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					Cyber Media
• Cyber crime is unlawful acts wherein
  the computer is either a tool or a target
  or both.
• Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that
  are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud,
  forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are
  subject to the Indian Penal Code.
• The abuse of computers has also given birth to a
  gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the
  Information Technology Act, 2000.
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• The Computer as a         • The Computer as a
  Target :-using a            weapon :-using a
  computer to attack          computer to commit
  other computers.            real world crimes.
• e.g.                      • e.g.
    – Hacking,                –   Cyber Terrorism,
    – Virus/Worm attacks,     –   IPR violations,
    – DOS attack etc.         –   Credit card frauds,
                              –   EFT frauds,
                              –   Pornography etc.

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• Technological advancements have
  created new possibilities for criminal
  activity, in particular the criminal
  misuse of information technologies
  such as :

•   I. Unauthorized access & Hacking:-
•   II. Trojan Attack:-
•   III. Virus and Worm attack:-
•   IV. E-mail & IRC related crimes:-
    –       1.   Email spoofing
    –       2.   Email Spamming
    –       4.   Email bombing
    –       5.   Sending threatening emails
    –       6.   Defamatory emails
    –       7.   Email frauds
    –       8.   IRC related
• V. Denial of Service attacks:-
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• Access means gaining entry into,
  instructing or communicating with
  the logical, arithmetical, or memory
  function resources of a computer
  system or computer network.
• Unauthorized access would therefore
  mean any kind of access without the
  permission of either the rightful
  owner or the person in charge of a
  computer, computer system or
  computer network.                  6
• Every act committed towards breaking into
  a computer and/or network is hacking.
• Hackers write or use ready-made
  computer programs to attack the target
  computer. Some hackers hack for personal
  monetary gains, such as to stealing the
  credit card information, transferring
  money from various bank accounts to
  their own account followed by withdrawal
  of money.
• By hacking web server taking control on
  another persons website called as web
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• The program that act like something useful but do
  the things that are quiet damping. It facilitates
  unauthorized access to the user's computer
  system. The programs of this kind are called as
• The name Trojan Horse is popular.
• Trojans come in two parts, a Client part and a Server
  part. When the victim (unknowingly) runs the server
  on its machine, the attacker will then use the Client
  to connect to the Server and start using the trojan.
• TCP/IP protocol is the usual protocol type used for

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• A program that has capability to infect
  other programs and make copies of
  itself and spread into other programs is
  called virus.
• Programs that multiply like viruses but
  spread from computer to computer are
  called as worms.

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• 1. Email spoofing
• Email spoofing refers to email that appears to have been
  originated from one source when it was actually sent from
  another source.
• 2. Email Spamming
• Email "spamming" refers to sending email to thousands and
  thousands of users - similar to a chain letter.
• 3 Sending malicious codes through email
• E-mails are used to send viruses, Trojans etc through emails as
  an attachment or by sending a link of website which on visiting
  downloads malicious code.
• 4. Email bombing
• E-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly
  sending an identical email message to a particular address.
• 5. Sending threatening emails
• 6. Defamatory (insulting) emails
• 7. Email frauds
• 8. IRC related

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• Flooding a computer resource with more requests
  than it can handle. This causes the resource to
  crash thereby denying access of service to
  authorized users.
• Examples include
• attempts to "flood" a network, thereby preventing
  legal network traffic
• attempts to disrupt connections between two
  machines, thereby preventing access to a service
• attempts to prevent a particular individual from
  accessing a service
• attempts to disrupt service to a specific system or

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•     The World Wide Web (Web) is a network of
      information resources.
•     The Web relies on three mechanisms to
      make these resources readily available to
      the widest possible audience:
    1. A uniform naming scheme for locating resources
       on the Web (e.g., URIs : Universal Resource Identifier ).
    2. Protocols, for access to named resources over the
       Web (e.g., HTTP).
    3. Hypertext, for easy navigation among resources
       (e.g., HTML).
    The ties between the three mechanisms are
       apparent throughout this specification.

