although these groups may have difficulty staying on task. Kristi needed to memorize
a lot of facts. Every time she sat down to study, she felt herself falling asleep. She's in college on a
volleyball scholarship. She took her notes to a volleyball court by herself. As she practiced, she attached a
different set of facts to each move. When she took the test, she quietly mimicked the moves. She was
surprised at how much she remembered.
Crafters (ISTP) generally like to study by themselves. They usually find it easier than other Artisans to sit
and study. Tresena was having a hard time with chemistry. It seemed to require more intuitive thinking than
she had. She learned to compensate by using her natural logical thinking. She developed a mental flow
chart and was able to put every formula and theory in it.
Performers (ESFP) are social learners. Studying with others helps them concentrate. When they work by
themselves, they are the most likely of the Artisans to need to be listening to music. Jill is really good at
creating funny poetry using the facts. The more she has fun with the material, the more she remembers.
Composers (ISFP) often feel confined indoors. A good study area for them may be in a park, a garden, or
on the beach. Sometimes they find doing a repetitive task as they study, such as weeding or currying a
horse can help them remember the material. Adam is a ballet dancer. He choreographed what he needed to
learn and then practiced the dance as he rehearsed what he needed to remember. During exams, he
performs the dance in his head
All Guardians (SJs) share the following core characteristics:
Guardians pride themselves on being dependable, helpful, and hard-working.
Guardians make loyal mates, responsible parents, and stabilizing leaders.
Guardians tend to be dutiful, cautious, humble, and focused on credentials and traditions.
Guardians are concerned citizens who trust authority, join groups, seek security, prize gratitude, and dream
of meting out justice.
Guardians are the cornerstone of society, for they are the temperament given to serving and preserving our most
important social institutions. Guardians have natural talent in managing goods and services--from supervision to
maintenance and supply -- and they use all their skills to keep things running smoothly in their families, communities,
schools, churches, hospitals, and businesses.
Guardians can have a lot of fun with their friends, but they are quite serious about their duties and responsibilities.
Guardians take pride in being dependable and trustworthy; if there's a job to be done, they can be counted on to put
their shoulder to the wheel. Guardians also believe in law and order, and sometimes worry that respect for authority,
even a fundamental sense of right and wrong, is being lost. Perhaps this is why Guardians honor customs and
traditions so strongly -- they are familiar patterns that help bring stability to our modern, fast-paced world.
Practical and down-to-earth, Guardians believe in following the rules and cooperating with others. They are not very
comfortable winging it or blazing new trails; working steadily within the system is the Guardian way, for in the long
run loyalty, discipline, and teamwork get the job done right. Guardians are meticulous about schedules and have a
sharp eye for proper procedures. They are cautious about change, even though they know that change can be
healthy for an institution. Better to go slowly, they say, and look before you leap.
Guardians make up as much as 40 to 45 percent of the population, and a good thing, because they usually end up
doing all the indispensable but thankless jobs the rest of us take for granted.
Guardian™ Portrait of the Inspector (ISTJ)
The one word that best describes Inspectors is superdependable. Whether at home or at work, Inspectors are
extraordinarily persevering and dutiful, particularly when it comes to keeping an eye on the people and products they
are responsible for. In their quiet way, Inspectors see to it that rules are followed, laws are respected, and standards
Inspectors (as much as ten percent of the general population) are the true guardians of institutions. They are patient
with their work and with the procedures within an institution, although not always with the unauthorized behavior of
some people in that institution. Responsible to the core, Inspectors like it when people know their duties, follow the
guidelines, and operate within the rules. For their part, Inspectors will see to it that goods are examined and
schedules are kept, that resources will be up to standards and delivered when and where they are supposed to be.
And they would prefer that everyone be this dependable. Inspectors can be hard-nosed about the need for following
the rules in the workplace, and do not hesitate to report irregularities to the proper authorities. Because of this they
are often misjudged as being hard-hearted, or as having ice in their veins, for people fail to see their good intentions
and their vulnerability to criticism. Also, because Inspectors usually make their inspections without much flourish or
fanfare, the dedication they bring to their work can go unnoticed and unappreciated.
While not as talkative as Supervisor Guardians [ESTJs], Inspectors are still highly sociable, and are likely to be
involved in community service organizations, such as Sunday School, Little League, or Boy and Girl Scouting, that
transmit traditional values to the young. Like all Guardians, Inspectors hold dear their family social ceremonies-
weddings, birthdays, and anniversaries - although they tend to be shy if the occasion becomes too large or too
public. Generally speaking, Inspectors are not comfortable with anything that gets too fancy. Their words tend to be
plain and down-to-earth, not showy or high-flown; their clothes are often simple and conservative rather than of the
latest fashion; and their home and work environments are usually neat, orderly, and traditional, rather than trendy or
ostentatious. As for personal property, they usually choose standard items over models loaded with features, and
they often try to find classics and antiques - Inspectors prefer the old-fashioned to the newfangled every time.
Queen Elizabeth II, Harry S. Truman, Warren Buffet, Queen Victoria, James K. Polk, and J.D. Rockefeller are
examples of Inspector Guardians.
