• Cyber crime is unlawful acts wherein
the computer is either a tool or a target
• Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that
are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud,
forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are
subject to the Indian Penal Code.
• The abuse of computers has also given birth to a
gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the
Information Technology Act, 2000.
• The Computer as a • The Computer as a
Target :-using a weapon :-using a
computer to attack computer to commit
other computers. real world crimes.
• e.g. • e.g.
– Hacking, – Cyber Terrorism,
– Virus/Worm attacks, – IPR violations,
– DOS attack etc. – Credit card frauds,
– EFT frauds,
– Pornography etc.
• Technological advancements have
created new possibilities for criminal
activity, in particular the criminal
misuse of information technologies
such as :
• I. Unauthorized access & Hacking:-
• II. Trojan Attack:-
• III. Virus and Worm attack:-
• IV. E-mail & IRC related crimes:-
– 1. Email spoofing
– 2. Email Spamming
– 4. Email bombing
– 5. Sending threatening emails
– 6. Defamatory emails
– 7. Email frauds
– 8. IRC related
• V. Denial of Service attacks:-
• Access means gaining entry into,
instructing or communicating with
the logical, arithmetical, or memory
function resources of a computer
system or computer network.
• Unauthorized access would therefore
mean any kind of access without the
permission of either the rightful
owner or the person in charge of a
computer, computer system or
computer network. 6
• Every act committed towards breaking into
a computer and/or network is hacking.
• Hackers write or use ready-made
computer programs to attack the target
computer. Some hackers hack for personal
monetary gains, such as to stealing the
credit card information, transferring
money from various bank accounts to
their own account followed by withdrawal
• By hacking web server taking control on
another persons website called as web
• The program that act like something useful but do
the things that are quiet damping. It facilitates
unauthorized access to the user's computer
system. The programs of this kind are called as
• The name Trojan Horse is popular.
• Trojans come in two parts, a Client part and a Server
part. When the victim (unknowingly) runs the server
on its machine, the attacker will then use the Client
to connect to the Server and start using the trojan.
• TCP/IP protocol is the usual protocol type used for
• A program that has capability to infect
other programs and make copies of
itself and spread into other programs is
• Programs that multiply like viruses but
spread from computer to computer are
called as worms.
• 1. Email spoofing
• Email spoofing refers to email that appears to have been
originated from one source when it was actually sent from
• 2. Email Spamming
• Email "spamming" refers to sending email to thousands and
thousands of users - similar to a chain letter.
• 3 Sending malicious codes through email
• E-mails are used to send viruses, Trojans etc through emails as
an attachment or by sending a link of website which on visiting
downloads malicious code.
• 4. Email bombing
• E-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly
sending an identical email message to a particular address.
• 5. Sending threatening emails
• 6. Defamatory (insulting) emails
• 7. Email frauds
• 8. IRC related
• Flooding a computer resource with more requests
than it can handle. This causes the resource to
crash thereby denying access of service to
• Examples include
• attempts to "flood" a network, thereby preventing
legal network traffic
• attempts to disrupt connections between two
machines, thereby preventing access to a service
• attempts to prevent a particular individual from
accessing a service
• attempts to disrupt service to a specific system or
• The World Wide Web (Web) is a network of
• The Web relies on three mechanisms to
make these resources readily available to
the widest possible audience:
1. A uniform naming scheme for locating resources
on the Web (e.g., URIs : Universal Resource Identifier ).
2. Protocols, for access to named resources over the
Web (e.g., HTTP).
3. Hypertext, for easy navigation among resources
The ties between the three mechanisms are
apparent throughout this specification.
• e-Government (from electronic
government, also known as e-gov, digital
government, online government or in a
certain context transformational
government) refers to ―government's use
of information technology to exchange
information and services with citizens,
businesses, and other arms of
• e-Government may be applied by the
legislature, judiciary, or administration, in
order to improve internal efficiency, the
delivery of public services, or processes of
• The primary delivery models are
– Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-
– Government-to-Business (G2B) and
– Government-to- Government (G2G) &
– Government-to-Employees (G2E).
• The most important anticipated benefits of e-
government include improved efficiency,
convenience, and better accessibility of
• In the general sense, e-government can refer to
uses of electronics in government as large-scale
use of telephones and fax machines, surveillance
systems, tracking systems such as RFID tags, and
even the use of television and radios to spread
• In this sense, e-government is not a new
phenomenon by any means. The use of radio
waves to spread disaster warnings, or to give
information on voting, is a facet of e-government
that has been in use for many years. In many
countries with state-operated media, the entire
media becomes a form of e-government, helping to
spread pro-government messages.
• Individual or group use of electronic
mediums that provide access to online
learning tools and resources.
• Electronic learning or e-Learning is a
general term used to refer to a form of
learning in which the instructor and
student are separated by space or time
where the gap between the two is bridged
through the use of online technologies.
• Web-based learning
• Computer-based learning
• Virtual classrooms
• Digital collaborations
• Content delivery via
– Audio or video tape
– Satellite TV
– Video conferencing
– Wireless & mobile technology etc.
• A blog or "web log" is a type of website,
usually maintained by an individual
with regular entries of commentary,
descriptions of events, or other material
such as graphics or video.