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• e-Government (from electronic
  government, also known as e-gov, digital
  government, online government or in a
  certain context transformational
  government) refers to ―government's use
  of information technology to exchange
  information and services with citizens,
  businesses, and other arms of
• e-Government may be applied by the
  legislature, judiciary, or administration, in
  order to improve internal efficiency, the
  delivery of public services, or processes of
  democratic governance.
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• The primary delivery models are
   – Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-
     Customer (G2C),
   – Government-to-Business (G2B) and
   – Government-to- Government (G2G) &
   – Government-to-Employees (G2E).
• The most important anticipated benefits of e-
  government include improved efficiency,
  convenience, and better accessibility of
  public services.

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• In the general sense, e-government can refer to
  uses of electronics in government as large-scale
  use of telephones and fax machines, surveillance
  systems, tracking systems such as RFID tags, and
  even the use of television and radios to spread
  government-related information.
• In this sense, e-government is not a new
  phenomenon by any means. The use of radio
  waves to spread disaster warnings, or to give
  information on voting, is a facet of e-government
  that has been in use for many years. In many
  countries with state-operated media, the entire
  media becomes a form of e-government, helping to
  spread pro-government messages.
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• Individual or group use of electronic
  mediums that provide access to online
  learning tools and resources.
• Electronic learning or e-Learning is a
  general term used to refer to a form of
  learning in which the instructor and
  student are separated by space or time
  where the gap between the two is bridged
  through the use of online technologies.

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•      Web-based learning
•      Computer-based learning
•      Virtual classrooms
•      Digital collaborations
•      Content delivery via
        – E-networks
        – Audio or video tape
        – Satellite TV
        – Video conferencing
        – CD-ROM
        – E-mail
        – Wireless & mobile technology etc.

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• A blog or "web log" is a type of website,
  usually maintained by an individual
  with regular entries of commentary,
  descriptions of events, or other material
  such as graphics or video.
• Entries are commonly displayed in
  reverse-chronological order.
• Many blogs provide commentary or
  news on a particular subject; others
  function as more personal online
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• A typical blog combines text, images, and links to
  other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to
  its topic.
• The ability of readers to leave comments in an
  interactive format is an important part of many
• Most blogs are primarily textual, although some
  focus on
     –       art (Art blog),
     –       photographs (photoblog),
     –       videos (Video blogging),
     –       music (MP3 blog), and
     –       audio (podcasting).
     –       Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very
             short posts.

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• Mass media denotes a section of
  the media specifically designed to reach
  a large audience. The term was coined
  in the 1920s with the advent of
  nationwide radio networks, mass-
  circulation newspapers and magazines.
  However, some forms of mass media
  such as books and manuscripts had
  already been in use for centuries.

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• Mass media includes Internet media
  (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video
  sharing) because individuals now have a means to
  exposure that is comparable in scale to that
  previously restricted to a select group of mass media
• The communications audience has been viewed by
  some commentators as forming a mass society with
  special characteristics, notably atomization or lack
  of social connections, which render it especially
  susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media
  techniques such as advertising and propaganda.
• The term "public media" is less used and can be
  defined as "media whose mission is to serve or
  engage a public.
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• The Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or
  less precisely as "the Web") is a more interactive
  medium of mass media, and can be briefly
  described as "a network of networks".
  Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly
  accessible network of interconnected computer
  networks that transmit data by packet
  switching using the standard Internet
  Protocol (IP).
• It consists of millions of smaller domestic,
  academic, business, and governmental
  networks, which together carry
  various information and services, such
  as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and
  the interlinked Web pages and other documents
  of the World Wide Web.
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• Contrary to some common usage, the
  Internet and the World Wide Web are not
  synonymous: the Internet is the system of
  interconnected computer networks, linked
  by copper wires, fiber-
  optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the
  Web is the contents, or the
  interconnected documents, linked
  by hyperlinks and URLs.
• The World Wide Web is accessible through
  the Internet, along with many other services
  including e-mail, file sharing etc.

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• Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of
  the World Wide Web marked the first era in which
  most individuals could have a means of exposure on
  a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone
  with a web site has the potential to address a global
  audience, although serving to high levels of web
  traffic is still relatively expensive.
• Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and
  commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available,
  it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and
  reliability of information contained in web pages (in
  many cases, self-published).
• The invention of the Internet has also allowed
  breaking news stories to reach around the globe
  within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous,
  decentralized communication is often deemed likely
  to change mass media and its relationship to society.
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• The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  is an international community
  where Member organizations, a full-
  time staff, and the public work together
  to develop Web standards.
• Led by Web inventor Tim Berners-
  Lee and CEO Jeffrey Jaffe.
• W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its
  full potential.

