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					    Little known Black history fact:
    Dr. Carter G. Woodson founded
     The Journal of Negro History in
     1916 and began Negro History
     Week in 1926, designating a week
     in February, because that month
     held birthdays for Abraham
     Lincoln, Frederick Douglass and
     Booker T. Washington, this week
     went on to become Black History
     Month in 1976, designated by
     presidential proclamation.
Little known Black history fact:
   Millions of people are indebted
    to the medical research of Dr.
    Charles Drew. As a world-
    renowned surgeon, medical
    scientist and educator, Dr. Drew
    was a medical pioneer by finding
    a way to preserve blood. He
    created the first blood bank and
    developed a way to efficiently
    store blood plasma.
Little known Black history fact:
   Nathaniel Alexander was the first
    to patent the folding chair. His
    invention was designed to be used
    in schools, churches and at large
    social gatherings.
Little known Black history fact:
   Charles B. Brooks
    invented the street sweeper
    in 1896. It was a truck
    equipped with brooms.
Little known Black history fact:
   Andrew Jackson Beard
    invented the "Jenny Coupler"
    in 1897, a device which
    allowed train cars to hook
    themselves together when
    they are bumped into one
    another. The device saved the
    lives of many railroad workers,
    who originally had the
    dangerous job of hooking the
    moving cars together by hand.
Little known Black history fact:
   In 1903, as chairwoman of the board
    for the newly founded St. Luke Bank
    and Trust, Maggie Lena Walker
    became the nation's first female
    bank president. She was said to
    have a "golden touch," and helped
    the Black community in many ways.
    She organized and served as
    president of the St. Luke
    Educational Fund, which helped
    Black children get an education; was
    national director of the NAACP; and
    was appointed by several Virginia
    governors to various posts.
Little known Black history fact:
   Henry Brown created what is
    now known as a "strongbox", a
    metal container to store money
    and important papers that could
    be locked with a key.
Little known Black history fact:
   African-American mechanical
    engineer, David Crosthwait, Jr.
    created the heating systems for
    the Rockefeller Center and New
    York's Radio City Music Hall.
    David Crosthwait, Jr., holds 39
    U.S. patents and 80 international
    patents pertaining to heating,
    refrigeration and temperature
    regulating systems.
Little known Black history fact:
   In 1897, African-American
    inventor Alfred Cralle
    patented the first ice
    cream scoop. His original
    design remains in wide
    use, even today.
Little known Black history fact:
   W.E.B. Du Bois became the
    first African American to earn a
    Ph.D. from Harvard. He is
    perhaps best known for his
    work in founding the National
    Association for the
    Advancement of Colored
    People in 1909 and helping it to
    become the country's single
    most influential organization for
    African Americans.
Little known Black history fact:
   In 1899, African-American golf
    fan Dr. George Franklin Grant
    received a patent for the world's
    first golf tee. Grant, however,
    never marketed his invention,
    instead giving the tees away to
    friends and fellow golfers.
Little known Black history fact:
   Sophia B. Packard and
    Harriet E. Giles founded the
    first college for Black women in
    the United States in 1881. The
    school was named Spelman
    College after Laura Celestia
    Spelman Rockefeller, the wife
    of John D. Rockefeller, who
    made a sizeable donation to
    the school.
Little known Black history fact:
   Allensworth is the only California
    community to be founded,
    financed and governed by African-
    Americans. Created by Allen
    Allensworth in 1908, the town
    was built with the intention of
    establishing a self-sufficient, all-
    Black city where African-
    Americans could live their lives
    free of racial discrimination.
Little known Black history fact:
   George Carruthers invented the far
    ultraviolet electrographic camera,
    used in the 1972 Apollo 16 mission.
    This invention revealed new
    features in Earth's far-outer
    atmosphere and deep-space
    objects from the perspective of the
    lunar surface. Carruthers was
    inducted into the National Inventor's
    Hall of Fame in 2003.
Little known Black history fact:
   Artist Charles Alston founded
    the "306 Group", a club that
    provided support and
    apprenticeship for African-
    American artists during the
    1940s. It served as a studio
    space for prominent African-
    American artists such as poet
    Langston Hughes; sculptor
    Augusta Savage; and mixed-
    media artist Romare Beardon.
Little known Black history fact:
   After African-American
    performer Josephine Baker
    expatriated to France, she
    famously smuggled military
    intelligence to French allies
    during World War II. She did
    this by pinning secrets inside
    her dress, as well as writing
    them in invisible ink on her
    sheet music.
Little known Black history fact:
   Henry Blair, the second
    African-American to
    receive a patent,
    invented a corn seed
    planter in 1834 and a
    cotton planter in 1836.
    Blair could not read or
    write and signed his
    patent with an X.
Little known Black history fact:
   In 1938, First Lady Eleanor
    Roosevelt challenged the
    segregation rules at the
    Southern Conference on
    Human Welfare in
    Birmingham, Alabama, so
    she could sit next to African-
    American educator Mary
    McLeod Bethune, whom
    she referred to as "her
    closest friend in her age
Little known Black history fact:
   The Shakespeare Memorial
    Theatre at Stratford-upon-
    Avon honored Ira Aldridge
    with a bronze plaque. He is the
    only African-American actor to
    receive this tribute.
Little known Black history fact:
   African-American entrepreneur
    Reginald Lewis' 1992 gift to
    Harvard Law School was the
    largest single donation the
    school ever received from an
    individual at that time.