• Entries are commonly displayed in
• Many blogs provide commentary or
news on a particular subject; others
function as more personal online
• A typical blog combines text, images, and links to
other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to
• The ability of readers to leave comments in an
interactive format is an important part of many
• Most blogs are primarily textual, although some
– art (Art blog),
– photographs (photoblog),
– videos (Video blogging),
– music (MP3 blog), and
– audio (podcasting).
– Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very
• Mass media denotes a section of
the media specifically designed to reach
a large audience. The term was coined
in the 1920s with the advent of
nationwide radio networks, mass-
circulation newspapers and magazines.
However, some forms of mass media
such as books and manuscripts had
already been in use for centuries.
• Mass media includes Internet media
(like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video
sharing) because individuals now have a means to
exposure that is comparable in scale to that
previously restricted to a select group of mass media
• The communications audience has been viewed by
some commentators as forming a mass society with
special characteristics, notably atomization or lack
of social connections, which render it especially
susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media
techniques such as advertising and propaganda.
• The term "public media" is less used and can be
defined as "media whose mission is to serve or
engage a public.
• The Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or
less precisely as "the Web") is a more interactive
medium of mass media, and can be briefly
described as "a network of networks".
Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly
accessible network of interconnected computer
networks that transmit data by packet
switching using the standard Internet
• It consists of millions of smaller domestic,
academic, business, and governmental
networks, which together carry
various information and services, such
as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and
the interlinked Web pages and other documents
of the World Wide Web.
• Contrary to some common usage, the
Internet and the World Wide Web are not
synonymous: the Internet is the system of
interconnected computer networks, linked
by copper wires, fiber-
optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the
Web is the contents, or the
interconnected documents, linked
by hyperlinks and URLs.
• The World Wide Web is accessible through
the Internet, along with many other services
including e-mail, file sharing etc.
• Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of
the World Wide Web marked the first era in which
most individuals could have a means of exposure on
a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone
with a web site has the potential to address a global
audience, although serving to high levels of web
traffic is still relatively expensive.
• Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and
commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available,
it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and
reliability of information contained in web pages (in
many cases, self-published).
• The invention of the Internet has also allowed
breaking news stories to reach around the globe
within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous,
decentralized communication is often deemed likely
to change mass media and its relationship to society.
• The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
is an international community
where Member organizations, a full-
time staff, and the public work together
to develop Web standards.
• Led by Web inventor Tim Berners-
Lee and CEO Jeffrey Jaffe.
• W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its
• W3C's primary activity is to developing
protocols and guidelines that ensure
long-term growth for the Web.
• W3C's standards define key parts of
what makes the World Wide Web work.
• A web search engine is designed to search
for information on the World Wide Web. The
search results are usually presented in a list
of results and are commonly called hits. The
information may consist of web pages,
images, information and other types of files.
Some search engines also mine
data available in databases or open
directories. Unlike Web directories, which are
maintained by human editors, search
engines operate algorithmically or are a
mixture of algorithmic and human input.
• A search engine operates, in the
1. Web crawling
• Web search engines work by storing
information about many web pages,
which they retrieve from the html itself.
These pages are retrieved by a Web
crawler (sometimes also known as a
spider) — an automated Web browser
which follows every link on the site.
• "Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the
same message through different media channels. A
similar idea is expressed in the news industry as
"convergence". Many authors understand cross-
media publishing to be the ability to publish in
both print and on the web without manual
conversion effort. An increasing number
of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data
and screen formats make it even more difficult to
achieve the objective ―create once, publish many‖.
• The internet is quickly becoming the center of mass
media. Everything is becoming accessible via the
internet. Instead of picking up a newspaper, or
watching the 10 o'clock news, people will log onto
the internet to get the news they want, when they
want it. Many workers listen to the radio through
the internet while sitting at their desk. Games are
played through the internet.
• The Internet and Education: Even
the education system relies on the internet.
Teachers can contact the entire class by
sending one e-mail. They have web pages
where students can get another copy of the
class outline or assignments. Some classes
even have class blogs where students must
post weekly, and are graded on their
contributions. The internet thus far has
become an extremely dominant form of
• Blogging has become a huge form of media. A blog is a
website, usually maintained by an individual, with
regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events,
or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are
commonly displayed in reverse chronological order.
Many blogs provide commentary or news on a
particular subject; others function as more personal
online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images,
and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media
related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave
comments in an interactive format is an important part
of many blogs.
• Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus
on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog,
videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are
part of a wider network of social media. Micro-blogging
is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with
very short posts.
• RSS is a format for syndicating news and the
content of news-like sites, including major
news sites like Wired, news-oriented
community sites like Slashdot, and
personal blogs. It is a family of Web feed
formats used to publish frequently updated
content such as blog entries, news headlines,
• An RSS document (which is called a "feed" or
"web feed" or "channel") contains either a
summary of content from an associated web
site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for
people to keep up with web sites in an
automated manner that can be piped into
special programs or filtered displays.
• A podcast is a series of digital
media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically
and often downloaded through web syndication.