• W3C's primary activity is to developing
  protocols and guidelines that ensure
  long-term growth for the Web.
• W3C's standards define key parts of
  what makes the World Wide Web work.

• A web search engine is designed to search
  for information on the World Wide Web. The
  search results are usually presented in a list
  of results and are commonly called hits. The
  information may consist of web pages,
  images, information and other types of files.
  Some search engines also mine
  data available in databases or open
  directories. Unlike Web directories, which are
  maintained by human editors, search
  engines operate algorithmically or are a
  mixture of algorithmic and human input.

• A search engine operates, in the
  following order
   1. Web crawling
   2. Indexing
   3. Searching
• Web search engines work by storing
  information about many web pages,
  which they retrieve from the html itself.
  These pages are retrieved by a Web
  crawler (sometimes also known as a
  spider) — an automated Web browser
  which follows every link on the site.
• "Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the
  same message through different media channels. A
  similar idea is expressed in the news industry as
  "convergence". Many authors understand cross-
  media publishing to be the ability to publish in
  both print and on the web without manual
  conversion effort. An increasing number
  of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data
  and screen formats make it even more difficult to
  achieve the objective ―create once, publish many‖.
• The internet is quickly becoming the center of mass
  media. Everything is becoming accessible via the
  internet. Instead of picking up a newspaper, or
  watching the 10 o'clock news, people will log onto
  the internet to get the news they want, when they
  want it. Many workers listen to the radio through
  the internet while sitting at their desk. Games are
  played through the internet.
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• The Internet and Education: Even
  the education system relies on the internet.
  Teachers can contact the entire class by
  sending one e-mail. They have web pages
  where students can get another copy of the
  class outline or assignments. Some classes
  even have class blogs where students must
  post weekly, and are graded on their
  contributions. The internet thus far has
  become an extremely dominant form of

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• Blogging has become a huge form of media. A blog is a
  website, usually maintained by an individual, with
  regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events,
  or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are
  commonly displayed in reverse chronological order.
  Many blogs provide commentary or news on a
  particular subject; others function as more personal
  online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images,
  and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media
  related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave
  comments in an interactive format is an important part
  of many blogs.
• Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus
  on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog,
  videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are
  part of a wider network of social media. Micro-blogging
  is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with
  very short posts.
• RSS is a format for syndicating news and the
  content of news-like sites, including major
  news sites like Wired, news-oriented
  community sites like Slashdot, and
  personal blogs. It is a family of Web feed
  formats used to publish frequently updated
  content such as blog entries, news headlines,
  and podcasts.
• An RSS document (which is called a "feed" or
  "web feed" or "channel") contains either a
  summary of content from an associated web
  site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for
  people to keep up with web sites in an
  automated manner that can be piped into
  special programs or filtered displays.
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• A podcast is a series of digital
  media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically
  and often downloaded through web syndication.
• The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other
  means of accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct
  download, or streamed webcasting. A list of all the audio or
  video files currently associated with a given series is
  maintained centrally on the distributor's server as a web feed,
  and the listener or viewer employs
  special client application software known as a podcatcher that
  can access this web feed, check it for updates, and download
  any new files in the series. This process can be automated so
  that new files are downloaded automatically. Files are stored
  locally on the user's computer or other device ready for offline
  use, giving simple and convenient access to episodic
  content. Commonly used audio file formats are Ogg
  Vorbis and MP3 or MP4.
• A four-part definition of a podcast: A podcast is a digital audio
  or video file that is episodic; downloadable; programme-driven,
  mainly with a host and/or theme; and convenient, usually via
  an automated feed with computer software.
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• Following pages consists of a listing of
  News sites based in India. The effort is
  to list the best sites falling under heads
  like News India, Indian News Sites,
  Best News Sites, Indian News Sites
  List, Top Indian News Sites, Best News
  Sites of India, Stock news, market
  news, business news, etc.