Guardian™ Portrait of the Protector (ISFJ)
We are lucky that Protectors make up as much as ten percent the population, because their primary interest is in
the safety and security of those they care about - their family, their circle of friends, their students, their patients,
their boss, their fellow-workers, or their employees. Protectors have an extraordinary sense of loyalty and
responsibility in their makeup, and seem fulfilled in the degree they can shield others from the dirt and dangers of
the world. Speculating and experimenting do not intrigue Protectors, who prefer to make do with time-honored and
time-tested products and procedures rather than change to new. At work Protectors are seldom happy in situations
where the rules are constantly changing, or where long-established ways of doing things are not respected. For their
part, Protectors value tradition, both in the culture and in their family. Protectors believe deeply in the stability of
social ranking conferred by birth, titles, offices, and credentials. And they cherish family history and enjoy caring for
family property, from houses to heirlooms.
Wanting to be of service to others, Protectors find great satisfaction in assisting the downtrodden, and can deal with
disability and neediness in others better than any other type. They are not as outgoing and talkative as the Provider
Guardians [ESFJs], and their shyness is often misjudged as stiffness, even coldness, when in truth Protectors are
warm-hearted and sympathetic, giving happily of themselves to those in need.
Their reserve ought really to be seen as an expression of their sincerity and seriousness of purpose. The most
diligent of all the types, Protectors are willing to work long, hard hours quietly doing all the thankless jobs that others
manage to avoid. Protectors are quite happy working alone; in fact, in positions of authority they may try to do
everything themselves rather than direct others to get the job done. Thoroughness and frugality are also virtues for
them. When Protectors undertake a task, they will complete it if humanly possible. They also know better than any
other type the value of a dollar, and they abhor the squandering or misuse of money. To save, to put something
aside against an unpredictable future, to prepare for emergencies-these are actions near and dear to the Protector's
heart. For all these reasons, Protectors are frequently overworked, just as they are frequently misunderstood and
undervalued. Their contributions, and also their economies, are often taken for granted, and they rarely get the
gratitude they deserve.
Mother Teresa, George H.W. Bush, Jimmy Stewart, and Tsar Nicholas II are examples of Protector Guardian style
Guardian™ Portrait of the Provider (ESFJ)
Providers take it upon themselves to insure the health and welfare of those in their care, but they are also the most
sociable of all the Guardians, and thus are the great nurturers of social institutions such as schools, churches, social
clubs, and civic groups. Providers are very likely more than ten percent of the population, and this is fortunate for the
rest of us, because friendly social service is a key to their nature. Wherever they go, Providers happily give their time
and energy to make sure that the needs of others are met, and that social functions are a success.
Highly cooperative themselves, Providers are skilled in maintaining teamwork among their helpers, and are also
tireless in their attention to the details of furnishing goods and services. They make excellent chairpersons in charge
of dances, banquets, class reunions, charity fund-raisers, and the like. They are without peer as masters of
ceremonies, able to speak publicly with ease and confidence. And they are outstanding hosts or hostesses, knowing
everyone by name, and seemingly aware of what everyone's been doing. Providers love to entertain, and are always
concerned about the needs of their guests, wanting to make sure that all are involved and provided for.
Friendly, outgoing, neighborly - in a word, Providers are gregarious, so much so that they can become restless when
isolated from people. They love to talk with others, and will often strike up a conversation with strangers and chat
pleasantly about any topic that comes to mind. Friendships matter a great deal to Providers, and their conversations
with friends often touch on good times from years past. Family traditions are also sacred to them, and they carefully
observe birthdays and anniversaries. In addition, Providers show a delightful fascination with news of their friends
and neighbors. If we wish to know what's been going on in the local community, school, or church, they're happy to
fill us in on all the details.
Providers are extremely sensitive to the feelings of others, which makes them perhaps the most sympathetic of all
the types, but which also leaves them somewhat self-conscious, that is, highly sensitive to what others think of them.
Loving and affectionate themselves, they need to be loved in return. In fact, Providers can be crushed by personal
criticism, and are happiest when given ample appreciation both for themselves personally and for the tireless service
they give to others.
William Howard Taft, Barbara Walters, J C Penney, Ray Kroc, Louis B. Mayer, Sam Walton, Dolley Madison, and Dave
Thomas are examples of Provider Guardians.
Guardian™ Portrait of the Superviser (ESTJ)
Supervisors are highly social and community-minded, with many rising to positions of responsibility in their school,
church, industry, or civic groups. Supervisors are generous with their time and energy, and very often belong to a
variety of service clubs, lodges, and associations, supporting them through steady attendance, but also taking an
outspoken leadership role. Supervisors like to take charge of groups and are comfortable issuing orders. They are
cooperative with their own superiors, and they would like cooperation from the people working under them. Rank,
they believe, has its obligations, but it also has its privileges.
Comprising at least ten percent of the population, Supervisors enjoy and are good at making schedules, agendas,
inventories, and so on, and they much prefer tried and true ways of doing things over speculation and
experimentation. Supervisors keep their feet firmly on the ground and would like those under their supervision to do
the same, whether employee, subordinate, spouse, or offspring. Supervisors have no problem evaluating others and
tend to judge how a person is doing in terms of his or her compliance with, and respect for, schedules and
Supervisors are unbelievably hard-working. Even as children they are industrious, and they usually respect their
parents as authority figures. In school Supervisors are often model students, dutifully following directions, doing all
their homework, doing it thoroughly, and on time. Above all else, they wish to do what they are supposed to do, and
they rarely question the teacher's assignments, method of instruction, standards, or authority. And their industry and
perseverance only become more important to them as they grow into adulthood and take on the responsibilities of
job and family.
Supervisors approach human relations along traditional lines. Marriage and parenthood are sacred to them, and they
tend to have a large circle of friends, with many friendships faithfully maintained over the years. Social gatherings
and ceremonies have great meaning for them, and they look forward to holiday parties, club dances, weddings, class
reunions, awards banquets, and the like. In social situations, Supervisors are friendly and talk easily with others.