• The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other
means of accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct
download, or streamed webcasting. A list of all the audio or
video files currently associated with a given series is
maintained centrally on the distributor's server as a web feed,
and the listener or viewer employs
special client application software known as a podcatcher that
can access this web feed, check it for updates, and download
any new files in the series. This process can be automated so
that new files are downloaded automatically. Files are stored
locally on the user's computer or other device ready for offline
use, giving simple and convenient access to episodic
content. Commonly used audio file formats are Ogg
Vorbis and MP3 or MP4.
• A four-part definition of a podcast: A podcast is a digital audio
or video file that is episodic; downloadable; programme-driven,
mainly with a host and/or theme; and convenient, usually via
an automated feed with computer software.
• Following pages consists of a listing of
News sites based in India. The effort is
to list the best sites falling under heads
like News India, Indian News Sites,
Best News Sites, Indian News Sites
List, Top Indian News Sites, Best News
Sites of India, Stock news, market
news, business news, etc.
• The Times of India is a highly reputed
frontline Indian newspaper. Powered by
Indiatimes.com, the site of Times of India
brings you all the latest happenings and
incidents around the world on your desktop.
Read the national and international
headlines and be the first to know the
breaking news of the hour. If you are used to
seeing the printed copy of the paper, try the
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 35
• The Economic Times is the most popular and
trusted newspaper brand when it comes to
delivering all the news and happenings of the
financial world. The site of The Economic
Times provides you the top stories of the
national and global economies around the
world. Know about the recent nuances in the
financial and commercial sector and stay
ahead of the competition.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 36
• The site of The Hindustan Times, one of
the prestigious newspapers in the
country, welcomes you with the top
stories, news and events of the day.
Browse the city editions and go through
the exclusive stories, special
supplements and other interesting
sections. Check out HT Tabloid, HT
Next, Surfers' Corner, e-paper and
photos of the day.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 37
• NDTV.com is then website of New Delhi
Television Ltd. This premier private news
production house of India gives you extensive
coverage of news, events and current affairs
across the country and the world. See the top
stories, breaking news and NDTV exclusives,
brought to you by a team of hardcore and
quality professionals. Browse the site and be
at the brink of the latest happenings.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 38
• Samachar is an online news portal that
brings you the top stories of the day from the
leading newspapers, news related sites and
news portals in India and around the world.
You don't have to browse through the host
sites to know about the latest happenings
and incidents. At Samachar, read the picks
from The Times of India, The Hindu, the
Asian Age, Deccan Chronicle, Deccan Herald,
NDTV.com, CNN and others.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 39
• Expressindia.com is a part of the Indian
Express group. Visit the site to grab the
national and international headlines, see the
city newslines and roll your eyes over the top
breaking news of the day. Browse the other
sections for news and articles related to
sports, business, entertainment, technology
and so on. Read the e-papers of Indian
Express and Financial Express and visit the
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 40
• Deccan Herald is one of the most prestigious
and highly reputed among the newspapers in
India. See the headlines at a glance and read
the top news stories. Get to know the main
incidents happening across India and around
the world. See detailed coverage of news on
business, sports, entertainment and others.
Read articles and editorials written by
frontline journalists and stay informed with
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 41
• The Hindu is a celebrated and prestigious
name in the history of Indian journalism.
Browse through The Hindu site to know the
front page stories, top stories in politics,
sports and business, both at the national
and international arena. Read the news of
the states of India, special features,
supplements, and smile with the thought-
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 42
• The Telegraph is a leading national daily of
India. Visit the site of The Telegraph and
navigate through the various sections like
front page, nation, Calcutta, international,
business, sports, gallery or leisure. Get live
scores of interesting sports activities and
look for the daily supplements on jobs, kids,
career and entertainment.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 43
• 123India.com is a site that offers you to
access the top stories in India and abroad.
You can search for stories according to your
need, be it business, politics, sports,
technology, entertainment or health. Take
part in the opinion polls conducted by
123India.com and get ball by ball updates of
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 44
The Financial Express is a pat of the Indian
Express group. The Financial Express is one
of the leading financial news dailies in India.
Visit the site and check out the sections on
corporate news and market trends. Read the
analysis of the different facets of our
economy and its impact on the stock market
and share indexes or other important
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 45
In its site, Business Standard offers you the
best of corporate and financial news. The site
is continuously updated with the latest news
and information, so that you can always
stand to gain an extra advantage. See the
various sections like markets and investing,
companies and industry, banking and
finance, economy or fiscal policies.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 46
• The Asian Age is one of the frontline dailies
of India. Visit the site of The Asian Age and
navigate through the various sections like
top stories, spotlight, special, bottomline,
windows, sports plus or features. You can
read the e-paper version, if you feel like. The
humorous cartoons of Sudhir Tailang make
the whole experience a more enjoyable one.
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 47
Tehelka.com, India's leading weekly
independent newspaper has gained
enormous popularity for the sting operations
carried out by their team of investigative
journalists. Tehelka.com is a part of Agni
Media Pvt. Ltd. Besides getting the national
and international news, the smart look of the
site is an added bonus. Read the sections
like prescription scam, sting investigation,
sting operation, essays or the various other
Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites 48