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• The Times of India is a highly reputed
  frontline Indian newspaper. Powered by
  Indiatimes.com, the site of Times of India
  brings you all the latest happenings and
  incidents around the world on your desktop.
  Read the national and international
  headlines and be the first to know the
  breaking news of the hour. If you are used to
  seeing the printed copy of the paper, try the
  e-paper version.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   35
• The Economic Times is the most popular and
  trusted newspaper brand when it comes to
  delivering all the news and happenings of the
  financial world. The site of The Economic
  Times provides you the top stories of the
  national and global economies around the
  world. Know about the recent nuances in the
  financial and commercial sector and stay
  ahead of the competition.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   36
• The site of The Hindustan Times, one of
  the prestigious newspapers in the
  country, welcomes you with the top
  stories, news and events of the day.
  Browse the city editions and go through
  the exclusive stories, special
  supplements and other interesting
  sections. Check out HT Tabloid, HT
  Next, Surfers' Corner, e-paper and
  photos of the day.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   37
• NDTV.com is then website of New Delhi
  Television Ltd. This premier private news
  production house of India gives you extensive
  coverage of news, events and current affairs
  across the country and the world. See the top
  stories, breaking news and NDTV exclusives,
  brought to you by a team of hardcore and
  quality professionals. Browse the site and be
  at the brink of the latest happenings.


            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   38
• Samachar is an online news portal that
  brings you the top stories of the day from the
  leading newspapers, news related sites and
  news portals in India and around the world.
  You don't have to browse through the host
  sites to know about the latest happenings
  and incidents. At Samachar, read the picks
  from The Times of India, The Hindu, the
  Asian Age, Deccan Chronicle, Deccan Herald,
  NDTV.com, CNN and others.


            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   39
• Expressindia.com is a part of the Indian
  Express group. Visit the site to grab the
  national and international headlines, see the
  city newslines and roll your eyes over the top
  breaking news of the day. Browse the other
  sections for news and articles related to
  sports, business, entertainment, technology
  and so on. Read the e-papers of Indian
  Express and Financial Express and visit the
  photo gallery.


            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   40
• Deccan Herald is one of the most prestigious
  and highly reputed among the newspapers in
  India. See the headlines at a glance and read
  the top news stories. Get to know the main
  incidents happening across India and around
  the world. See detailed coverage of news on
  business, sports, entertainment and others.
  Read articles and editorials written by
  frontline journalists and stay informed with
  Deccan Herald.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   41
• The Hindu is a celebrated and prestigious
  name in the history of Indian journalism.
  Browse through The Hindu site to know the
  front page stories, top stories in politics,
  sports and business, both at the national
  and international arena. Read the news of
  the states of India, special features,
  supplements, and smile with the thought-
  provoking cartoons.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   42
• The Telegraph is a leading national daily of
  India. Visit the site of The Telegraph and
  navigate through the various sections like
  front page, nation, Calcutta, international,
  business, sports, gallery or leisure. Get live
  scores of interesting sports activities and
  look for the daily supplements on jobs, kids,
  career and entertainment.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   43
• 123India.com is a site that offers you to
  access the top stories in India and abroad.
  You can search for stories according to your
  need, be it business, politics, sports,
  technology, entertainment or health. Take
  part in the opinion polls conducted by
  123India.com and get ball by ball updates of
  cricket matches.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   44
    The Financial Express is a pat of the Indian
    Express group. The Financial Express is one
    of the leading financial news dailies in India.
    Visit the site and check out the sections on
    corporate news and market trends. Read the
    analysis of the different facets of our
    economy and its impact on the stock market
    and share indexes or other important

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   45

    In its site, Business Standard offers you the
    best of corporate and financial news. The site
    is continuously updated with the latest news
    and information, so that you can always
    stand to gain an extra advantage. See the
    various sections like markets and investing,
    companies and industry, banking and
    finance, economy or fiscal policies.

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   46
• The Asian Age is one of the frontline dailies
  of India. Visit the site of The Asian Age and
  navigate through the various sections like
  top stories, spotlight, special, bottomline,
  windows, sports plus or features. You can
  read the e-paper version, if you feel like. The
  humorous cartoons of Sudhir Tailang make
  the whole experience a more enjoyable one.


            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   47
    Tehelka.com, India's leading weekly
    independent newspaper has gained
    enormous popularity for the sting operations
    carried out by their team of investigative
    journalists. Tehelka.com is a part of Agni
    Media Pvt. Ltd. Besides getting the national
    and international news, the smart look of the
    site is an added bonus. Read the sections
    like prescription scam, sting investigation,
    sting operation, essays or the various other

            Analysis of important Indian news-based web-sites   48

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