Though they can seem a bit formal in their manners, Supervisors are pretty easy to get to know. At ease in polite
company, they tend not to confuse people by sending double messages or putting on airs-what they seem to be,
Jack Webb, Judge Judy, Dr. Laura Schlessinger, George Washington, Sandra Day O' Connor, Mike Wallace, and Vince
Lombardi are examples of a Supervisor Guardians.
Finding Your Passion or What Makes a Job Right for You?
Guardians - Finding Membership and Belonging
In this five-part series of articles, we're examining each personality type and job fit. While Guardians would
probably not substitute the words "Finding Membership and Belonging" for the Baby Boomer phrase,
"Finding Your Passion," these are driving forces behind a Guardian's need to find life satisfaction.
The Guardian type most driven to show some type of leadership is the Supervisor (ESTJ). Many seek a
career where they can either run their own business, or move up the ladder to positions of influence. Those
who do not find this opportunity through work may show leadership in a volunteer position. Others are
driven to give service to the community in such areas as government employee, military or police officer.
Some are drawn to more technical positions such as engineer, or computer analyst. Still others find their
sense of belonging in the professional community by becoming a dentist, judge, or physician. Says Gordon,
"It took me a while to find the right place for me. After a bad car accident, I changed my focus and
eventually became a building contractor where I could call more of my own shots."
The Guardian type most driven to perfectionism and detail is the Inspector (ISTJ). They are attracted to
fields where accuracy and precision is needed. They are often found in business and/or finance in positions
such as accountant, insurance underwriter, office manager, or bank examiner. Like the Supervisors, they
may find their niche in civil service as a detective or an IRS agent. Professional positions in teaching or
medicine and legal and technical occupations are also attractive. Says Benita, "I found that I wanted to work
in a position where I had the time to make things right. As an estate planner, I enjoy helping people work
toward a safe and secure future."
The Guardian type known as the Provider (ESFJ) is sometimes known as the "Santa Claus" personality
since they are generally well-liked and notice whenever situations become "naughty or nice." They provide
for the welfare of many and usually show well-developed social skills. They are happiest in positions where
they need to deal with people. It is not uncommon to find them in health care, as a physician, nurse, or
respiratory therapist. They also can be attracted to the field of education, social service, or religion. In
business they may be a retail owner, receptionist, real estate agent, or sales representative. The common
theme is their service to others. Says Alice, "As a teen I did hospital volunteer work, but decided I preferred
education so got my teaching degree. I've been teaching elementary school for 5 years. I love helping
children to learn."
The last Guardian type is the Protector (ISFJ). This is the Guardian least likely to seek positions of
leadership since they may feel uncomfortable in the lime-light. They are often seen as the people who do
whatever is necessary to keep things running smoothly. They do their best to prevent problems. Like the
Provider, they can be attracted to fields in medicine, education or social service. In business, positions that
combine some type of social interface with time alone are best for them. If they choose technical positions,
they prefer ones with at least some independence, such as electrician, or photographer. Says Patrick, "I was
attracted to portrait photography because I am able to help people look their best and celebrate significant
times in their lives. I take time to create the best portrait I can."
Finding a place to belong, to contribute to society, and have a sense of security and confidence in their
abilities, is key to the Guardian's sense of well-being.
Maximizing Your Study Environment
Pt.1: Guardians - Guard Your Study Area
By The College Advisor
Let's start with the Guardians. Guardians work best
when they have a specific place set aside for studying,
generally with a desk, proper lighting, and a computer
as needed. It is usually important for them to make
sure everything is in its proper place. A piece of paper
not neatly lined up can drive them to distraction. They
like to get everything they need in one place, organize
it, and then get to work. Guardians usually do best
with an environment which is restful or business-like,
but not too stimulating.
Inspectors (ISTJ) work best in a very quiet environment with no interruptions. Inspectors will generally
start their studying and end their studying with a completely clean desk. William's study corner looks like a
shrine. Everything is organized neatly in drawers while the surfaces are free of all dust and dirt. The best
environment for Inspectors is a space that can be closed off, is removed from phones and people, and is
Supervisors (ESTJ) are usually a little more comfortable with mess than Inspectors. They also tolerate a
lot more noise, but interruptions can easily derail them. Supervisors often do well with a study partner.
Talking out loud can help them get a handle on the material they are learning. Taryn studies for history with
Michael. They each develop questions based on the material. Then they test each other. Taryn's grades have
Providers (ESFJ) still like order, but they are the most tolerant of the Guardians of some mess. They often
like to have a study group. Lauren is in a study group for economics with three other women. Over time,
they have developed a breakdown of jobs so everything gets covered. They also spend part of each session
in girl talk. Providers are the most likely of the Guardians to get off-topic when studying since they find the
latest people happenings much more fascinating.
Protectors (ISFJ) are the most sensitive of the Guardians to the emotional atmosphere. They have
difficulty studying when there is unresolved conflict. Garrett's roommates are having a fight and trying to
make Garrett the middle man. He really doesn't want to get involved, but the only way he's found to get
them off his back when he's home is to study. Then he's too busy to talk. His studying is less productive
because of the conflict, but he's doing so much of it, he's actually learning more.
All Rationals (NTs) share the following core characteristics:
Rationals tend to be pragmatic, skeptical, self-contained, and focused on problem-solving and systems
Rationals pride themselves on being ingenious, independent, and strong willed.
Rationals make reasonable mates, individualizing parents, and strategic leaders.