Little known Black history fact:
   Mary Church Terrell was a lecturer,
    a women's rights activist and the first
    president of the National Association
    of Colored Women (NACW). A
    master of languages, Terrell
    represented Black women in the
    American delegation to the 1904
    International Congress of Women in
    Berlin. Of all the U.S. delegates, she
    was the only one to deliver her
    address in fluent German and French.
    In 1919, she received international
    recognition at the International Peace
    Congress in Zurich, where she spoke
    of the condition of Black America.
Little known Black history fact:
   In 1845 Macon Bolling
    Allen became the first
    African-American to pass
    the bar and practice law in
    the United States.
Little known Black history fact:
   Thomas J. Martin
    patented a fire
    extinguisher in 1872.
Little known Black history fact:
   In 1939, the Daughters of the
    American Revolution banned Marian
    Anderson, who was known as the
    contralto of the century, from singing
    in Washington's Constitution Hall,
    which they owned. First Lady
    Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the
    group in response and sponsored an
    Easter morning concert at the
    Lincoln Memorial. Marian Anderson
    gave one of her most memorable
    performances to a crowd of 75,000
Little known Black history fact:
   Col. Guion S. Bluford Jr.,
    Ph.D., became a National
    Aeronautics and Space
    Administration (NASA)
    astronaut in August 1979 later
    becoming the first African
    American in space having a
    total of 4 space flights.
Little known Black history fact:
   Dr. Daniel Hale Williams
    performed the first successful
    open heart surgery in 1893
    and founded Provident
    Hospital and Training School
    for Nurses (the first Black-
    owned hospital in America) in
Little known Black history fact:
   James West's research in
    sound technology led to the
    development of foil-electret
    transducers used in 90
    percent of all microphones
    built today and in most new
    telephones being
Little known Black history fact:
   In a 22-hour operation in 1984,
    Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr., an
    African American surgeon,
    successfully separated a pair of
    twins born joined at the head.
    He was also named to the
    President's Council on
    Bioethics in 2004 by George W.
    Bush; Bush awarded Carson
    the Presidential Medal of
    Freedom in 2008.
Little known Black history fact:
   Ralph Johnson Bunche, in
    1950 was the first African
    American to receive the
    Nobel Peace prize for
    mediating the Arab-Israeli
Little known Black history fact:
   Educator and political
    leader Mary McLeod
    Bethune founded NCNW
    (National Counsel of Negro
    Woman) in 1935 and
    envisioned it to be an
    "organization of
    organizations“. This
    organization connects over
    4 million woman worldwide!
Little known Black history fact:
   George Washington
    Carver designed the
    concept of a moveable
    school, with teachers and
    equipment traveling to
    remote areas to instruct the
    poor in agriculture and
    nutrition. This concept was
    later adopted in
    underdeveloped areas
    around the world.
Little known Black history fact:
   Alexander Miles of Duluth,
    Minnesota patented an
    electric elevator in 1887 with
    automatic doors that would
    close off the shaft way, thus
    making elevators safer.
Little known Black history fact:
   Born in Washington, Benjamin O.
    Davis Jr. graduated from West Point
    in 1936 and began his military career
    at Fort Benning in Georgia. In 1942,
    he joined the Army Air Corps and
    took command of the 99th Fighter
    Squadron, the famous "Tuskegee
    airmen," as a lieutenant colonel.
    Davis became the first Black brigadier
    general in the history of the U.S. Air
    Force in 1954. In 1965, he rose to the
    rank of lieutenant general.
Little known Black history fact:
   Politician and educator Shirley
    Chisholm survived three
    assassination attempts during
    her campaign for the 1972
    U.S. presidential election. She
    was the first woman to run for
    the Democratic presidential
    nomination and in 1968 she
    was the first African-American
    woman elected to the U.S.
Little known Black history fact:
   Elijah McCoy invented an
    automatic lubricator for
    oiling steam engines in
    1872. The saying the real
    McCoy, meaning the real
    thing has been widely
    accredited to Elijah
    McCoy's invention.
Little known Black history fact:
   Jan Ernst Matzeliger
    invented a shoemaking
    machine that increased
    shoemaking speed by
Little known Black history fact:
   Thomas Edison may have
    invented the bulb in 1879, but it
    was Lewis Howard Latimer's
    carbon filament that made it
    practical for everyday use.
    Latimer was the only Black
    member of Thomas Edison's
    team of inventors. By creating a
    carbon filament for Edison's
    newly invented electric light bulb,
    Latimer solved two major design
    flaws: the bulb didn't last very
    long and it had a tendency to
    shatter when it got too hot.
Little known Black history fact:
   Jean Baptiste Pointe DuSable founded
    the city of Chicago. At age 20, DuSable
    sailed to America where he settled in
    Illinois and became a fur trader. He
    married an American Indian woman and
    developed a very successful business.
    When traveling from Canada, where he
    trapped furs, DuSable would stop at a
    place the Indians called Eschikcago or
    "place of smelly waters." In 1779,
    DuSable decided this would be a great
    place to build a trading post which soon
    developed into the settlement now known
    as Chicago.
Little known Black history fact:
   Patrick Francis Healy was the
    nation's first Black to earn a Ph.D.
    Throughout his lifetime Healy
    received numerous medals and
    commendations. He was the 29th
    president of the prestigious
    Georgetown University from 1873-
    1882. As a tribute to his outstanding
    leadership during his tenure,
    Georgetown erected the Healy
    Building. It housed the administration
    center, a classroom and a dormitory.
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