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Unification of Germany

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					World
History   Global Nationalism
Why did nationalism rise?
 Europe
 • Common cause against an uncertain
   future (unification)
 • self determination (independence)
 Non-Western (India, SE Asia, etc.)
 • Educated native elite sent to Europe to
   study
 • brought back nationalist views
 • became leadership of independence
   movements
 Otto von Bismarck, 1815-98.
 Premier of Prussia (1862-90), chancellor
  of Germany (1871-90).
 To expel Austria from German
  Confederation (as a first step toward
  unification of the German states),
  provoked war with Denmark and then
  Austria (1864-1866) over the Schleswig-
  Holstein question.
AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR--1866
• quick defeat of Austria (aka Seven
  Weeks War)
• Bismarck formed the North German
  Confederation without Austria and with
  Prussian leadership
FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 1870-71
• Exploited German states’ fears of
  France to ally with Prussia
• France humiliatingly defeated, Alsace-
  Lorraine annexed
 Used notion of united Germany as
  catalyst for all of these actions.
 Now easily brought German states
  under crown of Prussia
 William I proclaimed German emperor
 Bismarck empire's first chancellor--
  ruled thereafter as virtual dictator.
aka “The Iron Chancellor”
Architect of the German Empire
Credited with the 1871 unification of
 Germany
Was warned against taking the
 provinces of Alsace-Lorraine from
 France after the 1870 Franco-Prussian
 War (led to WW I)
Was warned against the violation of
 Belgian neutrality as dictated by the
 von Schlieffen Plan for the invasion of
 France
Had difficulty winning approval of
 alliance with Austria-Hungary (Wilhelm I
 was worried it would offend Russia)
Dismissed as Chancellor by Wilhelm II
 in Mar-1890
His system of alliances made him the
 acknowledged leader of Europe (THREE
 EMPERORS' LEAGUE; TRIPLE
 ALLIANCE AND TRIPLE ENTENTE)
His alliances proved difficult for his
 successors to manage.
Non-Western Nationalism

India       Indian
                   National
             Congress,
             Muslim
             League

Turkey      Young    Turks
 Trend  in country is to send
  promising students to Europe for
  education.
 Returned to India to lead
  nationalist movements such as
  Indian National Congress (Hindu)
  and Muslim League (Muslim).
Excerpts from The Young Turks: Proclamation for the Ottoman Empire, 1908

1. The basis for the Constitution will be respect for the predominance of the national
will. One of the consequences of this principle will be to require without delay the
responsibility of the minister before the Chamber, and, consequently, to consider the
minister as having resigned, when he does not have a majority of the votes of the
Chamber.

2. Provided that the number of senators does not exceed one-third the number of
deputies, the Senate will be named as follows: one-third by the Sultan and two-thirds
by the nation, and the term of senators will be of limited duration.

3. It will be demanded that all Ottoman subjects having completed their twentieth
year, regardless of whether they possess property or fortune, shall have the right to
vote. Those who have lost their civil rights will naturally be deprived of this right.

4. It will be demanded that the right freely to constitute political groups be inserted in
a precise fashion in the constitutional charter, in order that article 1 of the
Constitution of 1293 A.H. [Anno Hegira=] be respected.
7. The Turkish tongue will remain the official state language. Official correspondence
and discussion will take place in Turkish.

9. Every citizen will enjoy complete liberty and equality, regardless of nationality or
religion, and be submitted to the same obligations. All Ottomans, being equal before the
law as regards rights and duties relative to the State, are eligible for government posts,
according to their individual capacity and their education. Non-Muslims will be equally
liable to the military law.

10. The free exercise of the religious privileges which have been accorded to different
nationalities will remain intact.

Source. From: "The Young Turks," trans. A. Sarrou, in Civilization since Waterloo,
Rondo Cameron, ed. (Paris, 1912), pp. 40-42 Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal.
State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg.

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1908youngturk.html
Zionism
   Zionism, the national movement for the return of the
    Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of
    Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, advocated, from
    its inception, tangible as well as spiritual aims. Jews of all
    persuasions, left and right, religious and secular, joined
    to form the Zionist movement and worked together
    toward these goals. Disagreements led to rifts, but
    ultimately, the common goal of a Jewish state in its
    ancient homeland was attained.
   Balkans before World War I
    – Many new nations (Serbia, Greece,
      Romania, etc) recently independent
      from Ottoman Empire, Austro-
      Hungarian Empire.
    – Made alliance with great powers of
      Europe (GB, Russia, Germany, France).
    – Tensions in region led to WW I.
Global Nationalism



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posted:10/17/2011
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