Rationals are even-tempered, they trust logic, yearn for achievement, seek knowledge, prize technology,
and dream of understanding how the world works.
Rationals are the problem solving temperament, particularly if the problem has to do with the many complex
systems that make up the world around us. Rationals might tackle problems in organic systems such as plants and
animals, or in mechanical systems such as railroads and computers, or in social systems such as families and
companies and governments. But whatever systems fire their curiosity, Rationals will analyze them to understand
how they work, so they can figure out how to make them work better.
In working with problems, Rationals try to find solutions that have application in the real world, but they are even
more interested in the abstract concepts involved, the fundamental principles or natural laws that underlie the
particular case. And they are completely pragmatic about their ways and means of achieving their ends. Rationals
don't care about being politically correct. They are interested in the most efficient solutions possible, and will listen to
anyone who has something useful to teach them, while disregarding any authority or customary procedure that
wastes time and resources.
Rationals have an insatiable hunger to accomplish their goals and will work tirelessly on any project they have set
their mind to. They are rigorously logical and fiercely independent in their thinking -- are indeed skeptical of all ideas,
even their own -- and they believe they can overcome any obstacle with their will power. Often they are seen as cold
and distant, but this is really the absorbed concentration they give to whatever problem they're working on. Whether
designing a skyscraper or an experiment, developing a theory or a prototype technology, building an aircraft, a
corporation, or a strategic alliance, Rationals value intelligence, in themselves and others, and they pride themselves
on the ingenuity they bring to their problem solving.
Rationals are very scarce, comprising as little as 5 to 10 percent of the population. But because of their drive to
unlock the secrets of nature, and to develop new technologies, they have done much to shape our world.
Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Bill Gates, Margaret Thatcher, Walt Disney, Camille Paglia, Ayn Rand, Thomas Jefferson,
Richard Feynman, and General Ulysses S. Grant and President Dwight D. Eisenhower are examples of Rationals.
Rational Portrait of the Architect (INTP)
Architects need not be thought of as only interested in drawing blueprints for buildings or roads or bridges. They
are the master designers of all kinds of theoretical systems, including school curricula, corporate strategies, and new
technologies. For Architects, the world exists primarily to be analyzed, understood, explained - and re-designed.
External reality in itself is unimportant, little more than raw material to be organized into structural models. What is
important for Architects is that they grasp fundamental principles and natural laws, and that their designs are
elegant, that is, efficient and coherent.
Architects are rare - maybe one percent of the population - and show the greatest precision in thought and speech of
all the types. They tend to see distinctions and inconsistencies instantaneously, and can detect contradictions no
matter when or where they were made. It is difficult for an Architect to listen to nonsense, even in a casual
conversation, without pointing out the speaker's error. And in any serious discussion or debate Architects are
devastating, their skill in framing arguments giving them an enormous advantage. Architects regard all discussions as
a search for understanding, and believe their function is to eliminate inconsistencies, which can make communication
with them an uncomfortable experience for many.
Ruthless pragmatists about ideas, and insatiably curious, Architects are driven to find the most efficient means to
their ends, and they will learn in any manner and degree they can. They will listen to amateurs if their ideas are
useful, and will ignore the experts if theirs are not. Authority derived from office, credential, or celebrity does not
impress them. Architects are interested only in what make sense, and thus only statements that are consistent and
coherent carry any weight with them.
Architects often seem difficult to know. They are inclined to be shy except with close friends, and their reserve is
difficult to penetrate. Able to concentrate better than any other type, they prefer to work quietly at their computers
or drafting tables, and often alone. Architects also become obsessed with analysis, and this can seem to shut others
out. Once caught up in a thought process, Architects close off and persevere until they comprehend the issue in all
its complexity. Architects prize intelligence, and with their grand desire to grasp the structure of the universe, they
can seem arrogant and may show impatience with others who have less ability, or who are less driven.
Albert Einstein as the iconic Rational is an Architect
Dr. David Keirsey, Robert Rosen, George Soros, Gregory Peck, James Madison, Ludwig Boltzman, Charles Darwin,
Adam Smith, and Thomas Jefferson" /> are examples of the Architect Rationals
Rational Portrait of the Fieldmarshal (ENTJ)
Of the four aspects of strategic analysis and definition it is marshaling or situational organizing role that reaches the
highest development in the Fieldmarshal. As this kind of role is practiced some contingency organizing is
necessary, so that the second suit of the Fieldmarshal's intellect is devising contingency plans. Structural and
functional engineering, though practiced in some degree in the course of organizational operations, tend to be not
nearly as well developed and are soon outstripped by the rapidly growing skills in organizing. But it must be said that
any kind of strategic exercise tends to bring added strength to engineering as well as organizing skills.
Hardly more than two percent of the total population, Fieldmarshals are bound to lead others, and from an early age
they can be observed taking command of groups. In some cases, they simply find themselves in charge of groups,
and are mystified as to how this happened. But the reason is that they have a strong natural urge to give structure
and direction wherever they are - to harness people in the field and to direct them to achieve distant goals. They
resemble Supervisors in their tendency to establish plans for a task, enterprise, or organization, but Fieldmarshals
search more for policy and goals than for regulations and procedures.
They cannot not build organizations, and cannot not push to implement their goals. When in charge of an
organization, whether in the military, business, education, or government, Fieldmarshals more than any other type
desire (and generally have the ability) to visualize where the organization is going, and they seem able to
communicate that vision to others. Their organizational and coordinating skills tends to be highly developed, which
means that they are likely to be good at systematizing, ordering priorities, generalizing, summarizing, at marshaling
evidence, and at demonstrating their ideas. Their ability to organize, however, may be more highly developed than
their ability to analyze, and the Fieldmarshal leader may need to turn to an Inventor or Architect to provide this kind
Fieldmarshals will usually rise to positions of responsibility and enjoy being executives. They are tireless in their
devotion to their jobs and can easily block out other areas of life for the sake of their work. Superb administrators in
any field - medicine, law, business, education, government, the military - Fieldmarshals organize their units into
smooth-functioning systems, planning in advance, keeping both short-term and long-range objectives well in mind.
For the Fieldmarshal, there must always be a goal-directed reason for doing anything, and people's feelings usually
are not sufficient reason. They prefer decisions to be based on impersonal data, want to work from well thought-out
plans, like to use engineered operations - and they expect others to follow suit. They are ever intent on reducing
bureaucratic red tape, task redundancy, and aimless confusion in the workplace, and they are willing to dismiss
employees who cannot get with the program and increase their efficiency. Although Fieldmarshals are tolerant of
established procedures, they can and will abandon any procedure when it can be shown to be ineffective in
accomplishing its goal. Fieldmarshals root out and reject ineffectiveness and inefficiency, and are impatient with
repetition of error.
Hillary Clinton, Napoleon, Margret Thatcher, Carl Sagan, Bill Gates, Golda Meir, Edward Teller, George Benard Shaw,
and General George C. Marshall are examples of Rational Fieldmarshals.
Rational Portrait of the Inventor (ENTP)
Inventors begin building gadgets and mechanisms as young children, and never really stop, though as adults they
will turn their inventiveness to many kinds of organizations, social as well as mechanical. There aren't many
Inventors, say about two percent of the population, but they have great impact on our everyday lives. With their
innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, Inventors are always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects,
new enterprises, new processes. Always aiming to "build a better mousetrap."
Inventors are keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their
ends. They are the most reluctant of all the types to do things in a particular manner just because that's the way
they have been done. As a result, they often bring fresh, new approaches to their work and play. They are intensely
curious and continuously probe for possibilities, especially when trying to solve complex problems. Inventors are filled
with ideas, but value ideas only when they make possible actions and objects. Thus they see product design not as
an end in itself, but as a means to an end, as a way of devising the prototype that works and that can be brought to
market. Inventors are confident in their pragmatism, counting on their ability to find effective ways and means when
they need them, rather than making a detailed blueprint in advance. A rough idea is all they need to feel ready to
proceed into action.
Inventors often have a lively circle of friends and are interested in their ideas and activities. They are usually easy-
going, seldom critical or carping. Inventors can be engaging conversationalists, able to express their own complicated
ideas and to follow the ideas of others. When arguing issues, however, they may deliberately employ debate skills to
the serious disadvantage of their opponents.
Inventors are usually non-conformists in the workplace, and can succeed in many areas as long as the job does not
involve too much humdrum routine. They make good leaders on pilot projects that test their ingenuity. And they are
skilled at engineering human relationships and human systems, quickly grasping the politics of institutions and
always wanting to understand the people within the system rather than tell them what to do. No matter what their
occupation, however, Inventors display an extraordinary talent for rising to the demands of even the most impossible
situations. "It can't be done" is a challenge to an Inventor and elicits a reaction of "I can do it."
Walt Disney, Benjamin Franklin, Ray Kurtzweil, Buckminster Fuller, Richard Feynman, Thomas Edison, Camille Paglia,
and Nicola Tesla are examples of an Inventor Rationals.
Rational Portrait of the Mastermind (INTJ)
All Rationals are good at planning operations, but Masterminds are head and shoulders above all the rest in
contingency planning. Complex operations involve many steps or stages, one following another in a necessary
progression, and Masterminds are naturally able to grasp how each one leads to the next, and to prepare alternatives
for difficulties that are likely to arise any step of the way. Trying to anticipate every contingency, Masterminds never
set off on their current project without a Plan A firmly in mind, but they are always prepared to switch to Plan B or C
or D if need be.
Masterminds are rare, comprising no more than, say, one percent of the population, and they are rarely encountered
outside their office, factory, school, or laboratory. Although they are highly capable leaders, Masterminds are not at
all eager to take command, preferring to stay in the background until others demonstrate their inability to lead. Once
they take charge, however, they are thoroughgoing pragmatists. Masterminds are certain that efficiency is
indispensable in a well-run organization, and if they encounter inefficiency-any waste of human and material
resources-they are quick to realign operations and reassign personnel. Masterminds do not feel bound by established
rules and procedures, and traditional authority does not impress them, nor do slogans or catchwords. Only ideas that
make sense to them are adopted; those that don't, aren't, no matter who thought of them. Remember, their aim is
always maximum efficiency.
In their careers, Masterminds usually rise to positions of responsibility, for they work long and hard and are
dedicated in their pursuit of goals, sparing neither their own time and effort nor that of their colleagues and
employees. Problem-solving is highly stimulating to Masterminds, who love responding to tangled systems that
require careful sorting out. Ordinarily, they verbalize the positive and avoid comments of a negative nature; they are
more interested in moving an organization forward than dwelling on mistakes of the past.
Masterminds tend to be much more definite and self-confident than other Rationals, having usually developed a very
strong will. Decisions come easily to them; in fact, they can hardly rest until they have things settled and decided.
But before they decide anything, they must do the research. Masterminds are highly theoretical, but they insist on
looking at all available data before they embrace an idea, and they are suspicious of any statement that is based on
shoddy research, or that is not checked against reality.
Alan Greenspan, Ben Bernanke, Dwight D. Eisenhower, General Ulysses S. Grant, Frideriche Nietsche, Niels Bohr,
Peter the Great, Stephen Hawking, John Maynard Keynes, Lise Meitner, Ayn Rand and Sir Isaac Newton are
examples of Rational Masterminds.
A full description of the Mastermind and Rational is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II
Finding Your Passion or What Makes a Job Right for You?
Rationals - Finding Knowledge and Competence
In this five-part series, we're examining each personality type and job fit. Rationals may have a problem
with the Boomer phrase, "Finding Your Passion." Many Rationals are suspicious of strong emotion. For them,
life satisfaction equates to having Knowledge and Competence.
Many of our early Presidents were Rationals, such as John
Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe. A common
characteristic is a vision of the future and the ability to make
that vision come true.
Of all the Rationals, the most driven toward a leadership
position is the Fieldmarshal (ENTJ). David Keirsey said they
cannot NOT lead. In business Fieldmarshals are often found as
top executives and senior managers as well as heads of sales
and marketing. Since they are driven toward reaching goals,
they can be project managers, investment brokers, financial
planners, labor relations leaders. Their analytic abilities are of advantage in positions such as business
consulting, management consulting, stockbroker, and economic analyst. Professional fields attract the
Fieldmarshal so they can call their own shots. If they enter the legal field, they may rise to the position of
judge. Says Kent, "I'm very goal driven and I expect everyone who works for me to be aiming toward the
same goal. If you focus your team, you can achieve what might once have seemed impossible."
The Mastermind (INTJ) is very focused as well, but more on an internal vision. They are good at solving
problems and like to work on tough intellectual puzzles. They are often led into technical positions such as
scientific researcher, design engineer, environmental planner. The developing field of genetics benefits from
their intensity as does the field of medicine. In education they are most often found at the college and
university level. In the professions, they may be a lawyer, a business analyst, or strategic planner. Some
have a strong artistic/creative bent and may become an artist, inventor, or designer. Whatever they do,
they do it with intensity. Says Kim, "I am constantly teaching myself something new in order to solve the
problems that I encounter. My husband leaves me alone when he sees that I am caught in what he calls my
"Thinking Time." I'm unwinding knots even in my sleep."
Usually the most out-going of all the Rationals is the Inventor (ENTP). That's because they love bouncing
their ideas off other people and seeing their reactions. It is not unusual to find this type in any job that
requires new ideas and people contact. You might find them in politics, in real estate development, in
advertising, in marketing, or in public relations. They could be a venture capitalist, a management consult,
or a sports agent. As long as they have the opportunity to invent a new product or a new experience, they
will shine. Says Donna, "We'd never tried landing on Mars using air bags and bouncing, but we did it. We
took the risk, then checked out everything we could to limit the risk and we succeeded."
The most reserved of the Rationals is the Architect (INTP). They store huge amounts of information in
their heads and can analyze problems with great insight. They are often drawn to professions where they
can be their own bosses, such as optometrist, plastic surgeon, neurologist, or scientist. They may become
lawyers, architects, or financial analysts. Many are found in the higher levels of academia in such fields as
archeology, chemistry, philosophy, or mathematics. They may show a strong creative bent as a musician,
inventor, or photographer. Some restore antiques or old cars. Says Don, "I like having my own business as
an optometrist. I am constantly reading about new advances in the field. My work must be of the highest
quality. My reputation has caused many patients to come to me because they have problems that were not
solved by other treatment professionals."
The drive towards constantly increasing their knowledge base and being highly competent is what gives
Rationals a sense of personal satisfaction.
Maximizing Your Study Environment
Pt.4: Rationals - Brains and Technology
By The College Advisor
Rationals are often oblivious to the environment
around them as they study. For them, a study area is
wherever they can find resource materials and any
needed technology. Sometimes the technology
contains the resource materials as well, making a
Rational with a wireless laptop a walking study area.
Because of their amazing powers of concentration,
some Rationals can study in the middle of a crowded
cafeteria or during a cultural event.
Architects (INTP) are particularly adept at flexibility in terms of environment. Jack is able to whip out an
hour long lecture on any of more than 100 different topics in under 2 minutes using his laptop. When he is
studying, he is oblivious to anything else. He was in his dorm room deep in thought when the fire alarm
rang. He didn't hear that, nor did he hear the Resident Assistant yelling at him to get out. He came out of
his reverie when his roommate came back.
Masterminds (INTJ) care a bit more about their environment than Architects do, but once they are deep
in a project, they can be even more concentrated and focused. The main thing a Mastermind wants is lots of
uninterrupted time. They will skip meals, classes, even dates as they pursue the completion of a project.
Daria often does her work in bed. As soon as she wakes up, she can get to work. She will wake up all hours
of the night, work to finish a new part and then go back to sleep.
Inventors (ENTP), like most Rationals, can study by themselves. They also enjoy studying with others,
particularly if the studying involves some lively debates. Jamilla chose to go to a university known for its
laid-back attitude and great parties. She majored in electrical engineering. The juxtaposition of a difficult
major in a party atmosphere is a common paradox for Inventors who seek high level mental stimulation
along with experiential stimulation.
Fieldmarshals (ENTJ) are likely to spend most of their study time by themselves so they can accomplish it
in the most efficient way possible. Of all the Rationals, Fieldmarshals tend to have the most need for an
organized, quiet study area. Thom races against himself as he tries to improve his procedures. He has
experimented with varying ways of doing assignments and is constantly fine tuning his approach. He only
occasionally goes to study groups since he thinks they're usually time wasters.
Capitalizing on Your Intelligence Style
Part 1: Guardians' Logistical Intelligence
By The College Advisor
Guardians have a natural intelligence in logistics – making sure the right thing is in the right place at the
right time. However, natural ability benefits from being exposed to tried-and-true training in logistics skills
demonstrated in various majors. The logistics of performance arts is different from the logistics in computer
science. Guardians benefit when they think of courses in terms of logistical knowledge. All four types of
Guardians emphasize different aspects of logistics intelligence.
Supervisors (ESTJs) have directing logistical intelligence and enjoy a chance to lead. They have a natural
talent for planning and for getting people to commit to action. They also have a talent for seeing how to get
things done more quickly than some other types. They rely on proven methods to be effective.
Ariceli majored in civil engineering and thought she would have great job prospects. She was particularly
impressed with how much planning needed to go into major engineering projects and how each needed to
be planned out ahead of time to keep the project to a tight time schedule. She thought she would be
particularly good at making sure that people kept to an effective schedule. If you're a Supervisor, how does
your major help develop your directing logistical intelligence?
Inspectors (ISTJs) have sequencing logistical intelligence. They can easily design any process which has
steps. They use their marvelous memory for storing many examples of how things work. They make sure
resources are fairly allotted and preserved. Their sequencing is so precise that they have an eagle eye for
discrepancies and errors and find inaccuracies personally embarrassing.
Lincoln was majoring in computer science. He liked working by himself. When he first started writing code,
he did it in pieces. As he learned more, he saw that if he developed subroutine code in a particular linear
sequence, it was more effective in achieving his end goal. He saw how he could develop concise and well-
organized libraries that he later could combine in effective ways to make code clearer and more efficient. In
time he was able to look at hundreds of lines of code and spot flaws in logic or syntax. If you're an
Inspector, how does your major help develop your sequencing logistical intelligence?
Providers (ESFJs) have social logistical intelligence which allows them to promote smooth social relations
for everyone. Providers don’t want anyone to be left out; they prefer social harmony. They are good at
planning events and naturally add touches that celebrate social traditions.
Tim majored in business. In his freshman year he was instrumental in setting up a study group in his
fraternity to help himself and others do well in certain business classes. He was known in that group for
spotting social connections for business opportunities. Tim’s professors emphasized the need for developing
connections to increase the number of good job offers. Tim took this advice seriously and planned ahead by
joining in a business academic club which fostered connections into the business community. If you're a
Provider, how does your major help develop social logistical intelligence?
Protectors (ISFJs) have preserving logistical intelligence. Protectors keep both people and things safe.
They don't like waste. Protectors will do whatever it takes to make sure there are no problems. Protectors
notice when people are not comfortable and will act to change the situation.
Dema majored in graphics design. She'd always been told she was a good artist. Once she got to college,
she wondered if she was creative enough. Some classmates seemed to spontaneously produce elaborate,
eye-catching designs while Dema took the time to plan out what she wanted to do. Once she had decided
what she was trying to communicate to her audience, she could execute it quickly. She took under her wing
students who were having problems in any art class and helped the instructor clean up any messes at the
end of class. When the college had an exhibition, her graphics were praised for having clean lines and giving
the viewer a sense of being at home. She now has a job offer pending for when she graduates. If you're a
Protector, how does your major help develop preserving logistical intelligence?
Capitalizing on Your Intelligence Style
Part 2: Artisans' Tactical Intelligence
By The College Advisor
Who wants to be in a job that doesn’t fit – no one, especially Artisans. Artisans have a natural intelligence in
tactics – the ability to quickly perceive a situation, evaluate multiple options, and take action to get the
Promoters (ESTPs) have negotiator tactical intelligence. They are good at employing any and all resources
in order to gain an objective. Their natural skills in negotiation help them gain the maximum advantage to
meet their goals quickly. They are good at persuading others to jump on board to make things happen.
Rena majors in Business with a minor in Marketing Management. She says her favorite classes have an
emphasis on sales. "I really love the give and take of promoting and making the deal. It’s an exciting
challenge and keeps me on my toes." If you're a Promoter, how does your major help develop your
negotiator tactical intelligence?
Crafters (ISTPs) have "Seat of the Pants" tactical intelligence. They react quickly to changing
circumstances and have fast reaction times. Their ability to quickly make a decision in pressure-filled
situations can get themselves and those around them moving in a crisis. While they enjoy being laid back,
they generally move into high gear faster than other personality styles.
Andrew majors in Computer Information Science with an emphasis on Telecommunication. He likes getting
his hands in the machinery and connections. "I like figuring out problems, coming up with new ideas and
solving issues when there is a time crunch. What a high!" If you're a Crafter, how does your major help
develop your "Seat of the Pants" tactical intelligence?
Performers (ESFPs) have social tactical intelligence. They are easily friendly to others and like to keep the
adrenaline up by taking advantage of any activities that keep themselves and others excited. Since they
constantly scan the environment for anything new, they are the in-the-know about what's in and what's out.
They prefer to be up-beat and like to keep themselves and those around them happy and amused so others
are attracted to them.
Kitty majors in Communication. She's always had a gift for languages and is very interested in intercultural
communication. "It’s important that people understand the message that you are sending. I've always been
good at watching for reactions and adapting. I have to learn a lot about getting the same level of success
through written language." If you're a Performer, how does your major help develop social tactical
Composers (ISFPs) have adaptive tactical intelligence. They are very in tune with their senses and notice
sound, color, motion, and people reactions. They can quickly put their ideas together. Their adaptive tactical
intelligence drives them to try different options until they settle upon the best.
Sean majors in Mechanical Engineering. He likes to draw and make adaptations to designs. "I can't believe
how some people just want to make a design work but never pay attention to how it looks. I want things to
be functional, efficient, and pleasing to the eye." If you're a Composer, how does your major help develop
adaptive tactical intelligence?
Capitalizing on Your Intelligence Style
Part 3: Idealists' Diplomatic Intelligence
By The College Advisor
Idealists want a dream job and the best matches fitting
their type of intelligence and skills. Possessing natural
diplomatic intelligence, they empathize with others,
communicate in a global language that allows others to
add their own meanings, and seek harmony with all.
Teachers (ENFJs) have teaming diplomatic
intelligence. They actively demonstrate ways to work
cooperatively with others. To help each person rise to
his/her potential, they mentor and tutor. They want both the individual and the group to be successful.
Shyesha looks forward to her career as a high school teacher. "I grew up in the projects and people would
come to me to settle arguments. I want to encourage students to make something of themselves and I think
teaching is the best way for me to do that." If you're a Teacher, how does your major help develop your
teaming diplomatic intelligence?
Counselors (INFJs) have guiding diplomatic intelligence. Counselors foresee what keeps others from being
happy and successful and guide other to gain new skills to meet their goals. They prefer working one-on-one
more than working with groups.
Paolo wants to get a Master's in Counseling. "My friends seek me out when they are in a bind. I try to help
them. I see so many people causing trouble for themselves and I'd like to help, so I decided to go into
counseling." If you're a Counselor, how does your major help develop your guiding diplomatic intelligence?
Champions (ENFPs) have inspirational diplomatic intelligence. Counselors use interactions with others to
gain new insights and spot deeper issues for both individuals and groups. They use words to paint pictures
to inspire others to meet new challenges and go beyond that which is easy.
Kirby has been studying Kinesiology and Health Promotion. He'd like to travel to Third World Countries to
improve health conditions. "I hate to see people suffering because of poor sanitation and ignorance about
healthy ways of living. When I graduate, I'll be associated with a missionary group that provides medical
assistance and health information." If you're a Champion, how does your major help develop inspirational
Healers (INFPs) have mediating diplomatic intelligence. Healers see all sides of issues and seek their own
inner truth to create unique solutions to problems. Since they are hypersensitive to conflict, it is in their own
best interest to seek solutions that others can accept.
Teresa has an interdisciplinary major combining psychology, sociology and criminal justice. "I come from a
long line of cops. Right now I'm not exactly sure how I'm going to apply my major, but I think I'd like to be
a profiler. I seem to be able to get into other people's head and think from a lot of different perspectives. I'd
like to help catch criminals - particularly those who torture and rape." If you're a Healer, how does your
major help develop mediating diplomatic intelligence?
Capitalizing on Your Intelligence Style
Part 4: Rationals' Strategic Intelligence
By The College Advisor
Rationals are driven to seek "the truth" and scan both
backward and forward in time. The best careers for
them capitalize on this long-ranging perspective.
Rationals have natural strategic intelligence. They
naturally construct visions of the future and generate a
multitude of ideas and possibilities for actions to make
those visions come true.
Fieldmarshals (ENTJs) have strategic leading
intelligence. They push toward their visionary objectives and discard elements that do not lead toward the
goal. People tend to follow them because they exude a sense of surety about their decisions.
Miguel majors in Business Management. He wants to go into international business. "I’ve seen businesses
that failed both their customers and their employees by simply being greedy at the top. For me the
principles of capitalism bring success to the many and not just the few. I'll never be an Enron leader." If
you're a Fieldmarshal, how does your major help develop your strategic leading intelligence?
Masterminds (INTJs) have strategic planning intelligence. They gather multiple ideas and elements in a
system and use them as flexible building blocks to create their vision of a new product.
Mina majors in Computer Science. She prefers the complex to the simple. "I like the challenge of working
with multiple facets to create something new. While I have an objective in mind, I can sometimes move off
the straight-forward line to follow a rabbit trail which might lead to a new break-through. Then I'll come
back to my objective which is usually slightly revised." If you're a Mastermind, how does your major help
develop your strategic planning intelligence?
Inventors (ENTPs) have strategic imagining intelligence. Inventors are both solo artists and group
members. They need the group for feedback and they fly solo to reach new heights of ideas for creating new
products or new visions. While not all of their ideas may be practical at the time of their envisioning, they
have the most sense of satisfaction when some ideas become concrete and are used by others.
Randy is majoring in Engineering and is especially attracted to Energy Engineering because he sees the
nation as having strong needs in this arena. "I’m not interested in doing something tried-and-true. I want a
challenge. I would have loved to be Orville Wright or Thomas Edison. I hope to bring new ideas into energy
engineering." If you're an Inventor, how does your major help develop strategic imagining intelligence?
Architects (INTPs) have strategic expert intelligence. Architects can't help becoming known as experts.
Their minds are huge filing cabinets filled with information about the subjects that attract their interest.
Jeneka's parents were anthropologists and she has chosen the same field. "Some students choose very
different fields from their parents, but I've always found physical anthropology fascinating. I have spent a
lot of time in the field and have a great deal of patience. Other students come to me for answers. I prefer
when they ask focused questions, because I know so much that I can’t simply give them a complete data
dump." If you're an Architect, how does your major help develop strategic expert intelligence?